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Freiburg

City, archdiocese, and university in the Archduchy of Baden, Germany .

THE CITY

Freiburg in Breisgau, the third largest city in Baden, is beautifully situated at the foot of the Schwarzwald mountains on both banks of the Dreisam. The census of 1 December, 1905, gave the number of its inhabitants as 76,286, of whom 53,133 were Catholics. The city was founded in 1120 by Conrad, a member of the Swabian House of Zähringen, which rules in Baden even to this day. According to the original city charter, which is still in existence, the city was from the beginning a market or commercial centre, and all the privileges then enjoyed by the citizens of Cologne were granted to the merchants and other citizens who settled in Freiburg. It became a flourishing town even during the lifetime of its founder. In 1146 Bernard of Clairvaux preached the crusades there. It appears that under Berthold IV (1112-1186), Conrad's successor, the erection of a Romanesque cathedral was begun. After the death of Berthold V (son of preceding), Freiburg was inherited by his brother-in-law, Count Egon I of Urach. The consort of Egon II (1218-36) induced the Dominican Fathers to settle in Freiburg, and founded at Adelhausen the Dominican nunnery, renowned in the history of German mysticism. Among the famous Dominicans connected in some degree with Freiburg were Albert the Great and John of Freiburg, while Berthold the Black (der schwarze Berthold), the supposed inventor of gunpowder, was a member of the local Franciscan convent. The city took advantage of the pecuniary embarrassment of its lords to purchase important rights and liberties. Ludwig of Bavaria, whom the city assisted in his war against Frederic the Fair, confirmed (1339) by a Bulla Aurea (golden charter) all the concessions and privileges of Freiburg and granted it an independent municipal court. A serious quarrel arose between the city and Count Egon IV (1358-68), but in 1368 the count gave up all his rights to Freiburg, and the city placed itself voluntarily under the suzerainty of Austria, and for more than five centuries it shared the fortunes of the House of Hapsburg.

As early as 1247, the municipal council calculated the inhabitants to number 4000, and at the end of the fourteenth century the town contained 1778 buildings, twenty of which were monasteries. In 1393 the council was composed of 12 nobles, 12 merchants, 18 guild-masters, and 6 specially elected members of guilds. In 1415, Freiburg which had given refuge to Pope John XXIII (April 10-16) after his flight from Constance, was made a free imperial city ( freie Reichsstadt ), but was reconquered by the Austrians in 1425. In 1456, Archduke Albert founded its university (see below). The city was afterwards made the seat of government for Hither Austria and attained to a high degree of prosperity, especially during the reign of Maximilian I. Many Renaissance edifices were built, some of which still adorn the city; the famous minster ( cathedral ) was decorated with fine paintings by Hans Baldung, its choir being consecrated in 1513. The diet of the empire met here in 1498.

The great social and religious disturbances of the sixteenth century exerted a most detrimental influence on the prosperity of the city. In 1524, the rebellious peasants surprised the castle on the Schlossberg, captured the city, and forced the inhabitants to pay tribute. The city council and citizens in general had little sympathy with the Reformation, and, although the new doctrine found some adherents in the beginning, its propagation was effectually hindered by the Austrian Government, the city council, and the university (see ZASIUS, ULRICH). IN 1529, Freiburg became the residence of the cathedral chapter of Basle, driven from that city by the Reformation (see BASLE-LUGANO). In spite of repeated epidemics, the sixteenth century was considered on the whole a prosperous period for the city. The Thirty Years War brought with it much suffering. Freiburg was besieged five times, captured four times and lost about two-thirds of its population by contagious diseases. Hardly had the city recovered from these disasters, when Louis XIV began his predatory wars on Germany. In 1677, Freiburg was taken by the French and converted into a formidable fortress by Vauban. In the course of this transformation, 14 churches and 4 monasteries were demolished. The French supremacy lasted only a short time, and Freiburg was restored to Austria by the Peace of Ryswick in 1697. On two later occasions it was held by the French for a short time, in 1713-14 during the War of the Spanish Succession (1744-48). These two wars destroyed the prosperity of the city so completely that in 1754 the number of its inhabitants sank to 3655, of whom at least one third were in a state of beggary.

Hardly had Freiburg begun to flourish again under Maria Theresa and Joseph II, whose reform measures were executed partly in the Breisgau, when the French Revolution broke out. By the treaty of Campo Formio (1787), Freiburg and all Breisgau was ceded to the Duke of Modena, but a little later, by the Treaty of Pressburg (1805), it reverted to the house of Zähringen. The city swore allegiance to the new Archduke of Baden on 30 Jan., 1806. The new government immediately abolished most of the monasteries and convents, or converted them into educational institutions. It abolished also the ancient representative system of the "estates", or the three ranks of the social order (Clergy, nobles, bourgeois). In 1821, Freiburg became the metropolitan see of the newly-founded province of the Upper Rhine (see BADEN), and in 1827 the first archbishop took possession of the see. In the revolution of 1848-49, Freiburg played an important part, becoming at its close the seat of the provisional revolutionary government. Since then the city has flourished wonderfully; the number of its inhabitants has increased from 25,000 in 1872 to nearly 80,000 at the present time (1909), and its university is attended by 2900 students.

Freiburg is the residence of an archbishop, metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province of the Upper Rhine, and is the seat of his ecclesiastical administration, and of one of the deaneries of the diocese. Including the recently incorporated suburbs, the city has now 7 Catholic parishes, one parochial curacy ( Pfarrkuratie ), 22 churches and chapels ; 68 priests ; 17 institutions of the Vincentian Sisters of Charity (212 members); 4 houses of the Franciscan Sisters of Charity (39 members); 5 convents of the Sisters of Charity of the Holy Cross (61 members); a theological faculty at the university, an archiepiscopal theological seminary ; an archiepiscopal residential gymnasium; a Catholic high school for girls, etc. The most prominent among the numerous charitable institutions conducted by Catholic sisterhoods are: St. Joseph's Hospital ; St. Charles' Home (for pensioners); St. Ann's Home, for women engaged in business; St. Mary's Home, for servant girls, with employment bureau; St. Francis' Home for the aged; St. Elizabeth's Home (house-keeping and boarding school ); Home for Apprentices and Journeymen, etc. Catholic sisters are also in charge of a number of institutions belonging to the municipality, for example the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, the Home for Beneficed Clergymen, the Kartause (poor-house), the People's Kitchen, the orphan asylum in Günterstal, and the large clinical hospital connected with the university. They also conduct two kindergartens, four industrial schools, two house-keeping schools, and five schools for small children.

The minster, one of the few existing Gothic cathedrals, completed in the Middle Ages, ranks first among the city churches. Its oldest parts, the transept and the intersection of nave and transept, were constructed during the thirteenth century in Romanesque style. The new part (Early Gothic) was begun in 1250, when the corner-stone of the tower (380 feet) was laid, and was completed in the fourteenth century. In 1354, the choir (Late Gothic) was begun, but operations were suspended in 1370, and resumed only after a lapse of one hundred years. In 1513, the cathedral was practically finished. The minster is rich in art treasures, of which the most notable are: the painting over the main altar by Hans Baldung (1511-17); the choir-chapel with paintings by the elder Lucas Cranach and Hans Holbein (the Elder and the Younger); the artistic windows in the side-aisles, dating in part from the fourteenth century; lastly the decorations in the vestibule with an aggregate of over 200 figures, one of the most elaborate examples of medieval theological symbolism and popularly attributed to Albert the Great. Among the other churches are: St. Martin's (Gothic) erected for the Franciscans during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, renovated and ornamented with a tower, 1876-93 (Hansjakob, St. Martin zu Freiburg im Breisgau als Kloster und Pfarrei, Freiburg, 1890); the University church (1630-40), erected by the Jesuits (Baroque) and used by the Old Catholics, 1875-94; the church of the Sacred Heart, erected 1892-97 (Later Romanesque and Rhenish Transition style); St. John's (1894-99); St. Michael's Chapel in the old cemetery (1744), the vestibule of which is decorated with a remarkable "Dance of Death" .

THE ARCHDIOCESE

Statistics

It includes the Grand Duchy of Baden , the Hohenzollern possessions of the Prussian Crown, bounded by Baden and Würtemberg, together with some few places in Würtemberg. The Catholic population is 1,263,280, according to the census of 1905. The suffragans of Freiburg are the Bishops of Fulda, Limburg, Mainz, and Rottenburg. The archbishop is elected by the cathedral chapter, but the names of the candidates must be submitted to the sovereign, who has the right to cancel the names of candidates not acceptable to him, provided that a sufficient number remain on the list to allow a choice. The cathedral chapter consists of the dean [at present (1909) the auxiliary bishop Dr. Fr. Justus Knecht, titular Bishop of Nebo ], 6 canons and 6 prebendaries. The ordinariate consists of the archbishop, the members of the chapter, of 2 other priests and 2 laymen. The ordinariate is the archiepiscopal metropolitan court; the archiepiscopal diocesan court is termed the officialate (6 members). The church property is administered, partly by the ordinariate and partly by the civil body known as the Catholic "Oberstiftungsrat" at Karlsruhe (see BADEN). The pastoral work of the archdiocese is carried on by two incorporated parishes (the cathedral parish of Freiburg and the parish of Sankt Peter), and by 43 deaneries (4 in Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen), with 911 parishes and parochial curacies (Pfarrkuratien), 116 chaplaincies and 165 other pastoral charges.

In January, 1909, the secular clergy of the archdiocese consisted of 904 rectors and curates, 281 chaplains and vicars, 106 other active priests (professors, teachers, editors, etc.), 107 priests retired or on leave of absence: a total of 1398, besides 80 regular priests. The diocesan institutions for the education of the clergy are: the seminary in the former Benedictine monastery of Sankt Peter; the theological seminary in Freiburg, whose students frequent the university ; and the 5 archiepiscopal gymnasia of Freiburg, Constance, Rastatt, Tauberbischofsheim and Sigmaringen. In the university, eleven priests and professors of Catholic theology and their lectures were attended in the summer-semester of 1909 by 224 students. Male religious orders are excluded from Baden proper by civil law. In the Hohenzollern section of the archdiocese, there are three monasteries for men: the Benedictines at Beuron (61 priests, 9 clerics, and 89 lay brothers ), the Franciscans at Gorheim (12 priests, 12 clerics, and 10 lay brothers ), and the mission house of the White Fathers at Haigerloch (47 fathers and 6 lay brothers ). The religious institutions for women are: the Ladies of the Holy Sepulchre with an academy in Baden-Baden (40 sisters); the Benedictine Sisters in Habsthal, Hohenzollern (20 sisters); the Dominican Sisters with an academy in Constance (53 sisters); the Cistercians with an academy in Lichtenthal (54 sisters); the Choir Sisters of St. Augustine with an academy in Offenburg and one branch (43 sisters); the Ursulines with an academy in Villingen and in Breisach (40 sisters); the Vincentian Sisters of Charity, including the mother-house in Freiburg, 151 convents (all in Baden ), with 900 sisters ; the Franciscan Sisters of Charity with mother-house at Gengenbach, 154 houses (all in Baden ) and 727 sisters ; the Sisters of Charity of the Holy Cross from Ingenbohl (Switzerland), mother-house in Hegne near Constanz, 134 houses and 728 sisters (3 convents, 20 sisters in Hohenzollern); the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul (from Strasburg ) 11 convents, 72 sisters (7 houses with 50 sisters in Hohenzollern); the Sisters of Charity of Our Blessed Saviour from the mother-house in Oberbronn (Alsace), 57 convents (all in Baden ) and 410 sisters ; the Sisters of Charity of St. Francis from the mother-house in Mallersdorf (Bavaria), 2 houses in Baden, 18 sisters ; the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph from St. Marx (Alsace), 18 convents in Baden and 52 sisters ; the Sisters of Charity of St. Francis from the mother-house in Limpertsberg (Luxemburg), 16 convents in Baden and 64 sisters ; the Sisters of Charity of St. Francis (mother-house in Oberzell near Würzburg ), 1 convent in Baden and 2 sisters ; the Sisters of Christian Love (mother-house in Paderborn ), 1 convent in Hohenzollern and 7 sisters. These sisters conduct numerous charitable works: 428 institutions for outdoor nursing, 98 hospitals, 17 endowed homes (Pfründenhäuser), 13 poor-houses, 7 crèches or infant asylums, 236 kindergarten schools, 56 orphanages, 4 business-girls' homes, 12 servant-girls' homes, 13 homes for working-women, 10 high-schools for girls, 12 schools of domestic economy, 121 industrial schools, 6 evening schools, 1 institution for the manufacture of church vestments, 7 peoples' kitchens, 4 apprentices' and journeymen's homes, 6 homes for girls, 19 homes for the care of the sick and aged.

General statistics relative to the Catholic associations of the archdiocese are lacking. The most notable among these societies are: St. Boniface Society (Bonifatiusverein), which had an income of over $130,000 in 1907, and ranks first (financially) among all diocesan societies ; the Volksverein for Catholic Germany ; Catholic "Gesellenvereine" or journeymen's unions with branches in 56 different localities; the Catholic Workmen's Society with 154 branches; the Catholic Workwomen's Society, 8 branches; the Catholic Apprentices' and Young Men's Society, 38 branches; the Vincentian Society ; Society of St. Charles Borromeo ; Congregation of Mary, for boys and girls; the Infant Jesus Society ; Society of the Holy Family, etc. The archdiocese has 30 Catholic newspapers and periodicals. The most important churches of the Grand Duchy have been mentioned in the article BADEN; the most important churches in Hohenzollern are those of Haigerloch, Hechingen and Sigmaringen.

History

The foundation and history of the archdiocese have been treated exhaustively under BADEN; also, the relations between the Church and the State (II, 195-200). It only remains to add a few remarks concerning the Hohenzollern section of the archdiocese.

The two principalities, Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, which formerly belonged to the Diocese of Constance, were joined to the Archdiocese of Freiburg, when the province of the Upper Rhine was created by the concordats of 18-27 Oct., and 14-21 Nov., 1821. Both princes had pledged themselves to carry out the Josephist principles which then prevailed in the other states of the Upper Rhine province, though they were the only Catholic sovereigns of the province and reigned over an almost exclusively Catholic population. Both governments consequently exercised all the rights which Febronianism and Josephinism claimed for the secular government as its inalienable jus circa sacra , and restricted ecclesiastical authority as much as possible. The "Regium Placet", or civil control of papal and episcopal decrees, was rigorously enforced. Taxes and contributions for the pope and "foreign" ecclesiastical superiors were prohibited; the archbishop's jurisdiction was held subordinate even in spiritual matters to the civil authority ; the cathedral chapter was placed in a position of administrative equality with the bishop, and even episcopal acts were subjected to the most scrutinizing supervision and arbitrary control of the civil power (jus supremæ inspectionis). The government, especially in Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, sought to secure a predominating influence in matters concerning divine worship, marriages (by introducing the Josephist matrimonial legislation), the education and pastoral duties of the clergy, appointments to ecclesiastical benefices, and the administration and employment of church property . Furthermore, it compelled the clergy, monasteries, and confraternities to contribute to the support of higher and elementary education and charitable institutions. The Hohenzollern princes, however, were well disposed towards the Church, hence these pretensions of the civil power were enforced much less rigorously in their principalities than in the Baden section of the archdiocese and other parts of the ecclesiastical province of the Upper Rhine.

The innovations of Wessenberg ( Vicar-General of the Diocese of Constance, and, until 1827, acknowledged as such by both Hohenzollern and Baden governments, despite the protests of the pope ) affected the liturgy, processions, pilgrimages, confraternities, the number of holidays of obligation, and included the introduction of the German language into the Mass and also the so-called liturgical confession and communion. To the credit of the Hohenzollern princes, it must be said that they hindered rather than promoted these innovations, which are so alien from the true spirit of the Church. In various other ways, also, these princes were helpful to the interests of the Church. They assisted the ecclesiastical authorities to bring up a moral and zealous clergy, regulated by decrees the observance of Sunday, strove in union with the Church to suppress immorality, made a strong stand against the pietistic movement which originated in the Haigerloch deanery, and opposed the spread of the rationalistic book entitled "Stunden der Andacht" (Hours of Devotion). They also bound the clergy to give catechetical instruction regularly in the schools. In general, however, though no violence was used to enforce the principles of Josephinism, the activity of the Church was in many ways restricted and paralyzed; her property rights, above all, were greatly interfered with. The wrongs committed in this respect were so great that the clergy, most of whom had been brought up in the principles of Febronianism and Josephinism, and many of whom favoured the abolition of the breviary and of celibacy, presented an unavailing petition to the government in 1831 for gentler treatment.

The situation became more favourable, when in 1849 these two principalities were by treaty annexed to Prussia under King Frederick William IV. Thanks to the king's friendly disposition towards the Church and the untiring efforts of Archbishop Hermann von Vicari, the Catholics of Hohenzollern soon secured the same liberties as those then allowed to the Prussian Catholics. The Church was permitted to erect monasteries, and to re-establish fraternities. Missions were again held, pilgrimages became more popular and a general revival of religious life took place. Unfortunately the Kulturkampf, though originating in Prussia, was also felt in Hohenzollern, now part of the Prussian Kingdom, although the so-called May Laws and other persecuting enactments were not enforced there so strictly as in Prussia proper. The Benedictine monastery at Beuron, the Jesuit novitiate at Gorheim near Sigmaringen, and the Franciscan convent at Stetten near Hechingen were suppressed; the teaching sisters, the Sisters of Christian Charity, and the Sisters of the Holy Cross (Ingenbohl) were expelled. It was forbidden to appoint or install any more parish priests, curates, etc. Two temporary rectors of churches, appointed in spite of this prohibition, were imprisoned, and Lothar von Kübel, after Vicari's death administrator of the archdiocese for 14 years, was heavily fined for appointing priests to vacant parishes. Most of the clergy were deprived of the right of local school-inspection, but, in virtue of an old law (1809), were permitted to give religious instruction. At the close of the Kulturkampf, better relations were developed between Church and State, and continue in general to the present day.

THE UNIVERSITY

For the foundation of its university Freiburg is indebted to Archduke Albrecht VI of Austria, who was entrusted by his brother, Emperor Frederick III, with the government of the Further Austrian territories. The idea was first conceived by Mechtild, the accomplished wife of Albrecht, and it was at her suggestion that he resolved to found the university, having obtained the sanction of Callistus III in the Bull of 20 April, 1455. The revenue of the university was ensured by the foundation of several benefices, and the incorporation of the cathedral parish of Freiburg, together with the parishes of Breisach, Ensisheim, and other places, in the new institution (Deed of 28 August, 1456), this endowment being approved by Frederick III. The town also made considerable contributions, although the foundation-brief of 21 September, 1457, granted the new university its own jurisdiction and immunity from taxation for its members. The real work of organization and the preparation of the constitution fell on the erudite Matthaeus Hummel of Villingen, and it was entirely due to his untiring zeal that the university could be opened with seven lecturers (four being theologians ) on 26 April, 1460. Matthaeus was solemnly elected in the cathedral as first rector, and, despite the initial modesty of the institution and the fewness of its lecturers, the university was attended during the first year of its academic existence by two hundred and fourteen students (including one hundred and eight theologians ), the majority of whom were from the Diocese of Constance, from Bavaria, Burgundy, and Lorraine.

The supreme authority over the university was vested in the rector, who was elected by the professorate for a single term. In the preservation of academical discipline, the rector was assisted by the senate (also called the consistory or regency), which usually comprised the preceding rector and three counsellors. Of the four faculties at the "Albertina", the faculty of arts was the most important. The course usually lasted three years, and included logic, dialectics, physics, mathematics, Aristotle and the peripatetics, poetry and oratory being added in 1471 and Greek in 1521. The most important lectures of this faculty during the first century of the university's existence were: Gregorius Reisch, a Carthusian, the teacher of Johann Eck and author of the "Margarita Philosophica", which treated of the totality of knowledge at the time ; Jacob Locher, called Philomusus, who translated Brant's "Narrenschiff" (Ship of Fools) into Latin; Philip Engelbrecht of Engen (Engentinus), a poet and a secret follower of Luther ; Henricus Loriti, called Glareanus, the renowned Latinist, musician, and geographer ; John Hartung, professor of Greek and Hebrew. In the theological faculty, which usually employed three lecturers in the sixteenth century, taught (at least for a short period) the following eminent scholars: Geiler of Kaisersberg, one of the university's earliest students; Johann Eck ; Thomas Murner ; Erasmus of Rotterdam, who had however never studied there, etc. The faculty of law, to which six regular professors were assigned in the sixteenth century, was long famous throughout Europe, thanks to Ulrich Zasius, the founder of modern political science. At this period three professors constituted the medical faculty, whose statutes had been sketched by Hummel himself. As a rule the students lived with their professors in residences or boarding-houses (the so-called Bursen ), of which there were seven at Freiburg, including the "Alte Burse ", the "Domus Carthusiana", and the "Collegium Sapientiæ". The university having attained so rapidly to renown, it was but natural that many of its professors should have been appointed to offices of high intellectual importance. From Freiburg the Chapter of Augsburg chose two, and Vienna three of its prince-bishops; the Chapters of Constance, Augsburg, Basle, and Speyer many of their suffragans, and the University of Vienna one of its chancellors.

During the widespread confusion of the Reformation period which exercised so deleterious an effect on many of the German universities, Freiburg succeeded by its judicious and cautious attitude in maintaining its ground. It is indeed a fact that several of its professors were in correspondence with Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin ; that many others were suspected of favouring their innovations; that the senate itself censured Glareanus for inveighing so fiercely against Luther, Œcolampadius, and the other reformers in his lectures; still the university in general remained true to the ancient Faith, and through its influence the town became a bulwark of Catholicism. The university refused henceforth to enrol any students who had studied in Wittenberg or Leipzig, and after 1567 only those who declared on oath their acceptance of the Tridentine Confession of Faith were admitted. To secure a still more Catholic atmosphere, Archduke Ferdinand invited the Jesuits in 1577 to found a college in Freiburg, and to incorporate it in the university. This scheme, however, aroused such energetic opposition, especially from Jodocus Lorichius, professor of theology and founder of the Collegium Pacis ( Burse zum Frieden ) that it had to be laid aside. On 5 November, 1520, shortly after the outbreak of the Thirty Years War, the Jesuits were introduced into the university on the strength of a fiat of Archduke Leopold in spite of the opposition of the senate, and entrusted with the whole faculty of arts and temporarily with two of the theological chairs. From the rectorship and quæstorship, however, they were excluded, although the cathedral pulpit was soon resigned into their hands. The most renowned of the Jesuit professor at Freiburg was the astronomer, Christopher Scheiner, who left Freiburg finally in 1630. The frequent change of the fathers was indeed injurious to the university, at which too many remained but a very short time ; thus, in the faculty of arts alone, no fewer than 123 different Jesuits were employed as lecturers during the 153 years preceding the suppression of the order.

The seventeenth century, especially the Thirty Years War and the predatory wars of Louis XIV , brought the university to the brink of ruin. Almost all its funded property was lost, as well as a great portion of its income from the parishes, now sadly impoverished by pillage and fire. The professors were frequently compelled to wait years for their stipend, and in 1648 the number of students had fallen to 46. Emperor Leopold was the first to take steps to remove the financial difficulties, but, when the town was ceded to the French by the Peace of Nimwegen (1679), the majority of the professors and students migrated to Constance. The Jesuit Fathers remained and opened in 1684 a studium gallicanum under the patronage of Louis XIV, but it was not until some years later that the old personnel of the university could initiate academic courses in Constance. After the Peace of Ryswik (1697), the professorate returned from Constance to Freiburg, when the old contentions, which had so often broken out between the university and the Society of Jesus, were settled by the so-called "Viennese Transaction" of forty articles. According to this agreement, the Jesuits were still excluded from the rectorate, and were refused the precedence, which they had claimed; on the other hand they received the building of the "Alte Burse ", which they had previously occupied, as their private property, and in addition an increased annual stipend, as well as all arrears of salary.

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the outlook of the university was far from hopeful, and in 1713 the members were compelled to secede once more to Constance, returning in 1715. Emperor Charles VI later increased the revenue of the university, whose staff again included many illustrious professors -- the jurists Stapf, Egermayer, Waizenegger, and Reinhart; the physicians Blau, Strobel, and Baader; the Jesuits Nicasius Grammatici and Steinmayer -- but the university never reached the educational level of the halcyon days of the sixteenth century. After the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773, their college buildings together with their church (built 1630-40) and Gymnasium Academicum were annexed in 1777 by Empress Maria Theresa to the university. The importance of the Albertina waxed greater with the increasing prosperity of the country. The new curriculum of studies, which Maria Theresacaused to be drawn up for the higher educational institutions of her dominions, was introduced into Freiburg, in 1767, and at first met with much opposition. Although this action of the university led to the withdrawal of many of its ancient privileges (e.g., its governmental independence), it paved the way for a more intimate connexion between the university and the government, and from this period dates the adoption of a more reasonable attitude by both parties.

The transformation of Further Austrian Breisgau to the House of Zähringen by the Peace of Pressburg (1805) seemed to menace greatly the position of Freiburg, since the new inconsiderable State of Baden possessed already in Heidelberg an older and more famous university. Thanks to the zealous efforts of the professors and town of Freiburg, however, their university was retained, and in 1807 the elector himself accepted the office of rector. Since then, the sovereign has always been " rector magnificentissimus" of the university, and confirms the annual election by the ordinary professors of the pro-rector to exercise the office of rectorship in his name. In 1816 the university was again threatened with dissolution, but the danger was obviated principally through the influence of Karl von Rotteck. The independence of the university was, however, seriously curtailed, and the curriculum reformed after the model of Heidelberg, for which purpose the revenue, which had fallen very low, was increased by a annual State grant amounting at first to 15,000 gulden. The attendance varied between 270 and 320 students. In 1818 the university sent one representative to the newly-created diet, at which von Rotteck, the historian, was its deputy for many years. In consequence of the opposition between the professors and the town, the university was closed in 1832 for a short period, of which the government took advantage to recognize the previous republican constitutions on a more oligarchical basis. The retention or relinquishment of the university was also the subject of debate; indeed, for thirty years the danger of dissolution lay ever threatening. The Revolution occasioned a brief closing of the university in May, 1849. In 1857 the solemn celebration of its 400th anniversary was held in the presence of the sovereign. The efforts of the Catholic party to restore to the university its initial purely Catholic character by securing for the archbishop, not alone a deciding voice in the appointment of theological professors, but also a certain right of supervision over the other faculties, were rendered ineffectual through the rejection of the concordat between Rome and the government by the Diet of Baden in 1859. Since then the Catholic characteristics of the university both in its professors and in its students, who are recruited mainly from North Germany, have become gradually impaired. When, after the establishment of the German Empire, a new university was founded in Strasburg, a serious decay of Freiburg was anticipated. Fortunately these forebodings proved to be groundless, since, while the number of students in 1872 was only 272 -- a figure which does not exceed the attendance during the first century of the university's existence -- it exceeded 1000 in 1885, 1500 in 1898, 2000 in 1904, and 2600 in 1908, thus placing Freiburg fifth in the list of German universities as regards attendance.

Of the many scholars, who shed a lustre on the name of Freiburg at the close of the eighteenth and during the nineteenth centuries, the following (excluding those still living) may be mentioned; the theologians Engelbert Klüpfel, Johann Leonhard Hug, Heinrich Schreiber, historian of the town and University of Freiburg, Alban Stolz, the renowned popular author, and Franz Xaver Kraus, who wrote on the history of the Church and of fine arts ; the jurists Jodocus Riegger, Johann Caspar Ruef; the statesman Joseph Buss, Gustav Rümelin, who for many years represented the university in the first diet; the philologists and philosophers, Johann Georg Jacobi and Anton Baumstark; the physicians and scientists, Alexander Ecker, Adolf Kussmaul, Alfred Hegar, Anton de Bary.

The University of Freiburg at present contains four faculties: that of Catholic theology, that of law and political science, that of medicine, and that of philosophy, the last-mentioned being subdivided into philological-historical and mathematico-physical. At the beginning of 1909, the teaching staff consisted of 140 lecturers: 11 theologians, 16 jurists and political economists, 50 physicians, 43 in the first division of the philosophical faculty and 30 in the second. In the summer term of 1908 Freiburg was attended by over 2600 students, and in the winter term (1908-09) by 1966 matriculated (including 67 women ) and 153 private students. Of the sixty institutions connected with the university the most important are the large medical infirmaries (surgical, gynæcological, psychiatrical, optical) and general clinical hospitals ; the physical, geological, botanical, and zoological institutes; the academical reading-rooms. The university library contains 300,000 volumes, a large number of which belonged to the old cloister-libraries, and 700 manuscripts. The majority of the institutes possess excellent special libraries. The property of the university consists partly of invested capital to the value of 1,300,000 marks (about 300,000 dollars), and partly of unremunerative capital (e.g., the university buildings, etc.) to the value of 2,800,000 or, allowing for certain outstanding liabilities, 2,380,000 marks. According to the budget of 1908-09, its income was 1,075,300 marks, of which 958,500 was paid by the state. The expenditure, which equalled the income, was as follows: 475,600 marks for salaries of regular professors and officials; 132,200 for the extraordinary staff; 335,900 for the different institutions, and the remainder for sundry expenses.

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A celebrated French bishop and author, b. in the Château de Fénelon in ...

Féval, Paul-Henri-Corentin

Novelist, b. at Rennes, 27 September, 1817; d. in Paris, 8 March 1887. He belonged to an old ...

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1

Förster, Arnold

German entomologist; b. at Aachen, 20 Jan., 1810; d. in the same city, 12 Aug., 1884. His father ...

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3

Führich, Joseph

(Born 1800; died 1876.) Joseph Führich was as Catholic in his art as in his life. He was ...

Fünfkirchen

( Hungarian PÉCS, QUINQUE ECCLESIENSIS) Located in Hungary, in the ecclesiastical ...

Fürstenberg, Franz Friedrich Wilhelm von

A statesman and educator, b. 7 August, 1729, at Herdringen in Westphalia ; d. 16 September, 1810, ...

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Fa 68

Façade

The face or front of any building. In ecclesiastical architecture the term is generally used to ...

Faa di Bruno, Francesco

An Italian mathematician and priest, born at Alessandria, 7 March, 1825; died at Turin, 26 ...

Faber, Felix

German writer, born about 1441 at Zurich, of a famous family commonly known as Schmid; died in ...

Faber, Frederick William

Oratorian and devotional writer, b. 28 June, 1814, at Calverley, Yorkshire, England ; d. in ...

Faber, Johann

Theologian, b. at Leutkirch, in Swabia, 1478; d. in Vienna, 21 May, 1541. He studied ...

Faber, Johann

Johann Faber of Heilbronn, controversialist and preacher; b. 1504, at Heilbronn in Wittenberg ; ...

Faber, Johann Augustanus

Theologian, born at Fribourg, Switzerland, c. 1470; died about 1531. He entered the Dominican ...

Faber, Matthias

Writer and preacher, born at Altomünster, Germany, 24 February, 1586; died at Tyrnau, 26 ...

Faber, Peter, Saint

Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

Faber, Philip

(Or Fabri.) Theologian, philosopher and noted commentator of Duns Scotus ; born in 1564, at ...

Fabian, Pope Saint

(FABIANUS) Pope (236-250), the extraordinary circumstances of whose election is related by ...

Fabiola, Saint

A Roman matron of rank, died 27 December, 399 or 400. She was one of the company of noble Roman ...

Fabre, Joseph

Second Superior General of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, born 14 November, 1824, at Cuges, ...

Fabri, Honoré

(Lefèvre.) Jesuit, theologian, b. about 1607 in the Department of Ain, France ; d. at ...

Fabri, Philip

(Or Fabri.) Theologian, philosopher and noted commentator of Duns Scotus ; born in 1564, at ...

Fabriano and Matelica

Diocese of Fabriano and Matelica (Fabrianensis et Mathelicensis). Fabriano, a city in the ...

Fabrica Ecclesiæ

A Latin term, meaning, etymologically, the construction of a church, but in a broader sense the ...

Fabricius, Hieronymus

(Surnamed ab Aquapendente ). Distinguished Italian anatomist and surgeon, b. in the little ...

Fabyan, Robert

English chronicler, died 28 February, 1513. He was a London clothier, a member of the Drapers' ...

Facciolati, Jacopo

Lexicographer and philologist, b. at Torreglia, near Padua, Italy, 4 Jan., 1682; d. at Padua, 26 ...

Fact, Dogmatic

(1) Definition By a dogmatic fact , in wider sense, is meant any fact connected with a dogma ...

Faculties of the Soul

I. MEANING Whatever doctrine one may hold concerning the nature of the human soul and its ...

Faculties, Canonical

( Latin Facultates ) In law, a faculty is the authority, privilege, or permission, to ...

Facundus of Hermiane

A sixth-century Christian author, Bishop of Hermiane in Africa, about whose career very little ...

Faenza

DIOCESE OF FAENZA (FAVENTINA) Diocese in the province of Ravenna (Central Italy ), suffragan ...

Fagnani, Prospero

Canonist, b. in Italy, place and date of birth uncertain; d. in 1678. Some writers place his ...

Fagnano, Guilio Carlo de' Toschi di

Mathematician, born at Sinigaglia, Italy, 26 September, 1682; died there 18 May, 1766. He made ...

Faillon, Etienne-Michel

Historian, born at Tarascon, France, 3 January, 1800; died at Paris, 25 October, 1870. He studied ...

Faith

I. THE MEANING OF THE WORD ( Pistis , fides). In the Old Testament , the Hebrew means ...

Faith, Hope, and Charity (Saints)

The names of two groups of Roman martyrs around whom a considerable amount of legendary lore has ...

Faith, The Rule of

The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...

Faithful, The

( Latin fideles , from fides , faith.) Those who have bound themselves to a religious ...

Falco, Juan Conchillos

Painter, b. at Valencia of an ancient noble family in 1641; d. 14 May, 1711. He was a pupil of ...

Faldstool

(Latin faldistorium ; also facistorium, faudestolus, faudestola ). A movable folding ...

Falkner, Thomas

Born 6 Oct., 1707; died 30 Jan., 1784. He was the son of Thomas Falkner, a Manchester ...

Fall River

DIOCESE OF FALL RIVER (RIVERORMENSIS), U.S.A. A suffragan see of the Province of Boston ; ...

Fallopio, Gabriello

Anatomist, "one of the most important of the many-sided physicians of the sixteenth century" ...

Falloux du Coudray

Frédéric Alfred Pierre, Vicomte de Falloux du Coudray Born at Angers, 7 March, ...

False Decretals

(The Decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore) False Decretals is a name given to certain apocryphal ...

Falsity

( Latin Falsitas .) A perversion of truth originating in the deceitfulness of one party, and ...

Famagusta

A titular see in the Island of Cyprus. The name appears to be derived from the Greek ...

Familiars

Strictly speaking, seculars subject to a master's authority and maintained at his expense. In this ...

Family

A term derived from the Latin, famulus , servant, and familia , household servants, or the ...

Fano

(FANENSIS.) Fano, the ancient Fanum Fortunæ, a city of the Marches in the province of ...

Fanon

A shoulder-cape worn by the pope alone, consisting of two pieces of white silk ornamented with ...

Faraud, Henri

Titular Bishop of Anémour and first Vicar Apostolic of Athabasca-Mackenzie , Canada ; ...

Farfa, Abbey of

Situated about 26 miles from Rome, not far from the Farfa Sabina Railway station. A legend in the ...

Fargo

(FARGUS; FARGENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of St. Paul, U.S.A., embracing the whole of the State ...

Faribault, George-Barthélemy

An archaeologist, b. at Quebec, Canada, 3 Dec., 1789; d. 1866. He was a first cousin of ...

Faribault, Jean-Baptiste

A trader with the Indians and early settler in Minnesota, U.S.A.; b. 19 October, 1774, at ...

Farinato, Paolo

An Italian painter, b. at Verona 1524; d. there, 1606. He belonged to the old Florentine ...

Faringdon, Blessed Hugh

( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

Farlati, Daniele

An ecclesiastical historian, b. at San Daniele del Friuli in the present Italian province of ...

Farnese, Alessandro

The name of two cardinals. For the elder see POPE PAUL III. The young Alessandro Farnese -- ...

Faro

(PHARENSIS) A suffragan of Evora, Portugal, and extending over the province of Algarve. The ...

Faroe Islands

Geography and Statistics A group of Danish islands rising from the sea some four hundred miles ...

Fast

In general abstinence from food or drink, a term common to the various Teutonic tongues. Some ...

Fatalism

Fatalism is in general the view which holds that all events in the history of the world, and, in ...

Fate

( Latin fatum, from fari, to tell or predict ). This word is almost redundant in the ...

Fathers of Mercy, The

A congregation of missionary priests first established at Lyons, France, in 1808, and later at ...

Fathers of the Church

The Appeal to the Fathers Classification of Patristic Writings Apostolic Fathers and the Second ...

Fathers, The Apostolic

Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had ...

Faunt, Lawrence Arthur

A Jesuit theologian, b. 1554, d. at Wilna, Poland, 28 February, 1590-91. After two years at ...

Fauriel, Charles-Claude

A historian, b. at St-Etienne, France, 27 October, 1772; d. at Paris,15 July, 1844. He studied ...

Faustinus and Jovita, Saints

Martyrs, members of a noble family of Brescia ; the elder brother, Faustinus, being a priest, ...

Faustus of Riez

Bishop of Riez ( Rhegium ) in Southern Gaul (Provence), the best known and most distinguished ...

Faversham Abbey

A former Benedictine monastery of the Cluniac Congregation situated in the County of Kent ...

Faye, Hervé-Auguste-Etienne-Albann

An astronomer, b. at Saint-Benoît-du-Sault (Indre, France ), Oct., 1814; d. at Paris, 4 ...

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Fe 62

Fear (from a Moral Standpoint)

(CONSIDERED FROM A MORAL STANDPOINT.) Fear is an unsettlement of soul consequent upon the ...

Fear (in Canon Law)

(IN CANON LAW.) A mental disturbance caused by the perception of instant or future danger. ...

Feast of Fools

A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

Feasts, Ecclesiastical

( Latin Festum ; Greek heorte ). Feast Days, or Holy Days, are days which are celebrated in ...

Febronianism

The politico-ecclesiastical system outlined by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, Auxiliary Bishop of ...

Feckenham, John de

Last Abbot of Westminster, and confessor of the Faith ; b. in Feckenham Forest, ...

Feder, Johann Michael

A German theologian, b. 25 May, 1753, at Oellingen in Bavaria ; d. 26 July, 1824, at ...

Feilding, Rudolph William Basil

The eighth Earl of Denbigh, and ninth Earl of Desmond, b. 9 April, 1823; d. 1892. He was educated ...

Feilmoser, Andreas Benedict

A theologian and Biblical scholar, b. 8 April, 1777, at Hopfgarten, Tyrol; d. at Tübingen, ...

Felbiger, Johann Ignaz von

A German educational reformer, pedagogical writer, and canon regular of the Order of St. ...

Felician and Primus, Saints

Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

Felician Sisters, O.S.F.

Founded 21 November, 1855, at Warsaw, Poland, by Mother Mary Angela, under the direction of ...

Felicissimus

A deacon of Carthage who, in the middle of the third century, headed a short-lived but dangerous ...

Felicitas and Perpetua, Saints

Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

Felicitas, Saint

MARTYR. The earliest list of the Roman feasts of martyrs, known as the "Depositio Martyrum" ...

Felix and Adauctus, Saints

Martyrs at Rome, 303, under Diocletian and Maximian. The Acts, first published in Ado's ...

Felix and Nabor, Saints

Martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (303). The relics of these holy witnesses to the ...

Felix I, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; d. 274. Early in 269 he succeeded Saint Dionysius as head of the Roman ...

Felix II

Pope (more properly Antipope ), 355-358; d. 22 Nov., 365. In 355 Pope Liberius was ...

Felix III (II), Pope Saint

(Reigned 483-492). Born of a Roman senatorial family and said to have been an ancestor of ...

Felix IV (III), Pope Saint

(Reigned 526-530). On 18 May, 526, Pope John I died in prison at Ravenna, a victim of the ...

Felix of Cantalice, Saint

A Capuchin friar, b. at Cantalice, on the north-western border of the Abruzzi; d. at Rome, 18 ...

Felix of Nola, Saint

Born at Nola, near Naples, and lived in the third century. After his father's death he ...

Felix of Valois, Saint

Born in 1127; d. at Cerfroi, 4 November, 1212. He is commemorated 20 November. He was surnamed ...

Felix V

Regnal name of Amadeus of Savoy, Antipope (1440-1449). Born 4 December, 1383, died at ...

Feller, François-Xavier de

An author and apologist, b. at Brussels 18 August, 1735; d. at Ratisbon 22 May, 1802. He ...

Feneberg, Johann Michael Nathanael

Born in Oberdorf, Allgau, Bavaria, 9 Feb., 1751; died 12 Oct., 1812. He studied at Kaufbeuren and ...

Fenn, John

Born at Montacute near Wells in Somersetshire; d. 27 Dec., 1615. He was the eldest brother of Ven. ...

Ferber, Nicolaus

A Friar Minor and controversialist, born at Herborn, Germany, in 1485; died at Toulouse, 15 ...

Ferdinand II

Emperor, eldest son of Archduke Karl and the Bavarian Princess Maria, b. 1578; d. 15 February, ...

Ferdinand III, Saint

King of Leon and Castile, member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born in 1198 near ...

Ferdinand, Blessed

Prince of Portugal, b. in Portugal, 29 September, 1402; d. at Fez, in Morocco, 5 June, 1443. He ...

Ferdinando, Luigi, Count de Marsigli

Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...

Ferentino, Diocese of

(FERENTINUM) In the province of Rome, immediately subject to the Holy See. The town was in ...

Fergus, Saints

St. Fergus Cruithneach Died about 730, known in the Irish martyrologies as St. Fergus ...

Feria

( Latin for "free day"). A day on which the people, especially the slaves, were not obliged ...

Ferland, Jean-Baptiste-Antoine

A French Canadian historian, b. at Montreal, 25 December, 1805; d. at Quebec, 11 January, ...

Fermo, Archdiocese of

(FIRMANA). In the province of Ascoli Piceno (Central Italy ). The great antiquity of the ...

Fernández de Palencia, Diego

A Spanish conqueror and historian; b. at Palencia in the early part of the sixteenth century. ...

Fernández, Antonio

A Jesuit missionary; b. at Lisbon, c. 1569; d. at Goa, 12 November, 1642. About 1602 he was ...

Fernández, Juan

A Jesuit lay brother and missionary; b. at Cordova ; d. 12 June, 1567, in Japan. In a letter ...

Ferns

DIOCESE OF FERNS (FERNENSIS). Diocese in the province of Leinster ( Ireland ), suffragan of ...

Ferrara

A RCHDIOCESE OF F ERRARA (F ERRARIENSIS ). Archdiocese immediately subject to the Holy ...

Ferrari, Gaudenzio

An Italian painter and the greatest master of the Piedmontese School, b. at Valduggia, near ...

Ferraris, Lucius

An eighteenth-century canonist of the Franciscan Order. The exact dates of his birth and death ...

Ferre, Vicente

Theologian, b. at Valencia, Spain ; d. at Salamanca in 1682. He entered the Dominican Order ...

Ferreira, Antonio

A poet, important both for his lyric and his dramatic compositions, b. at Lisbon, Portugal, in ...

Ferrer, Rafael

A Spanish missionary and explorer; b. at Valencia, in 1570; d. at San José, Peru, in ...

Ferrer, Saint Vincent

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

Ferrières, Abbey of

Situated in the Diocese of Orléans , department of Loiret, and arrondissement of ...

Ferstel, Heinrich, Freiherr von

Architect; with Hansen and Schmidt, the creator of modern Vienna ; b. 7 July, 1828, at Vienna ; ...

Fesch, Joseph

Cardinal, b. at Ajaccio, Corsica, 3 January, 1763; d. at Rome, 13 May, 1839. He was the son of a ...

Fessler, Josef

Bishop of St. Polten in Austria and secretary of the Vatican Council ; b. 2 December, 1813, at ...

Fetherston, Blessed Richard

Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

Feti, Domenico

An Italian painter ; born at Rome, 1589; died at Venice, 1624. He was a pupil of Cigoli ...

Fetishism

Fetishism means the religion of the fetish. The word fetish is derived through the Portuguese ...

Feuardent, François

A Franciscan, theologian, preacher of the Ligue, b. at Coutanees, Normandy, in 1539; d. at ...

Feuchtersleben, Baron Ernst von

An Austrian poet, philosopher, and physician; born at Vienna, 29 April, 1806; died 3 September, ...

Feudalism

Etymology This term is derived from the Old Aryan pe'ku , hence Sanskrit pacu , "cattle"; ...

Feuillants

The Cistercians who, about 1145, founded an abbey in a shady valley in the Diocese of Rieux ...

Feuillet, Louis

(FEUILLÉE) Geographer, b. at Mane near Forcalquier, France, in 1660; d. at Marseilles ...

Feyjóo y Montenegro, Benito Jerónimo

A celebrated Spanish writer, b. at Casdemiro, in the parish of Santa Maria de Molias, Galicia, ...

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Fi 52

Fiacc, Saint

(Lived about 415-520.) A poet, chief bishop of Leinster, and founder of two churches. His ...

Fiacre, Saint

Abbot, born in Ireland about the end of the sixth century; died 18 August, 670. Having been ...

Ficino, Marsilio

A philosopher, philologist, physician, b. at Florence, 19 Oct., 1433; d. at Correggio, 1 Oct, ...

Ficker, Julius

(More correctly Caspar von Ficker). Historian, b. at Paderborn, Germany, 30 April, 1826; d. at ...

Fideism

(Latin fides , faith). A philosophical term meaning a system of philosophy or an ...

Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint

Born in 1577, at Sigmaringen, Prussia, of which town his father Johannes Rey was burgomaster; ...

Fiesole

DIOCESE OF FIESOLE (FÆSULANA). Diocese in the province of Tuscany, suffragan of Florence. ...

Figueroa, Francisco de

A celebrated Spanish poet, surnamed "the Divine", b. at Alcalá de Henares, c. 1540, d. ...

Figueroa, Francisco García de la Rosa

Franciscan, b. in the latter part of the eighteenth century at Toluca, in the Archdiocese of ...

Fiji, Vicariate Apostolic of

Comprising the islands belonging to the Fiji Archipelago. This archipelago forms the central ...

Filby, Blessed William

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

Filelfo, Franscesco

A humanist, b. at Tolentino, 25 July, 1398; d. at Florence 31 July, 1481. He studied grammar, ...

Filial Church

(Latin filialis , from filia , daughter), a church to which is annexed the cure of souls , ...

Filicaja, Vincenzo da

Lyric poet; born at Florence, 30 December, 1642; died there 24 September, 1707. At Pisa he was ...

Filioque

Filioque is a theological formula of great dogmatic and historical importance. On the one ...

Fillastre, Guillaume

French cardinal, canonist, humanist, and geographer, b. 1348 at La Suze, Maine, France ; d. at ...

Filliucci, Vincenzo

Jesuit moralist; b. at Sienna, Italy, 1566; d. at Rome 5 April, 1622. Having entered the Society ...

Filliucius, Felix

(Or, as his name is more often found, in its Italian form, FIGLIUCCI). An Italian humanist, a ...

Final Perseverance

( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

Finan, Saint

Second Bishop of Lindisfarne ; died 9 February, 661. He was an Irish monk who had been ...

Finbarr, Saint

(Lochan, Barr). Bishop and patron of Cork, born near Bandon, about 550, died at Cloyne, 25 ...

Finch, Ven. John

A martyr, b. about 1548; d. 20 April, 1584. He was a yeoman of Eccleston, Lancashire, and a ...

Finglow, Ven. John

An English martyr ; b. at Barnby, near Howden, Yorkshire; executed at York, 8 August, 1586. He ...

Finland

Note: This article was taken from the 1909 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, and is presented ...

Finnian of Moville, Saint

Born about 495; died 589. Though not so celebrated as his namesake of Clonard, he was the ...

Finotti, Joseph M.

Born at Ferrara, Italy, 21 September, 1817; died at Central City, Colorado, 10 January, 1879. ...

Fintan, Saints

St. Fintan of Clonenagh A Leinster saint, b. about 524; d. 17 February, probably 594, or at least ...

Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi

Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

Fire, Liturgical Use of

Fire is one of the most expressive and most ancient of liturgical symbols. All the creeds of ...

Firmament

(Septuagint stereoma ; Vulgate, firmamentum ). The notion that the sky was a vast solid ...

Firmicus Maternus

Christian author of the fourth century; wrote a work "De errore profanarum religionum". Nothing ...

Firmilian

Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, died c. 269. He had among his contemporaries a reputation ...

First-Born

The word, though casually taken in Holy Writ in a metaphorical sense, is most generally used by ...

First-Fruits

The practice of consecrating first-fruits to the Deity is not a distinctly Jewish one (cf. ...

Fiscal Procurator

( Latin PROCURATOR FISCALIS). The duties of the fiscal procurator consist in preventing ...

Fischer, Antonius

Archbishop of Cologne and cardinal, b. at Julich, 30 May, 1840; d. at Neuenahr, 30 July, 1912. ...

Fish, Symbolism of the

Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish ranks probably first in ...

Fisher, Philip

(An alias , real name THOMAS COPLEY) Missionary, b. in Madrid, 1595-6; d. in Maryland, U. ...

Fisherman, The Ring of the

The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

Fitter, Daniel

Born in Worcestershire, England, 1628; died at St. Thomas' Priory, near Stafford, 6 Feb., 1700. ...

Fitton, James

Missionary, b. at Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. , 10 April, 1805; d. there, 15 Sept., 1881. His ...

Fitz-Simons, Thomas

American merchant, b. in Ireland, 1741; d. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 26 Aug., 1811. There is no ...

Fitzalan, Henry

Twelfth Earl of Arundel, b. about 1511; d. in London, 24 Feb., 1580 (O.S. 1579). Son of William, ...

FitzGibbon, Catherine

(Catherine FitzGibbon.) Born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, ...

Fitzherbert, Anthony, Sir

Judge, b. in 1470; d. 27 May, 1538. He was the sixth son of Ralph Fitzherbert of Norbury, ...

Fitzherbert, Maria Anne

Wife of King George IV; b. 26 July, 1756 (place uncertain); d. at Brighton, England, 29 March, ...

Fitzherbert, Thomas

Born 1552, at Swynnerton, Staffs, England ; died 17 Aug., 1640, at Rome. His father having died ...

Fitzpatrick, William John

Historian, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 31 Aug., 1830; d. there 24 Dec., 1895. The son of a rich ...

Fitzralph, Richard

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, 16 Dec., 1360. He ...

Fitzsimon, Henry

(Fitz Simon). Jesuit, b. 1566 (or 1569), in Dublin, Ireland ; d. 29 Nov., 1643 (or 1645), ...

Fixlmillner, Placidus

Astronomer, b. at Achleuthen near Kremsmünster, Austria, in 1721; d. at Kremsmünster, ...

Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis

Physicist, b. at Paris, 23 Sept., 1819; d. at Nanteuil, Seine-et-Marne, 18 Sept., 1896. His ...

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Fl 39

Fléchier, Esprit

Bishop; b. at Pernes, France, 1632; died at Montpellier, 1710; member of the Academy, and ...

Flórez, Enrique

Spanish theologian, archeologist, and historian; born at Valladolid, 14 February, 1701; died at ...

Flabellum

The flabellum, in liturgical use, is a fan made of leather, silk, parchment, or feathers ...

Flaccilla, Ælia

( Plakilla ) Empress, wife of Theodosius the Great , died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like ...

Flagellants

A fanatical and heretical sect that flourished in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries, Their ...

Flagellation

The history of the whip, rod, and stick, as instruments of punishment and of voluntary penance, ...

Flaget, Benedict Joseph

First Bishop of Bardstown (subsequently of Louisville ), Kentucky, U.S.A. b. at Contournat, ...

Flanagan, Thomas Canon

Born in England in 1814, though Irish by descent; died at Kidderminster, 21 July, 1865. He was ...

Flanders

(Flemish VLAENDEREN; German FLANDEREN; French FLANDRE). Designated in the eighth century a ...

Flandrin, Jean-Hippolyte

French painter, b. at Lyons, 23 March, 1809; d. at Rome, 21 March, 1864. He came of a family of ...

Flathead Indians

A name used in both Americas, without special ethnologic significance, to designate tribes ...

Flathers, Ven. Mathew

( Alias Major). An English priest and martyr ; b. probably c. 1580 at Weston, Yorkshire, ...

Flavia Domitilla

A Christian Roman matron of the imperial family who lived towards the close of the first ...

Flavian, Saint

Bishop of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; d. at Hypæpa in Lydia, August, 449. ...

Flavias

A titular see of Cilicia Secunda. Nothing is known of its ancient name and history, except that ...

Flavigny, Abbey of

A Benedictine abbey in the Diocese of Dijon, the department of Côte-d'Or, and ...

Flaviopolis

A titular see in the province of Honorias. The city, formerly called Cratia, originally belonged ...

Flemael, Bertholet

(The name was also spelled FLEMALLE and FLAMAEL). Painter, b. at Liège, Flanders, in ...

Fleming, Patrick

Franciscan friar b. at Lagan, Couny Louth, Ireland, 17 April, 1599; d. 7 November, 1631. His ...

Fleming, Richard

(FLEMMING, FLEMMYNGE). Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; b. of a ...

Fleming, Thomas

Archbishop of Dublin, son of the Baron of Slane, b. in 1593; d. in 1665. He studied at thy ...

Fletcher, John

A missionary and theologian, b. at Ormskirk, England, of an old Catholic family ; educated at ...

Flete, William

An Augustinian hermit friar, a contemporary and great friend of St. Catherine of Siena ; the ...

Fleuriot, Zénaide-Marie-Anne

A French novelist, b. at Saint-Brieuc, 12 September, 1829; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1890. She ...

Fleury, Abbey of

( More completely FLEURY-SAINT-BENOÎT) One of the oldest and most celebrated ...

Fleury, André-Hercule de

Born at Lodève, 26 June, 1653; died at Paris, 29 January, 1742. He was a ...

Flodoard

(Or FRODOARD) French historian and chronicler, b. at Epernay in 894; d. in 966. He was ...

Flood of Noah

Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the ...

Floreffe, Abbey of

Pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Sambre, about seven miles southwest of Namur, ...

Florence

(Latin Florentia ; Italian Firenze ). ARCHDIOCESE OF FLORENCE (FLORENTINA). Located in ...

Florence of Worcester

English chronicler; all that is known of his personal history is that he was a monk of ...

Florence, Council of

The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council was, correctly speaking, the continuation of the Council of ...

Florentina, Saint

Virgin ; born towards the middle of the sixth century; died about 612. The family of St. ...

Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de

Born at the château of Florian (Gard), 6 March, 1755; died at Sceaux, 13 September, 1794. An ...

Florians, The

(Floriacenses), an altogether independent order, and not, as some consider, a branch of the ...

Florida

The Peninsular or Everglade State, the most southern in the American Union and second largest east ...

Florilegia

Florilegia (Lat., florilegium, an anthology) are systematic collections of excerpts (more or ...

Florus

A deacon of Lyons, ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the ninth century. We have no ...

Floyd, John

English missionary, wrote under the names Flud, Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, George ...

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Fogaras

ARCHDIOCESE OF FOGARAS (FOGARASIENSIS). Archdiocese in Hungary, of the Greek-Rumanian Rite. It ...

Foggia

DIOCESE OF FOGGIA (FODIANA). Diocese in the province of the same name in Apulia (Southern ...

Foillan, Saint

( Irish FAELAN, FAOLAN, FOELAN, FOALAN.) Represented in iconography with a crown at his ...

Folengo, Teofilo

An Italian poet, better known by his pseudonyrn MERLIN COCCALO or COCAI; b. at Mantua in 1496; ...

Foley, Henry

Born at Astley in Worcestershire, England, 9 Aug., 1811; died at Manresa House, Roehampton, 19 ...

Foligno

DIOCESE OF FOLIGNO (FULGINATENSIS). Diocese in the province of Perugia, Italy, immediately ...

Foliot, Gilbert

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

Folkestone Abbey

Folkestone Abbey -- more correctly FOLKESTONE PRIORY -- is situated in the east division of ...

Fonseca Soares, Antonio da

(ANTONIO DAS CHAGAS). Friar Minor and ascetical writer; b. at Vidigueira, 25 June, 1631; d. at ...

Fonseca, José Ribeiro da

Friar Minor ; b. at Evora, 3 Dec., 1690; d. at Porto, 16 June, 1752. He was received into the ...

Fonseca, Pedro Da

A philosopher and theologian, born at Cortizada, Portugal, 1528; died at Lisbon, 4 Nov., 1599. ...

Fontana, Carlo

An architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714. There seems to be no ...

Fontana, Domenico

A Roman architect of the Late Renaissance, b. at Melide on the Lake of Lugano, 1543; d. at ...

Fontana, Felice

Italian naturalist and physiologist, b. at Pomarolo in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1730; d. at Florence, ...

Fontbonne, Jeanne

In religion Mother St. John, second foundress and superior-general of the Sisters of St. Joseph ...

Fonte-Avellana

A suppressed order of hermits, which takes its name from their first hermitage in the Apennines. ...

Fontenelle, Abbey of

(Or ABBEY OF SAINT WANDRILLE). A Benedictine monastery in Normandy ...

Fontevrault, Order and Abbey of

I. CHARACTER OF THE ORDER The monastery of Fontevrault was founded by Blessed Robert ...

Fonts, Holy Water

Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

Fools, Feast of

A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

Foppa, Ambrogio

Generally known as CARADOSS0. Italian goldsmith, sculptor, and die sinker, b. at Mondonico in ...

Forbes, John

Capuchin, b. 1570; d. 1606. His father, John, eighth Lord Forbes, being a Protestant, and his ...

Forbin-Janson, Comte de Charles-Auguste-Marie-Joseph

A Bishop of Nancy and Toul, founder of the Association of the Holy Childhood , born in Paris, ...

Forcellini, Egidio

Latin lexicographer, b. at Fener, near Treviso, Italy, 26 Aug., 1688; d. at Padua, 4 April, ...

Ford, Blessed Thomas

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

Fordham University

Fordham University developed out of Saint John's College, founded by Bishop Hughes upon the old ...

Foreman, Andrew

A Scottish prelate, of good border family ; b. at Hatton, near Berwick-on-Tweed; d. 1522. His ...

Forer, Laurenz

Controversialist, b. at Lucerne, 1580; d. at Ratisbon, 7 January, 1659. He entered the Society ...

Foresters, Catholic Orders of

I On 30 July, 1879, some members of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of Boston, Massachusetts, ...

Forgery, Forger

If we accept the definition usually given by canonists, forgery ( Latin falsum ) differs very ...

Forli

(FOROLIVIENSIS) Diocese in the province of Romagna (Central Italy ); suffragan of Ravenna. ...

Form

(Latin forma; Greek eidos, morphe, he kata ton logon ousia, to ti en einai : Aristotle) ...

Formby, Henry

Born 1816; died at Normanton Hall, Leicester, 12 March, 1884. His father, Henry Grenehalgh Formby, ...

Formosus, Pope

(891-896) The pontificate of this pope belongs to that era of strife for political supremacy ...

Formularies

(LIBRI FORMULARUM) Formularies are medieval collections of models for the execution of ...

Forrest, William

Priest and poet; dates of birth and death uncertain. Few personal details are known of him. He ...

Forster, Fobrenius

Prince-Abbot of St. Emmeram at Ratisbon, b. 30 Aug., 1709, at Königsfeld in Upper Bavaria ...

Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria

Astronomer and naturalist, b. at London, 9 Nov., 1789; d. at Brussels, 2 Feb., 1860. His literary ...

Fort Augustus Abbey

St. Benedict's Abbey, at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire, is at present the only monastery for ...

Fort Wayne

DIOCESE OF (WAYNE CASTRENSIS). The Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A. established in ...

Fortaleza, Diocese of

(FORTALEXIENSIS) The Diocese of Fortaleza is co-extensive with the State of Ceará in ...

Fortescue, Blessed Adrian

Knight of St. John, martyr, b. about 1476, executed 10 July, 1539. He belonged to the Salden ...

Fortitude

(1) Manliness is etymologically what is meant by the Latin word virtus and by the Greek andreia ...

Fortunato of Brescia

Morphologist and Minorite of the Reform of Lombardy ; b. at Brescia, 1701; d. at Madrid, ...

Fortunatus

Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus A Christian poet of the sixth century, b. ...

Forty Hours' Devotion

Also called Quarant' Ore or written in one word Quarantore , is a devotion in which continuous ...

Forty Martyrs

A party of soldiers who suffered a cruel death for their faith, near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, ...

Forum, Ecclesiastical

That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...

Fossano

DIOCESE OF FOSSANO (FOSSANENSIS). Fossano is a town in the province of Cuneo, in Piedmont, ...

Fossombrone

DIOCESE OF FOSSOMBRONE (FOROSEMPRONIENSIS). Diocese in the province of Pesaro, Italy, a ...

Fossors

(Latin fossores , fossarii from fodere , to dig). Grave diggers in the Roman ...

Foster, John Gray

Soldier, convert, b. at Whitfield, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 27 May, 1823; d. at Nashua, New ...

Fothad, Saint

Surnamed NA CANOINE ("of the Canon"). A monk of Fahan-Mura, County Doneval, Ireland, at the ...

Fouard, Constant

An ecclesiastical writer b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, 6 Aug. 1837; his early life was a ...

Foucault, Jean-Bertrand-Léon

A physicist and mechanician, b. at Paris, 19 Sept., 1819; d. there 11 Feb., 1868. He received ...

Foulque de Neuilly

A popular Crusade preacher, d. March, 1202. At the end of the twelfth century he was ...

Foundation

( Latin fundatio; German Stiftung ) An ecclesiastical foundation is the making over of ...

Foundling Asylums

Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or ...

Fountains Abbey

A monastery of the Cistercian Order situated on the banks of the Skell about two and a half ...

Fouquet, Jehan

(Or J EAN F OUQUET ) French painter and miniaturist, b. at Tours, c. 1415; d. about 1480. ...

Four Crowned Martyrs

The old guidebooks to the tombs of the Roman martyrs make mention, in connection with the ...

Four Masters, Annals of the

The most extensive of all the compilations of the ancient annals of Ireland. They commence, ...

Fowler, John

Scholar and printer, b. at Bristol, England, 1537; d. at Namur, Flanders, 13 Feb., 1578-9. He ...

Foxe's Book of Martyrs

John Foxe was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, England, in 1516, and was educated at Magdalen ...

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Fréchette, Louis-Honoré

Born at Notre-Dame de Lévis, P.Q., Canada, 16 November, 1839; died 30 May, 1908. He ...

Fréjus

DIOCESE OF FRÉJUS (FORUM JULII). Suffragan of Aix ; comprises the whole department of ...

Fra Angelico

A famous painter of the Florentine school, born near Castello di Vicchio in the province of ...

Fractio Panis

(BREAKING OF BREAD.) The name given to a fresco in the so-called "Capella Greca" in the ...

France

The fifth in size (usually reckoned the fourth) of the great divisions of Europe. DESCRIPTIVE ...

Frances d'Amboise, Blessed

Duchess of Brittany, afterwards Carmelite nun, b. 1427; d. at Nantes, 4 Nov., 1485. The daughter ...

Frances of Rome, Saint

(Bussa di Leoni.) One of the greatest mystics of the fifteenth century; born at Rome, of a noble ...

Franceschini, Marc' Antonio

Italian painter ; b. at Bologna, 1648; d. there c. 1729; best known for the decorative works he ...

Franchi, Ausonio

The pseudonym of CRISTOFORO BONAVINO, philosopher ; b. 24 February, 1821, at Pegli, province of ...

Francia

(FRANCESCO RAIBOLINI) A famous Bolognese goldsmith, engraver, and artist, b. about 1450; d. in ...

Francis Borgia, Saint

(Spanish F RANCISCO DE B ORJA Y A RAGON ) Francis Borgia, born 28 October, 1510, was the ...

Francis Caracciolo, Saint

Co-founder with John Augustine Adorno of the Conregation of the Minor Clerks Regular ; b. in Villa ...

Francis de Geronimo, Saint

(Girolamo, Hieronymo). Born 17 December, 1642; died 11 May, 1716. His birthplace was ...

Francis de Sales, Saint

Bishop of Geneva, Doctor of the Universal Church ; born at Thorens, in the Duchy of Savoy, 21 ...

Francis I

King of France ; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547. He was the ...

Francis Ingleby, Venerable

English martyr, born about 1551; suffered at York on Friday, 3 June, 1586 (old style). According ...

Francis of Assisi, Saint

Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year ...

Francis of Fabriano, Blessed

Priest of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. 2 Sept., 1251; d. 22 April, 1322. His birth and ...

Francis of Paula, Saint

Founder of the Order of Minims; b. in 1416, at Paula, in Calabria, Italy ; d. 2 April, 1507, at ...

Francis of Vittoria

A Spanish theologian ; b. about 1480, at Vittoria, province of Avila, in Old Castile ; d. 12 ...

Francis Regis Clet, Blessed

A Lazarist missionary in China ; b. 1748, martyred, 18 Feb., 1820. His father was a merchant ...

Francis Solanus, Saint

South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. at Montilla, in the Diocese of ...

Francis Xavier, Saint

Born in the Castle of Xavier near Sanguesa, in Navarre, 7 April, 1506; died on the Island of ...

Francis, Rule of Saint

As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here only the ...

Franciscan Crown

( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

Franciscan Order

A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men ...

Franck, Kasper

A theologian and controversialist; b. at Ortrand, Saxony, 2 Nov., 1543; d. at Ingolstadt, 12 ...

Franco, Giovanni Battista

(Frequently known as IL SEMOLIE) Italian historical painter and etcher, b. at Udine in ...

Frank, Michael Sigismund

Catholic artist and rediscoverer of the lost art of glass-painting; b. 1 June, 1770, at ...

Frankenberg

JOHANN HEINRICH, GRAF VON FRANKENBERG. Archbishop of Mechlin (Malines), Primate of ...

Frankfort, Council of

Convened in the summer of 794, by the grace of God, authority of the pope, and command of ...

Frankfort-on-the-Main

Frankfort-on-the-Main, formerly the scene of the election and coronation of the German emperors, ...

Franks, The

The Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient ...

Franzelin, Johann Baptist

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Aldein, in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1816; d. at Rome, 11 Dec., ...

Frascati

DIOCESE OF FRASCATI (TUSCULANA). One of the six suburbicarian (i.e. neighbouring) dioceses ...

Frassen, Claude

A celebrated Scotist theologian and philosopher of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. near ...

Fraternal Correction

Fraternal correction is here taken to mean the admonishing of one's neighbor by a private ...

Fraticelli

(Or F RATRICELLI ) A name given to various heretical sects which appeared in the fourteenth ...

Fraud

In the common acceptation of the word, an act or course of deception deliberately practised with ...

Fraunhofer, Joseph von

Optician, b. at Straubing, Bavaria, 6 March, 1787; d. at Munich, 7 June, 1826. He was the tenth ...

Frayssinous, Denis de

1765-1841, Bishop of Hermopolis in partibus infidelium , is celebrated chiefly for his ...

Fredegarius

The name used since the sixteenth designate the supposed author of an anonymous historical ...

Fredegis of Tours

(Fridugisus or Fredegisus). A ninth-century monk, teacher, and writer. Fredegis was an ...

Frederick I (Barbarossa)

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick of Swabia (d. 1147) and Judith, daughter of Henry ...

Frederick II

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily; born 26 Dec., 1194; died ...

Fredoli, Berenger

Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati ; b. at Vérune, France, c. ú d. at Avignon, 11 June, ...

Free Church of Scotland

(Known since 1900 as the UNITED FREE CHURCH) An ecclesiastical organization in Scotland ...

Free Will

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

Free-Thinkers

Those who, abandoning the religious truths and moral dictates of the Christian Revelation, and ...

Freeman, Ven. William

A priest and martyr, b. at Manthorp near York, c. 1558; d. at Warwick, 13 August, 1595. His ...

Freemasonry

The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...

Fregoso, Federigo

Cardinal ; b. at Genoa, about 1480; d. 22 July, 1541; belonged to the Fregosi, one of the four ...

Freiburg

City, archdiocese, and university in the Archduchy of Baden, Germany . THE CITY Freiburg in ...

Fremin, James

Jesuit missionary to the American Indians ; b. at Reims, 12 March, 1628; d. at Quebec, 2 July, ...

French Academy, The

The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of ...

French Catholics in the United States

The first Bishop of Burlington, the Right Reverend Louis de Goesbriand, in a letter dated 11 ...

French Concordat of 1801, The

This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope ...

French Literature

Origin and Foundations of the French Language When the Romans became masters of Gaul, they imposed ...

French Revolution

The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

French, Nicholas

Bishop of Ferns, Ireland, b. at Ballytory, Co. Wexford, in 1604, his parents being John ...

Freppel, Charles-Emile

Born at Ober-Ehnheim, Alsace, 1 June, 1827; died at Paris, 22 Dec., 1891. He was Bishop of ...

Frequent Communion

Without specifying how often the faithful should communicate, Christ simply bids us eat His Flesh ...

Fresnel, Augustin-Jean

Physicist; b. at Broglie near Bernay, Normandy, 10 May, 1788; d. at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, ...

Friar

[From Lat. frater , through O. Fr. fredre, frere, M. E. frere; It. frate (as prefix ...

Friars Minor, Order of

(Also known as FRANCISCANS.) This subject may be conveniently considered under the following ...

Fribourg, University of

From the sixteenth century, the foundation of a Catholic university in Switzerland had often ...

Fridelli, Xavier Ehrenbert

(Properly FRIEDEL.) Jesuit missioner and cartographer, b. at Linz, Austria, 11 March, 1673; ...

Frideswide, Saint

(FRIDESWIDA, FREDESWIDA, French FRÉVISSE, Old English FRIS). Virgin, patroness of ...

Fridolin, Saint

Missionary, founder of the Monastery of Säckingen, Baden (sixth century). In accordance with ...

Friedrich von Hausen

(HUSEN) Medieval German poet, one of the earliest of the minnesingers; date of birth ...

Friends of God

( German G OTTESFREUNDE ). An association of pious persons, both ecclesiastical and lay, ...

Friends, Society of

The official designation of an Anglo - American religious sect originally styling themselves ...

Frigolet, Abbey of

The monastery of St. Michael was founded, about 960, at Frigolet, by Conrad the Pacific, King ...

Fringes (in Scripture)

This word is used to denote a special kind of trimming, consisting of loose threads of wool, silk, ...

Fritz, Samuel

A Jesuit missionary of the eighteenth century noted for his exploration of the Amazon River and ...

Froissart, Jean

French historian and poet, b. at Valenciennes, about 1337, d. at sentence -->Chimay early ...

Fromentin, Eugène

French writer and artist; b. at La Rochelle, 24 October, 1820; d. at Saint-Maurice, near La ...

Frontal, Altar

The frontal ( antipendium, pallium altaris ) is an appendage which covers the entire front of ...

Frontenac, Louis de Baude

A governor of New France, b. at Paris, 1622; d. at Quebec, 28 Nov., 1698. His father was captain ...

Frowin, Blessed

Benedictine abbot, d. 11 March, 1178. Of the early life of Frowin nothing is known, save that he ...

Fructuosus of Braga, Saint

An Archbishop, d. 16 April, c. 665. He was the son of a Gothic general, and studied in Palencia. ...

Fructuosus of Tarragona, Saint

A bishop and martyr ; d. 21 January, 259. During the night of 16 January, he, together with ...

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Fu 21

Fuchs, Johann Nepomuk von

A chemist and mineralogist, b. at Mattenzell, near Bremberg, Lower Bavaria, 15 May, 1774; d. at ...

Fulbert of Chartres

Bishop, b. between 952 and 962; d. 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was ...

Fulcran, Saint

Bishop of Lodève; d. 13 February, 1006. According to the biography which Bernard Guidonis, ...

Fulda

DIOCESE OF FULDA (FULDENSIS). This diocese of the German Empire takes its name from the ...

Fulgentius Ferrandus

A canonist and theologian of the African Church in the first half of the sixth century. He was ...

Fulgentius, Saint

A Bishop of Ecija (Astigi), in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. Like his brothers ...

Fulgentius, Saint

(FABIUS CLAUDIUS GORDIANUS FULGENTIUS). Born 468, died 533. Bishop of Ruspe in the province ...

Fullerton, Lady Georgiana Charlotte

Novelist; born 23 September, 1812, in Staffordshire, died 19 January, 1885, at Bournemouth. She ...

Fullo, Peter

Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

Fumo, Bartolommeo

A theologian, b. at Villon near Piacenza ; d. 1545. At an early age he entered the Dominican ...

Funchal

(FUNCHALENSIS.) Diocese in the Madeira Islands. Both in neo-Latin and in Portuguese the name ...

Fundamental Articles

This term was employed by Protestant theologians to distinguish the essential parts of the ...

Funeral Dues

The canonical perquisites of a parish priest receivable on the occasion of the funeral of any of ...

Funeral Pall

A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

Funk, Franz Xaver von

Church historian, b. in the small market town of Abtsgemünd in Würtemberg, 12 October, ...

Furness Abbey

Situated in the north of Lancashire about five miles from the town of Ulverston. Originally a ...

Furni

A titular see in Proconsular Africa, where two towns of this name are known to have existed. One ...

Furniss, John

A well-known children's missioner, born near Sheffield, England, 19 June, 1809; at Clapham, ...

Fursey, Saint

An Abbot of Lagny, near Paris, d. 16 Jan., about 650. He was the son of Fintan, son of Finloga, ...

Fussola

A titular see in Numidia. It was a fortified town, inhabited for the most part by Donatists ...

Fust, John

( Or FAUST.) A partner of Gutenberg in promoting the art of printing, d. at Paris about ...

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