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Martin Luther

Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany ; born at Eisleben, 10 November, 1483; died at Eisleben, 18 February, 1546.

His father, Hans, was a miner, a rugged, stern, irascible character. In the opinion of many of his biographers, it was an expression of uncontrolled rage, an evident congenital inheritance transmitted to his oldest son, that compelled him to flee from Mohra, the family seat, to escape the penalty or odium of homicide. This, though first charged by Wicelius, a convert from Lutheranism, has found admission into Protestant history and tradition. His mother, Margaret Ziegler, is spoken of by Melancthon as conspicuous for "modesty, the fear of God, and prayerfulness" ("Corpus Reformatorum", Halle, 1834).

Extreme simplicity and inflexible severity characterized their home life, so that the joys of childhood were virtully unknown to him. His father once beat him so mercilessly that he ran away from home and was so "embittered against him that he had to win me to himself again." His mother, "on account of an insignificant nut, beat me till the blood flowed, and it was this harshness and severity of the life I led with them that forced me subsequently to run away to a monastery and become a monk." The same cruelty was the experience of his earliest school-days, when in one morning he was punished no less than fifteen times.

The meager data of his life at this period make it a work of difficulty to reconstruct his childhood. His schooling at Mansfeld, whither his parents had returned, was uneventful. He attended a Latin school, in which the Ten Commandments, "Child's Belief", the Lord's Prayer, the Latin grammar of Donatus were taught, and which he learned quickly.

In his fourteenth year (1497) he entered a school at Magdeburg, where, in the words of his first biographer, like many children "of honourable and well-to-do parents, he sang and begged for bread -- panem propter Deum " (Mathesius, op. cit.). In his fifteenth year we find him at Eisenach.

At eighteen (1501) he entered the University of Erfurt, with a view to studying jurisprudence at the request of his father. In 1502 he received the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, being the thirteenth among fifty-seven candidates. On Epiphany (6 January, 1505), he was advanced to the master's degree, being second among seventeen applicants.

His philosophical studies were no doubt made under Jodocus Trutvetter von Eisenach, then rector of the university, and Bartholomaus Arnoldi von Usingen. The former was pre-eminently the Doctor Erfordiensis , and stood without an admitted rival in Germany. Luther addresses him in a letter (1518) as not only "the first theologian and philosopher ", but also the first of contemporary dialecticians. Usingen was an Augustinian friar, and second only to Trutvetter in learning, but surpassing him in literary productivity. Although the tone of the university, especially that of the students, was pronouncedly, even enthusiastically, humanistic, and although Erfurt led the movement in Germany, and in its theological tendencies was supposedly "modern", nevertheless "it nowise showed a depreciation of the currently prevailing [ Scholastic ] system" (ibid.). Luther himself, in spite of an acquaintaince with some of the moving spirits of humanism, seems not to have been appreciably affected by it, lived on its outer fringe, and never qualified to enter its "poetic" circle.

Luther's sudden and unexpected entrance into the Augustinian monastery at Erfurt occurred 17 July, 1505. The motives that prompted the step are various, conflicting, and the subject of considerable debate. He himself alleges, as above stated, that the brutality of his home and school life drove him into the monastery. Hausrath, his latest biographer and one of the most scholarly Luther specialists, unreservedly inclines to this belief. The "house at Mansfeld rather repelled than attracted him" (Beard, "Martin Luther and the Germ. Ref.", London, 1889, 146), and to "the question 'Why did Luther go into the monastery ?', the reply that Luther himself gives is the most satisfactory" (Hausrath, "Luthers Leben" I, Berlin, 1904, 2, 22). He himself again, in a letter to his father, in explanation of his defection from the Old Church, writes, "When I was terror-stricken and overwhelmed by the fear of impending death, I made an involuntary and forced vow ". Various explanations are given of this episode. Melancthon ascribes his step to a deep melancholy, which attained a critical point "when at one time he lost one of his comrades by an accidental death" (Corp. Ref., VI, 156). Cochlaeus, Luther's opponent, relates "that at one time he was so frightened in a field, at a thunderbolt as is commonly reported, or was in such anguish at the loss of a companion, who was killed in the storm, that in a short time to the amazement of many persons he sought admission to the Order of St. Augustine". Mathesius, his first biographer, attributes it to the fatal "stabbing of a friend and a terrible storm with a thunderclap" (op. cit.) Seckendorf, who made careful research, following Bavarus (Beyer), a pupil of Luther, goes a step farther, calling this unknown friend Alexius, and ascribes his death to a thunderbolt (Seckendorf, "Ausfuhrliche Historie des Lutherthums", Leipzig, 1714, 51). D'Aubigné changes this Alexius into Alexis and has him assassinated at Erfurt (D'Aubigné, "History of the Reformation", New York, s.d., I, 166). Oerger ("Vom jungen Luther", Erfurt, 1899, 27-41) has proved the existence of this friend, his name of Alexius or Alexis, his death by lightning or assassination, a mere legend, destitute of all historical verification. Kostlin-Kawerau (I, 45) states that returning from his "Mansfeld home he was overtaken by a terrible storm, with an alarming lightning flash and thunderbolt. Terrified and overwhelmed he cries out: 'Help, St. Anna, I will be a monk '." "The inner history of the change is far less easy to narrate. We have no direct contemporary evidence on which to rely; while Luther's own reminiscences, on which we chiefly depend, are necessarily coloured by his later experiences and feelings" (Beard, op.cit., 146).

Of Luther's monastic life we have little authentic information, and that is based on his own utterances, which his own biographers frankly admit are highly exaggerated, frequently contradictory, and commonly misleading. Thus the alleged custom by which he was forced to change his baptismal name Martin into the monastic name Augustine, a proceeding he denounces as "wicked" and "sacrilegious", certainly had no existence in the Augustinian Order. His accidental discovery in the Erfurt monastery library of the Bible , "a book he had never seen in his life" (Mathesius, op. cit.), or Luther's assertion that he had "never seen a Bible until he was twenty years of age", or his still more emphatic declaration that when Carlstadt was promoted to the doctorate "he had as yet never seen a Bible and I alone in the Erfurt monastery read the Bible ", which, taken in their literal sense, are not only contrary to demonstrable facts, but have perpetuated misconception, bear the stamp of improbability written in such obtrusive characters on their face, that it is hard, on an honest assumption, to account for their longevity. The Augustinian rule lays especial stress on the monition that the novice "read the Scripture assiduously, hear it devoutly, and learn it fervently" (Constitutiones Ordinis Fratr. Eremit. Sti. Augustini", Rome, 1551, cap. xvii). At this very time Biblical studies were in a flourishing condition at the university, so that its historian states that "it is astonishing to meet such a great number of Biblical commentaries, which force us to conclude that theres an active study of Holy Writ " (Kampschulte, op.cit., I, 22). Protestant writers of repute have abandoned this legend altogether. Parenthetical mention must be made of the fact that the denunciation heaped on Luther's novice-master by Mathesius, Ratzeberger, and Jurgens, and copied with uncritical docility by their transcribers -- for subjecting him to the most abject menial duties and treating him with outrageous indignity -- rests on no evidence. These writers are "evidently led by hearsay, and follow the legendary stories that have been spun about the person of the reformer" (Oerger, op.cit., 80). The nameless novice-master, whom even Luther designates as "an excellent man, and without doubt even under the damned cowl, a true Christian," must "have been a worthy representative of his order" (Oerger, op.cit.).

Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507. The precise date is uncertain. A strange oversight, running through three centuries, placed the date of his ordination and first Mass on the same day, 2 May, an impossible coincidence. Kostlin, who repeated it (Luther's Leben, I, 1883, 63) drops the date altogether in his latest edition. Oerger fixes on 27 February. This allows the unprecedented interval of more than two months to elapse between the ordination and first Mass. Could he have deferred his first Mass on account of the morbid scrupulosity, which played such a part in the later periods of his monastic life ?

There is no reason to doubt that Luther's monastic career thus far was exemplary, tranquil, happy ; his heart at rest, his mind undisturbed, his soul at peace. The metaphysical disquisitions, psychological dissertations, pietistic maunderings about his interior conflicts, his theological wrestlings, his torturing asceticism, his chafing under monastic conditions, can have little more than an academic, possibly a psychopathic value. They lack all basis of verifiable data. Unfortunately Luther himself in his self-revelation can hardly be taken as a safe guide. Moreover, with an array of evidence, thoroughness of research, fullness of knowledge, and unrivalled mastery of monasticism, scholasticism, and mysticism, Denifle has removed it from the domain of debatable ground to that of verifiable certainty. "What Adolf Hausrath has done in an essay for the Protestant side, was accentuated and confirmed with all possible penetration by Denifle ; the young Luther according to his self-revelation is unhistorical; he was not the discontented Augustinian, nagged by the monastic life, perpetually tortured by his conscience, fasting, praying, mortified, and emaciated -- no, he was happy in the monastery, he found peace there, to which he turned his back only later" (Kohler, op.cit., 68-69).

During the winter of 1508-09 he was sent to the University of Wittenberg, then in its infancy (founded 2 July, 1502), with an enrolment of one hundred and seventy-nine students. The town itself was a poor insignificant place, with three hundred and fifty-six taxable properties, and accredited the most bibulous town of the most bibulous province ( Saxony ) of Germany. While teaching philosophy and dialectics he also continued his theological studies. On 9 March, 1509, under the deanship of Staupitz, he became Baccalaureus Biblicus in the theological course, as a stepping-stone to the doctorate. His recall to Erfurt occurred the same year.

His mission to Rome, extending over an estimated period of five months, one of which he spent in the city of Rome, which played so important a part in his early biographies, and even now is far from a negligible factor in Reformation research, occurred in 1511, or, as some contend, 1510. Its true object has thus far baffled all satisfactory investigation. Mathesius makes him go from Wittenberg on "monastic business"; Melancthon attributes it to a "monkish squabble"; Cochlaeus, and he is in the main followed by Catholic investigators, makes him appear as the delegated representative of seven allied Augustinian monasteries to voice a protest against some innovations of Staupitz, but as deserting his clients and siding with Staupitz. Protestants say he was sent to Rome as the advocate of Staupitz. Luther himself states that it was a pilgrimage in fulfilment of a vow to make a general confession in the Eternal City.

The outcome of the mission, like its object, still remains shrouded in mystery. What was the effect of this Roman visit on his spiritual life or theological thought? Did "this visit turn his reverence for Rome into loathing"? Did he find it "a sink of iniquity, its priests, infidels, the papal courtiers, men of shameless lives?" (Lindsay, "Luther and the German Reformation", New York, 1900). "He returned from Rome as strong in the faith as he went to visit it. In a certain sense his sojourn in Rome even strengthened his religious convictions" (Hausrath, op.cit., 98), "In his letters of those years he never mentions having been in Rome. In his conference with Cardinal Cajetan, in his disputations with Dr. Eck, in his letters to Pope Leo, nay, in his tremendous broadside of invective and accusation against all things Romish, in his 'Address to the German Nation and Nobility', there occurs not one unmistakable reference to his having been in Rome. By every rule of evidence we are bound to hold that when the most furious assailant Rome has ever known described from a distance of ten years upwards the incidents of a journey through Italy to Rome, the few touches of light in his picture are more trustworthy than its black breadths of shade" (Bayne, "Martin Luther", I, 234). His whole Roman experience as expressed in later life is open to question. "We can really question the importance attached to remarks which in a great measure date from the last years of his life, when he was really a changed man. Much that he relates as personal experience is manifestly the product of an easily explained self-delusion" (Hausrath, op.cit., 79).

One of the incidents of the Roman mission, which at one time was considered a pivotal point in his career, and was calculated to impart an inspirational character to the leading doctrine of the Reformation, and is still detailed by his biographers, was his supposed experience while climbing the Scala Santa. According to it, while Luther was in the act of climbimg the stairs on his knees, the thought suddenly flashed through his mind : "The just shall live by faith ", whereupon he immediately discontinued his pious devotion. The story rests on an autograph insertion of his son Paul in a Bible, now in possession of the library of Rudolstadt. In it he claims that his father told him the incident. Its historic value may be gauged by the considerations that it is the personal recollections of an immature lad (he was born in 1533) recorded twenty years after the event, to which neither his father, his early biographers, nor his table companions before whom it is claimed the remark was made, allude, though it could have been of primary importance. "It is easy to see the tendency here to date the (theological) attitude of the Reformer back into the days of his monastic faith " (Hausrath, op.cit., 48).

Having acquitted himself with evident success, and in a manner to please both parties, Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1512, and received the appointment of sub-prior. His academic promotions followed in quick succession. On 4 October he was made licentiate, and on 19 October, under the deanship of Carlstadt -- successively friend, rival, and enemy -- he was admitted to the doctorate, being then in his thirtieth year. On 22 October he was formally admitted to the senate of the faculty of theology, and received the appointment as lecturer on the Bible in 1513. His further appointment as district vicar in 1515 made him the official representative of the vicar-general in Saxony and Thuringia. His duties were manifold and his life busy. Little time was left for intellectual pursuits, and the increasing irregularity in the performance of his religious duties could only bode ill for his future. He himself tells us that he needed two secretaries or chancellors, wrote letters all day, preached at table, also in the monastery and parochial churches, was superintendent of studies, and as vicar of the order had as much to do as eleven priors ; he lectured on the psalms and St. Paul, besides the demand made on his economic resourcefulness in managing a monastery of twenty-two priests, twelve young men, in all forty-one inmates. His official letters breathe a deep solicitude for the wavering, gentle sympathy for the fallen; they show profound touches of religious feeling and rare practical sense, though not unmarred with counsels that have unorthodox tendencies. The plague which afflicted Wittenberg in 1516 found him courageously at his post, which, in spite of the concern of his friends, he would not abandon.

But in Luther's spiritual life significant, if not ominous, changes were likewise discernible. Whether he entered "the monastery and deserted the world to flee from despair " (Jurgens, op.cit., I,522) and did not find the coveted peace; whether the expressed apprehensions of his father that the "call from heaven " to the monastic life might be a "satanic delusion" stirred up thoughts of doubt ; whether his sudden, violent resolve was the result of one of those "sporadic overmastering torpors which interrupt the circulatory system or indicate arterial convulsion" (Hausrath, "Luthers Leben", I, 22), a heritage of his depressing childhood, and a chronic condition that clung to him to the end of his life; or whether deeper studies, for which he had little or no time, created doubts that would not be solved and aroused a conscience that would not be stilled, it is evident that his vocation, if it ever existed, was in jeopardy, that the morbid interior conflict marked a drifting from old moorings, and that the very remedies adopted to re-establish peace all the more effectually banished it.

This condition of morbidity finally developed into formal scrupulosity. Infractions of the rules, breaches of discipline, distorted ascetic practices followed in quick succession and with increasing gravity; these, followed by spasmodic convulsive reactions, made life an agony. The solemn obligation of reciting the daily Office, an obligation binding under the penalty of mortal sin, was neglected to allow more ample time for study, with the result that the Breviary was abandoned for weeks. Then in paroxysmal remorse Luther would lock himself into his cell and by one retroactive act make amends for all he neglected; he would abstain from all food and drink, torture himself by harrowing mortifications, to an extent that not only made him the victim of insomnia for five weeks at one time, but threatened to drive him into insanity. The prescribed and regulated ascetical exercises were arbitrarily set aside. Disregarding the monastic regulations and the counsels of his confessor, he devised his own, which naturally gave him the character of singularity in his community. Like every victim of scrupulosity, he saw nothing in himself but wickedness and corruption. God was the minister of wrath and vengeance. His sorrow for sin was devoid of humble charity and childlike confidence in the pardoning mercy of God and Jesus Christ.

This anger of God, which pursued him like his shadow, could only be averted by "his own righteousness", by the "efficacy of servile works". Such an attitude of mind was necessarily followed by hopeless discouragement and sullen despondency, creating a condition of soul in which he actually "hated God and was angry at him", blasphemed God, and deplored that he was ever born. This abnormal condition produced a brooding melancholy, physical, mental, and spiritual depression, which later, by a strange process of reasoning, he ascribed to the teaching of the Church concerning good works, while all the time he was living in direct and absolute opposition to its doctrinal teaching and disciplinary code.

Of course this self-willed positiveness and hypochondriac asceticism, as usually happens in cases of morbidly scrupulous natures, found no relief in the sacraments. His general confessions at Erfurt and Rome did not touch the root of the evil. His whole being was wrought up to such an acute tension that he actually regretted his parents were not dead, that he might avail himself of the facilities Rome afforded to save them from purgatory. For religion's sake he was ready to become "the most brutal murderer", "to kill all who even by syllable refused submission to the pope " (Sämmtliche Werke, XXXX, Erlangen, 284). Such a tense and neurotic physical condition demanded a reaction, and, as frequently occurs in analogous cases, it went to the diametric extreme.

The undue importance he had placed on his own strength in the spiritual process of justification, he now peremptorily and completely rejected. He convinced himself that man, as a consequence of original sin, was totally depraved, destitute of free will, that all works, even though directed towards the good, were nothing more than an outgrowth of his corrupted will, and in the judgments of God in reality mortal sins. Man can be saved by faith alone. Our faith in Christ makes His merits our possession, envelops us in the garb of righteousness, which our guilt and sinfulness hide, and supplies in abundance every defect of human righteousness.

Be a sinner and sin on bravely, but have stronger faith and rejoice in Christ, who is the victor of sin, death, and the world. Do not for a moment imagine that this life is the abiding place of justice : sin must be committed. To you it ought to be sufficient that you acknowledge the Lamb that takes away thesins of the world, the sin cannot tear you away from him, even though you commit adultery a hundred times a day and commit as many murders " (Enders, "Briefwechsel", III, 208).

The new doctrine of justification by faith, now in its inchoate stage, gradually developed, and was finally fixed by Luther as one of the central doctrines of Christianity. The epoch-making event connected with the publication of the papal Bull of Indulgences in Germany, which was that of Julius II renewed in adaptable form by Leo X, to raise funds for the construction of St. Peter's Church in Rome, brought his spiritual difficulties to a crisis.

Albert of Brandenburg was heavily involved in debt, not, as Protestant and Catholic historians relate, on account of his pallium, but to pay a bribe to an unknown agent in Rome, to buy off a rival, in order that the archbishop might enjoy a plurality of ecclesiastical offices. For this payment, which smacked of simony, the pope would allow an indemnity, which in this case took the form of an indulgence. By this ignoble business arrangement with Rome, a financial transaction unworthy of both pope and archbishop, the revenue should be partitioned in equal halves to each, besides a bonus of 10,000 gold ducats, which should fall to the share of Rome.

John Tetzel, a Dominican monk with an impressive personality, a gift of popular oratory, and the repute of a successful indulgence preacher, was chosen by the archbishop as general-subcommissary. History presents few characters more unfortunate and pathetic than Tetzel. Among his contemporaries the victim of the most corrosive ridicule, every foul charge laid at his door, every blasphemous utterance placed in his mouth, a veritable fiction and fable built about his personality, in modern history held up as the proverbial mountebank and oily harlequin, denied even the support and sympathy of his own allies -- Tetzel had to wait the light of modern critical scrutiny, not only for a moral rehabilitation, but also for vindication as a soundly trained theologian and a monk of irreproachable deportment. It was his preaching at Juterbog and Zerbst, towns adjoining Wittenberg, that drew hearers from there, who in turn presented themselves to Luther for confession, that made him take the step he had in contemplation for more than a year.

It is not denied that a doctrine like that of the indulgences, which in some aspects was still a disputable subject in the schools, was open to misunderstanding by the laity ; that the preachers in the heat of rhetorical enthusiasm fell into exaggerated statements, or that the financial considerations attached, though not of an obligatory character, led to abuse and scandal. The opposition to indulgences, not to the doctrine -- which remains the same to this day -- but to the mercantile methods pursued in preaching them, was not new or silent. Duke George of Saxony prohibited them in his territory, and Cardinal Ximenes, as early as 1513, forbade them in Spain.

On 31 October, 1517, the vigil of All Saints', Luther affixed to the castle church door, which served as the "black-board" of the university, on which all notices of disputations and high academic functions were displayed, his Ninety-five Theses. The act was not an open declaration of war, but simply an academic challenge to a disputation. "Such disputations were regarded in the universities of the Middle Ages partly as a recognized means of defining and elucidating truth, partly as a kind of mental gymnastic apt to train and quicken the faculties of the disputants. It was not understood that a man was always ready to adopt in sober earnest propositions which he was willing to defend in the academic arena; and in like manner a rising disputant might attack orthodox positions, without endangering his reputation for orthodoxy " (Beard, op. cit.). The same day he sent a copy of the Theses with an explanatory letter to the archbishop. The latter in turn submitted them to his councillors at Aschaffenburg and to the professors of the University of Mainz. The councillors were of the unanimous opinion that they were of an heretical character, and that proceedings against the Wittenberg Augustinian should be taken. This report, with a copy of the Theses, was then transmitted to the pope. It will thus be seen that the first judicial procedure against Luther did not emanate from Tetzel. His weapons were to be literary.

Tetzel, more readily than some of the contemporary brilliant theologians, divined the revolutionary import of the Theses, which while ostensibly aimed at the abuse of indulgences, were a covert attack on the whole penitential system of the Church and struck at the very root of ecclesiastical authority. Luther's Theses impress the reader "as thrown together somewhat in haste", rather than showing "carefully digested thought, and delicate theological intention"; they "bear him one moment into the audacity of rebellion and then carry him back to the obedience of conformity" (Beard, 218, 219). Tetzel's anti-theses were maintained partly in a disputation for the doctorate at Frankfort-on-the-Oder (20 Jan., 1518), and issued with others in am unnumbered list, and are commonly known as the One Hundred and Six Theses. They, however, did not have Tetzel for their author, but were promptly and rightfully attributed to Conrad Wimpina, his teacher at Leipzig. That this fact argues no ignorance of theology or unfamiliarity with Latin on the part of Tetzel, as has been generally assumed, is frankly admitted by Protestant writers. It was simply a legitimate custom pursued in academic circles, as we know from Melancthon himself.

Tetzel's Theses -- for he assumed all responsibility -- opposed to Luther's innovations the traditional teaching of the church; but it must be admitted that they at times gave an uncompromising, even dogmatic, sanction to mere theological opinions, that were hardly consonant with the most accurate scholarship. At Wittenberg they created wild excitement, and an unfortunate hawker who offered them for sale, was mobbed by the students, and his stock of about eight hundred copies publicly burned in the market square -- a proceeding that met with Luther's disapproval. The plea then made, and still repeated, that it was done in retaliation for Tetzel's burning Luther's Theses, is admittedly incorrect, in spite of the fact that it has Melancthon as sponsor. Instead of replying to Tetzel, Luther carried the controversy from the academic arena to the public forum by issuing in popular vernacular form his "Sermon on Indulgences and Grace". It was really a tract, where the sermon form was abandoned and twenty propositions laid down. At the same time his Latin defence of the Theses, the "Resolutiones", was well under way. In its finished form, it was sent to his ordinary, Bishop Scultetus of Brandenburg, who counselled silence and abstention from all further publications for the present. Luther's acquiescence was that of the true monk : "I am ready, and will rather obey than perform miracles in my justification."

At this stage a new source of contention arose. Johann Eck, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Ingoldstadt, by common consent acknowledged as one of the foremost theological scholars of his day, endowed with rare dialectical skill and phenomenal memory, all of which Luther candidly admitted before the Leipzig disputation took place, innocently became involved in the controversy. At the request of Bishop von Eyb, of Eichstätt, he subjected the Theses to a closer study, singled out eighteen of them as concealing the germ of the Hussite heresy, violating Christian charity, subverting the order of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and breeding sedition. These "Obelisci" ("obelisks", the odd printer's device for noting doubtful or spurious passages) were submitted to the bishop in manuscript form, passed around among intimates, and not intended for publication. In one of the transcribed forms, they reached Luther and wrought him up to a high pitch of indignation. Eck in a letter of explanation sought to mollify the ruffled tempers of Carlstadt and Luther and in courteous, urgent tones begged them to refrain from public disputation either by lecture or print. In spite of the fact that Carlstadt forestalled Luther, the latter gave out his "Asterisci" (10 August, 1518). This skirmish led to the Leipzig Disputation. Sylvester Prierias, like Tetzel, a Dominican friar, domestic theologian of the Court of Rome, in his official capacity as Censor Librorum of Rome, next submitted his report "In præsumtuosas M. Lutheri, Conclusiones Dialogus". In it he maintained the absolute supremacy of the pope, in terms not altogether free from exaggeration, especially stretching his theory to an unwarrantable point in dealing with indulgences. This evoked Luther's "Responsio ad Silv. Prierietatis Dialogum". Hoogstraten, whose merciless lampooning in the "Epistolae Obscurorum Vivorum" was still a living memory, likewise entered the fray in defence of the papal prerogatives, only to be dismissed by Luther's "Schedam contra Hochstratanum", the flippancy and vulgarity of which one of Luther's most ardent students apologetically characterizes as being "in tone with the prevailing taste of the time and the circumstances, but not to be commended as worthy of imitation" (Loscher, op.cit., II, 325).

Before the "Dialogus" of Prierias reached Germany, a papal citation reached Luther (7 August) to appear in person within sixty days in Rome for a hearing. He at once took refuge in the excuse that such a trip could not be undertaken without endangering his life; he sought influence to secure the refusal of a safe-conduct through the electorate and brought pressure to bear on the Emperor Maximilian and Elector Frederick to have the hearing and judges appointed in Germany. The university sent letters to Rome and to the nuncio Miltitz sustaining the plea of "infirm health" and vouching for his orthodoxy. His literary activity continued unabated. His "Resolutiones", which were already completed, he also sent to the pope (30 May). The letter accompanying them breathes the most loyal expression of confidence and trust in the Holy See , and is couched in such terms of abject subserviency and fulsome adulation, that its sincerity and frankness, followed as it was by such an almost instantaneous revulsion, is instinctively questioned. Moreover before this letter had been written his anticipatory action in preaching his "Sermon on the Power of Excommunication" (16 May), in which it is contended that visible union with the Church is not broken by excommunication, but by sin alone, only strengthens the surmise of a lack of good faith. The inflammatory character of this sermon was fully acknowledged by himself.

Influential intervention had the effect of having the hearing fixed during the Diet of Augsburg, which was called to effect an alliance between the Holy See, the Emperor Maximilian, and King Christian of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, in the war against the Turks. In the official instructions calling the Diet, the name or cause of Luther does not figure.

The papal legate, Cajetan, and Luther met face to face for the first time at Augsburg on 11 October. Cajetan (b. 1470) was "one of the most remarkable figures woven into the history of the Reformation on the Roman side . . . a man of erudition and blameless life" (Weizacker); he was a doctor of philosophy before he was twenty-one, at this early age filling chairs with distinction in both sciences at some of the leading universities ; in humanistic studies he was so well versed as to enter the dialectic arena against Pico della Mirandola when only twenty-four. Surely no better qualified man could be detailed to adjust the theological difficulties. But the audiences were doomed to failure. Cajetan came to adjudicate, Luther to defend; the former demanded submission, the latter launched out into remonstrance; the one showed a spirit of mediating patience, the other mistook it for apprehensive fear ; the prisoner at the bar could not refrain from bandying words with the judge on the bench. The legate, with the reputation of "the most renowned and easily the first theologian of his age", could not fail to be shocked at the rude, discourteous, bawling tone of the friar, and having exhausted all his efforts, he dismissed him with the injunction not to call again until he recanted. Fiction and myth had a wide sweep in dealing with this meeting and have woven such an inextricable web of obscurity about it that we must follow either the highly coloured narratives of Luther and his friends, or be guided by the most trustworthy criterion of logical conjecture.

The papal Brief to Cajetan (23 August), which was handed to Luther at Nuremberg on his way home, in which the pope, contrary to all canonical precedents, demands the most summary action in regard to the uncondemned and unexcommunicated "child of iniquity", asks the aid of the emperor, in the event of Luther's refusal to appear in Rome, to place him under forcible arrest, was no doubt written in Germany, and is an evident forgery (Beard, op. cit., 257-258; Ranke, "Deutsche Gesch." VI, 97-98). Like all forged papal documents, it still shows a surprising vitality, and is found in every biography of Luther.

Luther's return to Wittenberg occurred on the anniversary of his nailing the Theses to the castle church door (31 October, 1518). All efforts towards a recantation having failed, and now assured of the sympathy and support of the temporal princes, he followed his appeal to the pope by a new appeal to an ecumenical council (28 November, 1518), which, as will be seen later, he again, denying the authority of both, followed by an appeal to the Bible .

The appointment of Karl von Miltitz , the young Saxon nobleman in minor orders, sent as nuncio to deliver the Golden Rose to the Elector Frederick, was unfortunate and abortive. The Golden Rose was not offered as a sop to secure the good graces of the elector, but in response to prolonged and importunate agitation on his part to get it (Hausrath, "Luther", I, 276). Miltitz not only lacked prudence and tact, but in his frequent drinking bouts lost all sense of diplomatic reticence; by continually borrowing from Luther's friends he placed himself in a position only to inspire contempt. It is true that his unauthorized overtures drew from Luther an act, which if it "is no recantation, is at least remarkably like one" (Beard, op.cit., 274). In it he promised:

  • to observe silence if his assailants did the same;
  • complete submission to the pope ;
  • to publish a plain statement to the public advocating loyalty to the Church ;
  • to place the whole vexatious case in the hands of a delegated bishop.
  • The whole transaction closed with a banquet, an embrace, tears of joy, and a kiss of peace -- only to be disregarded and ridiculed afterwards by Luther. The nuncio's treatment of Tetzel was severe and unjust. When the sick and ailing man could not come to him on account of the heated public sentiment against him, Miltitz on his visit to Leipzig summoned him to a meeting, in which he overwhelmed him with reproaches and charges, stigmatized him as the originator of the whole unfortunate affair, threatened the displeasure of the pope, and no doubt hastened the impending death of Tetzel (1 August, 1519).

    While the preliminaries of the Leipzig Disputation were pending, a true insight into Luther's real attitude towards the papacy, the subject which would form the main thesis of discussion, can best be gleaned from his own letters. On 3 March, 1519, he writes Leo X : "Before God and all his creatures, I bear testimony that I neither did desire, nor do desire to touch or by intrigue to undermine the authority of the Roman Church and that of your holiness" (De Wette, op. cit., I, 234). Two days later (5 March) he writes to Spalatin: "It was never my intention to revolt from the Roman Apostolic chair " (De Wette, op. cit., I, 236). Ten days later (13 March) he writes to the same: "I am at a loss to know whether the pope be antichrist or his apostle " (De Wette, op. cit., I, 239). A month before this (20 Feb.) he thanks Scheurl for sending him the foul "Dialogue of Julius and St. Peter", a most poisonous attack on the papacy, saying he is sorely tempted to issue it in the vernacular to the public (De Wette, op. cit., I, 230). "To prove Luther's consistency -- to vindicate his conduct at all points, as faultless both in veracity and courage -- under those circumstances, may be left to myth-making simpletons" (Bayne, op. cit., I, 457).

    The Leipzig disputation was an important factor in fixing the alignment of both disputants, and forcing Luther's theological evolution. It was an outgrowth of the "Obelisci" and "Asterisci", which was taken up by Carlstadt during Luther's absence at Heidelberg in 1518. It was precipitated by the latter, and certainly not solicited or sought by Eck. Every obstacle was placed in the way of its taking place, only to be brushed aside. The Bishops of Merseburg and Brandenburg issued their official inhibitions; the theological faculty of the Leipzig University sent a letter of protest to Luther not to meddle in an affair that was purely Carlstadt's, and another to Duke George to prohibit it. Scheurl, then an intimate of Luther's, tried to dissuade him from the meeting; Eck, in terms pacific and dignified, replied to Carlstadt's offensive, and Luther's pugnacious letters, in fruitless endeavour to avert all public controversy either in print or lecture; Luther himself, pledged and forbidden all public discourse or print, begged Duke Frederick to make an endeavour to bring about the meeting (De Wette, op.cit., I, 175) at the same time that he personally appealed to Duke George for permission to allow it, and this in spite of the fact that he had already given the theses against Eck to the public. In the face of such urgent pressure Eck could not fail to accept the challenge. Even at this stage Eck and Carlstadt were to be the accredited combatants, and the formal admission of Luther into the disputation was only determined upon when the disputants were actually at Leipzig.

    The disputation on Eck's twelve, subsequently thirteen, theses, was opened with much parade and ceremony on 27 June, and the university aula being too small, was conducted at the Pleissenburg Castle. The wordy battle was between Carlstadt and Eck on the subject of Divine grace and human free will. As is well known, it ended in the former's humiliating discomfiture. Luther and Eck's discussion, 4 July, was on papal supremacy. The former, though gifted with a brilliant readiness of speech, lacked -- and his warmest admirers admit it -- the quiet composure, curbed self-restraint, and unruffled temper of a good disputant. The result was that the imperturbable serenity and unerring confidence of Eck, had an exasperating effect on him. He was "querulous and censorious", "arbitrary and bitter" (Mosellanus), which hardly contributed to the advantage of his cause, either in argumentation or with his hearers. Papal supremacy was denied by him, because it found no warrant in Holy Writ or in Divine right. Eck's comments on the "pestilential" errors of Wiclif and Hus condemned by the Council of Constance was met by the reply, that, so far as the position of the Hussites was concerned, there were among them many who were "very Christian and evangelical". Eck took his antagonist to task for placing the individual in a position to understand the Bible better than the popes, councils, doctors, and universities, and in pressing his argument closer, asserting that the condemned Bohemians would not hesitate to hail him as their patron, elicited the ungentle remonstrance "that is a shameless lie". Eck, undisturbed and with the instinct of the trained debater, drove his antagonist still further, until he finally admitted the fallibility of an ecumenical council, upon which he closed the discussion with the laconic remark: "If you believe a legitimately assembled council can err and has erred, then you are to me as a heathen and publican " (Köstlin-Kawerau, op. cit., I, 243-50). This was 15 July. Luther returned sullen and crestfallen to Wittenberg, from what had proved to him an inglorious tournament.

    The disastrous outcome of the disputation drove him to reckless, desperate measures. He did not scruple, at this stage, to league himself with the most radical elements of national humanism and freebooting knighthood, who in their revolutionary propaganda hailed him as a most valuable ally.

    His comrades in arms now were Ulrich von Hutten and Franz von Sickingen, with the motley horde of satellites usually found in the train of such leadership. With Melancthon, himself a humanist, as an intermediary, a secret correspondence was opened with Hutten, and to all appearances Sickingen was directly or indirectly in frequent communication. Hutten, though a man of uncommon talent and literary brilliancy, a moral degenerate, without conscience or character. Sickingen, the prince of condottieri , was a solid mercenary and political marplot, whose daring deeds and murderous atrocities form a part of German legendary lore. With his three impregnable fastnesses, Ebernburg, Landstuhl, and Hohenburg, with their adventurous soldiery, fleet-footed cavalry, and primed artillery, "who took to robbery as to a trade and considered it rather an

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    (Anglo-Saxon man =a person, human being; supposed root man =to think; German, Mann , ...

    Manahem

    (From a Hebrew meaning "the consoler"; Septuagint, Manaem ; Aquila, Manaen .) Manahem ...

    Manahen, Saint

    ( Manaen ) A member of the Church of Antioch , foster-brother, or household-friend ( ...

    Manasses

    The name of seven persons of the Bible , a tribe of Israel , and one of the apocryphal ...

    Mance, Jeanne

    Foundress of the Montreal Hôtel-Dieu, and one of the first women settlers in Canada, b. ...

    Manchester

    (MANCHESTERIENSIS) A suffragan of the Archdiocese of Boston, U.S.A. The city of Manchester is ...

    Manchuria

    A north-eastern division of the Chinese Empire and the cradle of the present [1910] imperial ...

    Mandan Indians

    A formerly important, but now reduced, tribe occupying jointly with the Hidatsa (Minitari or ...

    Mandeville, Jean de

    (MAUNDEVILLE, MONTEVILLA) The author of a book of travels much read in the Middle Ages, died ...

    Manfredonia

    (SIPONTINA) The city of Manfredonia is situated in the province of Foggia in Apulia, Central ...

    Mangalore

    (M ANGALORENSIS ) Diocese on the west coast of India, suffragan of Bombay. It comprises the ...

    Mangan, James Clarence

    Irish poet, b. in Dublin, 1 May, 1803; d. there, 20 June, 1849. He was the son of James Mangan, ...

    Manharter

    A politico-religious sect which arose in Tyrol in the first half of the nineteenth century. Its ...

    Manichæism

    Manichæism is a religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third ...

    Manifestation of Conscience

    (RATIO CONSCIENTIÆ) A practice in many religious orders and congregations, by which ...

    Manila

    (DE MANILA) This archdiocese comprises the city of Manila, the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, ...

    Manila Observatory

    Founded by Father Frederic Faura, S.J., in 1865; constituted officially The Philippine Weather ...

    Maniple

    Form, Material, and Use The maniple is an ornamental vestment in the form of a band, a little ...

    Manitoba

    One of the smallest, but economically and historically one of the most important, of the Canadian ...

    Mann, Theodore Augustine

    English naturalist and historian, b. in Yorkshire, 22 June, 1735; d. at Prague in Bohemia, 23 ...

    Manna

    (Greek man, manna ; Latin man, manna ). The food miraculously sent to the Israelites ...

    Manning, Henry Edward

    Cardinal Priest of Sts. Andrew and Gregory on the Coelian Hill and second Archbishop of ...

    Mannyng, Robert

    Poet. He came from Bourne in Lincolnshire, England. From his own account he entered the house of ...

    Mansard, François

    (Also spelled Mansart ). French architect, born in Paris, probably of Italian stock, in ...

    Mansard, Jules

    French architect, grand-nephew of François, was originally Jules Hardouin, but took the ...

    Mansi, Gian Domenico

    Italian prelate and scholar born at Lucca, of a patrician family, 16 February, 1692; died ...

    Mantegna, Andrea

    Italian painter ; born according to some authorities, at Vicenza, according to others at ...

    Mantelletta

    An outer vestment reaching to the knees, open in front, with slits instead of sleeves on the ...

    Mantua

    Diocese of Mantua (Mantuana), in Lombardy. The city is situated on the Mincio River, which ...

    Mantuanus, Baptista

    (Or SPAGNOLI). Carmelite and Renaissance poet, born at Mantua, 17 April, 1447, where he also ...

    Manu, The Laws of

    "The Laws of Manu" is the English designation commonly applied to the "Manava Dharma-sastra", a ...

    Manuel Chysoloras

    First teacher of Greek in Italy, born at Constantinople about the middle of the fourteenth ...

    Manuscripts

    Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called ...

    Manuscripts of the Bible

    Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version ...

    Manuscripts, Illuminated

    I. ORIGIN A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments which may be ...

    Manuterge

    The name given to the towel used by the priest when engaged liturgically. There are two kinds of ...

    Manutius, Aldus

    (Aldo Manuzio). Scholar and printer; born in 1450, at Sermoneta, near Rome ; died in 1515. He ...

    Manzoni, Alessandro

    Italian poet and novelist, b. at Milan, 7 March, 1785; d. 22 May, 1873. He was the son of Pietro ...

    Map, Walter

    (Sometimes wrongly written M APS ) Archdeacon of Oxford, b. at, or in the vicinity of, ...

    Maphrian

    The Syriac word mafriano signifies one who fructifies, a consecrator. It is used to designate ...

    Maréchal, Ambrose

    The third Archbishop of Baltimore ; born at Ingres near Orléans, France, 28 August, ...

    Maran, Prudentius

    A learned Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. 14 October, 1683, at Sezanne, in the ...

    Marash

    An Armenian Catholic Diocese. The ancient name of this village was most probably Germanicia, ...

    Maratta, Carlo

    An Italian painter, b. at Camerino, in the Rome, 15 December, 1713. From very early years ...

    Marbodius

    Bishop of Rennes, ecclesiastical writer and hymnologist, b. about 1035 at Angers, France, d. ...

    Marca, Pierre de

    French bishop and scholar, b. at Gan in Béarn, 24 Jan., 1594, of a family distinguished ...

    Marcellian and Mark, Saints

    Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286. ...

    Marcellina, Saint

    The only sister of St. Ambrose of Milan , b. about 330-5; d. about 398. She was older than St. ...

    Marcellinus Comes

    Latin chronicler of the sixth century. He was an Illyrian by birth, but spent his life at the ...

    Marcellinus of Civezza, O.F.M.

    (In the world PITRO RANISE) Modern Franciscan author, born at Civezza in Liguria, Italy, 29 ...

    Marcellinus, Flavius

    Date of birth unknown; died 12 September, 413. He was a high official ( tribunus et notarius ) ...

    Marcellinus, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; elected 30 June, 296; died 304. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" he ...

    Marcello, Benedetto

    Born in Venice in 1696; died at Brescia in July, 1739. Marcello's life was a strange mixture of ...

    Marcellus I, Saint, Pope

    His date of birth unknown; elected pope in May or June, 308; died in 309. For some time after ...

    Marcellus II, Pope

    (MARCELLO CERVINI DEGLI SPANNOCHI) Born 6 May, 1501, at Montepulciano in Tuscany ; died 6 ...

    Marcellus of Ancyra

    One of the bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea, a strong opponent of ...

    March, Auzias

    A Catalan poet, b. perhaps in the last quarter of the fourteenth century, at Valencia ; d. there ...

    Marchand, Jean Baptiste

    Second principal in order of succession of the Sulpician College of Montreal and missionary of ...

    Marchant, Peter

    A theologian, b. at Couvin, a village in the principality of Liège, in 1585; d. at ...

    Marchesi, Pompeo

    A Lombard sculptor of the neoclassic school, born at Saltrio, near Milan, 7 August, 1790; ...

    Marchi, Giuseppe

    An archeologist, born at Tolmezzo near Udine, 22 Feb., 1795; died at Rome, 10 Feb., 1860. He ...

    Marcian

    (M ARCIANUS, Markiânos ) Roman Emperor at Constantinople, b. in Thrace about 390; d. ...

    Marciane

    A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra. It figures in the "Notitiae episcopatuum" from ...

    Marcianopolis

    A titular see in Lower Maesia, on the right bank of the Danube, so called by Trajan after his ...

    Marcionites

    Heretical sect founded in A.D. 144 at Rome by Marcion and continuing in the West for 300 ...

    Marco Polo

    Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

    Marcopois

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Edessa. The native name of this city is not known, ...

    Marcosians

    A sect of Valentinian Gnostics, founded by Marcus and combated at length by Irenaeus (Haer. ...

    Marcoux, Joseph

    A missionary among the Iroquois, b. in Canada, 16 March, 1791; d. there 29 May, 1855. He was ...

    Marcus

    The name of three leading Gnostics. I. The founder of the Marcosians and elder contemporary ...

    Marcus Aurelius Antoninus

    Roman Emperor, A.D. 161-180, born at Rome, 26 April, 121; died 17 March, 180. HIS EARLY LIFE ...

    Marcus Diadochus

    ( Markos ho diadochos ) An obscure writer of the fourth century of whom nothing is known but ...

    Marcus Eremita

    ( Markos ho eremites , or monachos , or asketes ). A theologian and ascetic writer ...

    Marcus, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; consecrated 18 Jan., 336; d. 7 Oct., 336. After the death of Pope ...

    Mardin

    A residential Armenian archbishopric, a Chaldean bishopric, and a residential Syrian bishopric ...

    Marenco

    (1) Carlo Italian dramatist, born at Cassolo (or Cassolnuovo) in Piedmont in 1800; died at ...

    Marenzio, Luca

    Musical composer, born in 1550 at Coccaglia, near Brescia ; died at Rome 1599. His chief legacy ...

    Margaret Clitherow, Saint

    Martyr, called the "Pearl of York", born about 1556; died 25 March 1586. She was a daughter of ...

    Margaret Colona, Blessed

    Poor Clare, born in Rome, date uncertain; died there, 20 September, 1284. Her parents died in ...

    Margaret Haughery

    Margaret Haughery, "the mother of the orphans ", as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, ...

    Margaret Mary, Saint

    Religious of the Visitation Order. Apostle of the Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, born ...

    Margaret of Cortona, Saint

    A penitent of the Third Order of St. Francis, born at Laviano in Tuscany in 1247; died at ...

    Margaret of Hungary, Blessed

    Daughter of King Bela I of Hungary and his wife Marie Laskaris, born 1242; died 18 Jan., 1271. ...

    Margaret of Lorraine, Blessed

    Duchess d'Alencon, religious of the order of Poor Clares, born in 1463 at the castle of ...

    Margaret of Savoy, Blessed

    Marchioness of Montferrat, born at Pignerol in 1382; died at Alba, 23 November, 1464. She was the ...

    Margaret of Scotland, Saint

    Born about 1045, died 16 Nov., 1092, was a daughter of Edward "Outremere", or "the Exile", by ...

    Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament

    Carmelite nun, b. in Paris, 6 March, 1590; d. there 24 May, 1660. She was the second daughter of ...

    Margaret Pole, Blessed

    Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

    Margaret, Saint

    Virgin and martyr ; also called M ARINA ; belonged to Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, where ...

    Margaritae

    (DECRETI DECRETORUM DECRETALIUM). The canonists of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries who ...

    Margil, Antonio

    Born at Valencia, Spain, 18 August, 1657; died at Mexico, 6 Aug., 1726. He entered the ...

    Margotti, Giacomo

    A Catholic publicist, born 11 May, 1823; died 6 May, 1887. He was a native of San Remo, where ...

    Maria de Agreda

    (Or, according to her conventual title, Maria of Jesus) A discalced Franciscan nun ; born ...

    Maria Theresa

    Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Roman-German Empress, born 1717; died ...

    Maria-Laach

    (Abbatia Beatæ Marle Virginis ad lacum, or Beatæ Marle lacensis) A Benedictine ...

    Mariales, Kantes

    A Dominican, born about 1580; died at Venice in April, 1660. He was of a noble Venetian ...

    Marian Priests

    This term is applied to those English priests who being ordained in or before the reign of ...

    Mariana

    Archdiocese of Mariana (Marianensis). Mariana, situated in the centre of Minas Geraes, the ...

    Mariana Islands

    The Marianas Archipelago (also called the Ladrone Islands) is a chain of fifteen islands in the ...

    Mariana, Juan

    Author and Jesuit, b. at Talavern, Toledo, Spain, probably in April, 1536; d. at Toledo, 16 ...

    Mariannhill, Congregation of the Missionaries of

    Mariannhill is located in Natal, near Pinetown, 15 miles from Durban, and 56 from ...

    Marianus of Florence

    A Friar Minor and historian, born at Florence about the middle of the fifteenth century, exact ...

    Marianus Scotus

    There were two Irish scholars of this name who attained distinction in the eleventh century. Both ...

    Marie Antoinette

    Queen of France. Born at Vienna, 2 November, 1755; executed in Paris, 16 October, 1793. She was ...

    Marie Christine of Savoy, Blessed

    Born at Cagliari, Sardinia, 14 November, 1812; died at Naples, 31 January, 1836. She was the ...

    Marie de France

    A French poetess of the twelfth century. She has this trait in common with the other ...

    Marie de l'Incarnation, Blessed

    Known also as Madame Acarie, foundress of the French Carmel, born in Paris, 1 February, 1566; died ...

    Marie de l'Incarnation, Venerable

    (In the world, MARIE GUYARD). First superior of the Ursulines of Quebec , born at Tours, ...

    Marienberg

    A Benedictine abbey of the Congregation of St. Joseph near Mals, Tyrol (in Vintschau). The ...

    Marignolli, Giovanni de'

    Born at Florence about 1290; place and date of death unknown. When quite a youth he received the ...

    Marina

    (DE MARINIS) The name of an ancient and noble family of the Republic of Genoa, distinguished ...

    Marina, Saint

    Virgin and martyr ; also called M ARINA ; belonged to Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, where ...

    Marini, Luigi Gaetano

    A natural philosopher, jurist, historian, archeologist, born at Sant' Orcangelo (pagus ...

    Marinus I, Pope

    (882-884) There is reason for believing that Marinus I was elected on the very day of the ...

    Marinus II, Pope

    Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946. A Roman, and a cardinal of the title of St. ...

    Mariotte, Edme

    French physicist, b. at Dijon, France, about 1620; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1684. His residence was ...

    Maris, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints

    All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...

    Marisco, Adam de

    (or ADAM MARSH) A Franciscan who probably came from the county of Somerset, but the date ...

    Mariscotti, Saint Hyacintha

    A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

    Marius Aventicus, Saint

    (Or AVENTICENSIS) Bishop of Avenches (Switzerland) and chronicler, born about 530 in the ...

    Marius Maximus, Lucius Perpetuus Aurelianus

    Roman historian, lived c. 165-230. No connected account of his life exists, but he is frequently ...

    Marius Mercator

    Ecclesiastical writer, born probably in Northern Africa about 390; died shortly after 451. In 417 ...

    Mark and Marcellian, Saints

    Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286. ...

    Mark of Lisbon

    (Properly MARCOS DA SILVA). Friar minor, historian, and Bishop of Oporto in Portugal, b. at ...

    Mark, Gospel of

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

    Mark, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; consecrated 18 Jan., 336; d. 7 Oct., 336. After the death of Pope ...

    Mark, Saint

    (Greek Markos , Latin Marcus ). It is assumed in this article that the individual ...

    Maroni, Paul

    Missionary, b. 1 Nov., 1695. He entered the Austrian province of the Jesuits on 27 Oct., 1712, ...

    Maronia

    A titular see in the province of Rhodopis, suffragan of Trajanopolis. The town is an ancient ...

    Maronites

    This article will give first the present state of the Maronite nation and Church ; after which ...

    Marquesas Islands

    (INSULARUM MARCHESI) Located in Polynesia, includes all the Marquesas Islands, eleven in ...

    Marquette (Michigan)

    (SAULT STE. MARIE and MARQUETTE, MARIANOPOLITANA ET MARQUETTENSIS) The Diocese comprises the ...

    Marquette League

    A society founded in New York, in May, 1904, by Rev. H.G. Ganss, of Lancaster, Pa., with a ...

    Marquette University

    Marquette University of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is an outgrowth of Marquette College, which was ...

    Marquette, Jacques

    Jesuit missionary and discoverer of the Mississippi River, b. in 1636, at Laon, a town in north ...

    Marriage Banns

    (Latin bannum , pl. bann-a,-i from an Old English verb, bannan , to summon). In ...

    Marriage, Civil

    "Marriage", says Bishop, "as distinguished from the agreement to marry and from the act of ...

    Marriage, History of

    The word marriage may be taken to denote the action, contract, formality, or ceremony by which ...

    Marriage, Mixed

    (Latin Matrimonia mixta ). Technically, mixed marriages are those between Catholics and ...

    Marriage, Moral and Canonical Aspect of

    Marriage is that individual union through which man and woman by their reciprocal rights ...

    Marriage, Mystical

    In the Old and the New Testament , the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations ...

    Marriage, Putative

    Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

    Marriage, Ritual of

    The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony, as it stands in the "Rituale Romanum" ...

    Marriage, Sacrament of

    That Christian marriage (i.e. marriage between baptized persons ) is really a sacrament of ...

    Marriage, Validation of

    Validation of marriage may be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises ...

    Marryat, Florence

    Novelist and actress, b. 9 July, 1838, at Brighton, England ; d. 27 October 1899, in London, ...

    Marseilles

    Diocese of Marseilles (Massiliensis), suffragan of Aix, comprises the district of Marseilles in ...

    Marshall Islands

    (Vicariate Apostolic.) These islands, a German possession since 1885, lying in the Pacific ...

    Marshall, Thomas William

    Controversial writer, b. 1818; d. at Surbiton, Surrey, 14 Dec., 1877. He was son of John Marshall, ...

    Marsi

    (MARSORUM.) Diocese in the province of Aquila, Central Italy, with its seat at Pescina. With ...

    Marsico Nuovo and Potenza

    (MARSICENSIS ET POTENTINA) Suffragan diocese of Salerno. Marsico Nuevo is a city of the ...

    Marsigli, Luigi Ferdinando, Count de

    Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...

    Marsilius of Padua

    Physician and theologian, b. at Padua about 1270; d. about 1342. Contrary to the assertion of ...

    Martène, Edmond

    An historian and liturgist, born 22 December, 1654, at Saint-Jean-de-Losne near Dijon ; died 20 ...

    Martín, Enrico

    Date and place of birth unknown; d. in Mexico in 1632. According to some he was of Spanish ...

    Martel, Charles

    Born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741. He was the natural son of Pepin of ...

    Martha, Maris, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints

    All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...

    Martha, Saint

    Mentioned only in Luke 10:38-42 ; and John 11, 12, sqq. The Aramaic form occurs in a ...

    Martial, Saint

    Bishop of Limoges in the third century. We have no accurate information as to the origin, ...

    Martiall, John

    (Or MARSHALL) Born in Worcestershire 1534, died at Lille, 3 April, 1597. He was one of the six ...

    Martianay, Jean

    Born 30 Dec., 1647, at Saint-Sever-Cap, Diocese of Aire ; died 16 June, 1717, at Saint ...

    Martianus Capella

    Roman writer of Africa who flourished in the fifth century. His work is entitled: "De nuptiis ...

    Martigny, Joseph-Alexander

    Canon of Belley, archaeologist; b. at Sauverny, Ain, in 1808; d at Belley, 19 August, 1880. He ...

    Martin

    Benedictine Abbot of the Schottenkloster of Vienna, b. about 1400; d. 28 July, 1464 (29 July ...

    Martin I, Pope Saint

    Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius ; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to ...

    Martin II, Pope

    Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946. A Roman, and a cardinal of the title of St. ...

    Martin IV, Pope

    (Simon de Brie). Born at the castle of Montpensier in the old French province of Touraine at ...

    Martin of Braga

    (Bracara; or, of Dumio). Bishop and ecclesiastical writer; b. about 520 in Pannonia; d. in ...

    Martin of Leon, Saint

    A priest and canon regular of the Augustinians ; b. at Leon in Spain ( Old Castile ) before ...

    Martin of Tours, Saint

    Bishop; born at Sabaria (today Steinamanger in German, or Szombathely in Hungarian ), Pannonia ...

    Martin of Troppau

    A chronicler, date of birth unknown; died 1278. His family name was Strebski, and, being by ...

    Martin of Valencia, O.F.M.

    (Juan Martin de Boil) Born at Villa de Valencia, Spain, about the middle of the fifteenth ...

    Martin V, Pope

    (Oddone Colonna) Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431. ...

    Martin y Garcia, Luis

    Twenty-fourth General of the Society of Jesus ; born of humble parentage at Melgar de ...

    Martin, Felix

    Antiquary, historiographer, architect, educationist, b. 4 October, 1804, at Auray, seat of the ...

    Martin, Gregory

    Translator of the Douai Version of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate ; b. in Maxfield, parish ...

    Martin, Konrad

    Bishop of Paderborn ; b. 18 May, 1812, at Geismar, Province of Saxony ; d. 16 July, 1879, at ...

    Martin, Paulin

    French Biblical scholar, born at Lacam, Lot, 20 July 1840; died at Amélie-les-Bains, ...

    Martina, Saint

    Roman virgin, martyred in 226, according to some authorities, more probably in 228, under the ...

    Martini, Antonio

    Archbishop of Florence, Biblical scholar; b. at Prato in Tuscany, 20 April, 1720; d. at ...

    Martini, Martino

    (Chinese name Wei ). Distinguished Austrian Jesuit missionary to the Chinese, in the ...

    Martini, Simone

    (Also known as SIMONE DI MARTINO, and as SIMONE MEMMI). Sienese painter, born in Siena, 1283; ...

    Martinian and Processus, Saints

    The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

    Martinique

    (SANCTI PETRI ET ARCIS GALLICAÆ) Diocese ; Martinique is one of the French Lesser ...

    Martinov, John

    Born 7 October, 1821; died 26 April, 1894. Having passed through his university course at St. ...

    Martinsberg

    (Or P ANNONHALMA ) An important Benedictine abbey in Hungary about fourteen English miles ...

    Martinuzzi, George

    Monk, bishop, cardinal, b. at Kamicac, Dalmatia, 1482; d. 16 December, 1551. His real name was ...

    Martyr

    The Greek word martus signifies a witness who testifies to a fact of which he has knowledge ...

    Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter

    Historian of Spain and of the discoveries of her representatives, b. at Arona, near Anghiera, on ...

    Martyrology

    By martyrology is understood a catalogue of martyrs and saints arranged according to the ...

    Martyropolis

    A titular see, suffragan of Amida in the Province of Mesopotamia or Armenia Quarta. It was ...

    Martyrs in China

    The first Christian martyrs in China appear to have been the missionaries of Ili Bâliq ...

    Martyrs, Acts of the

    In a strict sense the Acts of the Martyrs are the official records of the trials of early ...

    Martyrs, Japanese

    There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the ...

    Martyrs, The Ten Thousand

    On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

    Maruthas, Saint

    Bishop of Tagrit or Maypherkat in Mesopotamia, friend of St. John Chrysostom , d. before 420. ...

    Mary Anne de Paredes, Blessed

    Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

    Mary de Cervellione

    (or DE CERVELLO) Popularly styled "de Socos" (of Help). Born about 1230 at Barcelona ; ...

    Mary de Sales Chappuis, Venerable

    (MARIE-THÉRÈSE CHAPPUIS) Belonging to the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary, ...

    Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus, Saint

    Of the Third Order of St. Francis , b. at Naples, 25 March, 1715; d. there, 6 October, 1791. ...

    Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, Saint

    Carmelite Virgin, born 2 April, 1566; died 25 May, 1607. Of outward events there were very few in ...

    Mary Magdalen, Saint

    Mary Magdalen was so called either from Magdala near Tiberias, on the west shore of Galilee, or ...

    Mary of Cleophas

    This title occurs only in John, xix, 25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot ...

    Mary of Egypt, Saint

    Born probably about 344; died about 421. At the early age of twelve Mary left her home and came to ...

    Mary of Romans 16:6

    Unknown outside of this single verse ( omans 16:6 ). She had "laboured much among" the Roman ...

    Mary Queen of Scots

    Mary Stuart, born at Linlithgow, 8 December, 1542; died at Fotheringay, 8 February, 1587. She was ...

    Mary Tudor

    Queen of England from 1553 to 1558; born 18 February, 1516; died 17 November, 1558. Mary was the ...

    Mary, Blessed Virgin, The

    The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

    Mary, Children of

    The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin ...

    Mary, Devotion to the Heart of

    As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...

    Mary, Devotion to the Virgin

    Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...

    Mary, Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. St.Romanus, the ...

    Mary, Little Brothers of

    Generally known as Marist School Brothers. This religious teaching institute is modern in its ...

    Mary, Missionaries of the Company of

    The Company of Mary was founded by Blessed Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort in 1713. As early as ...

    Mary, Mother of John Mark

    Mary, the mother of John, who was surnamed Mark ( Acts 12:12 ). We know nothing of her; but from ...

    Mary, Name of

    (In Scripture and in Catholic use) New Testament, Mariam and sometimes Maria — ...

    Mary, Name of

    The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...

    Mary, Society of (Marist Fathers)

    (Initials S.M.) A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion ...

    Mary, Society of, of Paris

    This society was founded in 1817 by Very Reverend William Joseph Chaminade at Bordeaux, France. ...

    Mary, Tomb of the Blessed Virgin

    The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

    Maryland

    One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States ...

    Masaccio

    (T OMMASO ). Italian painter, born about 1402, at San Giovanni di Valdarno, a stronghold ...

    Mascoutens Indians

    A Wisconsin tribe of Algonquian stock of considerable missionary importance in the seventeenth ...

    Masolino da Panicale

    Son of Cristoforo Fini; b. in the suburb of Panicale di Valdese, near Florence, 1383; d. c. 1440. ...

    Mason, Richard Angelus a S. Francisco

    English — or Irish — Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, 30 ...

    Masonry

    The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...

    Maspha

    Name of several places in the Bible . The Septuagint transcribes Masphá, Massephá, ...

    Massé, Enemond

    One of the first Jesuits sent to New France ; born at Lyons, 1574; died at Sillery, l2 May, ...

    Mass, Chapter and Conventual

    As a general rule, churches in which the Divine office is to be said publicly every day must also ...

    Mass, Liturgy of the

    A. Name and Definition The Mass is the complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the ...

    Mass, Music of the

    Under this heading will be considered exclusively the texts of the Mass (and not, therefore, the ...

    Mass, Nuptial

    "Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...

    Mass, Parochial

    The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

    Mass, Sacrifice of the

    The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...

    Massa Candida

    Under the date 24 August, the "Martyrologium Romanum" records this commemoration: At Carthage, ...

    Massa Carrara

    DIOCESE OF MASSA CARRARA (MASSENSIS). Diocese in Central Italy (Lunigiana and Garfagnana). ...

    Massa Marittima

    (MASSANA) Massa Marittima, in the Province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, first mentioned in the ...

    Massachusetts

    One of the thirteen original United States of America . The Commonwealth of Massachusetts covers ...

    Massacre, Saint Bartholomew's Day

    This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the ...

    Massaia, Guglielmo

    A Cardinal, born 9 June, 1809, at Piova in Piedmont, Italy ; died at Cremona, 6 August, 1889. ...

    Masses, Bequests for

    "The efficacy of prayers for the dead ", remarks the Court of Appeals of the State of New York ...

    Masses, Bequests for (Canada)

    The law governing bequests, being concerned with "property and civil rights ", falls within ...

    Masses, Bequests for (England)

    Before the Reformation dispositions of property, whether real or personal, for the purposes of ...

    Masses, Devises and Bequests for (United States)

    Prior to the period of the Reformation in England in 1532, Masses for the repose of the souls ...

    Massillon, Jean-Baptiste

    A celebrated French preacher and bishop ; born 24 June, 1663; died 28 September, 1742. The son ...

    Massorah

    The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels ...

    Massoulié, Antoine

    Theologian, born at Toulouse, 28 Oct., 1632; died at Rome, 23 Jan., 1706. At an early age he ...

    Massuet, René

    Benedictine patrologist, of the Congregation of St. Maur; born 13 August, 1666, at St. Ouen de ...

    Massys, Quentin

    (MESSYS, METZYS) A painter, born at Louvain in 1466; died at Antwerp in 1530 (bet. 13 July ...

    Master of Arts

    An academic degree higher than that of Bachelor. The conferring of the degree of Master of Arts, ...

    Master of Liesborn, The

    A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...

    Master of the Sacred Palace

    This office (which has always been entrusted to a Friar Preacher) may briefly be described as ...

    Mastrius, Bartholomew

    Franciscan, philosopher and theologian, born near Forli, at Meldola, Italy, in 1602; died 3 ...

    Mataco Indians

    (Or Mataguayo). A group of wide tribes of very low culture, ranging over a great part of the ...

    Mater

    A titular bishopric in the province of Byzantium, mentioned as a free city by Pliny under the ...

    Materialism

    As the word itself signifies, Materialism is a philosophical system which regards matter as the ...

    Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

    Second Sunday in October. The object of this feast is to commemorate the dignity of the Mary ...

    Mathathias

    The name of ten persons of the Bible , variant in both Hebrew and Greek of Old Testament and in ...

    Mathew, Theobald

    Apostle of Temperance, born at Thomastown Castle, near Cashel, Tipperary, Ireland, 10 October, ...

    Mathieu, François-Désiré

    Bishop and cardinal, born 27 May, 1839; died 26 October, 1908. Born of humble family at ...

    Mathusala

    One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5. The word is variously given as Mathusale ...

    Matilda of Canossa

    Countess of Tuscany, daughter and heiress of the Marquess Boniface of Tuscany, and Beatrice, ...

    Matilda, Saint

    Queen of Germany, wife of King Henry I (The Fowler), b. at the Villa of Engern in Westphalia, ...

    Matilda, Saint

    (MATILDA VON HACKEBORN-WIPPRA). Benedictine; born in 1240 or 1241 at the ancestral castle of ...

    Matins

    I. NAME The word "Matins" ( Latin Matutinum or Matutinae ), comes from Matuta , the Latin ...

    Matricula

    A term having several meanings in the field of Christian antiquity. (1) The word is applied ...

    Matteo da Siena

    (Matteo di Giovanni di Bartolo). Painter, born at Borgo San Sepolcro, c. 1435; died 1495. His ...

    Matteo di Termini

    (Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...

    Matteo of Aquasparta

    A celebrated Italian Franciscan, born at Aquasparta in the Diocese of Todi , Umbria, about ...

    Matter

    (Greek hyle ; Latin materia ; French matière ; German materie and stoff ), ...

    Matteucci, Carlo

    Physicist, born at Forli, in the Romagna, 21 June, 1811; died at Ardenza, near Leghorn, 25 July, ...

    Matthew of Bassi

    Founder and first Superior-General of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, the principal branch ...

    Matthew of Cracow

    Renowned scholar and preacher of the fourteenth century, b. at Cracow about 1335, d. at Pisa, 5 ...

    Matthew, Gospel of Saint

    I. CANONICITY The earliest Christian communities looked upon the books of the Old Testament as ...

    Matthew, Saint

    Apostle and evangelist. The name Matthew is derived from the Hebrew Mattija , being ...

    Matthew, Sir Tobie

    English priest, born at Salisbury, 3 October, 1577, died at Ghent, 13 October, 1655. He was the ...

    Matthias Corvinus

    King of Hungary, son of Janos Hunyady and Elizabeth Szilagyi of Horogssey, was born at ...

    Matthias of Neuburg

    Also NEUENBURG (NEOBURGENSIS). Chronicler, born towards the close of the thirteenth century, ...

    Matthias, Saint

    Apostle. The Greek Matthias (or, in some manuscripts, Maththias ), is a name derived ...

    Maundy Thursday

    The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

    Maunoury, Auguste-François

    Hellenist and exegete, b. at Champsecret, Orne, France, 30 Oct., 1811; d. at Séez, ...

    Maurice

    (Matricius, Maurikios ). Roman Emperor, born in 539; died in November, 602. He sprang from ...

    Maurice, Saint

    Leader ( primicerius ) of the Theban Legion, massacred at Agaunum, about 287 (286, 297, 302, ...

    Maurists, The

    A congregation of Benedictine monks in France, whose history extends from 1618 to 1818. It ...

    Maurus Magnentius Rabanus, Blessed

    ( Also Hrabanus, Reabanus). Abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, celebrated theological ...

    Maurus, Saint

    Deacon, son of Equitius, a nobleman of Rome, but claimed also by Fondi, Gallipoli, Lavello ...

    Maurus, Sylvester

    Writer on philosophy and theology, b. at Spoleto, 31 Dec., 1619; d. in Rome, 13 Jan., 1687. He ...

    Maury, Jean-Siffrein

    Cardinal and statesman, born at Valréas, near Avignon, 26 June, 1746; died at Rome on ...

    Maxentius, Joannes

    Joannes Maxentius, leader of the so-called Scythian monks, appears in history at Constantinople ...

    Maxentius, Marcus Aurelius

    Roman Emperor 306-12, son of the Emperor Maximinianus Herculius and son-in-law of the chief ...

    Maxfield, Venerable Thomas

    ( Vere Macclesfield) English priest and martyr, b. in Stafford gaol, about 1590, martyred ...

    Maximianopolis

    A titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. Its ancient name, Adad-Remmon, ...

    Maximianus

    (MARCUS AURELIUS VALERIUS MAXIMIANUS, surnamed HERCULIUS.) Roman Emperor, was adopted by ...

    Maximilian

    The name of several martyrs. (1) Maximilian of Antioch A soldier, martyred at Antioch, Jan. ...

    Maximilian I

    Duke of Bavaria, 1598-1622, Elector of Bavaria and Lord High Steward of the Holy Roman Empire, ...

    Maximinus Thrax

    Roman Emperor 235-8, son of a Goth and an Alanic mother. When the Emperor Septimius Severus was ...

    Maximinus, Caius Valerius Daja

    Under his uncle Augustus Galerius, the Caesar of Syria and Egypt, from the year 305; in 307 ...

    Maximinus, Saint

    Bishop of Trier, b. at Silly near Poitiers, d. there, 29 May, 352 or 12 Sept., 349. He was ...

    Maximopolis

    A titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The true name of the city is Maximianopolis, and ...

    Maximus of Constantinople, Saint

    Known as the Theologian and as Maximus Confessor , born at Constantinople about 580; died in ...

    Maximus of Turin, Saint

    Bishop and theological writer, b. probably in Rhaetia, about 380; d. shortly after 465. Only ...

    Maxwell, William

    Fifth Earl of Nithsdale (Lord Nithsdale signed as Nithsdaill) and fourteenth Lord Maxwell, b. in ...

    Maxwell, Winifred

    Countess of Nithsdale, d. at Rome, May, 1749. She was the daughter of William, first Marquis of ...

    Maya Indians

    The most important of the cultured native peoples of North America, both in the degree of their ...

    Mayer, Christian

    Moravian astronomer, born at Mederizenhi in Moravia, 20 Aug., 1719, died at Heidelberg, 16 ...

    Mayhew, Edward

    Born in 1569; died 14 September, 1625. He belonged to the old English family of Mayhew or Mayow of ...

    Mayne, Blessed Cuthbert

    Martyr, b. at Yorkston, near Barnstaple, Devonshire ( baptized 20 March, 1543-4); d. at ...

    Maynooth College

    The National College of Saint Patrick, at Maynooth in County Kildare, about twelve miles from ...

    Mayo Indians

    An important tribe occupying some fifteen towns on Mayo and Fuerte rivers, southern Sonora and ...

    Mayo, School of

    (Irish Magh Eo , which means, according to Colgan, the Plain of the Oaks, and, according to ...

    Mayor, John

    (MAJOR, MAIR; also called JOANNES MAJORIS and HADDINGTONUS SCOTUS) A Scotch philosopher and ...

    Mayoruna Indians

    A noted and savage tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, ranging the forests between the Ucayali, the ...

    Mayotte, Nossi-Bé, and Comoro

    PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF MAYOTTE, NOSSI-BE, AND COMORO (MAYOTTÆ, NOSSIBEÆ, ET ...

    Mayr, Beda

    A Bavarian Benedictine philosopher, apologist, and poet, b. 15 January, 1742 at Daiting near ...

    Mayron, Francis

    (DE MAYRONIS) Born about 1280, probably at Mayronnes, Department of Basses-Alpes, he entered ...

    Mazarin, Jules

    Born either at Rome or at Piscina in the Abruzzi, of a very old Sicilian family, 14 July, 1602; ...

    Mazatec Indians

    An important Mexican tribe of Zapotecan linguistic stock, occupying the mountain region of ...

    Mazenod, Charles Joseph Eugene de

    Bishop of Marseilles, and founder of the Congregation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, b. at ...

    Mazzara del Vallo

    DIOCESE OF MAZZARA DEL VALLO (MAZARIENSIS). The city is situated in the province of Trepani, ...

    Mazzella, Camillo

    Theologian and cardinal, born at Vitulano, 10 Feb., 1833; d. at Rome, 26 March, 1900. He ...

    Mazzolini, Lodovico

    (Also known as MAZZOLINI DA FERRARA, LODOVICO FERRARESA, and IL FERRARESE) Italian painter, b. ...

    Mazzolini, Sylvester

    (M OZOLINI, also P RIERIAS ) Theologian, b. at Priero, Piedmont, 1460; d. at Rome, ...

    Mazzuchelli, Pietro Francesco

    (Also known as IL MORAZZONE, MARAZZONE, and MORANZONE). Milanese painter, b. at Moranzone near ...

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    Mb 1

    Mbaya Indians

    (Guaycurü) A predatory tribe formerly ranging on both sides of the Paraguay River, on the ...

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    Mc 11

    McCabe, Edward

    Cardinal, born in Dublin, 1816; died at Kingstown, 11 February, 1885; he was the son of poor ...

    McCarthy, Justin

    Irish politician, journalist, novelist, and historian, b. at Cork, 22 Nov., 1830; d. at ...

    McCloskey, William George

    Bishop of Louisville, Kentucky, b. at Brooklyn, N.Y., 10 Nov., 1823; d. 17 September, 1909. He ...

    McGee, Thomas D'Arcy

    An editor, politician, and poet, born at Carlingford, Co. Louth, Ireland, 13 April, 1825; ...

    McLoughlin, John

    Physician and pioneer, born in the parish of La Riviere du Loup, Canada, 19 October, 1784; died ...

    McMahon, Martin Thomas

    Soldier, jurist; born at Laprairie, Canada, 21 March, 1838; died in New York, 21 April, 1906. His ...

    McMaster, James Alphonsus

    An editor, convert, born at Duanesburg, New York, U. S. A., 1 April, 1820; died in Brooklyn, New ...

    McQuaid, Bernard John

    The first Bishop of Rochester, U. S. A.; born in New York City, 15 December, 1823; died at ...

    McSherry, James Jr.

    Jurist, son of the author James McSherry ; born at Frederick, Maryland, 30 December, 1842; died ...

    McSherry, James Sr.

    Author; born at LibertyTown, Frederick County, Maryland, 29 July, 1819; died at Frederick City, ...

    McSherry, Richard

    Physician; born at Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia ), 21 November, 1817; died ...

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    Me 153

    Meagher, Thomas Francis

    Soldier, politician, b. at Waterford, Ireland, 3 August, 1823; accidentally drowned in the ...

    Meath

    (MIDENSIS). Diocese in Ireland, suffragan of Armagh. In extent it is the largest diocese in ...

    Meaux

    (Melsa). A Cistercian abbey about four miles east of Beverley in the East Riding of ...

    Meaux, Diocese of

    (MELDENSIS.) Meaux comprises the entire department of Seine and Marne, suffragan of Sens ...

    Mecca

    Mecca, the capital of Arabia and the sacred city of the Mohammedans, is situated in the district ...

    Mechanism

    There is no constant meaning in the history of philosophy for the word Mechanism. Originally, ...

    Mechitar

    (MECHITHAR, MEKHITAR, MCHITAR or MOCHTOR, a word which means "Comforter") Mechitar is the name ...

    Mechitarists

    Armenian Benedictines, founded by Mechitar in 1712. In its inception the order was looked upon ...

    Mechlin

    ( Latin MECHLINIA; French MALINES; MECHLINIENSIS). Archdiocese comprising the two Belgian ...

    Mechtel, Johann

    Chronicler; b. 1562 at Pfalzel near Trier (Germany); d. after 1631, perhaps as late as 1653 at ...

    Mechtild of Magdeburg

    A celebrated medieval mystic, b. of a noble family in Saxony about 1210; d. at the ...

    Mechtilde, Saint

    (MATILDA VON HACKEBORN-WIPPRA). Benedictine; born in 1240 or 1241 at the ancestral castle of ...

    Mecklenburg

    A division of the German Empire, consists of the two Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and ...

    Medaille, Jean Paul

    Jesuit missionary; b. at Carcassonne, the capital of the Department of Aude, France, 29 ...

    Medal of Saint Benedict

    A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict. One ...

    Medal, Miraculous

    The devotion commonly known as that of the Miraculous Medal owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a ...

    Medals, Devotional

    A medal may be defined to be a piece of metal, usually in the form of a coin, not used as money, ...

    Medardus, Saint

    Bishop of Noyon, b. at Salency (Oise) about 456; d. in his episcopal city 8 June, about 545. His ...

    Medea

    A titular see of Thrace, suffragan of Heraclea. This name and the modern name (Midieh) are ...

    Medellín

    (MEDELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Republic of Colombia, Metropolitan of Antioquia and ...

    Media and Medes

    ( Medía, Mêdoi ). An ancient country of Asia and the inhabitants thereof. The ...

    Mediator (Christ as Mediator)

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: (1) Definition of the word mediator; (2) ...

    Medices, Hieronymus

    (DE MEDICIS) Illustrious as a scholastic of acumen and penetration, b. at Camerino in ...

    Medici, Catherine de'

    Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589. She was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke ...

    Medici, House of

    A Florentine family, the members of which, having acquired great wealth as bankers, rose in a ...

    Medici, Maria de'

    Queen of France ; b. at Florence, 26 April, 1573; d. at Cologne, 3 July, 1642. She was a ...

    Medicine and Canon Law

    In the early centuries the practice of medicine by clerics, whether secular or regular, was not ...

    Medicine, History of

    The history of medical science, considered as a part of the general history of civilization, ...

    Medina, Bartholomew

    Dominican theologian, b. at Medina, 1527; d. at Salamanca, 1581. With Dominico Soto , Melchior ...

    Medina, Juan de

    Theologian ; born 1490; died 1547; he occupied the first rank among the theologians of the ...

    Medina, Miguel de

    Theologian, born at Belalcazar, Spain, 1489; died at Toledo, May, 1578. He entered the Franciscan ...

    Medrano, Francisco

    A Spanish lyric poet, b. in Seville, not to be confounded with Sebastian Francisco de Medrano ...

    Medulic, Andras

    A Croatian painter and engraver, called by Italian authors Medola, Medula, Schiavone, Schiaon, ...

    Meehan, Charles Patrick

    Irish historical writer and translator, b. in Dublin, 12 July, 1812; d. there 14 March 1890. ...

    Megara

    A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia. The city, which was built on an arid strip of ...

    Megarians

    The Megarian School is one of the imperfectly Socratic Schools, so called because they developed ...

    Mehrerau

    Formerly a Benedictine, now a Cistercian Abbey ; situated on Lake Constance, west of Bregenz, in ...

    Meignan, Guillaume-René

    Cardinal Archbishop of Tours, French apologist and Scriptural exegete, b. at Chauvigné, ...

    Meilleur, Jean-Baptiste

    French Canadian physician and educator, b. at St. Laurent, P.Q., 9 May, 1796; d. 7 Dec., 1878. He ...

    Meinwerk, Blessed

    Tenth Bishop of Paderborn, d. 1036: Meinwerk (Meginwerk) was born of the noble family of the ...

    Meissen

    A former see of north-east Germany. The present city of Meissen, situated in the Kingdom of ...

    Meissonier, Ernest

    French painter, b. at Lyons 21 February, 1815; d. at Paris, 31 January, 1891. If the Lyonese ...

    Meléndez Valdés, Juan

    Spanish poet and politician, b. at Ribera del Fresno (Badajoz) 11 March, 1754; d. in exile at ...

    Melancthon, Philipp

    Collaborator and friend of Luther, born at Bretten (in Unterpfalz, now Baden ), 16 February, ...

    Melania (the Younger), Saint

    Born at Rome, about 383; died in Jerusalem, 31 December, 439. She was a member of the famous ...

    Melbourne

    Archdiocese of Melbourne (Melburnen) Located in the state of Victoria, Southeastern ...

    Melchers, Paul

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 6 Jan., 1813, at Münster, Westphalia ; d. 14 ...

    Melchisedech

    [Gr. Melchisedek , from the Hebrew meaning "King of righteousness (Gesenius)] was King of ...

    Melchisedechians

    A branch of the Monarchians, founded by Theodotus the banker. (See MONARCHIANS.) Another quite ...

    Melchites

    (Melkites). ORIGIN AND NAME Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who ...

    Meletius of Antioch

    Bishop, b. in Melitene, Lesser Armenia ; d. at Antioch, 381. Before occupying the see of ...

    Meletius of Lycopolis

    Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis in Egypt, gave his name to a schism of short duration. There ...

    Melfi and Rapolla

    DIOCESE OF MELFI AND RAPOLLA (MELPHIENSIS ET RAPOLLENSIS) Diocese in the province of Potenza, ...

    Meli, Giovanni

    Sicilian poet, b. at Palermo, 4 March, 1740, d. 20 Dec., 1815. He was the son of a goldsmith of ...

    Melia, Pius

    Italian theologian, b. at Rome, 12 Jan., 1800; d. in London, June 1883. He entered the Society ...

    Melissus of Samos

    A Greek philosopher, of the Eleatic School, b. at Samos about 470 B.C. It is probable that he ...

    Melitene

    The residence of an Armenian Catholic see, also a titulary archbishopric. According to Pliny ...

    Melito, Saint

    Bishop of Sardis, prominent ecclesiastical writer in the latter half of the second century. Few ...

    Melk, Abbey and Congregation of

    (MOLCK, MELLICUM). Situated on an isolated rock commanding the Danube, Melk has been a noted ...

    Melkites

    (Melkites). ORIGIN AND NAME Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who ...

    Melleray

    (MELLEARIUM) Melleray, situated in Brittany (Loire-Inférieure), Diocese of Nantes, in ...

    Mellifont Abbey

    Located three miles from Drogheda, Co. Louth, Diocese of Armagh, it was the first Cistercian ...

    Mellitus, Saint

    Bishop of London and third Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 24 April, 624. He was the leader of ...

    Melo

    Located in Uruguay. It was decided in 1897 to erect two sees suffragan to Montevideo, one of ...

    Melos

    A titular see, suffragan of Naxos in the Cyclades. The name seems to have been derived from a ...

    Melozzo da Forlí

    An Italian painter of the Umbrian School, b. at Forlì, 1438; d. there 1494. Lanzi's ...

    Melrose Abbey

    The Abbey of Melrose, located in in Roxburghshire, founded in 1136 by King David I, was the ...

    Melrose, Chronicle of

    (CHRONICA DE MAILROS) It opens with the year 735, ends abruptly in 1270, and is founded solely ...

    Melzi, Francesco

    Born at Milan, about 1490; died 1568. He was a mysterious personage. He was a friend of Leonardo ...

    Memberton

    Principal chief of the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia at the time of the establishment of the ...

    Membre, Zenobius

    Born 1645 at Bapaume, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France, he was a member of the Franciscan ...

    Memling, Hans

    Flemish painter, b. about 1430-35; d. at Bruges 11 August, 1494. This date was discovered ...

    Memorial Brasses

    Just when memorial brasses first came into use is not known; the earliest existing dated ...

    Memory

    (Latin memoria ) Memory is the capability of the mind, to store up conscious processes, ...

    Memphis

    Ancient capital of Egypt ; diocese of the province of Arcadia or Heptanomos, suffragan of ...

    Men of Understanding

    (HOMINES INTELLIGENTIAE). Name assumed by a heretical sect which in 1410-11 was cited before ...

    Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino

    Poet, historian and literary critic, b. at Santander, Spain, in 1856; d. at Santander in 1912. ...

    Mena, Juan de

    Spanish poet, born 1411 at Cordova ; died 1456 at Torrelaguna. Prominent at the court of Juan II ...

    Menaion

    ( menaîon from mén, "month") The Menaion is the name of the twelve books, one ...

    Menas, Saint

    Martyr under Diocletian, about 295. According to the Greek Acts published with Latin translation ...

    Mencius

    (Latinized form of Chinese MENG-TZE, i.e. MENG THE SAGE). Philosopher, b. 371 or 372 B.C. He was ...

    Mendíburu, Manuel de

    Born at Lima, 29 October, 1805; died 21 January, 1885. He was educated in the University of S. ...

    Mendaña de Neyra, Alvaro de

    A Spanish navigator and explorer, born in Saragossa, 1541; died in Santa Cruz, Solomon ...

    Mende

    (MIMATENSIS) This diocese includes the department of Lozère, in France. Suffragan of ...

    Mendel, Mendelism

    Gregor Johann Mendel (the first name was taken on entrance to his order), b. 22 July, 1822, at ...

    Mendes de Silva, João

    Better known as Amadeus of Portugal, b. 1420, d. at Milan, 1482, began his religious life in ...

    Mendicant Friars

    Mendicant Friars are members of those religious orders which, originally, by vow of ...

    Mendieta, Jerónimo

    A Spanish missionary; born at Vitoria, Spain, 1525; died in the City of Mexico, 9 May, 1604. ...

    Mendoza, Diego Hurtade de

    A Spanish diplomat and writer, and one of the greatest figures in the history of Spanish ...

    Mendoza, Francisco Sarmiento de

    A Spanish canonist and bishop ; b. of a noble family at Burgos ; d. 1595, at Jaén. ...

    Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de

    Cardinal and Primate of Spain, b. at Guadalajara, 3 May, 1428; d. there, 11 January, 1495. He ...

    Meneses, Osorio Francisco

    Spanish painter, b. at Seville, 1630; d. probably in the same place, 1705. It is extraordinary ...

    Menestrier, Claude-François

    Antiquarian, b. at Lyons, 9 March, 1631; d. at Paris, 21 Jan., 1705. He inherited a taste for ...

    Menevia

    (MENEVENSIS) Menevia is said to be derived from Menapia , the name of an ancient Roman ...

    Mengarini, Gregario

    Pioneer missionary of the Flathead tribe and philologist of their language, b. in Rome, 21 July, ...

    Mengs, Anthon Rafael

    A Bohemian painter, usually regarded as belonging to the Italian or Spanish school, b. at ...

    Mennas

    Patriarch of Constantinople from 536 to 552. Early in 536 Pope St. Agapetus came to ...

    Mennonites

    A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth ...

    Menochio, Giovanni Stefano

    Jesuit biblical scholar, b. at Padua, 1575; d. in Rome, 4 Feb., 1655. He entered the Society of ...

    Menologium

    Although the word Menologium (in English also written Menology and Menologe) has been in some ...

    Menominee Indians

    A considerable tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock, formerly ranging over north-eastern ...

    Mensa, Mensal Revenue

    ( Latin, Mensa, table). The Latin word mensa has for its primitive signification "a table ...

    Mensing, John

    (MENSINGK) A theologian and celebrated opponent of Luther, born according to some at ...

    Mental Reservation

    The name applied to a doctrine which has grown out of the common Catholic teaching about lying and ...

    Mentelin, Johannes

    (MENTEL) Born c. 1410; died 12 Dec., 1478; an eminent German typographer of the fifteenth ...

    Menzini, Benedetto

    Priest and poet, b. at Florence, 1646; d. at Rome, 7 Sept., 1704. His family being poor, he ...

    Mercadé, Eustache

    French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century. The dates of his birth and death are not known. ...

    Mercedarians

    (Order of Our Lady of Mercy). A congregation of men founded in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco, born ...

    Mercier, Louis-Honoré

    A French Canadian statesman, b. 15 October, 1840, at Ibervile, Quebec, of a family of farmers; ...

    Mercuriali, Geronimo

    Better known by his Latin name Mercurialis; famous philologist and physician, b. at Forli, 30 ...

    Mercy, Brothers of Our Lady of

    Founded at Mechlin in 1839 by Canon J.B. Cornelius Scheppers for the instruction and care of ...

    Mercy, Corporal and Spiritual Works of

    Mercy as it is here contemplated is said to be a virtue influencing one's will to have ...

    Mercy, Sisters of

    A congregation of women founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Catherine Elizabeth McAuley, ...

    Mercy, Sisters of, of St. Borromeo

    Originally a pious association of ladies formed in 1626 for the care of the sick in the ...

    Meredith, Edward

    English Catholic controversialist, b. in 1648, was a son of the rector of Landulph, Cornwall. ...

    Merici, Saint Angela

    Foundress of the Ursulines, born 21 March, 1474, at Desenzano, a small town on the southwestern ...

    Merit

    By merit ( meritum ) in general is understood that property of a good work which entitles the ...

    Mermillod, Gaspard

    Bishop of Lausanne and cardinal, born at Carouge, Switzerland, 22 September, 1824; died in Rome, ...

    Merneptah I

    (1234?-1214 B.C.), the fourth king of the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty and the supposed Pharaoh ...

    Mersenne, Marin

    French theologian, philosopher, and mathematician; b. 8 September, 1588, near Oizé (now ...

    Mesa

    (Greek Mosá ; Moabite Stone, ms‘ ; Hebrew, mys‘ , meaning ...

    Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and Armenia

    Created by Gregory XVI on 17 Dec., 1832. Mgr. Trioche, Archbishop of Babylon or Bagdad, became ...

    Mesrob

    (Also called MASHTOTS) One of the greatest figures in Armenian history, he was born about 361 ...

    Messalians

    ( Praying folk; participle Pa'el of the Aramaic word meaning "to pray "). An heretical ...

    Messene

    A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia. Under this name at least, the city dates only ...

    Messias

    (Or Messias .) The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah , ...

    Messina

    (MESSINENSIS) Located in Sicily. The city is situated, in the shape of an amphitheatre, along ...

    Messina, Antonello da

    Born at Messina, about 1430; died 1497. After studying for some time in Sicily he crossed over ...

    Messingham, Thomas

    An Irish hagiologist, born in the Diocese of Meath, and studied in the Irish College, Paris, ...

    Metalwork in the Service of the Church

    From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ...

    Metaphrastes, Symeon

    ( Sumeòn ’o metaphrástes ). The principal compiler of the legends of ...

    Metaphysics

    I. The Name. II. The Definition. III. The Rejection of Metaphysics.IV. Relation of Metaphysics to ...

    Metastasio, Pietro

    Italian poet, b. at Rome, 1698; d. at Vienna, 1782. Of humble origins, his father, once a ...

    Metcalfe, Edward

    Born in Yorkshire, 1792; died a martyr of charity at Leeds, 7 May, 1847. He entered the ...

    Metellopolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor. The inscriptions make known a Phrygian town ...

    Metempsychosis

    (Greek meta empsychos , Latin metempsychosis : French metempsychose : German ...

    Metham, Thomas

    A knight, confessor of the Faith ; died in York Castle, 1573. He was eldest son of Thomas ...

    Methodism

    A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and ...

    Methodius and Cyril, Saints

    (Or CONSTANTINE and METHODIUS). These brothers, the Apostles of the Slavs, were born in ...

    Methodius I

    Patriarch of Constantinople (842-846), defender of images during the second Iconoclast ...

    Methodius of Olympus, Saint

    Bishop and ecclesiastical author, date of birth unknown; died a martyr, probably in 311. ...

    Methuselah

    One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5. The word is variously given as Mathusale ...

    Methymna

    A titular see in the island of Lesbos. It was once the second city of the island, and enjoyed ...

    Metrophanes of Smyrna

    A leader of the faithful Ignatian bishops at the time of the Photian schism (867). Baronius ...

    Metropolis

    A titular episcopal see and suffragan of Ephesus. Strabo (XIV, 1, 2; XIV, 1, 15), who speaks of ...

    Metropolitan

    Metropolitan , in ecclesiastical language, refers to whatever relates to the metropolis, the ...

    Metternich, Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von

    Statesman; born at Coblenz, 15 May, 1773; died at Vienna, 11 June, 1859; son of Count Georg, ...

    Metz

    A town and bishopric in Lorraine. I. THE TOWN OF METZ In ancient times Metz, then known as ...

    Meun, Jean Clopinel de

    (Or MEUNG.) French poet, b. c. 1260 in the little city of Meung-sur-Loire; d. at Paris ...

    Mexico

    GEOGRAPHY The Republic of Mexico is situated at the extreme point of the North American ...

    Mexico, Archdiocese of

    (MEXICANA.) Boundaries The boundaries of the Diocese of Mexico were at first not well defined. ...

    Mezger, Francis, Joseph, and Paul

    Three brothers, learned Benedictines of the monastery of St. Peter in Salzburg, and professors ...

    Mezzofanti, Giuseppe

    A cardinal, the greatest of polyglots, born 19 September, 1774; died 15 March, 1849. He was the ...

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    Mi 103

    Miami Indians

    An important tribe of Algonquian stock formerly claiming prior dominion over the whole of what ...

    Michael Cærularius

    ( Keroulários ). Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and ...

    Michael de Sanctis, Saint

    (DE LOS SANTOS). Born at, Vich in Catalonia, 29 September, 1591; died at Valladolid, 10 ...

    Michael O'Loghlen

    Born at Ennis, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1789; died 1846. Educated at Ennis Academy, and Trinity ...

    Michael of Cesena

    (MICHELE FUSCHI) A Friar Minor, Minister General of the Franciscan Order, and theologian, ...

    Michael Scotus

    (SCOTT or SCOT) A thirteenth century mathematician, philosopher, and scholar. He was born in ...

    Michael the Archangel, Saint

    ( Hebrew "Who is like God ?"). St. Michael is one of the principal angels ; his name was ...

    Michael, Military Orders of Saint

    (1) A Bavarian Order, founded in 1721 by Elector Joseph Clemens of Cologne, Duke of Bavaria, ...

    Michaud, Joseph-François

    Historian, born at Albens, Savoy, 1767; died at Passy, 30 September, 1839. He belonged to an ...

    Micheas of Ephraim

    Also called Michas. In Hebrew the complete form of the name is Mikhayahu or Mikhayehu ...

    Micheas, Book of

    Micheas (Hebr. Mikhah; Jeremiah 26:18 : Mikhayah keth.), the author of the book which holds the ...

    Micheas, Son of Jemla

    Also called Michas. In Hebrew the complete form of the name is Mikhayahu or Mikhayehu ...

    Michel, Jean

    A French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century, who revised and enlarged the mystery of the ...

    Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Italian sculptor, painter, and architect, b. at Caprese in the valley of the upper Arno, 6 March, ...

    Michelians

    A German Protestant sect which derives its name from "Michel", the popular designation of its ...

    Michelis, Edward

    A theologian, born in St. Mauritz, 6 Feb., 1813; died in Luxemburg, 8 June, 1855. After his ...

    Michelozzo di Bartolommeo

    An architect and sculptor, born at Florence circa 1391; died 1472. He exercised a quiet, but ...

    Michigan

    The State of Michigan is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by Canada, Lake Huron ...

    Michoacan

    (MICHOACANENSIS) Located in Mexico, the Diocese of Michoacan was established in 1536 by Pope ...

    Mickiewicz, Adam

    Born near Novogrodek, Lithuania, 1798; died at Constantinople, 1855. He studied at Novogrodek ...

    Micmacs

    ( Souriquois of the early French ) The easternmost of the Algonquin tribes and probably ...

    Micrologus

    Either a "synopsis" or a "short explanation", and in the Middle Ages used as an equivalent for ...

    Middendorp, Jakob

    Theologian and historian; b. about 1537 at Oldenzaal, or, according to others, at Ootmarsum, ...

    Middle Ages

    A term commonly used to designate that period of European history between the fall of the Roman ...

    Middlesbrough

    (MEDIOBURGENSIS) In medieval history it was known as Myddilburga or Middilburga, with many ...

    Midianites

    (In Authorized Version M IDIANITES ). An Arabian tribe ( Septuagint Madienaîoi ...

    Midrashim

    The term commonly designates ancient rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew Scriptures. It is the ...

    Midwives

    Midwives come under the canon law of the Church in their relation towards two of the sacraments, ...

    Migazzi, Christoph Anton

    Cardinal, Prince Archbishop of Vienna, b. 1714, in the Tyrol, d. 14 April, 1803, at Vienna. At ...

    Mignard, Pierre

    A French painter, born at Troyes, 7 November, 1612; died at Paris, 30 May, 1695. Though destined ...

    Migne, Jacques-Paul

    Priest, and publisher of theological works, born at Saint-Flour, 25 October, 1800; died at Paris, ...

    Migration

    The movement of populations from place to place is one of the earliest social phenomena history ...

    Milan

    (MEDIOLANENSIS) Located in Lombardy, northern Italy. The city is situated on the Orona River, ...

    Milde, Vinzenz Eduard

    Prince- Archbishop of Vienna, born at Brünn, in Moravia, in 1777; died at Vienna in ...

    Miles Gerard, Venerable

    Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

    Miles, George Henry

    A dramatist and man of letters, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 31 July, 1824; died near ...

    Mileto

    (MILETENSIS) Located in Calabria, in the province of Reggio, southern Italy. According to ...

    Miletopolis

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Cyzicus. Miletopolis was a town north of Mysia, at ...

    Miletus

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, in Caria. Situated on the western coast ...

    Miletus, Vitus

    (Originally MÜLLER) A Catholic theologian, born at Gmünd, Swabia, 1549; died at ...

    Milevum

    A titular see of Numidia. In Ptolemy's "Geography", IV, iii, 7, the city is mentioned under the ...

    Milic, Jan

    A pre-Hussite reform preacher and religious enthusiast, born at Kremsier in Moravia, died 29 ...

    Military Orders, The

    Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...

    Millennium and Millenarianism

    The fundamental idea of millenarianism, as understood by Christian writers, may be set forth ...

    Miller, Ferdinand Von

    Born at Fürstenfeldbruck, 1813; died at Munich, 1887. He laboured for the development of ...

    Millet, Jean-François

    French painter ; b. at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, 4 October, 1814; d. at Barbizon, 20 January, 1875. ...

    Millet, Pierre

    ( Or Milet). A celebrated early Jesuit missionary in New York State, b. at Bourges, ...

    Milner, John

    Born in London, 14 October, 1752: died at Wolverhampton, 19 April, 1826. At the age of twelve ...

    Milner, Venerable Ralph

    Layman and martyr, born at Flacsted, Hants, England, early in the sixteenth century; suffered ...

    Milo Crispin

    Monk, and cantor of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec ; wrote the lives of five of its abbots : ...

    Milopotamos

    A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Candia. Certain historians and geographers identify ...

    Miltiades, Pope Saint

    The year of his birth is not known; he was elected pope in either 310 or 311; died 10 or 11 ...

    Miltiz, Karl von

    Papal chamberlain and nuncio, b. about 1480, the son of Sigismund von Miltiz, "Landvogt" of ...

    Milwaukee

    (MILWAUKIENSIS) Established as a diocese, 28 Nov., 1843; became an archbishopric, 12 ...

    Mind

    (Greek nous ; Latin mens , German Geist , Seele ; French ame esprit ). The word ...

    Minden

    Diocese of Minden (former see of Westphalia ). Minden on the Weser is first heard of in ...

    Ming, John

    A philosopher and writer, born at Gyswyl, Unterwalden, Switzerland, 20 Sept., 1838; died at ...

    Minimi

    Minimi (or M INIMS ) are the members of the religious order founded by St. Francis of Paula. ...

    Minister

    The term minister has long been appropriated in a distinctive way to the clergy. The language ...

    Minkelers, Jean-Pierre

    Inventor of illuminating gas; b. at Maastricht, Holland, 1748; d. there 4 July, 1824. At the age ...

    Minnesota

    One of the North Central States of the American Union, lies about midway between the eastern and ...

    Mino di Giovanni

    (Called DA FIESOLE.) Born 1431; died 1484. He is inscribed in the "Libro della Matricola" of ...

    Minor

    ( Latin minor ), that which is less, or inferior in comparison with another, the term being ...

    Minor Orders

    ( Latin Ordines Minores ). The lower degrees of the hierarchy are designated by the name of ...

    Minorca

    (Minoricensis). Suffragan of Valencia, comprises the Island of Minorca, the second in size of ...

    Minsk

    (MINCENSIS) A suffragan of Mohileff, in Western Russia. The city of Minsk is situated on ...

    Mint, Papal

    The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

    Minucius Felix

    Christian apologist, flourished between 160 and 300; the exact date is not known. His ...

    Mirabilia Urbis Romæ

    The title of a medieval Latin description of the city of Rome, dating from about 1150. ...

    Miracle

    (Latin miraculum , from mirari , "to wonder"). In general, a wonderful thing, the word ...

    Miracle Plays and Mysteries

    These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian ...

    Miracles, Gift of

    The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

    Miraculous Medal

    The devotion commonly known as that of the Miraculous Medal owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a ...

    Miraeus, Aubert

    (Also called Aubert le Mire). Ecclesiastical historian, born at Brussels, 30 Nov., 1573; died ...

    Mirandola, Giovanni Francesco Pico della

    Italian philosopher, nephew of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, b. about 1469; d. 1533. Though very ...

    Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della

    Italian philosopher and scholar, born 24 February, 1463; died 17 November, 1494. He belonged to a ...

    Miridite, Abbey of

    (MIRIDITARUM, or SANCTI ALEXANDRI DE OROSHI). The name of an abbatia nullius in Albania, ...

    Miserere

    The first word of the Vulgate text of Psalm 1 (Hebrew, li). Two other Psalms (lv and lvi) begin ...

    Misericorde, Congregation of the Sisters of

    A congregation of women founded 16 January, 1848, for the purpose of procuring spiritual and ...

    Misocco and Galanca

    (MESAUCINAE ET CALANCAE). This prefecture in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, comprises the ...

    Missa Pro Populo

    The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

    Missal

    (Latin Missale from Missa , Mass), the book which contains the prayers said by the priest ...

    Mission Indians (of California)

    A name of no real ethnic significance, but used as a convenient popular and official term to ...

    Mission, Congregation of Priests of the

    A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

    Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo, Congregation of

    Founded by John Baptist Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza, Italy (d. 1 June, 1905); approved in ...

    Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales of Annecy

    Amid the many activities to which St. Francis devoted himself, he long had the desire to found a ...

    Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle

    Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

    Missions, California

    I. LOWER CALIFORNIA California became known to the world through Hernando Cortés, the ...

    Missions, Catholic

    The history of Catholic missions would necessarily begin with the missionary labours of Christ, ...

    Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada

    The French discoverers of Canada did not fail to impress the aborigines they met with a vague ...

    Missions, Catholic Indian, of the United States

    The spiritual welfare of the native tribes of America was a subject of deep concern to the ...

    Missions, Catholic Parochial

    This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

    Mississippi

    Mississippi, one of the United States of America , takes its name from the Mississippi River ...

    Missouri

    The State of Missouri was carved out of the Louisiana Territory, and derives its name from the ...

    Missouri Test-Oath

    In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

    Mithraism

    A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra. It ...

    Mitre

    Form, Material, and Use The mitre is a kind of folding-cap. It consists of two like parts, each ...

    Mittarelli, Nicola Giacomo

    (In religion GIAN BENEDETTO) A monastic historian, born 2 September, 1707, at Venice ; ...

    Mitylene

    A titulary archbishopric in the island of Lesbos. Inhabitated, first by the Pelasgians, then by ...

    Mivart, St. George Jackson

    Corresponding member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Member of the Council of ...

    Mixe Indians

    (Also Mije, Latin Mi-she) A mountain tribe in southern Mexico, noted for their extreme ...

    Mixed Marriage

    (Latin Matrimonia mixta ). Technically, mixed marriages are those between Catholics and ...

    Mixteca Indians

    (Also Misteca, Latin Mish-te-ka) One of the most important civilized tribes of southern ...

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    Mo 199

    Moab, Moabites

    In the Old Testament, the word Moab designates (1) a son of Lot by his elder daughter ( ...

    Mobile

    DIOCESE OF MOBILE ( French MOBILE, Spanish MAUBILA, Latin MOBILIENSIS). Suffragan of New ...

    Mocissus

    A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia. Procopius (De ædif., V, iv) informs us that this ...

    Mocoví Indians

    The name is also written Macobio, Mbocobi, Mocobio. They are a warlike and predatory tribe of the ...

    Modalism (Monarchianism)

    Heretics of the second and third centuries. The word, Monarchiani , was first used by Tertullian ...

    Modena

    ARCHDIOCESE OF MODENA (MUTINENSIS) Located in central Italy, between the rivers Secchia and ...

    Modernism

    Origin of the Word Theory of Theological Modernism The essential error of Modernism ...

    Modestus, Vitus, and Crescentia, Saints

    According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...

    Modigliana

    DIOCESE OF MODIGLIANA (MUTILIANENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence, in Tuscany. The city ...

    Modra

    A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicæa. The city of Modra figures only in ...

    Mohammed and Mohammedism

    I. THE FOUNDER Mohammed, "the Praised One", the prophet of Islam and the founder of ...

    Mohammedan Confraternities

    The countries where Mohammedanism prevails are full of religious associations, more or less ...

    Mohileff

    (Mohyloviensis) Latin Catholic archdiocese and ecclesiastical province in Russia. For the ...

    Mohr, Christian

    Born at Andernach, 1823; died at Cologne, 1888. He practised his profession of sculptor chiefly ...

    Mohr, Joseph

    Born at Siegburg, Rhine Province, 11 Jan., 1834; died at Munich, 7 February, 1892. Father Mohr did ...

    Moigno, François-Napoléon-Marie

    Physicist and author, b. at Guéméné (Morbihan), 15 April, 1804; d. at ...

    Molai, Jacques de

    (DE MOLAY). Born at Rahon, Jura, about 1244; d. at Paris, 18 March, 1314. A Templar at Beaune ...

    Molesme, Notre-Dame de

    A celebrated Benedictine monastery in a village of the same name, Canton of Laignes ...

    Molfetta, Terlizzi, and Giovinazzo

    (MELPHICTENSIS, TERLITIENSIS ET JUVENACENSIS) Molfetta is a city of the province of Bari, in ...

    Molière, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin

    (Properly, JEAN-BAPTISTE POQUELIN, the name by which he became known to fame having been assumed ...

    Molina, Antonio De

    A Spanish Carthusian and celebrated ascetical writer, born about 1560, at Villanueva de los ...

    Molina, Juan Ignacio

    (Mol. or Molin). Naturalist and scientist ; b. 20 July, 1740, at Guaraculen near Talca ...

    Molina, Luis de

    One of the most learned and renown theologians of the Society of Jesus, b. of noble parentage at ...

    Molinism

    The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will. This ...

    Molinos, Miguel de

    Founder of Quietism, born at Muniesa, Spain, 21 December, 1640; died at Rome, 28 December, ...

    Molitor, Wilhelm

    (Pseudonyms, ULRIC RIESLER and BENNO BRONNER) A poet, novelist, canonist and publicist, born at ...

    Molloy, Francis

    (O'MOLLOY) A theologian, grammarian born in King's County, Ireland, at the beginning of the ...

    Molloy, Gerald

    A theologian and scientist, born at Mount Tallant House, near Dublin, 10 Sept., 1834; died at ...

    Molo, Gasparo

    (he wrote his name also MOLA and MOLI) A skilful Italian goldsmith and planisher, chiefly known ...

    Moloch

    ( Hebrew Molech , king). A divinity worshiped by the idolatrous Israelites. The Hebrew ...

    Molokai

    An interesting island, one of the North Pacific group formerly known as the Sandwich Islands, or ...

    Molyneux, Sir Caryll

    Baronet of Sefton, and third Viscount Molyneux of Maryborough in Ireland, born 1624; died 1699. He ...

    Mombritius, Bonino

    A philologist, humanist, and editor of ancient writings, born 1424; died between 1482 and 1502. ...

    Monaco, Principality and Diocese of

    Situated on the Mediterranean Sea, on the skirts of the Turbie and the Tête de Chien ...

    Monad

    (From the Greek monas, monados ). Monad , in the sense of "ultimate, indivisible unit," ...

    Monarchia Sicula

    A right exercised from the beginning of the sixteenth century by the secular rulers of Sicily, ...

    Monarchians

    Heretics of the second and third centuries. The word, Monarchiani , was first used by Tertullian ...

    Monasteries in Continental Europe, Suppression of

    Under this title will be treated only the suppressions of religious houses (whether monastic in ...

    Monasteries in England, Suppression of

    From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be ...

    Monasteries, Double

    Religious houses comprising communities of both men and women, dwelling in contiguous ...

    Monastery, Canonical Erection of a

    A religious house (monastery or convent ) is a fixed residence of religious persons. It supposes, ...

    Monasticism

    Monasticism or monachism, literally the act of "dwelling alone" (Greek monos, monazein, monachos ...

    Monasticism, Eastern

    (1) Origin The first home of Christian monasticism is the Egyptian desert. Hither during ...

    Monasticism, Pre-Chalcedonian

    Egypt was the Motherland of Christian monasticism. It sprang into existence there at the ...

    Monasticism, Western

    (1) Pre-Benedictine Period The introduction of monasticism into the West may be dated from ...

    Moncada, Francisco De

    Count of Osona, Spanish historian, son of the Governor of Sardinia and Catalonia, born at ...

    Mondino dei Lucci

    Mondino (a diminutive for Raimondo; Mundinus) dei Lucci. Anatomist, b. probably at Bologna, ...

    Mondoñedo

    (Latin MONDUMETUM, or MINDON, MINDONIENSIS, also BRITONIENSIS, DUMIENSIS, and VILLABRIENSIS) ...

    Mondovi

    DIOCESE OF MONDOVÌ (MONTISREGALIS) Located in Piedmont, province of Cuneo, northern ...

    Mone, Franz

    A historian and archeologist, born at Mingolsheim near Bruchsal, Baden, 12 May, 1796; died at ...

    Moneta

    (MONETUS) A theologian, born at Cremona, Italy, date unknown; died at Bologna, 1240. He ...

    Mongolia

    The name used to designate an immense uneven plateau, part of the Chinese Empire, extending, ...

    Mongus, Peter

    ( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

    Monica, Saint

    Widow ; born of Christian parents at Tagaste, North Africa, in 333; died at Ostia, near Rome, ...

    Monism

    (From the Greek monos , "one", "alone", "unique"). Monism is a philosophical term which, ...

    Monita Secreta

    A code of instructions alleged to be addressed by Acquaviva, the fifth general of the Society, to ...

    Monk

    A monk may be conveniently defined as a member of a community of men, leading a more or less ...

    Monk of Malmesbury, The

    Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. ...

    Monogram of Christ

    By the Monogram of Christ is ordinarily understood the abbreviation of Christ's name formed by ...

    Monomotapa

    Whatever may be the etymological meaning of the word Monomotapa , the origin of which is much ...

    Monophysites and Monophysitism

    The history of this sect and of its ramifications has been summarized under E UTYCHIANISM (the ...

    Monopoli, Diocese of

    (MONOPOLITANA). A diocese in the Province of Bari, in Apulia, southern Italy. The city has a ...

    Monopoly, Moral Aspects of

    According to its etymology, monopoly ( monopolia ) signifies exclusive sale, or exclusive ...

    Monotheism

    Monotheism (from the Greek monos "only", and theos "god") is a word coined in comparatively ...

    Monothelitism and Monothelites

    (Sometimes written MONOTHELETES, from monotheletai , but the eta is more naturally ...

    Monreale

    Located in the province of Palermo, Sicily, on the skirts of Mount Caputo. The city is built in a ...

    Monroe, James

    A soldier, convert, born in Albemarle county, Virginia, U.S.A. 10 Sept., 1799; died at Orange, ...

    Monsabré, Jacques-Marie-Louis

    A celebrated pulpit orator, born at Blois, France, 10 Dec., 1827; died at Havre, 21 Feb., ...

    Monseigneur

    (From mon , "my" and seigneur , ("elder" or "lord," like Latin senior ) A French ...

    Monsell, William, Baron Emly

    Born 21 Sept., 1812; died at Tervoe, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 20 April, 1894. His father was ...

    Monsignor

    ( Dominus meus; monseigneur , My Lord). As early as the fourteenth century it was the custom ...

    Monstrance (Ostensorium)

    (From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...

    Monstrelet, Enguerrand de

    A French chronicler, born about 1390 or 1395; died in July, 1453. He was most probably a native of ...

    Mont-St-Michel

    A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Avranches, Normandy, France. It is unquestionably the ...

    Montañés, Juan Martínez

    A noted Spanish sculptor of the seventeenth century, died 1649, sometimes called "the Sevillian ...

    Montagna, Bartolomeo

    Italian painter, chief representative of the Vicenza School, b. at Orzinuovi about 1450; d. at ...

    Montagnais Indians (Chippewayans)

    A name given in error to the C HIPPEWAYANS , owing to a fancied resemblance to the ...

    Montagnais Indians (Quebec)

    French for "Mountaineers". The collective designation of a number of bands speaking dialects ...

    Montaigne, Michel-Eyquen de

    Writer, b. at the château of Montaigne, in Périgord, France, on 28 Feb., 1533; d. ...

    Montalcino

    DIOCESE OF MONTALCINO (ILCINENSIS) Montalcino is a small town about twenty miles from Siena, ...

    Montalembert, Charles-Forbes-René

    CHARLES-FORBES-RENÉ, COMTE DE MONTALEMBERT. Born in London, 15 April, 1810; died in ...

    Montalto

    DIOCESE OF MONTALTO (MONTIS ALTI) Located in Ascoli Piceno. The situation of the little town ...

    Montana

    The third largest of the United States of America , admitted to the Union 8 November, 1889; ...

    Montanists

    Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or "those among the Phrygians" ( oi ...

    Montanus, Benedictus Arias

    Orientalist, exegete, and editor of the "Antwerp Polyglot", born at Frejenal de la Sierra in ...

    Montauban

    (MONTIS ALBANI) A suffragan of Toulouse, comprises the entire department of Tarn and Garonne. ...

    Montault, Xavier Barbier De

    Born at Loudun, 6 February, 1830; died at Blaslay, Vienne ( France ), 29 March, 1901. He came of ...

    Montboissier, Blessed Peter of

    (Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

    Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Louis-Joseph

    A French general, born 28 Feb., 1712, at Candiac, of Louis-Daniel and Marie-Thérèse ...

    Monte Cassino, Abbey of

    An abbey nullius situated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine ...

    Monte Vergine

    An abbey in the province of Naples, Italy, near the town of Avellino, commanding a magnificent ...

    Montefeltro

    (FERETRANA) Located in the province of Urbino, in the Marches, Central Italy. The earliest ...

    Montefiascone

    (MONTIS FALISCI) Located in the province of Rome. The city is situated nearly 2000 feet above ...

    Montemayor, Jorge De

    (MONTEMÔR) A writer, born at Montemôr, province of Coimbra, Portugal, about 1520; ...

    Montenegro

    A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea; the territory was in ...

    Montepulciano

    DIOCESE OF MONTEPULCIANO (MONTIS POLITIANI) Diocese in the province of Siena, in Tuscany. The ...

    Monterey and Los Angeles

    DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...

    Montes Pietatis

    Montes Pietatius are charitable institutions of credit that lend money at low rates of ...

    Montesa, Military Order of

    This order was established in the Kingdom of Aragon to take the place of the Order of the ...

    Montesino, Antonio

    A Spanish missionary, date of birth unknown; died in the West Indies, 1545. Of his early life ...

    Montesinos, Luis de

    Spanish theologian, date and place of birth unknown; d. 7 Oct., 1621. He entered the Dominican ...

    Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de

    French writer and publicist, b. in the Château de la Brède near Bordeaux, 18 ...

    Monteverde, Claudio

    A distinguished musician, born at Cremona, May, 1567; died at Venice, 29 Nov., 1643. He studied ...

    Montevideo

    (MONTISVIDEI) Located in Uruguay, comprises the whole of the republic. This territory was ...

    Montfaucon, Bernard de

    French scholar, b. in 1655, at the château de Soulatge, Department of Aude, arrondissement ...

    Montfort, Simon de

    An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218. Simon (IV) de ...

    Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel

    Inventor; b. at Vidalon-lez-Annonay, Department of Ardèche, France, 26 August, 1740; d. ...

    Months, Special Devotions for

    During the Middle Ages the public functions of the Church and the popular devotions of the ...

    Montmagny, Charles Huault De

    The second French Governor of Canada, born in France towards the end of the sixteenth century, ...

    Montmirail, John de

    (MONTE-MIRABILI) Son of Andrew, Lord of Montmirail and Ferté-Gaucher, and Hildiarde ...

    Montmorency, Anne, First Duke of

    Born at Chantilly, 15 March, 1492; died at Paris, 12 November, 1567. He belonged to that family ...

    Montor, Alexis-François Artaud De

    A diplomat and historian, born at Paris, 31 July, 1772; died at Paris, 12 Nov., 1849. An ...

    Montpellier

    The Diocese of Montpellier (Montis Pessulani) comprises the department of Hérault, and is a ...

    Montreal, Archdiocese of

    Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical Province of Montreal. Suffragans: the Dioceses of ...

    Montreuil

    Charterhouse of Notre-Dame-des-Pres, at Montreuil, in the Diocese of Arras, Department of ...

    Montreuil Abbey

    A former convent of Cistercian nuns in the Diocese of Laon, now Soissons, France. Some ...

    Montyon, Antoine-Jean-Baptiste-Robert Auget, Baron de

    Famous French philanthropist; b. at Paris, 23 December, 1733; d. there 29 December, 1820. He was ...

    Moore, Arthur

    Count, b. at Liverpool, 1849; d. at Mooresfort, Tipperary, Ireland, 1904, was the son of ...

    Moore, Michael

    (Or MOOR) Priest, preacher, and professor, b. at Dublin, Ireland, 1640; d. at Paris, 22 ...

    Moore, Thomas

    Poet and biographer, b. 28 May, 1779, at Dublin, Ireland ; d. 26 February, 1852, at Devizes, ...

    Mopsuestia

    A titular see of Cilicia Secunda in Asia Minor and suffragan of Anazarbus. The founding of ...

    Moréri, Louis

    An encyclopaedist, b. at Bargemont in the Diocese of Fréjus, France, 25 March, 1643, d. at ...

    Mor, Antonis Van Dashort

    (MOOR) Commonly called ANTONIO MORO, or ANTHONIS MORE, a Dutch painter, b. at Utrecht in 1519; ...

    Moral Theology

    Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

    Morales, Ambrosio

    Spanish historian, b. at Cordova, 1513; d. in 1591. After his studies at the University of ...

    Morales, Christóbal

    A composer, born at Seville, 2 Jan., 1512; died at Málaga, 14 June, 1553. From 1 Sept., ...

    Morales, Juan Bautista

    Missionary, b. about 1597 at Ecija in Andalusia, Spain ; d. Fu-ning, China, 17 Sept., 1664. He ...

    Morales, Luis de

    Spanish painter, b. at Badajoz in Estremadura about 1509; d. at Badajoz, 1586. His life was ...

    Moralities

    ( Also: MORALITY PLAYS or MORAL PLAYS). Moralities are a development or an offshoot of the ...

    Morality

    It is necessary at the outset of this article to distinguish between morality and ethics , ...

    Moran, Francis Patrick

    Third Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Leighlinbridge, Ireland, 16 Sept., 1830; d. at Manly, Sydney, ...

    Moratín, Leandro Fernandez de

    Spanish poet and playwright, b. at Madrid, 10 March, 1760; at Paris, 21 June, 1828. He is ...

    Moravia

    ( German MÄHREN). Austrian crown land east of Bohemia. In the century before the Christian ...

    Moravian Brethren

    (MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...

    Morcelli, Stefano Antonio

    An Italian Jesuit and learned epigraphist; b. 17 January, 1737, at Chiari near Brescia ; d. ...

    More, Helen

    (DAME GERTRUDE.) Benedictine nun of the English Congregation; b. at Low Leyton, Essex, ...

    More, Henry

    Great-grandson of the martyred English chancellor ; b., 1586; d. at Watten in 1661. Having ...

    More, Thomas, Saint

    Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

    Morel, Gall

    Poet, scholar, aesthete, and educationist, b. at St. Fiden, Switzerland, on 24 March, 1803; d. at ...

    Morell, Juliana

    Dominican nun, b. at Barcelona, Spain, 16 February, 1594; d. at the convent of the Dominican ...

    Morelos, José María

    Mexican patriot, b. at Valladolid (now called Morelia in his honour ), Mexico, on 30 September, ...

    Moreto y Cabaña, Augustine

    Spanish dramatist; b. at Madrid, 9 April, 1618, d. at Toledo, 28 Octoher, 1669. He received what ...

    Morgagni, Giovanni Battista

    Called by Virchow, the "Father of Modern Pathology", a distinguished Italian physician and ...

    Morgan, Venerable Edward

    Welsh priest, martyr, b. at Bettisfield, Hanmer, Flintshire, executed at Tyburn, London, 26 ...

    Morghen, Raffaello

    Italian engraver, b. at Portici, 19 June, 1768 (1761?); d. at Florence, 8 April, 1833. His ...

    Moriarty, David

    Bishop and pulpit orator, b. in Ardfert, Co. Kerry, in 1812; d. 1 October, 1877. He received ...

    Morigi, Michaelangelo (Caravaggio)

    A Milanese painter, b. at Caravaggio in 1569, d. at Porto d' Ercole in 1609. His family name was ...

    Morimond, Abbey of

    Fourth daughter of Cîteaux situated in Champagne, Diocese of Langres , France ; was ...

    Morin, Jean

    A French priest of the Oratory, b. at Blois, in 1591, d. at Paris, 28 Feb., 1659. According to ...

    Mormons

    ( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...

    Morocco

    (Prefecture Apostolic of Morocco). The country known as Morocco (from Marrakesh, the name of ...

    Morone, Giovanni

    Cardinal, Bishop of Modena, b. at Milan 25 Jan., 1509; d. at Rome, 1 Dec., 1580. He belonged ...

    Moroni, Gaetano

    The author of the well-known "Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica", b. at Rome, 17 ...

    Moroni, Giovanni Battista

    A painter, b. at Bondo, near Albino, in the territory of Bergamo, between 1520 and 1525; d. at ...

    Morris, John

    Canon, afterwards Jesuit, F.S.A., b. in India, 4 July, 1826; d. at Wimbledon, 22 Oct., 1893, ...

    Morris, John Brande

    Born at Brentford, Middlesex, 4 September, 1812; died at Hammersmith, London, 9 April, 1880; he ...

    Morris, Martin Ferdinand

    Lawyer and jurist, b. 3 December, 1834, at Washington, D.C.; d. 12 September, 1909, at Washington, ...

    Morse

    ( Latin morsus ). Also called the MONILLE, FIRMULA, FIRMULE, PECTOIRALE, originally the ...

    Morse, Venerable Henry

    Martyr ; b. in 1595 in Norfolk; d. at Tyburn, 1 Feb., 1644. He was received into the church at ...

    Mortification

    One of the methods which Christian ascesticism employs in training the soul to virtuous and ...

    Mortmain

    (Old Fr., morte meyn ), dead-hand, or "such a state of possession of land as makes it ...

    Morton, John

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, b. in Dorsetshire about 1420, d. at Knowle, Kent, 15 Sept., ...

    Morton, Robert

    English priest and martyr, b. at Bawtry, Yorks, about 1548; executed in Lincoln's Inn Fields, ...

    Mosaic Legislation

    The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...

    Mosaics

    Mosaics, as a term, according to the usual authorities is derived through generations of gradual ...

    Moschus, Johannes

    ( ho tou Moschou , son of Moschus) A monk and ascetical writer, b. about 550 probably at ...

    Moscow

    (Russian Moskva ). The ancient capital of Russia and the chief city of the government ...

    Moses

    Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part ...

    Moses Bar Cephas

    A Syriac bishop and writer, b. at Balad about 813; d. 12 Feb., 903. He is known through a ...

    Moses Maimonides, Teaching of

    Moses ben Maimun (Arabic, Abu Amran Musa), Jewish commentator and philosopher, was born of ...

    Moses of Chorene

    (MOSES CHORENENSIS) Perhaps the best known writer of Armenia, called by his countrymen "the ...

    Mossul

    The seat of a Chaldean archdiocese, a Syrian diocese, and an Apostolic Mission. The origin of ...

    Most Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the

    Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

    Most Precious Blood, Feast of the

    For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

    Most Pure Heart of Mary, Feast of the

    In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the "Inner Life of Mary", ...

    Mostar and Markana-Trebinje

    (MANDATRIENSIS, MARCANENSIS ET TRIBUNENSIS) When at the Berlin Congress (1878) ...

    Mosynoupolis

    Titular see, suffragan of Trajanopolis in Rhodope. A single bishop is known, Paul, who assisted ...

    Motet

    A short piece of music set to Latin words, and sung instead of, or immediately after, the ...

    Motolinia, Toribio de Benavente

    Franciscan missionary, b. at Benavente, Spain, at the end of the fifteenth century; d. in the ...

    Motu Proprio

    The name given to certain papal rescripts on account of the clause motu proprio (of his own ...

    Mouchy, Antoine de

    (Called DEMOCHARES.) Theologian and canonist, b. 1494, at Ressons-sur-Matz, near Beauvais, in ...

    Moufang, Franz Christoph Ignaz

    Theologian, b. at Mainz, 17 Feb., 1817; d. there, 27 Feb., 1890. His early studies were made at ...

    Moulins

    D IOCESE OF M OULINS (M OLINENSIS ). Suffragan of Sens -- comprises the entire ...

    Mount Athos

    Athos is a small tongue of land that projects into the Aegean Sea, being the eastern-most of the ...

    Mount Calvary, Congregations of

    I. DAUGHTERS OF MOUNT CALVARY Founded in 1619 by Virginia Centurione (d. 1651), daughter of the ...

    Mount Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of

    This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386 under the title ...

    Mount Saint Mary's College

    Mount St. Mary's College , the second oldest among the Catholic collegiate institutions in the ...

    Movers, Franz Karl

    Exegete and Orientalist, b. at Koesfeld, Westphalia, 17 July, 1806; d. at Breslau, 28 Sept., ...

    Moxos Indians

    (MOYOS INDIANS). According to one authority, they are named from Musu, their Quichua name; ...

    Moy De Sons, Karl Ernst, Freiherr Von

    A jurist, born 10 August, 1799, at Munich ; died 1 August, 1867, at Innsbruck (Tyrol). He ...

    Moye, Ven. John Martin

    Priest of the Diocese of Metz, founder of the Sisters of Divine Providence, missionary in China, ...

    Moylan, Francis

    Bishop of Cork, born at Cork, 1739; died in 1815. He was the son of a rich merchant. As the ...

    Moylan, Stephen

    An American patriot and merchant, born in Ireland in 1734; died at Philadelphia, 11 April, ...

    Mozambique

    (Mocambique) The former official and still usual name given to the Portuguese possessions on ...

    Mozarabic Rite

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. History and Origin; II. Manuscripts and ...

    Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus

    One of the greatest musical geniuses in history, born at Salzburg, Austria, 27 January, 1756; died ...

    Mozetena Indians

    A group of some half dozen tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock upon the headwaters of ...

    Mozzetta

    A short, cape-shaped garment, covering the shoulders and reaching only to the elbow, with an open ...

    Mozzi, Luigi

    Controversialist, born at Bergamo, 26 May, 1746; died near Milan, 24 June, 1813. He entered the ...

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    Mr 1

    Mrak, Ignatius

    The second Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A., born 16 October, 1818, in Hotovle, in the Diocese of ...

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    Mu 31

    Muchar, Albert Anton Von

    An historian, born at Linez, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1781; died at Graz, Styria, 6 June, 1849. He was ...

    Mulhall, Michael George

    Statistician, b. in Dublin, 29 September, 1829; d. there 13 Dec., 1900. He was educated at the ...

    Mulholland, St. Clair Augustine

    Born at Lisburn, Co. Antrium, Ireland, 1 April 1839; died at Philadelphia, 17 Feb., 1910. ...

    Mullanphy, John

    Merchant, philanthropist, b. near Enniskillen, Co. Fremanagh, Ireland, 1758; d. at St. Louis, ...

    Mullock, John T.

    Bishop of St. John's, Newfoundland, born in 1807 at Limerick, Ireland ; died at St. John's, ...

    Mundwiler, Fintan

    Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of St. Meinrad, Indiana, born at Dietikon in Switzerland, ...

    Munich-Freising

    ARCHDIOCESE OF MUNICH-FREISING (MONASENSIS ET FRISINGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bavaria. This ...

    Munkács

    Diocese in Hungary, of Greek Catholic Rite, suffragan of Gran. It dates from the fifteenth ...

    Mura, Saint

    Born in Co. Donegal, Ireland, about 550. He was appointed Abbot of Fahan by St. Columba. The ...

    Muratori, Luigi Antonio

    Librarian in Modena, one of the greatest scholars of his time, b. 21 Oct., 1672; d. 23 Jan., ...

    Muratorian Canon

    Also called the Muratorian Fragment, after the name of the discoverer and first editor, L. A. ...

    Murder

    ( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

    Muret, Marc-Antoine

    French humanist, b. at Muret, near Limoges, in 1526; d. at Rome, in 1585. He studied at Poitiers ...

    Muri

    (MURI-GRIES) An abbey of monks of the Order of S. Benedict, which flourished for over ...

    Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban

    Spanish painter ; b. at Seville, 31 December, 1617; d. there 5 April, 1682. His family surname ...

    Murner, Thomas

    Greatest German satirist of the sixteenth century, b. at Oberehnheim, Alsace, 24 Dec., 1475; d. ...

    Muro-Lucano

    (MURANENSIS) Located in the province of Potenza, in Basilicata, southern Italy. The town is ...

    Murray, Daniel

    An Archbishop of Dublin, b. 1768, at Sheepwalk, near Arklow, Ireland ; d. at Dublin. He was ...

    Murray, John O'Kane

    Physician, historian, b. in County Antrim, Ireland, 12 Dec., 1847; d. at Chicago, Illinois, ...

    Murray, Patrick

    Theologian, b. Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland, 18 November, 1811; d. 15 Nov., 1882, in ...

    Museums, Christian

    Though applicable to collections composed of Christian objects representative of all epochs, ...

    Mush

    An Armenian Catholic see, comprising the sanjaks of Mush and Seert, in the vilayet of Bitlis. It ...

    Mush, John

    (Alias RATCLIFFE) A priest, b. in Yorkshire, 1551 or 1552; d. at Wenge, Co. Bucks, 1612 or ...

    Music of the Mass

    Under this heading will be considered exclusively the texts of the Mass (and not, therefore, the ...

    Music, Ecclesiastical

    By this term is meant the music which, by order or with the approbation of ecclesiastical ...

    Musical Instruments in Church Services

    For almost a thousand years Gregorian chant, without any instrumental or harmonic addition, was ...

    Musso, Cornelius

    Friar Minor Conventual, Bishop of Bitonto, prominent at the Council of Trent ; born at Piacenza ...

    Musti

    A titular see of Proconsular Africa, suffragan of Carthage. This town, which was a Roman ...

    Musuros, Markos

    A learned Greek humanist, born 1470 at Retimo, Crete; died 1517 at Rome. The son of a rich ...

    Mutis, José Celestino

    Eminent naturalist and scientist in South America, b. at Cadiz, Spain , 6 April, 1732; d. at ...

    Muzzarelli, Alfonso

    A learned Italian Jesuit, b. 22 August, 1749, at Ferrara ; d. 25 May, 1813, at Paris. He ...

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    My 12

    Mylasa

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, or Stauropolis, in Caria. This city, the ...

    Myndus

    A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. This city, known through its coins and ...

    Myra

    A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor. The city was from time immemorial one of the chief places ...

    Myrina

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. Herodotus (I, 149) mentions it as one of the ...

    Myriophytum

    A titular see of Thracia Prima and suffragan of Heraclea. The early history of this city is ...

    Mysore

    (MAISOUR); DIOCESE OF MYSORE (MYSURIENSIS) Diocese in India, suffragan to Pondicherry, ...

    Mysteries and Miracle Plays

    These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian ...

    Mystery

    (Greek mysterion , from myein , "to shut", "to close".) This term signifies in general ...

    Mystical Body of the Church

    The analogy borne by any society of men to an organism is sufficiently manifest. In every ...

    Mystical Marriage

    In the Old and the New Testament , the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations ...

    Mystical Theology

    Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

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