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Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the caliphate of Baghdad and independent Turkish principalities. It occupies a territory of 1,114,502 sq. miles, with a population estimated at 25,000,000 inhabitants, and extends over parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe between the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea. The Turkish Empire thus possesses some of the most important highways by land and sea, between these three continents.

I. GEOGRAPHY

A. The Balkan Peninsula (European Turkey)

The Balkan Peninsula ( European Turkey), divided into eight provinces or vilayets, comprises the plateaux and terraces which extend to the south-east of the uplands of the Alps between the Adriatic, the Archipelago, and the Black Sea. Turkey still possesses Albania and Epirus, a vast plateau covered with towering mountain ranges (Techar-Dagh, 10,000 ft.) and with uplands stretching from the north-west to the south-east which reach as far as the Pindus; the coastal plains of the Adriatic and the small inland levels (Scutari Lake, Lake Ochrida, plains of Monastir d'Uskuf and of Yanina) are separated by very high ridges; Macedonia, a plain richly cultivated with vines, cereals, and tobacco, includes within the mountains of Macedonia to the west, Rhodope (9842 feet) to the north, Olympus to the south-west, the sharp and rocky peninsula of Chalcidice to the southeast; its only outlet, the port of Salonica (144,000 inhabitants), situated at the opening of an historical trade highway which ascends to the valley of the Vardar as far as Uskub, and over a hill of 1640 feet leads to the valley of the Bulgarian Morawa and as far as the Danube (railway route from Belgrade to Salonica ): the plain of Thrace, bordering on the Archipelago and the Sea of Marmora, forming the lower level of the valley of the Maritza, of which Eastern Rumelia represents the upper. Cultivation is broken by the great stretch of sterile plateaux; the only important city in the interior is Adrianople (125,000 inhabitants), but at the extremity of the peninsula situated between the Black Sea, the Archipelago, and the Sea of Marmora, stands Constantinople, which occupies, on the Bosporus, one of the finest strategetical positions of the old continent. This metropolis of 1,500,000 inhabitants is at the cross-roads formed by the great waterway which connects the Black Sea with the Mediterranean, and by the overland route (followed by a railway) which reaches the valley of the Danube by way of Adrianople, Philippopoli, Sofia, and Belgrade. It is composed of the Turkish city of Stamboul, of the European districts of Galata and Pera separated by the natural roadstead of the Golden Horn, and of the suburbs of Scutari, Haïdar-Pacha, and Kadi Keui. These settlements are on both sides of the Bosporus, in Europe and Asia. On account of its military and commercial importance and its population composed of all the races of the earth, Constantinople is a typical cosmopolitan city.

B. The Peninsula of Asia Minor, or Plateau of Anatolia

Important for the richness of its coastal plains and its geographical situation; the construction of the railway from Constantinople to Baghdad (in 1912, 781 miles of track open for traffic from Constantinople to Boulgourlou by Eski-Chehir and Konieh) will result in a rebirth of this ancient country; a German company is at present fertilizing the plain of Konieh, diverting for this purpose the waters of a lake.

C. Syria

A narrow strip of land, 500 miles long by 93 wide, lies between Asia Minor ; Egypt, the Mediterranean, and the Desert. It is traversed by the two parallel ridges of Libanus (ranging from three or four thousand to nine thousand feet) and Anti-Libanus, separated by a deep depression, the Gôr bounded on the north by the valley of the Orontes, on the south by that of the Jordan, which abuts on the gorge of the Dead Sea, 1200 feet below the sea level. The most important centres are the ports of Beirut (185,000 inhabitants), St. Jean d'Acre, and Jaffa (55,000 inhabitants), whence starts the railway to Jerusalem (115,000 inhabitants). The largest city is Damascus (350,000 inhabitants) in the middle of an oasis of luxuriant vegetation, one of the chief industrial centres of the Orient.

D. Mesopotamia and Turkish Armenia, or Kurdistan

Separated from Syria by the Great Desert, extends on the north to Anatolia and Armenia by the vast mountain ranges of Kurdistan, 13,000 feet, intercepted from the plains in the interior by Lake Van, whence flow the Tigris and the Euphrates, whose alluvial valleys are marvelously fertile; corn, wheat, barley, grain, one might say, originated here. Cotton may be also found in abundance, rice and plantations of date palms, and fruit-trees of every kind. The leading centres of Armenia are ErzerumTheodosiopolis), Van, and Ourfa. In Mesopotamia Mossoul (69,000 inhabitants), Baghdad (125,000 inhabitants), and Bassorah give but a feeble idea of the once great cities of Ninive, Babylon, and Seleucia-Ctesiphon.

E. The Peninsula of Arabia

The Peninsula of Arabia is a spacious desert plateau, bounded by immense mountain ranges, which rise over 9000 feet above the Red Sea. Scarcely a seventh of this vast territory (over 1,000,000 sq. miles) is dependent on the sultan, and that more nominally than in reality. The volcanic plateau of the centre (Nedjed or Arabia Petraea) is almost a desert. The population has flocked to the coast districts (Hedjaz and Yemen, or Arabia Felix). The only important centres are the sacred cities of the Mussulmans : Mecca (60,000 inhabitants) with its port Djeddah, where the Caaba, which preserves the "black stone" of Abraham, draws each year numerous pilgrims from all points of the Moslem world, and Medina (50,000 inhabitants), where Mohammed resided and died. The possession of these cities lends great political importance to the Turkish Government. A railway, intended to unite Damascus to Mecca, was laid to Medina in 1908.

F. Tripolitana

Tripolitana, occupied largely at present (1912) by the Italians, is in reality the Saharan coast of the Mediterranean. It is composed of plains of sand and rocky plateaux, to the east the plateau of Barka(ancient Cyrenaica whose coasts in antiquity were very fertile), the oasis and city of Tripoli (30,000 inhabitants), and the inland the oasis of Ghadames. On this territory of 462,767 sq. miles there are scarcely one million inhabitants. The principal resources and in the oases date palms.

II. HISTORY

The countries which form this immense territory represent what remains of the conquests of the Ottomans, a Turkish tribe originally from Khorassan, which emigrated into Asia Minor about 1224, at the time of the cataclysm produced in Central Asia by the Mongolian invasion of Jenghiz-Khan. The chiefs of the tribe of the Kei-Kankali became the mercenaries of the Seljuk emirs of Asia Minor. One of them, Othman, proclaimed himself independent at the end of the thirteenth century, and took the title of sultan, or padishah. Under Orkhan was organized with some Christian captives the permanent militia of the Janissaries; and then began incessant war between the Ottomans and the Byzantine Empire. In 1359 Suleiman entered Europe by the occupation of Gallipoli. Murad established himself at Adrianople (1360) and attacked the Slavonic peoples of the Balkans. The battle of Kossovo (1389) gave him Servia. The struggle continued until the taking of Constantinople by Mahomet II, who put an end to the Byzantine Empire (1453) and conquered the Peloponnesus (1462), Negropont (1467), Trebzond (1470), Bosnia, and Wallachia. He died in 1481, after failing to take Belgrade and Rhodes, but achieving the conquest of Anatolia as far as the Euphrates, and the peninsula of the Balkans as far as the Danube. To these conquests Selim I added Azerbaidjan, Syria, and Egypt (1517), Diarbekir and Mesopotamia (1518); he received from Mecca the banner of the prophet, and took the title of caliph, which assures to the Sultan of Constantinople the spiritual authority over all the Mussulmans of the world.

Soliman I took Rhodes from the Knights of St. John (1522) and conquered Hungary while Khaireddin Barbarossa subjected the Barbary States (1522). Selim II took possession of the Island of Cyprus (1570), but the Turkish domination had reached the limits of its extension. Soliman had been unable to take either Vienna (1526) or Malta (1562), and in 1571 the great victory of the Christian fleet at Lepanto weakened the naval power of the Turks in the Mediterranean. At the end of the sixteenth century The Turkish Empire had attained the zenith of its power on land. The siege of Vienna of 1683, which failed thanks to the intervention of the King of Poland, John Sobieski , marks the last aggressive attempt of the Turks on the West. Henceforth the western powers encroach on the Turkish Empire and begin its dismemberment. In 1699 by the treaty of Karlovitz the Sultan ceded Hungary and Transylvania to Austria. It is true that in 1739 the Turks succeeded in retaking Belgrade, but this was their last military success. The powerful militia of the Janissaries was of no further use; the administration was corrupt and venal. Moreover, the Turks were unable to impede the progress of Russia ; in 1774 by the treaty of Kainardji the Turks ceded to Russia the Crimea and the coasts of the Black Sea, and to Austria Rumanian Bukowina. The French Revolution of 1789 saved Turkey from the project of division planned by Catherine II; the Peace of Jassy (1792) restored only a part of Bessarabia of the Dniester. Egypt, occupied in 1789, surrendered to Turkey in 1800, but in the most precarious condition. After the nineteenth century began the forward movement of the Christian nationalities which had submitted up to that time to Turkish domination; public opinion in Europe upheld this movement, and the governments themselves were won over. Meanwhile the rival ambitions of the powers prevented the "Eastern Question" from being regulated in a definitive manner. In 1821 the insurrection of the Greeks, supported by Europe, ended in the creation of the Kingdom of Greece (Treaty of Adrianople, 1829; and Conference of London, 1831).

The Servians formed an autonomous principality as early as 1830, and in 1832 the Pasha of Egypt, Mehemet-Ali, revolted; his independence was conceded to him in 1841, on condition that he would recognize the suzerainty of the sultan. In vain the Turks tried to reform; after the massacre and the dissolution of the Janissaries (1826) Mahmoud organized an army resembling the European, established military schools and a newspaper, and imposed the European costume on his subjects. In 1839 Abdul-Medjid organized the Tanzimât (new regime) and accorded to his subjects a real charter, liberty, religious toleration and promises of a liberal government. In 1854 the Tsar Nicholas of Russia strove to take up again the project of Catherine II, and to do away with "the sick man ". Protected by France and England, Turkey kept, at the Congress of Paris (1856), all of its territory save Moldavia and Wallachia, which were declared autonomous. The Hatti-Humayoun of 16 Feb., 1856, proclaimed the admission of Christians to all employments and equality with other subjects before the law, but after the Liberal government of Fuad Pasha they resumed their former ways. On all sides the provinces revolted, and about 1875 formed the party of Young Turkey, desirous of reforming the empire on the European model.

Two sultans, Abdul-Aziz and Murad, were successively deposed. A new sultan, Abdul-Hamid, proclaimed on 23 Dec., 1876, a constitution resembling the European with a parliament and responsible ministers ; but the reforming grand vizier Midhat Pasha was strangled, and the opening of parliament was no more than a comedy. Europe decided to act, and in 1877 Russia took the lead and sent an army across the Balkans, after the difficult siege of Plevna and would have entered Constantinople had it not been for the intervention of an English fleet. The treaty of San Stefano (March, 1878) established a Grand Principality of Bulgaria, and cut Turkey in Europe into many sections. Bismarck, alarmed by the progress of Russia, had this treaty revised at the Congress of Berlin (1878); the independent Bulgarian principality was reduced to Moesia to the north of the Balkans; Eastern Rumelia alone was autonomous, and Macedonia remained Turkish. The independence of Servia, Montenegro, and Rumania was sanctioned. Greece received Thessaly; Austria occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina ; England established herself in the Island of Cyprus. This treaty, ratified by all the powers, was followed by new dismemberments. In 1855 Eastern Rumelia was annexed to Bulgaria. In 1897 Crete revolted, and tried to reunite Greece. After the victorious campaign of his army in Thessaly the sultan kept the sovereignty of Crete, but with an autonomous Christian governor, a son of the King of Greece.

In contrast to his predecessors, who had sought to restore their country by reforming it, the Sultan Abdul-Hamid established a regime of ferocious repression against the Young Turks, who were partisans of the reforms. A formidable police pursued all those who were suspected of Liberal ideas, and an unpitying censorship undertook the impossible task of depriving Turkey of European publications; the introduction of the most inoffensive books, such as Baedeker's guides, was prohibited. Emissaries everywhere revived Mussulman fanaticism; to the claims of the Armenian revolutionaries the Sultan responded by frightful massacres of the Armenians of Constantinople (Sept., 1895), followed soon by the slaughter which in 1896 drenched Kurdistan with blood; everywhere Armenians were tracked, and isolated massacres of Christians became also the normal order of events in Macedonia

Educated in Western ideas, the Young Turks, especially the refugees at Paris, united as early as 1895, and succeeded in spite of prohibitions in circulating in Turkey their journal the "Mechveret". A Committee of Union and Progress was even formed at Constantinople, and by constant propaganda succeeded in gaining to its cause the greater number of the officials. The uprising, the preparation of which deceived the Hamidian police, began 23 July, 1908, at Salonica ; an ultimatum was sent to the sultan, who, abandoned even by his Albanians, proclaimed the re-establishment of the constitution (24 July, 1908) in the midst of indescribable enthusiasm, and called a parliament (4 Dec., 1908).

In three months 300 journals were started. Abroad, the counterstroke to this revolution was the definitive annexation, proclaimed by the Emperor of Austria, of Bosnia and Herzegovina (3 Oct., 1908). At the same time the Prince of Bulgaria took the title of Tsar of the Bulgarians (6 Oct., 1908), and repudiated the vassalage which still connected him with the sultan.

This exterior check weakened the Young Turk party, and on 13 April, 1909, a counter-revolution of Softas and soldiers of the guard broke out in Constantinople. The Young Turks had to flee the capital, but immediately the troops of Salonica, Monastir, and Adrianople consolidated and marched against Constantinople and laid siege to it (17 April, 1909). Negotiations continued for six days; finally at the moment when the massacre of the Christians seemed imminent, the Salonican troops entered Constantinople, and after a short battle became masters of the place. On 27 April Abdul-Hamid was forced to sign his abdication, and banished to Salonica. A son of Abdul-Medjid was made sultan under the name of Mohammed V, and a new constitution was proclaimed, 5 Aug., 1909, the Committee of Union and Progress superintending its execution with dictatorial powers. To-day Turkey is on the road, to reform and political reorganization.

III. RACES, NATIONALITIES, AND RELIGIONS

According to a tradition which dates back to the earliest antiquity, Oriental nationalities did not commonly form compact groups settled within well-defined boundaries. As a result of violent transmigrations of peoples owing to hurricane-like invasions, or even by the simple chance of migrations due to economic causes, all the races of the Orient are mingled in an inextricable manner, and there is not a single city of the Ottoman Empire which does not contain specimens of all races, languages, and religions. The population has therefore an entirely heterogeneous character ; the Turks have never made any effort to assimilate their subjects; they do not appear even to have attempted to propagate Islamism widely. Until the constitution of 1876, and in fact as late as the revolution of 1908, they have jealously striven to safeguard their privileges as conquerors. Up to the present time the population of the empire may be said to be divided into three classes:

  • The Mussulmans (Turks, Arabs, Servians, Albanians ), enjoying alone the right of holding office, the only landowners, but subject to military service.
  • The Raias (flocks), or infidels, conquered peoples who have obtained the right of preserving their religion, but barred from all office and subjected to heavy tax. It was upon them that the despotism of the pashas was exercised. They are still, following the creed to which they belong, divided into "nations" governed by religious authorities, Christian bishops, Jewish rabbis, responsible to the sultan, but provided with certain jurisdiction over their faithful.
  • European subjects, established in Turkey for religious or commercial reasons, and under the official protection and jurisdiction of the ambassadors of the Powers. Many of the raïas of class have, however, succeeded in obtaining this privilege.

In 1535 the first "capitulation" was signed between the King of France, Francis I, and the Sultan Soliman. It accorded to France the protectorate over all the Christians. This agreement was often renewed, in 1604, 1672, 1740, and 1802. At the treaty of Kainardji Russia obtained a similar right of protection over the Orthodox Christians . The rights of France to the protection of Catholics of all nationalities have been recognized repeatedly by the Holy See , and particularly by the Encyclical of Leo XIII "Aspera rerum conditio" (22 May, 1886). The treaty of Berlin left to each state the care of protecting its subjects, but in practice France preserves the protectorate over Catholics, and even the diplomatic rupture between France and the Holy See has not impaired these civil rights. Each of the Great Powers has therefore considerable interests in the Turkish Empire: each one its own postal autonomy, courts, schools, and organizations for propaganda, teaching, and charity.

The Young Turk party, in power today, dreams of overthrowing this arrangement. The new constitution granted by the Sultan Mohammed V, 5 Aug., 1909, proclaims the equality of all subjects in the matter of taxes, military service, and political rights. For the first time Christians are admitted into the army, and the parliament, which meets at Constantinople, is chosen indiscriminately by all the races. The effect of this new regime appears to be, in the view of the Young Turks, the establishment of a common law for all subjects, the suppression of all privileges and capitulations. But the religious communities, or millets , hold to the ancient statutes which have safe-guarded their race and religion; the three oldest, those of the Greeks, the Armenians, and Jews, date back to the day following the taking of Constantinople by Mohammed II.

The rest of the European powers have in the Turkish Empire, political, economic, and religious interests of considerable importance; a certain number of public services, such as that of the public debt, or institutions like the Ottoman Bank, have an international character. The same holds good of most of the companies which are formed to execute public works, docks, railways, etc. . . The trade in exports and imports involves large sums of money, as one may judge by the following table: FOREIGN COMMERCE FROM 1 MARCH, 1908, TO 28 FEBRUARY, 1909 ( IN PIASTRES )

Country Imports Exports England 941,274 513,723 France 337,057 363,361 Germany 193,567 114,998 Austro-Hungry 407,519 247,774 Russia 249,417 57,489 Egypt 116,275 165,673 United States 116,275 70,332

A veritable economic war is going on between the Powers, desirous of exploiting the riches of the Orient; to the secular ambitions which menace the existence of the "sick man " have been added new forms of greed. Neither the Russians nor the Greeks have ceased to consider Constantinople as the historic goal of their efforts, and Bulgaria, deprived of Macedonia is claimed by the treaty of Berlin, also finds in its traditions claims on the same heritage. Macedonia is claimed by the Greeks, Bulgarians, Servians, and the Kutzo-Vlachs or Rumanians; Salonica has become a commercial centre for Austrian exportation; and the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has by one and the same stroke reinforced Austro-Hungarian and German influence in the Balkan Peninsula. Italy has some clients in Albania, and is seeking at the present moment to take possession of Tripoli.

Finally, France, England, and Germany are fighting to establish their moral and economic influence. France has maintained an important position because of the protection that it has always exercised over Catholics ; French in the Orient has become a kind of second vernacular; while the influence of Germany has increased in the last few years for political reasons, by which the development of German commerce has profited. The European Powers, anxious for the defence of their own interests, are not, however, ready to abandon their capitulations. The Turkish Empire has moreover entered into a period of transformation, the end of which no one can foresee, and what delays still more the task of the new power is the infinite diversity of races and religions which make up the empire.

Although the statistical documents are very incomplete, the total population of the empire, including Egypt and the dependencies (Crete, governed by Prince George under the control of the Powers; Samos, governed since 1832 by a Greek prince appointed by the sultan), can be estimated at 36,000,000. Under the direct government of the sultan there are only 25,926,000 subjects, who belong to the following races: (1) Turks, or Osmanlis, estimated at 10,000,000, are settled throughout Asia Minor, the cities of Europe and Syria, and some cantons of Macedonia ; most of them are Mussulmans. (2) Arabs (7,000,000), in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Tripoli, forming several sects of Mussulmans. (3) Jews, scattered almost everywhere ( Jews of Spanish origin form half of the population of Salonica ); compact Jerusalem and its outskirts, at Baghdad, Mossoul, and Beirut. Samaritans inhabit the sanjak of Naplouse. (4) Gipsies, a mysterious race, are scattered throughout the empire. (5) Armenians, who have swarmed outside of their country and form powerful colonies in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Constantinople, and Turkey in Europe. From a religious standpoint they are Catholics, Gregorians, or Protestants. (6) Caucasian races: Lazes of Trebizond, Mussulmans or Orthodox Greeks; Kurds , fanatical Mussulmans scattered around ErzerumTheodosiopolis), Angora, Mossoul, Sivas; Circassians , spread throughout Asia Minor, Mussulmans. (7) Syrians, The descendants of Aramaean peoples, divided into a multitude of communities of different language and religion; Chaldeans , in Baghdad, Mossoul, Aleppo, Beirut, or Nestorians , speaking partly Syrian and partly Arabic. The Melchites speak Arabic, but belong to the Greek Church. The Jacobites , or Monophysies, speak Arabic and Syriac. The Marionites of the Lebanon and of Beirut speak Arabic and are Catholics. The Druses of the Lebanon form an heretical Mussulman sect. (8) The Greeks have remained in their historic country; as in antiquity they are a maritime people; they form powerful groups at Constantinople, Adrianoyple, Salonica, in Macedonia, Asia Minor , in the isles, in Syria, and in Crete. They belong to the Orthodox or to the Greek Uniat Church. They are of considerable importance in the empire. (9) The Albanians appear to be the remnant of a very ancient race. They form in the west of the Balkan Peninsula (Albania) a compact group and still lead a semi-patriarchal life. A large part (1,000,000) is Mussulman, the others, (30,000) Catholic : among them may be found the Powerful tribe of the Mirdites. In 1911 the new government was obliged to direct an expedition against them to effect their disarmament. (10) The Slav peoples, Bulgarians and Servians, are scattered over Macedonia and Old Servia, where they oppose Greek influence; they are divided between Islamism, Orthodox Christianity, and Catholicism. (11) The Kutzo-Vlachs or Rumanians, Orthodox or Catholics, inhabit Macedonia, where they are mostly shepherds. (12) Finally, in all Turkish cities may be found a great number of families of European origin, settled in the country for a long period and who have lost their ethnical characters and their languages. Such are the Levantines, who seek to obtain from the ambassadors foreign naturalization for the sake of its privileges.

From a religious standpoint the Mussulmans may be estimated at 50 per cent of the population, the Orthodox Church 46 per cent, Catholics 3 per cent, other communities, Jews, Druses etc., at 1 per cent. In Turkey in Europe, on the contrary, there are 66 percent of Christians to 33 percent Mussulmans.

(1) Mussulmans

The Mussulman religion has remained the religion of the state. The sultan is always the caliph, the spiritual head of the Mussulmans of the whole world. The Mussulmans comprise the majority of Turks, Arabs, and a portion of the Albanians, Bulgarians, Greeks etc. Polygamy is always legal; four legitimate wives and an unlimited number of concubines are permitted to the believers. Under the influence of Western ideas and Christianity, monogamy tends to establish itself. Divorce exists, and the divorced woman can remarry. The sexes are always separated in the family home, which comprises the selamlik (male apartments) and the harem (female apartments). It is the same in the tramways, railways, ships etc. The women cannot go out except veiled, but circulate freely in the streets of the cities unaccompanied. Slavery is always active, but it has kept a patriarchal character. The master must endow his slave when the latter marries, and the Koran obliges him to provide for the needs of his slaves. Education is progressing. In principle it is obligatory. Primary education is free, a secondary school exists at the capital of each vilayet, as well as one free professional school. Instruction of women is developing at Constantinople; the Lyceum of Galata-Serai, organized by French professors, has 1100 pupils. Higher instruction is represented by the University of Constatinople and special schools. An Imperial museum of archaeology has been created at Tchilini-Kiosk.

As in all Mussulman countries the spiritual and temporal duties are blended, and civil relations are regulated by religious law which consists in the Koran and the Cheriat, collection of customs. The interpreters of this law are the ulemas , who form a powerful clergy whose head, the Sheikh-ul-islam , has the rank of vizier, and access to the council of ministers, or divan . At twelve years of age the future ulemas leaves the primary school and enters a medresse ( seminary attached to the mosque) as a softa (student) where he learns grammar, ethics, and theology. He finally receives from the Sheikh-ul-islam the diploma of candidate ( mulasim ) and can be elevated to the rank of the ulemas ; he may become cadi (judge). To advance further he must study for seven years, when he may become imam of a mosque. The ulemas wear a white turban, the hadjis, who have been at Mecca, have the green turban. The mesjids are simple places of prayer. In a large mosque or djami maybe found sheikhs in charge of the preaching; kiatibs , who direct the Friday prayer ; imams , charged with the ordinary service of the mosque (daily prayer, marriages, burials); muezzins , who ascend four times a day to the minaret to call the faithful to prayer ; kaims , a kind of sacristan. Several orders of dervishes form the regular clergy and devote themselves to special practices of which some are noted for their extravagance (howling and whirling); they are distinguished by a conical felt hat. The principal religious obligations, which the faithful perform with zeal are: prayer four times daily, the weekly Friday service, the observance of Ramadan (abstinence from eating, drinking, and smoking from the rising to the setting of the sun). Islam is going through a crisis by contact with the Western world, and under the influence of Christianity many of the enlightened Turks dream of reforming its morals. On the other hand there has always been a certain opposition between the Arabs, who pretend to represent the pure Mussulman tradition, and the Turks. The pan-lslamic policy of Abdul-Hamid had weakened this opposition, and he had availed himself of his title of caliph to form relations with Mussulmans of the entire world.

To-day the pan-Islamist movement, of which the University of El-Azhar at Cairo is one of the principal centres, and which has numerous journals at its command, seems to be unfavourable to the Turkish Caliphate. The society " Al Da' wat wal Irchad " is about to create in Egypt a new university destined to form Mussulman missionaries.

(2) Greek Orthodox Church

The principal indigenous Christian community is the Greek Church, which is the survival of the religious organization of the Byzantine Empire . Its head, the "Œcumenical Patriarch of the Romans" (such is his official title), resides at Constantinople, in the Phanar quarter. He presides over a Holy Synod formed of twelve metropolitans and a "mixed council", composed of four metropolitans and eight laymen. Two million souls obey him. The oecumenical territory is divided into 100 eparchies or dioceses (83 metropolitans and 17 bishops ). Since the schisms of Photius (867) and of Michael Caerularius (1054), the Greek Church has been separated from Rome by a succession of ritual and disciplinary observances rather than by dogmatic differences. The tendency of the Greek Church to autonomy has brought about the crumbling of patriarchal authority and the forming of autocephalous churches; outside of the Ottoman Empire may be found the Russian Church, the Church of the Kingdom of Greece, the Servian Church, the Church of Cyprus : in the empire, even since the firman of Abdul-Aziz (11 March, 1870), the Bulgarians have organized an independent church under the name of "Exarchate". The Bulgarian Exarch resides at Orta-Keui on the Bosporus and governs 3,000,000 souls ; Thrace and Macedonia are divided into 21 Bulgarian eparchies, but a Holy Synod resides at Sofia. The Arabic speaking Syrians, or Melchites who are attached to the Orthodox Church, are under the authority of the Patriarch of Antioch, who resides at Damascus, of the Patriarchs of Jerusalem and of Alexandria, and of the Archbishop of Sinai, all independent of Constantinople.

The Greek Church has two divisions of clergy, one consisting of the popes or papas , who marry before they take orders and cannot become bishops ; the other, called the upper clergy, chosen from among the monks. The monasteries are quite numerous. Those of Mount Athos form a veritable independent Republic composed of twenty convents governed by the Council of the Holy Epistasia ; its head, the protepistates , is chosen in turn from the monasteries of the great Laura, Iviron, Vatopedi, Khilandariou, and Dyonisiou. The Greek Church has no organized missions, but the Hellenic propaganda is maintained at least in the schools throughout Macedonia, where there is antagonism between the Greeks and Bulgarians : the latter have had often to defend their religions and national independence against the former.

(3) Dissenting Churches

A certain number of religious communities represent the early and schismatical heretical sects who have remained separate from the Greek Church : a portion of these Christians have, however, returned to the Catholic Church. The Gregorian Armenians (who connect themselves with St. Gregory the Illuminator ) have been separated since the Council of Chalcedon (451). They have many heads, the Catholicos of Etschmiadzin in Russian territory, the Catholicos of Sis (200,000 faithful in Cilicia and Syria ), and the Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, who is assisted by a national assembly of 400 members and two councils, civil and ecclesiastical (800,000 faithful, divided among 51 dioceses ); finally, the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem, in communion with Constantinople. On the Turco-Persian frontier may be found about 100,000 Nestorians, whose patriarch resides at Kotchanes; his dignity is hereditary from uncle to nephew; many have been reunited to the Roman Church. The Monophysites, or Jacobites, to the number of 80,000 in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Kurdistan, represent the remnants of a church that was once powerful; its head, who calls himself Patriarch of Antioch, resides at the Monastery of Dar-uz-Zafaran, between Diarbekir and Mardin.

(4) The Catholic Church in the Turkish Empire

The Catholic Church in the Turkish Empire comprises two classes of faithful: those of the Latin Rite , and those who preserve their traditional rites, and are united to the Holy See, whence the name Greek-Uniats, Armenian-Uniats, etc. Turkey, a missionary country, depends directly on the Congregation of the Propaganda which has as representatives three apostolic delegates, at Constantinople, Beirut, and Bagdad ; assisting them are vicars and prefects Apostolic, heads of the mission and provided with episcopal powers (except the power of conferring major orders). The Latin Catholics are scattered over the entire empire, although 148,000 Albanians form an important group under the Archbishops of Durazzo, Uskub, Scutari, and the Abbot of St. Alexander of Orochi for the Mirdites.

The Uniats comprise many distinct groups: (a) the Greeks, whose union was proclaimed by the Council of Florence in 1438, live in Italy and Corsica (Albanian colony of Cargese). In the Turkish Empire there are only some hundred or so placed under the authority of the Apostolic delegate of Constantinople. Among the popes who have striven most to bring about a union with the Greeks Benedict XIV must be remembered, and Leo XIII (Encyclical "Orientalium dignitas", 30 Nov., 1894). (b) The Melchite Greeks (110,000), in Syria, Palestine, Egypt ; their patriarch resides at Damascus, and has under his jurisdiction three vicariates (Tarsus, Damietta, and Palmyra ) and eleven bishops. (c) The Bulgarian-Uniats, converted about 1860 to escape from the Phanariot despotism. There remain 13,000 directed by the vicarsApostolic of Adrianople and Salonica. (d) The Armenian-Uniats, organized since 1724 under the Patriarch of Cilicia and Little Armenia, who reside at Zmar in the Lebanon. ln 1857 Pius IX conferred this title on the Armenian Archbishop of Constantinople (70,000 faithful, 2 archbishops, of Aleppo and Sivas, 12 bishops, the most of whom are in Persia and Egypt ). (e) The Syrian-Uniats, converted by Latin missionaries in 1665; a firman of 1830 has recognized its autonomy (40,000 faithful, a patriarch residing at Beirut, and 12 dioceses ). (f) The Chaldean-Uniats, Nestorians converted to Catholicism in 1552. Their Patriarch of Babylon resides at Mossoul (80,000 faithful). (g) The Maronites of the ancient Lebanon, a Monothelite community which abjured its heresy entirely in 1182. Its head, Patriarch of Antioch, resides at Bekerkey, near Beirut ; he has 7 archbishops under his jurisdiction. The 300,000 faithful have remained particularly attached to Catholicism.

V. CATHOLIC AND PROTESTANT MISSIONS

The Christian propaganda has been carried on in the Turkish Empire by means of the missions, the oldest of which date back to the time of the Crusades. As early as 1229 Franciscan and Dominican missions were established in Palestine and as far as Damascus. In 1328 the Franciscans received the "custody" of the Holy Places, and constructed their convents of the Mount of Sion, of the Holy Sepulchre, and of Bethlehem. To-day the Franciscan custody of the Holy Land numbers 338 religious. The missionaries have, however, encountered great obstacles in their work, and they have been unable even to consider a direct propaganda in regard to the Mussulmans. Nevertheless, their moral influence is considerable; it manifests itself by social works due to their initiative (schools, hospitals, dispensaries, etc.) which are very prosperous, and are maintained by numerous organizations founded in Europe : the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris, founded in 1658; the Propagation of the Faith, founded at Lyons in 1822; the Society of St. Francis Xavier, founded at Aachen in the year 1832; the Leopoldsverein, founded in Austria in 1839; the Society of the Holy Childhood, etc.

Among the religious orders represented in the Turkish Empire must be mentioned: the Jesuits, who have established the University of St Joseph of Beirut, whose faculty of letters numbers distinguished Orientalists and epigraphists, and whose school of medicine, placed under the control of the University of France, forms a nursery for native physicians; it has a library and a printing-press supplied with Latin and Arabic characters; it publishes a journal and an Arabic review, El-Bachir, and ElMachriq; the Assumptionists, at Constantinople; many of whom devote themselves successfully to the study of archaeology and Byzantine antiquities; the Brothers of the Christian Schools, who had, in 1908, 3449 pupils (8 colleges at Constantinople, 8 at Smyrna, others at Salonica, Angora etc.); the Capuchins, established in Armenia, Asia Minor , Syria etc.; the Lazarists, at Beirut ; the Carmelites, at Bagdad, Tripoli, etc.; the Salesians, in Palestine; the Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul, who have opened in almost every district schools, hospitals, and workshops, and who are respected by the Mussulmans for their self-sacrifice; the Sisters of Notre Dame of Sion, with schools in Constantinople; the Dominicans, established at Mossoul and Jerusalem, with a Biblical school. In 1910 a normal school was established at Rhodes to educate members of religious congregations to act as teacher

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Tænarum

Tænarum, a titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth. Tænarum, or Tænarus, ...

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Téllez, Gabriel

Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, b. at Madrid, c. ...

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Tübingen, University of

Located in Würtemberg ; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477, after Pope ...

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Ta 91

Tabæ

Titular see in Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis ; according to Strabo (XII, 570, 576) it was ...

Tabasco

(TABASQUENSIS) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archbishopric of ...

Tabb, John Bannister

An American poet and educator, born at "The Forest" near Richmond, 1845; died at Ellicott City, ...

Tabbora

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Tabbora or Talbora has been ...

Tabernacle

(TABERNACULUM). Tabernacle signified in the Middle Ages sometimes a ciborium-altar, a ...

Tabernacle

(Latin tabernaculum , tent). Tabernacle in Biblical parlance usually designates the ...

Tabernacle Lamp

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Tabernacle Societies

The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches ...

Tabernacle Society

Notre Dame Convent, Philadelphia; a society of persons affiliated with the Association of ...

Tabernacles, Feast of

One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...

Tabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Tacana Indians

The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...

Tacapæ

Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...

Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...

Taché, Etienne-Pascal

Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...

Tadama

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...

Taensa Indians

A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...

Tahiti

Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...

Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...

Tait Indians

( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...

Takkali

(More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...

Talbot, James

Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...

Talbot, John

English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...

Talbot, Peter

Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...

Talbot, Thomas Joseph

Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...

Tallagaht, Monastery of

The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...

Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...

Tallis, Thomas

English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...

Talmud

1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...

Talon, Jean

First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...

Talon, Nicolas

French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...

Talon, Pierre

A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...

Tamanac Indians

A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...

Tamassus

A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...

Tamaulipas

(CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...

Tamburini, Michelangelo

Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...

Tamburini, Thomas

Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...

Tametsi

("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

(Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

Tanagra

A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...

Tancred

Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

Taney, Roger Brooke

(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

Tanguay, Cyprien

Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...

Tanis

A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...

Tanner, Adam

Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...

Tanner, Conrad

Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...

Tanner, Edmund

Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...

Tanner, Matthias

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

Tanucci, Bernardo

Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

Taoism

(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

Taos Pueblo

An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...

Taparelli, Aloysius

(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

Tapestry

A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...

Tapis, Esteban

Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...

Tarabotti, Helena

Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...

Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Taranto

DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...

Tarapacá

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...

Tarasius, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...

Tarazona

DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

Tarbes

DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...

Tarentaise

(TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...

Targum

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...

Tarisel, Pierre

Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...

Tarkin, Saint

(Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...

Tarnow

DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...

Tarquini, Camillus

Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...

Tarragona

ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...

Tarsicius, Saint

Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...

Tarsus

A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...

Tartaglia, Nicolò

(T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...

Tartini, Giuseppe

Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...

Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...

Tassé, Joseph

Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...

Tassach, Saint

Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...

Tassin, René-Prosper

French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...

Tasso, Torquato

Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...

Tassoni, Alessandro

Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...

Tatian

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...

Tatwin, Saint

(TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...

Taubaté

(DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...

Tauler, John

German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...

Taunton, Ethelred

Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...

Taverner, John

Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...

Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...

Tavium

A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...

Taxa Innocentiana

A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...

Taxster, John de

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

Taylor, Frances Margaret

(MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...

Taylor, Ven. Hugh

English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...

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Te 69

Te Deum, The

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

Tebaldeo, Antonio

Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...

Tegernsee

Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...

Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

Teilo, Saint

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Teleology

(From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...

Telepathy

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

Telesio, Bernardino

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

Telesphorus, Pope Saint

(Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...

Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

Tellier, Michel Le

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

Tempel, Wilhelm

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

Temple, Sisters of the

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

Ten Commandments, The

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

Tenebræ

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

Teniers, David

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

Tenney, William Jewett

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...

Tenure, Ecclesiastical

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

Teresa of Avila, Saint

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

Terill, Anthony

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

Ternan, Saint

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

Terrasson, André

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

Terrestrial Paradise

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

Test-Oath, Missouri

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

Testament, New

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

Testament, Old

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

Tetzel, Johann

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

Textual Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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Th 147

Thænæ

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

Thébaud, Augustus

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

Théophane Vénard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Thabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

Thais, Saint

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

Thalberg, Sigismond

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

Thalhofer, Valentin

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

Thanksgiving before and after Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

Thayer, John

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

Theatre, The

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

Thecla, Saint

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

Thecla, Saints

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

Theiner, Augustin

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

Theobald, Saint

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

Theodard, Saint

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

Theodore I, Pope

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

Theodore II, Pope

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

Theodore of Amasea, Saint

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

Theodore of Studium, Saint

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

Theology, Ascetical

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

Theology, History of Dogmatic

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

Theology, Moral

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

Theology, Mystical

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

Theophanes, Saint

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

Theotocopuli, Domenico

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Thera (Santorin)

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

Thierry of Freburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

Thimelby, Richard

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

Thomas á Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

Thomas à Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

Thomas Abel, Blessed

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

Thomas Alfield, Venerable

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

Thomas Aquinas, Saint

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

Thomas Becket, Saint

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

Thomas Christians, Saint

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

Thomas Ford, Blessed

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

Thomas Garnet, Saint

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Thomas More, Saint

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

Thomas of Cantimpré

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

Thomas of Villanova, Saint

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

Thomas Percy, Blessed

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

Thomas the Apostle, Saint

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Thomas, Charles L.A.

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

Thomassin, Louis

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

Thompson, Blessed James

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

Thompson, Francis

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

Thorlaksson, Arni

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

Thorns, Crown of

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

Thou, Nicolas de

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

Three Rivers

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

Thulis, Venerable John

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

Thurmayr, Johannes

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

Thyräus, Hermann

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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Ti 45

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

Tiberias, Sea of

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

Tieffentaller, Joseph

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

Tigris, Saint

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

Tincker, Mary Agnes

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

Tinin

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

Tintoretto, Il

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

Tissot, James

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

Tithes, Lay

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

Titopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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Tl 2

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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Toaldo, Giuseppe

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

Tokio

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

Toledo, Francisco

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

Tolentino and Macerata

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

Toleration, History of

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

Toleration, Religious

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

Tolomei, John Baptist

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

Tomb, Altar

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

Tongerloo, Abbey of

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

Tongiorgi, Salvator

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

Tongues, Gift of

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

Tootell, Hugh

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

Torbido, Francesco

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

Torquemada, Tomás de

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

Torres, Francisco

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

Torricelli, Evangelista

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

Torrubia, José

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

Toscanella and Viterbo

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

Tostado, Alonso

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

Tosti, Luigi

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

Touchet, George Anselm

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

Tournély, Honoré

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

Touron, Antoine

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

Toustain, Charles-François

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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Tr 77

Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

Transubstantiation

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

Treason, Accusations of

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

Tredway, Lettice Mary

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

Tregian, Francis

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

Trent, Council of

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

Tresham, Sir Thomas

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

Tribe, Jewish

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

Tricarico, Diocese of

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

Tricassin, Charles Joseph

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

Trichinopoly, Diocese of

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

Trinitarians, Order of

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

Trinity, The Blessed

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

Trissino, Giangiorgio

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

Trithemius, John

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

Trivet, Nicholas

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

Trokelowe, John de

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

Trondhjem, Ancient See of

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

Tropology, Scriptural

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

Troy, John Thomas

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

Trudo, Saint

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

Trudpert, Saint

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

True Cross, The

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

Trueba, Antonio de

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

Trullo, Council in

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

Trumpets, Feast of

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Trumwin, Saint

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

Truth Societies, Catholic

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

Tschupick, John Nepomuk

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

Tuam, School of

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

Tucumán

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

Tulasne, Louis-René

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

Tunstall, Cuthbert

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

Tunsted, Simon

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

Turin, Shroud of

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

Turin, University of

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

Turnebus, Adrian

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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Tw 2

Twenge, Saint John

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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Ty 7

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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