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Geography and the Church

The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never forgot to acknowledge how greatly their science was indebted to the Church. Of course the beginnings of all profane knowledge can be traced back to the time when " priest " and "scholar" meant one and the same thing. But with geography especially the Church had very close relations -- relations which are readily explained by the nature of this science and the course of its evolution.

The object of geography is to extend our knowledge of the earth's surface and to determine the position of our planet in relation to cosmic and physical phenomena. For the fulfilment of its first and more important task, the accumulation of geographic information, the prerequisites were at hand even in the earlier days. It needed only intrepid men to penetrate from known to unknown countries. But the powerful incentive of a purely scientific interest was still lacking. The motives that led to geographical progress at that time were greed and lust of conquest, as well as a far nobler motive than these -- the spread of Christianity. To this mission the most intelligent, the most upright, and the most persevering of all explorers devoted themselves. Consequently, it was they who achieved the greatest success in the field of discovery during the Middle Ages and far into later days, right up to the time when modern scientific research became its successor. The second purpose, geographical theory, commonly called universal geography, could only be profitably attempted after adequate progress had been made in the auxiliary sciences of astronomy, mathematics, and physics. But herein, too, medieval clerical scholars were the first to show their clearsightedness. For them there was no more attractive pursuit than to trace the vestiges of the Creator in all the marvellous harmony of the universe. How, then, was it possible that the laws governing this globe of ours could escape their search for truth ? Of course, they could only have a presentiment of these laws but frequently enough their ideas came very close to the precise results of the great modern scientists, equipped with the best of modern instruments. Again, one of the greatest of them all was a theologian -- Copernicus.

Under these circumstances it was inevitable that the part contributed by the Church to this branch of human knowledge should be of great importance, as the most distinguished geographers bear witness. We may therefore rightfully present a coherent picture thereof. To this end we have divided the subject according to the following aspects:

  • I. The Influence of the Activity of the Church on the Discoveries of New Lands and Races during the Middle Ages ;
  • II. The Views and Statements of Medieval Theologians ;
  • III. The Opening up of Foreign Lands by Missionaries from the Age of Discovery down to the Present Day, and the Part Borne by Catholic Scholars in Modern Geographical Research.

I.

The confines of the world as known to geographers at the beginning of the Christian Era are shown in the famous geography of the Alexandrian, Claudius Ptolemæus (150 A. D. ). Southwards they extended to the White Nile and the northern boundary of the Sudan ; in the west they included the Canary Isles and the British Isles; to the north they reached as far as the German Seas and thence over the Low Countries of Russia and the Aral Sea to the sources of the Indus and the Ganges. In the Orient they took in Arabia and the coasts of India and Indo-China as far as the Archipelago. Their certain knowledge, however, did not extend beyond the boundaries of the Roman Empire when it was at its zenith. At the very time when this empire was falling to pieces, it was overrun by the peaceful missionaries of the new spiritual power, Christianity. Even in the first few hundred years they found their way to the Far East. According to tradition, the Apostle Thomas himself reached Meliapur. In any case Christianity had been spread in Malabar, on the coast of Coromandel, in Socotra and Ceylon as early as the fourth century, as Cosmas Indicopleustes informs us in his "Christian Topography", a very important work from a geographic standpoint. Even in Abyssinia and in Southern Arabia the Faith found a footing. Simultaneously the frontier lands on the Rhine and the Danube were opened up. The subsequent centuries were spent in exploring the North. To this end a centre of operations was established which, for the purpose of the scientific discoverer could not have been more wisely selected in the conditions then prevalent. Then followed the foundation of monasteries in the British Isles which sent out in all directions their monks, well equipped with learning and well fitted to become the pioneers of culture. To these missionaries we owe the earliest geographical accounts of the northern countries and of the customs, religions, and languages of their inhabitants. They had to define the boundaries of the newly established dioceses of the Church. Their notes, therefore, contained the most valuable information, though the form was somewhat crude, and Ritter very justly traces the source and beginning of modern geography in these regions back to the "Acta Sanctorum". The world is indebted to the diaries of St. Ansgar (died 865) for the first description of Scandinavia. The material in them was employed later on by Adam of Bremen in his celebrated work "De situ Daniæ". The accounts of these countries that Archbishop Axel of Lund (died 1201), the founder of Copenhagen, furnished to the historian Saxo Grammaticus were also of great value. Reports brought in by monks enabled Alfred the Great (901) to compile the first description of Slavonic lands. Then followed the Chronicle of Regino of Prüm (9O7-968) -- a work equally important for the historian and the geographer, as it contains the reports of St. Adalbert, who made his way into Russia in 961. Of similar merit are the historical works of the monk Nestor of Kiev (died 1100) and the country pastor Helmold (died 1170). Bishops Thietmar of Merseburg (died 1019) and Vincent Kadlubeck of Cracow (1206-18) bring us the earliest information regarding the geography of Poland, while the letters of Bishop Otto of Bamberg contain the earliest description of Pomerania. In like manner the geography of Prussia, Finland, Lapland, and Lithuania begins with the evangelization of these countries. And even if it be difficult today to estimate at their proper value the discovery of these regions now so familiar to us, the first voyages of civilized Europeans on the high seas, which started from Ireland, will always challenge our admiration. Groping from island to island, the Irish monks reached the Faroe Isles in the seventh century and Iceland in the eighth. They thus showed the Northmen the route which was to bring about the first communication between Europe and America, and finally set foot on Greenland (1112). The earliest accounts of these settlements, with which, owing to unpropitious political and physical conditions, permanent intercourse could not be maintained, we owe to Canon Adam of Bremen , to the reports sent by the bishops to their metropolis at Drontheim (Trondhjem), and to the Vatican archives.

Meanwhile, communication with the East had never ceased. Palestine was an object of interest to all Christendom, to which the eyes of the West had been turned ever since the days of the Apostles. Thousands and thousands of pilgrims flocked thither in bands. Not a few of them possessed sufficient ability to describe intelligently their experiences and impressions. Thus the so-called "Itineraries", or guide-books, by no means confined themselves to a description of the Sacred Places. Besides giving exact directions for the route, they embraced a great deal of information about the neighbouring countries and peoples, about Asia Minor, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and even India. These works were very popular reading and undoubtedly infused an entirety new element into the study of geography in those days. A still greater stimulus was given to it by the Crusades -- those magnificent expeditions which, inspired and supported by the Church, brought huge masses of people into contact with the Orient. They made a knowledge of the lands they sought to conquer, a commonplace in Europe. They were the means of spreading the geographic theories and methods of Arabian scholarship, at that time quite advanced, thereby placing the research of Western scholars on entirely new bases, and putting before them new aims and objects. Finally, in the effort to secure new allies for the liberation of the Holy Land, they brought about intercourse with the rulers of Central Asia. This intercourse was of the utmost importance in the history of medieval discoveries.

Stray communities of Christians were scattered throughout the interior of Asia, even in the early centuries, thanks to the zeal of the Nestorians. It is true that they were separated from Rome and were suppressed by rigorous persecutions in China as early as the eighth century. But even during the Crusades some Mongolian tribes showed such familiarity with the new faith that the popes had great hopes of an alliance with these nations. The general council held at Lyons in 1245 under Innocent IV decided to send out legates. Men duly qualified for these missions were found among the newly established Orders of St. Francis and St. Dominic. The Dominican Ascalinus in 1245 reached the court of the Khan of Persia on the eastern shore of the Black Sea after a voyage of fifty-nine days, but his errand was fruitless. His companion, Simon of St-Quentin, wrote an account of the voyage, as did also his great contemporary, Vincent of Beauvais. The enterprises of the Franciscans were politically more successful, and far more productive of scientific results. Under the leadership of John de Piano Carpini of Perugia, they travelled through Germany, Bohemia, Poland, and Southern Russia as far as the Volga, and thence to the Court of the Grand Khan at Karakorum (1246). Their reports embrace the political conditions, ethnography, history, and geography of the Tatar lands. They were excellently supplemented by Friar Benedict of Poland of the same order in regard to the Slav countries. Both these works, however, are surpassed by the Franciscan William Rubruck (Rubruquis) of Brabant, whose report Peschel pronounces to be "the greatest geographical masterpiece of the Middle Ages ". He was the first to settle the controversy between medieval geographers as to the Caspian Sea. He ascertained that it was an inland lake and had not, as was supposed for a long while, an outlet into the Arctic Ocean. He was the first Christian geographer to bring back reliable information concerning the position of China and its inhabitants. He knew the ethnographic relations of the Hungarians, Bashkirs, and Huns. He knew of the remains of the Gothic tongue on the Tauric Chersonese, and recognized the differences between the characters of the different Mongolian alphabets. The glowing pictures he drew of the wealth of Asia first attracted the attention of the seafaring Venetians and Genoese to the East. Merchants followed in the path he had pointed out, among them Marco Polo, the most renowned traveller of all times. His book describing his journeys was for centuries the sole source of knowledge for the geographical and cartographical representations of Asia. Side by side with Marco Polo, friars and monks pursued untiringly the work of discovery. Among them was Hayton, Prince of Annania (Armenia), afterwards Abbot of Poitiers, who in 1307 made the first attempt at a systematic geography of Asia in his "Historia orientalis". Also the Franciscans stationed in India who followed the more convenient sea route to China at the end of the thirteenth century. Special credit is due to John of Monte Corvino (1291-1328), Odoric of Pordenone (1317-31), whose work was widely circulated in the writings of JohnMandeville, and John of Marignolla. Of India, also, the missionaries gave fuller information. Menentillus was the first to prove the peninsular shape of the country and, in contradiction to Ptolemy, described the Indian Ocean as a body of water open to the South. The Dominican Jordanus Catalani (1328) records his observations on the physical peculiarities and natural history of India. At the same time more frequent visits were made to Northern Africa and Abyssinia ; and towards the middle of the fourteenth century settlements were made in the Canary Isles.

However, the immense tracts of land in the interior of Asia were soon closed again to scientific investigation. With the fall of the Mongol dynasty, which had been favourably disposed to Christians, China became forbidden ground to Europeans. But the East remained the goal of Western trade, to which the missions had shown the way. The rich lands on the Indian Ocean remained open, and henceforth they were the objective point of all the great exploring expeditions, undertaken by the sea-loving Portuguese, which culminated in the discovery of America by Columbus. It is well known how much these undertakings were furthered by the all-pervading idea of spreading Christianity. The main object of Henry the Navigator in equipping his fleet with the revenues of the Order of Christ was the conversion of the heathen. He was working to the same purpose on the continent of Africa, where he sought to establish communications with the Christian ruler of Abyssinia. His efforts led to the circumnavigation of Africa by his successors, and to the systematic exploration of the highland states of East Africa begun by Portuguese missionaries in the sixteenth century. Columbus, too, was regarded in his time as pre-eminently the envoy of the Church. Furthermore, the strange results expected from his expedition and his own projects were the last echo of all the aspirations of medieval Christendom, which contemplated a way to the Kings of Cathay (China) whose disposition to embrace Christianity had been repeatedly emphasized by Toscanelli, as well as the discovery of the Earthly Paradise, which Columbus placed somewhere near the gulf of Paria, the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre by means of the treasures he expected to find, and, finally, the extension of the Kingdom of God over the entire earth before the approaching end of the world.

II.

Philosophical speculation also had a share in the magnificent success that crowned the practical work of the Middle Ages . Although geography as a science for its own sake was no more the chief purpose of this speculation than exploration for its own sake was that of the missionaries, it had arrived at truths that are admitted today, even when tested by the light of modern research -- truths that must be recognized as real progress. As might be expected, in the early centuries of the Church men strove above all things to reconcile deductions from the observation of the facts of nature with the beliefs that were then supposed to be taught in Holy Scripture . The earliest Christian literature was so predominantly exegetical that the teachings of the ancients were always tested in order to see whether they were in harmony with Holy Writ . Hence it was that several of the Fathers pronounced in favour of the theory of the flatness of the earth's surface which had been put forward in later Roman cosmographies. Among the advocates of this error were Theodore of Mopsuestia, St. John Chrysostom, Severian of Gabala, Procopius of Gaza, and others. Cosmas Indicopleustes advanced an especially grotesque elaboration of this doctrine. In his exaggeratedly narrow interpretation of the phraseology of Holy Writ he claimed that the world was constructed in the shape of the Tabernacle of the Covenant in the Old Testament . But long before his day there were men who believed in the sphericity of the earth. It was recognized by Clement and Origen ; Ambrose and Basil also upheld it. Gregory of Nyssa even sought to explain the origin of the earth by means of a physical experiment, and advanced hypotheses that come very close to the modern theories of rotation. Augustine declared that the doctrine of the sphericity of the earth in no way conflicted with Holy Writ , and later authors, especially the Venerable Bede , also attempted to prove it on scientific grounds. For a considerable period the question of the Antipodes was beset with controversy. It was absolutely denied by Lactantius and several others, principally on religious grounds, as the people of the Antipodes could not have been saved. The learned Irishman, Bishop Virgilius, patron saint of Salzburg (died 784) was the first to openly express the opinion that there were men living beyond the ocean. Individual physiographical phenomena also began to come under the observation of the learned, such as the influence of the moon on the tides, the erosive action of the sea, the circulation of water, the origin of hot springs and volcanoes, the division of land and water, the position of the sun at different latitudes. The learning and opinions of the first few hundred years were comprehensively set forth in the tremendous work of Isidore of Seville (died 636), the "Etymologiæ" or "Origines", which for a long time enjoyed unlimited authority. During the next few centuries, which were comparatively barren of literary achievements, the only men to attain any celebrity, besides Bede and Virgilius of Salzburg, were the anonymous geographer of Ravenna (c. 670), the Irish monk Dicuil, author of the well-known "Liber de mensurâ Orbis terræ" (c. 825), and the learned Pope Sylvester (999-1003), otherwise known as Gerbert of Aurillac, the most illustrious astronomer of his century. The oldest cartographic documents we have also date from the same period. They rely for their information on the earth's surface substantially on the Roman methods of delineation. The lost map of the world as known to the Romans can now be reconstructed only by means of the medieval Mappœ mundi; consequently, they exhibit all the deficiencies of the model they followed; they are circular in plan and were drawn neither on projection nor according to scale, the boundaries of the provinces being indicated by straight lines. The central point was in the Ægean Sea; at the time of the Crusades it was transferred to Jerusalem, the East being at the top of the maps. In addition to adhering to the Roman form, these maps have preserved for us also the contents of the Roman maps; and therein lies the principal value of these interesting documents. They were often draughted with the greatest and most artistic care. Especial importance attaches to the map of the world made by the Spanish monk Beatus. Numerous copies of this show the entire area of the globe as known in 776 after Christ. Of the big wall maps only those in the cathedral at Hereford and the nunnery at Ebsdorf have survived. Both of them are of the latter half of the thirteenth century and are representative of the ancient type of map. Small atlases were largely circulated in cosmographical codices. These are known as Macrobius atlases, Zone atlases, Ranulf atlases, and so forth. Special maps have also come down to us; two of them, showing south-eastern Europe with Western Asia and Palestine are even attributed to St. Jerome. There is a representation of Palestine in mosaic in the church at Madaba; this dates from the middle of the sixth century. The English monk, Matthew Paris , draughted same modern maps in the thirteenth century which were quite free from the influence of Ptolemy and the Arabians.

But geographical problems made great and unexpected progress when they received a more scientific basis. This basis was provided by the scholastics when they made the Aristotelean system the starting-point of all their philosophical researches. Their thorough logical training and their strict critical method gave to the work of these commentators on Aristotle the value of original research, which strove to comprehend the entire contemporary science of nature, As at the same time the Almagest of Ptolemy was brought to light again by the presbyter, Gerard of Cremona (1114-87), there was not a single problem of modern physical and mathematical geography the solution of which was not thus attempted. The fact that the writings of Aristotle and Ptolemy, on which they founded their investigations, had already passed through the hands of Arabian scholars, who, however, probably received them at some time from Syrian priests, proved of advantage to the consequent geographical discussions. The most eminent representative of physical studies was Albertus Magnus ; of mathematics, Roger Bacon . Their precursor, William of Conches , had already given evidence of independent conception of the facts of nature in his "Philosophia Mundi". Also Alexander Neckham (1150 to about 1227), Abbot of Cirencester, whose "Liber de naturâ rerum" contains the earliest record of the use of the mariner's compass in navigation and a list of remarkable springs, rivers, and lakes. Blessed Albertus Magnus (1193-1280), a master with whom in the universality of his knowledge only Alexander von Humboldt is comparable, opened up to his contemporaries the entire field of physiography, by means of his admirable exposition of Aristotle, laid the foundations of climatology, botanical geography, and, in a certain sense, even of comparative geography. His work "De cœlo et mundo" treats of the earth as a whole; his "libri meteororum" and "De passionibus aeris" include meteorology, hydrography, and seismology. In the "De naturâ locorum" he enlarges upon the system of the zones and the relations between man and the earth. He furnished proofs of the sphericity of our planet that are still popularly repeated today; be calculated accurately the duration of the day and the seasons in the different quarters of the globe. Ebb and flow, volcanology, the formation of mountain-ranges and continents -- all these subjects furnish him material for clever deductions. He carefully recorded the shifting of coastlines, which men at that time already associated with the secular upheaving and subsidence of continents. He also ascertained the frequency of earthquakes in the neighbourhood of the ocean, He closely observed fossilized animals. He knew that the direction of the axes of mountain-ranges influenced the climate of Europe, and, on the authority of Arabian writers, he was the first to refute the old error that the intertropical surface of the earth must necessarily be quite parched. His fellow-friar, Vincent of Beauvais (died 1264), also proved himself to be a very keen observer of nature. A great mass of geographical material is stored up in his "Speculum naturale". Among other things he recognized that mountain-ranges constantly lose in height, owing to the influence of climate and of rain, and that in high altitudes the temperature falls because of the decrease of atmospheric density. Finally, we must mention the original views of St. Thomas Aquinas on geography, as well as those of the laymen Ristoro of Arezzo, Brunetto Latini (1210-94), his great disciple, Dante (1266-1321), and, lastly the "Book of Nature " by Conrad of Megenberg, canon of Ratisbon (1309-1378). For all of these Albertus Magnus had opened the door to the rich treasure-house of Greek and Arabian learning. Still more far-reaching in their results were the labours of the scholars who applied themselves principally to mathematical geography. At the bead of them all stands Roger Bacon , the "Doctor Mirabilis" of the Order of St. Francis (1214-94). Columbus was emboldened to carry out his great project on the strength of Bacon's assertion that India could be reached by a westerly voyage -- a claim based on mathematical computation. Even before Ptolemy's "Geography" had been rediscovered, Bacon attempted to sketch a map, determining mathematically the positions of places, and using Ptolemy's Almagest, the descriptions of Alfraganus, and the Alphonsine Tables. Peschel pronounces this to be "the greatest achievement of the scholastics ". Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly (1350-1425), whose "Imago Mundi" was also a favourite book of Columbus's, founded it on Bacon's works. It is to him and Cardinal Filiaster that Western civilization owes the first Latin translation of Ptolemy's "Geography", which Jacopus Angelus finished and dedicated to Pope Alexander V (1409-10). The circulation of this book created a tremendous revolution, which was particularly beneficial to the development of cartography for centuries thereafter. As early as 1427 the Dane Claudius Clavus added to Filiaster's priceless manuscript of Ptolemy's work his map of Northern Europe, the oldest map of the North which we possess. Domnus Nicolaus Germanus , a Benedictine (of Reichenbach?) (1466), was the first scholar who modernized Ptolemy by means of new maps and made him generally accessible. The Benedictine Andreas Walsperger (1448) made a map of the world in the medieval style. That of the Camaldolese Fra Mauro (1457) is the most celebrated of all monuments of medieval cartography. It was already enriched by data furnished in Ptolemy's work. The map of Germany designed by Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64), a pupil of Toscanelli (1387-1492), was printed in 1491. This prelate was the teacher of Peuerbach (1432-61), who in turn was the master of Regiomontanus (1436-67), the most illustrious astronomer since Ptolemy. Cardinal Bessarion enabled Regiomontanus to study Greek, and Pope Sixtus IV (1474) entrusted the reformation of the Calendar to him. We must also mention Æneas Sylvius (afterwards Pope Pius II ) and the papal secretaries Poggio and Flavio Biondo, who made several valuable contributions to the science of geography, also Cardinal Bembo and the Carthusian Reisch (1467-1525).

III.

In order to set forth properly the achievements in discovery and research in modern times by Catholic scholars, we adopt Peschel's arrangement. He divides this period of the development of geography into two main epochs:

  • (1) That of discovery, up to the middle of the seventeenth century;
  • (2) That, of geographical measurement, from 1650 down to the present day.

We cannot set down all the names of priests and missionaries which we find in both these periods. Their chief usefulness lay in their contributions to the general knowledge of various countries and races. But they also made contributions of the greatest value to the theoretical development of our science. They were the first and foremost promoters of many studies auxiliary to geography that sprang Up in the course of time, such as ethnology, meteorology, volcanology, and so forth.

(1)

Even on their earliest voyages the great discoverers took with them learned priests. These men wrote glowing accounts of the wonders they saw in the newly discovered lands to their brethren at home, so that they might spread the information broadcast. In a short time monastic settlements sprang up in the great colonial possessions of Spain and Portugal. The Dominicans were the first missionaries to America, and Franciscans are heard of in India as early as 1500, while the Augustinians accompanied Magellan to the Philippines in 1521. They were equipped with the best available aids and assistants. Among the Jesuits especially these received a thorough and systematic training. The Jesuits established missions on the Congo, in 1547, in Brazil, in 1549, in Abyssinia, 1555, in South Africa, 1559, in Peru, 1568, in Mexico, 1572, in Paraguay, 1586, and in Chile, 1591. They even penetrated into the old heathen civilizations of Japan (1549) and China (1563).

Soon after the discovery of the West Indies, the Hieronymite Fray Roman wrote a valuable study of the mythology of their inhabitants, which Ferdinand Columbus incorporated in his "Vida del Almirande". It became the corner-stone of American ethnology. The Dominican Bias de Castillo explored the crater of Masaya in Nicaragua, in 1538, which Oviedo also visited and described later. The much-admired work "De rebus oceanicis et novo orbe" was written by Peter Martyr d'Anghierra (1475-1526), prior of Granada, and a friend of Columbus. It is especially noteworthy for its intelligent observations on ocean currents and volcanoes, which its author doubtless derived from missionaries. A most signal contribution was the "Historia natural y moral de las Indias" (1588), by the Jesuit José d'Acosta (1539-1600), who lived in Peru from 1571 to 1588, and proved himself one of the most brilliant writers on the natural history of the New World and the customs of the Indians. The first thorough exploration of Brazil was made by Jesuit missionaries, under Father Ferre (1599-1632) and others. Starting from Quito, Franciscans visited the region around the source of the Amazon in 1633. Father Laureano de la Cruz penetrated as far as the River Napo in 1647, and in 1650 made a journey by boat as far as the Pará River.

To missionaries, also, we owe important information concerning the interior of Africa during the sixteenth, and at the beginning of the seventeenth, century. The Portuguese priests Alvarez and Bermúdez accompanied the embassy of King Emanuel to King David III of Abyssinia. They sent home valuable reports regarding the country. They were followed by the Jesuits. A. Ternández crossed Southern Abyssinia, as far as Melinde, in 1613, and set foot in regions which until recently were closed to the Europeans. Father Paez (1603) and Father Lobo (1623) were the first to reach the source of the Blue Nile. As early as the middle of the seventeenth century the Jesuits drew a map of Abyssinia on the information supplied by these two men and by Fathers Almeida, Méndez, and Télez. It was the best map of Abyssinia until the time of Abbadie (1810-97). At the request of Bishop Migliore of S. Marco, the Portuguese Duarte López (1591) wrote an important description of the Congo territory. The "Etiopia Oriental" (1609) by the Dominican Juan dos Santos was an authority on the lake country and eastern Central Africa until Livingstone's transcontinental expedition. The Jesuit missionaries Machado, Affonso, and Paiva in 1630 even thought of establishing communication between Abyssinia and the Congo territory. The Arabian Leo Africanus, whom Pope Leo X had educated, and who was named after him, wrote a book describing the Sudan. It was published by Ramusio in 1552 and was considered the only reliable authority on this country till the nineteenth century. More careful research led to the sending of missionaries to Central Asia. The Augustinian González de Mendoza made the first really intelligible map of China in 1585, and Father Benedict Goes opened the land route thither, after a perilous journey from India, in 1602. Thereupon the Jesuits Ricci and Schall, both learned mathematicians and astronomers, prepared the cartographic survey of the country. Ricci (1553-1610), as the "geographer of China ", is justly compared to Marco Polo, the "discoverer of China ". Using his notes, Father Trigault issued an historical and geographical treatise on China in 1615. Father Andrada visited Tibet in 1624, and published, in 1626, a book describing it which was afterwards translated into five languages. Borrus and Rhodes published reports on Farther India.

The science of cartography now made a quite Unexpected advance, due to the frequent and repeatedly enlarged editions of Ptolemy's work that were issued by the Benedictine Ruysch (1508), by Bernardus Sylvanus (1511), Waldseemüller (1513), and others. Canon Martin Waldseemüller's map of the world (St-Dié, 1507) was his most distinguished achievement. It was the first to give to the New World the name of America. Bishop Olaus Magnus, one of the most illustrious geographers of the Renaissance, made a map of Northern Europe in 1539. He also undertook a long journey in the North in 1518-19 and was the first man to propound the idea of a north-east passage. The great map-makers Mercator and Ortelius also received devoted help and encouragement from ecclesiastics.

The most important result of the astronomical and physiographical observations made during this period was the discovery and establishment of the heliocentric system by Copernicus, canon of Königsberg (1473-1543). Celio Calcagnini (1479-1541) had prepared the way for this theory. In spite of the fact that his hypothesis was in direct contradiction to hitherto accepted interpretations of Holy Writ , such high dignitaries of the Church as Schomberg, Giese, Dantiscus, and others encouraged Copernicus to make public his discovery. Moreover Pope Paul III graciously accepted the dedication of the work "Be revolutionibus orbium cœlestium" which appeared in 1543. Among the foremost astronomers was the Jesuit Scheiner (1575-1650). He and his assistant Cysatus were the first to notice the spots on the sun (1612), and founded the science of heliographic physics, of which Galileo had not even thought. The Capuchin monk Schyrl (Schyrlæus) de Rheita built a terrestrial telescope in 1645 and drew a chart of the moon. Nor did isolated physical phenomena pass unnoticed; attempts had already been made to classify them systematically. Giovanni Botero (1560-1617), secretary to St. Charles Borromeo , ranked with Peter Martyr among the first writers on deep-sea research -- or thalassography, and is considered to be the founder of statistical science. His "Relatione del mare" (1599) is the earliest known monograph on the subject of the ocean. He was followed by the Jesuit Fournier, whose significant "Hydrographie" (1641) treats encyclopedically of oceanic science. At Ingolstadt (Eck and Scheiner ) and Vienna (Celtes, Stabius, Tannstätter) geography was treated with especial care. The first professor of geography at Wittenberg was Barthel Stein, who entered a monastery at Breslau in 1511 and completed a description of Silesia in 1512-13. Cochlæus (1479-1552), humanist and theologian, sought to make the scientific study of ancient authors (Meteorology of Aristotle, Geography of Mela) a part of higher education. He instilled a knowledge of geography into his pupils which at that time was without equal. Johann Eck, Luther's opponent, wrote a much-praised work on the physical geography of mountains and rivers for his lectures at Freiburg. The Jesuit Borrus was the forerunner of Halley the astronomer. He drew up a chart showing the magnetic variations of the compass in 1620.

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About the middle of the seventeenth century it was left almost exclusively for missionaries, going about their unselfish, silent, and consequently much under-estimated labours, to continue geographical research until, towards the end of the eighteenth century, great expeditions were sent out, supported by states and corporations and equipped with every possible scientific and technical aid and appliance. The missionaries achieved results from their work that entitle them to the credit of having been the pioneers of scientific geography and its strenuous co-operators. Bold expeditions exploring the interior of continents became more frequent. Numerous reports on Canada from the hands of Jesuit missionaries, dated between the years 1632 and 1672, have been preserved. The Franciscan Friar Gabriel Sagard, commonly called Theodat, sojourned among the Hurons from 1624 to 1626. The Jesuits Bouton (1658) and de Tertre (1687) devoted a few pamphlets to the Antilles and the Carib tribes. It was at that time that the great rivers of America for the first time became adequately known. Under the leadership of La Salle, the Franciscans Hennepin, de la Ribourde, and Membré penetrated to the Great Lakes and Niagara Falls in 1680 and the following years. The same men navigated the Mississippi, of which even the Delta had been scarcely known until then. Mexico and California as far as the Rio Colorado were traversed by the Jesuits Kino (1644-1711), Sedlmayer (1703-1779), and Baegert (1717-1777). We find that between 1752 and 1766 -- eighty years before Meyer, the celebrated circumnavigator of the globe -- the Jesuit Wolfgang Beyer reached Lake Titicaca. Father Manuel Ramon sailed up the Cassiquiare from the Rio Negro to the Orinoco in 1744 and anticipated La Condamine , Humboldt, and Bonpland in proving that this branch connected these streams. Father Samuel Fritz , from 1684 on, recognized the importance of the Marañon as the main river and source of the Amazon. He drew the first reliable map of the entire course of the stream. The Jesuits Techo (1673), Harques (1687), and Duran (1638) wrote about Paraguay, and d'Ovaglia (1646) about Chile. Abyssinia, the most interesting country in Africa, was suddenly closed to missionaries about 1630. It was not until 1699 that the Jesuit Father Brévedent, with the physician Poncet, once more ventured up the Nile and into the interior of the country; but in so doing he lost his life. The Capuchins Cavazzi (1654), Carli (1666), Merolla (1682), and Zucchelli (1698) accomplished remarkable results in the Congo region. Even as late as the year 1862 the geographer Petermann made use of their writings to construct a map of that region.

But the greatest scientific triumphs attended the work of the missionaries in Asia. Especially remarkable were the successful attempts to penetrate into Tibet, a feat which Europeans did not repeat until our times. After Andrada, whom we have already mentioned, followed Fathers Grueber and d'Orville, who reached Lhasa from Pekin in 1661 and went down into India through the Himalaya passes. The Jesuit Desideri (1716-29) and the Capuchins Della Penna (1719-1746) and Beligatti (1738) spent considerable time in this country.

To these travels must be added the splendid achievements in cartography and astronomy of the Jesuits, which, about 1700, caused a complete revolution in the development of geography. It was due chiefly to them that one of the most powerful States of that time, France, lent its support to this science, thus offering an example that resulted in a series of governmental subventions giving the development of geography its most powerful impetus. In 1643 the Jesuit Martin Martini (1614-61) landed in China. During his sojourn he acquired a personal knowledge of most of the provinces of that immense empire and collected his observations in a complete work, that appeared in 1651, entitled "Atlas Sinensis". In Richthofen's opinion it is "the fullest geographical description of China that we have". Moreover, it contains the first collection of local maps of that country. Athanasius Kircher further drew the attention of scholars the world over to the Celestial Empire in his "China monumentis illustrata" (1667). He, too, had at his disposal information gathered by missionaries. And finally the Belgian Jesuit Verbiest succeeded in arousing the interest of Louis XIV by the advice he sent home to Europe. At his request, six of the most learned Jesuits went to China in 1687; they were Fathers Bouffe, Fontaine, Gerbils, Le Comte, and Viscous. They bore the title of "royal mathematicians" and at the expense of the French Crown were equipped with the finest instruments. From 1691 to 1698 Gerbils, court astronomer to the emperor, made several excursions to the hitherto unknown region on the northern boundary of China. He presented a map of the environs of Peking to the emperor who then ordered the survey of the Great Wall, which was completed by Fathers Bouffe, Régis, and Jared. This achievement was followed in the succeeding years by the mapping of the entire empire. Fathers Jartoux, Fridelli, Cardoso, Bonjour (Augustinian), de Tartre, de Mailla, Hinderer, and Régis undertook the work. By 1718 the map was finished. In addition to China proper it embraced Manchuria and Mongolia, as far as the Russian frontier. Simultaneously, a delineation of Tibet as far as the sources of the Ganges was begun. The map ranks as a masterpiece even today. It appeared in China itself in 120 sheets and since that time has formed the basis of all the native maps of the country. Fathers Espinha and Hallerstein extended the survey to Ili. The Jesuit Du Halde edited all the reports and letters sent to him by his brethren and published them in 1735 in his "Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise" (4 vols.). The material for the maps in this work was prepared by d'Anville, the greatest geographer of his time. All modern maps can be traced back to his "Atlas de la Chine". Still later, there were published in fifteen volumes the "Mémoires concernant l'histoire . . . des Chinois, par les missionaires de Pekin" (Paris, 1776-91).

Many of the missionaries belonged to the learned societies of Paris, London, and St.

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Gédoyn, Nicolas

A French translator and literary critic; b. at Orléans, 17 June, 1667; d. 10 August, 1744, ...

Génebrard, Gilbert

A learned Benedictine exegete and Orientalist, b. 12 December, 1535, at Riom, in the department ...

Génicot, Edward

Moral theologian, b. at Antwerp, Belgium, 18 June, 1856; d. at Louvain, 21 February, 1900. After ...

Géramb, Baron Ferdinand de

In religion, Brother Mary Joseph; Abbot and procurator-general of La Trappe, came of a noble and ...

Gérando, Joseph-Marie de

A French statesman and writer, born at Lyons, 29 February, 1772; died at Paris, 10 November, ...

Gérard, Abbot of Brogne, Saint

Born at Staves in the county of Namur, towards the end of the ninth century; died at Brogne or ...

Géry, Saint

(Latin Gaugericus ). Bishop of Cambrai - Arras ; b. of Roman parents, Gaudentius and ...

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Gómara, Francisco Lopez de

( Or GOMORA.) Born at Seville, Spain, in 1510; studied at the University of Alcalá, ...

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Görres, Guido

Historian, publicist, and poet; b. at Coblenz on 28 May, 1805; d. at Munich on 14 July, 1852. He ...

Görres, Johann Joseph

Born at Coblenz, in the heart of the Rhine country, 25 January, 1776; died at Munich, 29 January, ...

Görz

( Italian GORIZIA; Slovene GORICA). Capital of the Austrian crown-land Görz and ...

Göttweig, Abbey of

(GOTTWEIH, GOTTVICUM, GOTTVICENSE). A Benedictine abbey situated on a hill of the same name, ...

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Gügler, Joseph Heinrich Aloysius

Born at Udligerschwyl, near Lucerne, Switzerland, 25 August, 1782; died at Lucerne, 28 February, ...

Günther of Cologne

(also GUNTHAR) An archbishop of that city, died 8 July, 873. He belonged to a noble ...

Günther, Anton

Philosopher ; b. 17 Nov., 1783, at Lindenau, near Leitmeritz, Bohemia ; d. at Vienna, 24 ...

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Ga 103

Gabala

A titular see of Syria Prima. Ten bishops of this city are known between 325 and 553, the ...

Gabbatha

The Aramaic appellation of a place in Jerusalem, designated also under the Greek name of ...

Gaboon

V ICARIATE A POSTOLIC OF G ABUN Formerly called the Vicariate Apostolic of the Two ...

Gabriel Possenti, Blessed

Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

Gabriel Sionita

A learned Maronite, famous for his share in the publication of the Parisian polyglot of the ...

Gabriel the Archangel, Saint

"Fortitudo Dei", one of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible . Only four appearances of ...

Gabriel, Brothers of Saint

The Congregation of the Brothers of Christian Instruction of St. Gabriel was originally founded ...

Gad

( , fortune, luck). A proper name which designates in the Bible , (I), a patriarch; (II), a ...

Gadara

A titular see of Palaestina Prima; there were two sees of this name, one in Palaestina Prima, ...

Gaddi, Agnolo, Giovanni, and Taddeo

Florentine artists, Taddeo being the father of Agnolo and Giovanni. The dates of their birth ...

Gaeta

ARCHDIOCESE OF GAETA (CAIETANA). Archdiocese in the province of Caserta in Campania (Southern ...

Gaetano, Saint

(GAETANO.) Founder of the Theatines, born October, 1480 at Vicenza in Venetian territory; ...

Gagarin, Ivan Sergejewitch

Gagarin was of the princely Russian family which traces its origin to the ancient rulers of ...

Gagliardi, Achille

Ascetic writer and spiritual director ; born at Padua, Italy, in 1537; died at Modena, 6 ...

Gahan, William

A priest and author; born 5 June, 1732, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Dublin ; died ...

Gaillard, Claude Ferdinand

A French engraver and painter ; b. at Paris, 7 Jan., 1834; d. there, 27 Jan., 1887. His early ...

Gal, Saint

Of the ninety-eight bishops who have occupied the see of Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergne) the ...

Galantini, Ippolito, Blessed

Founder of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine of Florence; b. at Florence of obscure ...

Galatians, Epistle to the

GALATIA In the course of centuries, gallic tribes, related to those that invaded Italy and ...

Galatino, Pietro Colonna

Friar Minor, philosopher, theologian, Orientalist ; b. at Galatia (now Cajazzo) in Apulia; d. at ...

Galerius, Valerius Maximianus

Galerius, a native of Illyria, was made Caesar 1 March, 293, by Diocletian, whose daughter ...

Galien, Joseph

Dominican, professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Avignon, meteorologist, ...

Galilee

( Septuagint and New Testament Galilaia ). The native land of Jesus Christ, where He began ...

Galilei, Alessandro

An eminent Florentine architect ; born 1691; died 1737. Having attained some distinction, he ...

Galilei, Galileo

Generally called GALILEO. Born at Pisa, 15 February, 1564; died 8 January, 1642. His father, ...

Galitzin, Elizabeth

Princess, religious of the Sacred Heart ; born at St. Petersburg, 22 February, 1797; died in ...

Gall, Abbey of Saint

In Switzerland, Canton St. Gall, 30 miles southeast of Constance ; for many centuries one of ...

Gall, Saint

(GALLUS; in the most ancient manuscript he is called GALLO, GALLONUS, GALLUNUS, and sometimes ...

Galla

Vicariate Apostolic embracing the territory of the Galla or Oromo tribes in Abyssinia. In its ...

Galla, Saint

A Roman widow of the sixth century; feast, 5 October. According to St. Gregory the Great ...

Gallait, Louis

Flemish painter ; born at Tournai, 10 May, 1810; died in Brussels, 20 November, 1887. He ...

Galland, Antoine

French Orientalist and numismatist, b. at Rollot, near Montdidier, in Picardy, 1646, d. at ...

Gallandi, Andrea

Oratorian and patristic scholar, born at Venice, 7 December, 1709; died there 12 January, 1779, ...

Galle

DIOCESE OF GALLE (GALLENSIS). Diocese in Ceylon, created by Leo XIII 25 Aug., 1893, by ...

Gallego, Juan Nicasio

Priest and poet; born at Zamora, Spain, 14 December, 1777; died at Madrid, 9 January, 1853; ...

Galletti, Pietro Luigi

Benedictine, historian and archaeologist; b. at Rome in 1724; d. there, 13 December, 1790. He ...

Gallia Christiana

A documentary catalogue or list, with brief historical notices, of all the dioceses and ...

Gallican Rite, The

This subject will be treated under the following six heads: I. History and Origin; II. ...

Gallicanism

This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the ...

Gallicanus, Saints

The following saints of this name are commemorated on 25 June: (1) St. Gallicanus Roman ...

Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius

Roman emperor; b. about 218; d. at Milan, 4 March, 268; appointed regent by his father Valerian ...

Gallifet, Joseph de

Priest ; b. near Aix, France, 2 May 1663; d. at Lyons, 1 September, 1749. He entered the ...

Gallipoli

DIOCESE OF GALLIPOLI (GALLIPOLITANA). Diocese in the province of Lecce (Southern Italy ). ...

Gallitzin, Adele Amalie

(Or GOLYZIN). Princess; b. at Berlin, 28 Aug., 1748; d. at Angelmodde, near Münster, ...

Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine

Prince, priest, and missionary, born at The Hague, Holland, 22 December, 1770; died at Loretto, ...

Galloway, Diocese of

(Gallovidiana). Situated in the southwest of Scotland. It comprises the Counties of Dumfries, ...

Galluppi, Pasquale

Philosopher, b. at Tropea, in Calabria, 2 April, 1770; d. at Naples, 13 Dec., 1846, where from ...

Gallwey, Peter

Born at Killarney, 13 Nov., 1820; d. in London, 23 Sept., 1906; one of the best-known London ...

Galtelli-Nuoro

(Galtellinensis-Norensis) Diocese in the province of Sassari (Sardinia), on a hill of the ...

Galura, Bernhard

Prince- Bishop of Brixen ; b. 21 August, 1764, at Herbolzheim, Bresigau; d. 17 May, 1856. After ...

Galvani, Luigi

Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798. It was his ...

Galveston

DIOCESE OF GALVESTON (GALVESTONIENSIS). The Diocese of Galveston was established in 1847 and ...

Galway and Kilmacduagh

DIOCESE OF GALWAY AND KILMACDUAGH (GALVIENSIS ET DUACENSIS). Diocese in Ireland ; an ...

Gama, Vasco da

The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, ...

Gamaliel

(Greek form of the Hebrew name meaning "reward of God "). The name designates in the New ...

Gamans, Jean

Born 8 July, 1606, at Ahrweiler (according to other sources at Neuenahr, about two miles from ...

Gambling

Gambling , or gaming , is the staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game ...

Gams, Pius Bonifacius

An ecclesiastical historian, b. at Mittelbuch, Würtemberg, 23 January, 1816; d. Munich, ...

Gandolphy, Peter

(Or Gandolphi.) Jesuit preacher; b. in London, 26 July, 1779; d. at East Sheen, Surrey, 9 ...

Gangra

A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia; in the native tongue the word signifies goat, and ...

Gansfort, John Wessel

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Gap

(VAPINCENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Aix, includes the department of the Hautes-Alpes. ...

García Moreno, Gabriel

Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 ...

García, Anne

Better known as Venerable Anne of St. Bartholomew, Discalced Carmelite nun, companion of St. ...

Garcia, Saint Gonsalo

Born of a Portuguese father and a Canarese mother in Bassein, East India, about the year 1556 or ...

Garcilasso de la Vega

Spanish lyric poet; b. at Toledo, 6 Feb., 1503; d. at Nice, 14 Oct., 1536. A noble and a ...

Garcilasso de la Vega

Historian of Peru ; b. at Cuzco, Peru, 12 April, 1539; d. at Córdoba, Spain, c. 1617. The ...

Gardellini, Aloisio

Born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1759; died there, 8 Oct., 1829. He is famous chiefly for his collection of ...

Garesché, Julius Peter

Soldier; born 26 April, 1821, near Havana, Cuba; killed at the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, ...

Garet, Jean

Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Havre about 1627; died at ...

Gargara

A titular see in the province of Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The city appears to have been ...

Garin, André

An Oblate missionary and parish priest, born 7 May, 1822, at Côte-Saint-André, ...

Garland

A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and ...

Garland, John

An English poet and grammarian, who lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. He tells us ...

Garlick, Venerable Nicholas

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...

Garneau, François-Xavier

A French Canadian historian, b. at Quebec, 15 June, 1809, of François-Xavier Garneau and ...

Garnet, Henry

(Garnett.) English martyr, b. 1553-4; d. 1606, son of Brian Garnet, master of Nottingham ...

Garnet, Saint Thomas

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Garnier, Charles

Jesuit Missionary, born at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; died 7 December, 1649. He ...

Garnier, Jean

Church historian, patristic scholar, and moral theologian ; b. at Paris, 11 Nov., 1612; d. at ...

Garnier, Julien

Jesuit missionary, born at Connerai, France, 6 January, 1642; d. in Quebec, 1730. He entered ...

Garrucci, Raffaele

A historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, 22 January, 1812; d. at Rome, 5 May, 1885. He ...

Garzon

(GARZONENSIS.) Suffragan diocese of Popayan in the Republic of Colombia . It comprises the ...

Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed

Founder of the Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood (C.P.P.S.); b. at Rome on the feast of ...

Gaspe, Philippe-Aubert de

A French Canadian writer, b. at Quebec, 30 Oct., 1786, of a family ennobled by Louis XIV in ...

Gassendi, Pierre

(GASSENDY, GASSEND.) A French philosopher and scientist ; b. at Champtercier, a country ...

Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph

An Austrian sculptor, b. 22 Nov., 1816 at Prägraten, Tyrol; d. 28 Oct., 1900. He was first ...

Gassner, Johann Joseph

A celebrated exorcist ; b. 22 Aug., 1727, at Braz, Vorarlberg, Austria ; d. 4 April, 1779, at ...

Gaston, William

Jurist; b. at Newbern, North Carolina , U.S.A. 19 Sept., 1778: d. at Raleigh, North Carolina ...

Gatianus, Saint

Founder and bishop of Tours ; b. probably at Rome ; d. at Tours, 20 December, 301. He came ...

Gau, Franz Christian

Architect and archeologist, b. at Cologne, 15 June, 1790; d. at Paris, January, 1854. In 1809 he ...

Gaubil, Antoine

A French Jesuit and missionary to China, b. at Gaillac (Aveyron), 14 July, 1689; d. at Peking, ...

Gaudentius of Brescia

(GAUDENTIUS BRIXIENSIS or BONTEMPS.) A theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins ; ...

Gaudentius, Saint

Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on ...

Gaudete Sunday

The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass ( Gaudete ...

Gaudier, Antoine de

A writer on asectic theology ; b. at Château-Thierry, France, 7 January, 1572; d. at ...

Gaudiosus

Bishop of Tarazona (Turiasso), Spain ; died about 540. Our information concerning the life ...

Gaul, Christian

The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under ...

Gaultier, Aloisius-Edouard-Camille

Priest and schoolmaster; b. at Asti, Piedmont, about 1745, of French parents ; d. at Paris, 18 ...

Gaume, Jean-Joseph

French theologian and author, b. at Fuans (Franche-Comté) in 1802; d. in 1879. While ...

Gavantus, Bartolommeo

(GAVANTO) Liturgist, a member of the Barnabite Order ; b. at Monza, 1569; d. at Milan, 14 ...

Gaza

( Hebrew 'Azzah , "the strong") A titular see of Palaestina Prima, in the Patriarchate ...

Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria

A theologian, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 3 March, 1722; d. at Vicenza, 11 Dec., 1799. At a very ...

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Ge 93

Gebhard (III) of Constance

Bishop of that city and strenuous defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments ...

Gebhart, Emile

A French professor and writer, b. 19 July, 1839, at Nancy ; d. 22 April, 1908, in Paris. He was ...

Gedeon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

Gegenbauer, Josef Anton

An accomplished German historical and portrait painter, b. 6 March, 1800, at Wangen, ...

Geiler von Kayserberg, Johann

A celebrated German pulpit orator, b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 16 March, 1445; d. at ...

Geissel, Johannes von

Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 5 February, 1796, at Gimmeldingen, in the Palatinate; d. 8 ...

Gelasius I, Pope Saint

Died at Rome, 19 Nov., 496. Gelasius, as he himself states in his letter to the Emperor ...

Gelasius II, Pope

Born at Gaeta, year unknown; elected 24 Jan., 1118; died at Cluny, 29 Jan., 1119. No sooner had ...

Gelasius of Cyzicus

Ecclesiastical writer. He was the son of a priest of Cyzicus, and wrote in Bithynia, about 475, ...

Gemblours

(Gembloux, Gemblacum) A suppressed Benedictine monastery about nine miles north-west of ...

Genealogy (in the Bible)

The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament : I Tim., i, 4, and Tit., iii, 9. ...

Genealogy of Christ

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...

General Chapter

( Latin capitulum , a chapter). The daily assembling of a community for purposes of ...

General Judgment

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Generation

( Latin Vulgate, generatio ). This word, of very varied meaning, corresponds to the two ...

Genesareth

( Gennesaret .) This is the name given to the Lake of Tiberias in Luke 5:1; called ...

Genesius

(1) Genesius (of Rome) A comedian at Rome, martyred under Diocletian in 286 or 303. Feast, 25 ...

Genevieve, Saint

Patroness of Paris, b. at Nanterre, c. 419 or 422; d. at Paris, 512. Her feast is kept on 3 ...

Genezareth, Land of

By this name is designated in Mark, vi, 53, a district of Palestine bordering on the Sea of ...

Genga, Girolamo

A painter, born at Urbino in 1476; died at the same place, 1551. This talented craftsman was ...

Gennadius I, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople (458-471), has left scarcely any writings. Facundus (Defensio, II, ...

Gennadius II

Patriarch of Constantinople (1454-1456). His original name was George Scholarius ( Georgios ...

Gennadius of Marseilles

(GENNADIUS SCHOLASTICUS). A priest whose chief title to fame is his continuation of St. ...

Gennings, Edmund and John

The first, a martyr for the Catholic Faith, and the second, the restorer of the English province ...

Genoa

ARCHDIOCESE OF GENOA (JANUENSIS) Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy. The city is situated ...

Gentile da Fabriano

Italian painter ; b. probably about 1378 in the District of the Marches; d. probably 1427. The ...

Gentiles

( Hebrew Gôyîm ; Greek ethne, ethnikoi , Hellenes ; Vulgate Gentes, Gentiles, ...

Gentili, Aloysius

Born 14 July, 1801, at Rome ; died 26 September, 1848, at Dublin. He was proficient in poetry, ...

Genuflexion

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

Geoffrey of Clairvaux

A disciple of Bernard, was b. between the years 1115 and 1120, at Auxerre; d. some time after ...

Geoffrey of Dunstable

Also known as GEOFFREY OF GORHAM. Abbot of St. Alban's, d. at St. Alban's, 26 Feb., 1146. He ...

Geoffrey of Monmouth

(GAUFRIDUS ARTURUS, GALFRIDUS MONEMETENSIS, GALFFRAI or GRUFFYD AB ARTHUR). Bishop of St. ...

Geoffrey of Vendôme

(GOFFRIDUS ABBAS VINDOCINENSIS.) A cardinal, b. in the second half of the eleventh century of ...

Geography and the Church

The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never ...

Geography, Biblical

With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater ...

George Hamartolus

A monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some ...

George of Trebizond

A Greek scholar of the early Italian Renaissance ; b. in Crete (a Venetian possession from ...

George Pisides

(Or THE PISIDIAN). A Byzantine poet lived in the first half of the seventh century. From his ...

George the Bearded

(Also called THE RICH.) Duke of Saxony, b. at Dresden, 27 August, 1471; d. in the same city, ...

George, Orders of Saint

Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...

George, Saint

Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, ...

Georgetown University

Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia , "is the oldest Catholic literary ...

Georgia

STATISTICS The area of Georgia is 59,475 sq. m., and it is the largest of the original thirteen ...

Georgius Syncellus

(Greek Georgios ho Sygkellos ). Died after 810; the author of one of the more important ...

Gerace

DIOCESE OF GERACE (HIERACENSIS). Diocese in the province of Reggio in Calabria (Southern Italy ...

Gerald, Saint

Bishop of Mayo, an English monk, date of birth unknown; died 13 March, 731; followed St. ...

Geraldton

DIOCESE OF GERALDTON (GERALDTONENSIS). Diocese in Australia, established in 1898, comprises ...

Gerard Majella, Saint

Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...

Gerard of Cremona

A twelfth-century student of Arabic science and translator from Arabic into Latin; born at ...

Gerard, Archbishop of York

Date of birth unknown; died at Southwell, 21 May, 1108. He was a nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of ...

Gerard, Bishop of Toul, Saint

Born at Cologne, 935; died at Toul, 23 April, 994. Belonging to a wealthy and noble family, he ...

Gerard, John

Jesuit ; born 4 October, 1564; died 27 July, 1637. He is well known through his autobiography, a ...

Gerard, Richard

Confessor ; born about 1635; died 11 March, 1680 (O.S.). The Bromley branch of the Gerard ...

Gerard, Ven. Miles

Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

Gerardus Odonis

Also Geraldus Othonis , or Ottonis , a medieval theologian and Minister General of the ...

Gerasa

A titular see in the province of Arabia and the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ...

Gerberon, Gabriel

A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation ; b. at St-Calais, Department of Sarthe, France, 12 ...

Gerbet, Olympe-Phillipe

A French bishop and writer; b. at Poligny (Jura), 1798; d. at Perpignan (Pyrénées ...

Gerbillon, Jean-François

French missionary; born at Verdun, 4 June, 1654; died at Peking, China, 27 March, 1707. He ...

Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Samoëns in Savoy, 20 June, 1718; d. at Rome, 12 August ...

Gerhard of Zütphen

(ZERBOLT OF ZUTPHEN) Born at Zütphen, 1367; died at Windesheim, 1398; a mystical writer ...

Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Provost of that place and Austin canon , one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany ...

Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

Bishop of Auxerre, born at Auxerre c. 380; died at Ravenna, 31 July, 448. He was the son of ...

Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris

Bishop of Paris ; born near Autun, Saône-et-Loire, c. 496; died at Paris, 28 May, 576. ...

Germaine Cousin, Saint

Born in 1579 of humble parents at Pibrac, a village about ten miles from Toulouse ; died in ...

German Gardiner, Blessed

Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1544; ...

German Literature

I. FROM OLDEST PRE-CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO 800 A.D. There are no written monuments before the eighth ...

Germanicia

A titular see in the province of Euphratensis and the patriarchate of Antioch; incorrectly ...

Germanicopolis

A titular see in the province of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. The city took its name from ...

Germans in the United States

Germans, either by birth or descent, form a very important element in the population of the ...

Germanus I, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople (715-30), b. at Constantinople towards the end of the reign of ...

Germany

I. BEFORE 1556 From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented ...

Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

(VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN MISSIONS) Its jurisdiction covers the Grand Duchies of ...

Germia

A titular see of Galatia Secunda, a suffragan of Pessinus ; mentioned by Hierocles in the ...

Gerona

DIOCESE OF GERONA (GERUNDENSIS) The Diocese of Geronia in Catalonia, Spain, suffragan of ...

Gerrha

A titular see in the province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium in the Patriarchate ...

Gerson, Jean de Charlier de

The surname being the name of his native place; b. in the hamlet of Gerson 14 December, 1363; d. ...

Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed

Abbess of the Premonstratensian convent of Aldenberg, near Wetzlar, in the Diocese of Trier ; ...

Gertrude of Hackeborn

Cistercian Abbess of Helfta, near Eisleben; born near Halberstadt in 1232; died towards the end ...

Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

Virgin, and Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles; born in 626; died 17 March, 659. ...

Gertrude the Great, Saint

Benedictine and mystic writer; born in Germany, 6 Jan., 1256; died at Helfta, near Eisleben, ...

Gertrude van der Oosten, Venerable

Beguine ; born at Voorburch, Holland ; died at Delft, 6 Jan., 1358. She was born of peasant ...

Gervaise, Dom François Armand

Discalced Carmelite, b. at Paris, 1660; d. at Reclus, France, 1761. After completing his ...

Gervase of Canterbury

(GERVAS US DOROBORNENSIS) English chronicler, b. about 1141; d. in, or soon after, 1210. If ...

Gervase of Tilbury

(TILBERIENSIS) Medieval writer, b. probably at Tilbury, in the County of Essex, England, ...

Gervase, George

(Jervise.) Priest and martyr, born at Boscham, Suffolk, England, 1571; died at Tyburn, 11 ...

Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

Gesellenvereine

German Catholic societies for the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young men. ...

Gesta Dei per Francos

Gesta Dei per Francos is the title adopted by Guibert de Nogent (died about 1124) for his history ...

Gesta Romanorum

A medieval collection of anecdotes, to which moral reflections are attached. It was compiled ...

Gethsemane

Gethsemani (Hebrew gat , press, and semen , oil) is the place in which Jesus Christ ...

Gethsemane, Abbey of Our Lady of

An abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, commonly called Trappists, established in ...

Gezireh

Gezireh (or Djezireh), seat of two Catholic residential sees, one Chaldean, the other Syrian. ...

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Gfrörer, August Friedrich

German historian; b. at Calw, Würtemberg, 5 March, 1803; d. at Karlsbad, 6 July, 1861. ...

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Ghardaia

Prefecture Apostolic in the French Sahara, separated in 1901 from the Vicariate Apostolic of ...

Ghent

DIOCESE OF GHENT (GANDENSIS or GANDAVENSIS). The Diocese of Ghent at present comprises the ...

Ghibellines and Guelphs

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione

Sculptor ; b. at Florence about 1381; d. there, December, 1455. He ushered in the early ...

Ghirlandajo

(D OMENICO DI T OMMASO B IGORDI ). A famous Florentine painter ; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., ...

Ghislain, Saint

Confessor and anchorite in Belgium ; b. in the first half of the seventh century; d. at ...

Ghost Dance

The principal ceremonial rite of a peculiar Indian religion with originated about 1887 with ...

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Gi 53

Giannone, Pietro

Italian historian, born 7 May, 1676, at Ischitella in the province of Capinata, Naples ; died ...

Gibail and Batrun

A Maronite residential see. Gibail is merely the modern name of Byblos a titular see of ...

Gibault, Pierre

Missionary, b. at Montreal, Canada, 1737; d. at New Madrid, about 1804; son of Pierre Gibault ...

Gibbons, John

Jesuit theologian and controversialist; b. 1544, at or near Wells, Somersetshire; died 16 Aug. or ...

Gibbons, Richard

Brother of Father John Gibbons, born at Winchester, 1550 or 1549; died at Douai, 23 June, 1632. ...

Giberti, Gian Matteo

Cardinal, and Bishop of Verona, the natural son of Francesco Giberti, a Genoese naval ...

Giberti, Jean-Pierre

Canonist; b. at Aix, Provence, in 1660; d. at Paris in 1736. He became a cleric at an early ...

Gibraltar

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar is a rugged promontory in the province of ...

Gideon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

Giffard, Bonaventure

Born at Wolverhampton, England, 1642; died at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 12 March, 1734; second son ...

Giffard, Godfrey

Bishop of Worcester, b. about 1235; d. 26 Jan., 1301. He was the son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton ...

Giffard, William

Second Norman Bishop of Winchester from 1100 to 1129. Little is known of his history anterior ...

Gifford, William

Archbishop of Reims ; b. in Hampshire, 1554; d. at Reims, 11 April, 1629. He was the son of ...

Gift of Miracles

The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

Gift, Supernatural

A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...

Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo

A renowned cardinal, general, and statesman; b. about 1310 at Cuenca in New Castile ; d. 23 ...

Gil of Santarem, Blessed

A Portuguese Dominican : b. at Vaozela, diocese of Viseu, about 1185; d. at Santarem, 14 May, ...

Gilbert de la Porrée

(Gilbertus Porretanus) Bishop of Poitiers, philosopher, theologian and general scholar; b. ...

Gilbert Foliot

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

Gilbert Islands

Vicariate apostolic ; comprises the group of that name, besides the islands of Ellice and ...

Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint

Founder of the Order of Gilbertines , b. at Sempringham, on the border of the Lincolnshire fens, ...

Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent

Poet, b. at Fontenoy-le-Château, 1751; d. at Paris, 12 November, 1780. His parents were ...

Gilbert, Sir John Thomas

Irish archivist and historian, b. in Dublin, 23 January, 1829; d. there, 23 May, 1898. He was ...

Gilbertines, Order of

Founded by St. Gilbert, about the year 1130, at Sempringham, Gilbert's native place, where he was ...

Gildas, Saint

Surnamed the Wise; b. about 516; d. at Houat, Brittany, 570. Sometimes he is called "Badonicus" ...

Giles, Saint

(Latin Ægidius.) An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage ...

Gillespie, Eliza Maria

(In religion Mother Mary of St. Angela). Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 21 ...

Gillespie, Neal Henry

Brother of Eliza Maria Gillespie ; b. in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 19 January 1831; d. at ...

Gillis, James

Scottish bishop ; b. at Montreal, Canada, 7 April, 1802; d. at Edinburgh, 24 February 1864. He ...

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield

A musician, born at Ballygar Galway, Ireland, 25 Dec., 1829; died at St. Louis, 24 Sept., 1892; ...

Gindarus

A titular see of Syria Prima, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Pliny (Hist. nat. V, 81) ...

Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie-Achille

A French bishop ; b. at Montpellier (department of Herault) 3 Dec., 1806; d. there 17 Nov., ...

Gioberti, Vincenzo

An Italian statesman and philosopher ; b. at Turin, 5 April, 1801; d. at Paris, 26 October, ...

Giocondo, Fra Giovanni

An Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, b. in Verona, c. 1445; ...

Giordani, Tommasso

A composer, b. at Naples in 1738; d. at Dublin, Ireland, February 1806. The family came to ...

Giordano, Luca

Neapolitan painter ; b. at Naples, 1632; d. in the same place, 12 Jan., 1705. He was esteemed ...

Giorgione

(GIORGIO BARBARELLI, ZORZO DA CASTELFRANCO) Italian painter, b. at Castelfranco in or before ...

Giotto di Bondone

A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in 1266 ...

Giovanelli, Ruggiero

Composer, b. at Velletri, near Rome, in 1560; d. at Rome, 7 January, 1625. In 1584 he was ...

Giovanni Dominici, Blessed

(BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...

Giraldi, Giovanni Battista

(Surnamed CINTIO) Italian dramatist and novelist; b. at Ferrara, Italy, 1504; d. there, ...

Giraldi, Ubaldo

(UBALDUS A SANCTO CAJETANO). An Italian canonist; b. in 1692; d. in 1775. He was a member of ...

Giraldus Cambrensis

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry) was a distinguished writer, historian, and ecclesiastic of ...

Girard, Jean-Baptiste

Known as Père Girard, a Swiss pedagogue, b. at Fribourg, 17 December, 1765; d. there, 6 ...

Girardon, François

A noted sculptor of the reign of Louis XIV, b. at Troyes, France, 1630; d. at Paris, 1715. The ...

Giraud de Borneil

A Provençal troubadour, b. about the middle of the twelfth century, at Excideuil in the ...

Girba

A titular see in the province of African Tripoli. It is an island, in ancient times called ...

Girgenti

DIOCESE OF GIRGENTI (AGRIGENTINA). Girgenti is the capital of a province in Sicily and is ...

Gisbert, Blaise

French rhetorician and critic; born at Cahors, 21 February, 1657; died at Montpellier, 21 ...

Giuliani, Veronica

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

Giulio Romano

Properly GIULIO DEI GIANNUZZI, also known as GIULIO PIPPI. A famous architect and painter, the ...

Giuseppe Giusti

A poet and patriot ; b. 1809, at Monsumano near Pescia, Italy ; d. 31 March, 1850, at ...

Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

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Gl 19

Glaber, Raoul

Benedictine chronicler; b. in Burgundy before 1000; d. at Cluny about 1050. In early boyhood he ...

Glabrio, Manius Acilius

Consul at Rome during A.D. 91, with Trajan. He belonged to one of the noblest families of ...

Glagolitic

(Or G LAGOLITSA ; Slavonic glagol, a word; glagolati, to speak). An ancient alphabet ...

Glaire, Jean-Baptiste

Priest, hebraist, and Biblical scholar; b. at Bordeaux, 1 April, 1798; d. at Issy, near Paris, ...

Glanville, Ranulf de

Chief Justiciar of England ; b. at Stratford, Suffolk, England, date unknown; d. before Acre, ...

Glarean, Henry

(LORITI) The most distinguished of Swiss humanists, poet, philosopher, geographer, ...

Glasgow

I. ARCHDIOCESE OF GLASGOW (GLASGUENSIS) Archdiocese in the south-west of Scotland, comprising at ...

Glastonbury Abbey

[G LESTINGABURH; called also Y NISWITRIN (Isle of Glass) and A VALON (Isle of Apples)] ...

Glebe

Glebe ( Latin gleba ) originally signified, in common law , any farm, estate, or parcel of ...

Glendalough, School of

Glendalough (the Valley of the Two Lakes) is a picturesque and lonely glen in the heart of the ...

Gloria in Excelsis Deo

The great doxology ( hymnus angelicus ) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form". ...

Gloria, Laus et Honor

A hymn composed by St. Theodulph of Orléans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of which the ...

Glory

This word has many shades of meaning which lexicographers are somewhat puzzled to differentiate ...

Glory Be

In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...

Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

(IN CANON LAW) A gloss (Gk. glossa , Lat. glossa , tongue, speech) is an interpretation ...

Glosses, Scriptural

I. ETYMOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL MEANINGS The modern English word gloss is derived directly from the ...

Glossolalia

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Gloves, Episcopal

Liturgical gloves ( chirothecœ , called also at an earlier date manicœ , wanti ...

Gluttony

(From Lat. gluttire , to swallow, to gulp down), the excessive indulgence in food and drink. ...

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Gn 2

Gnesen-Posen

Archdiocese in the Kingdom of Prussia. The archdiocese includes the Dioceses of Gnesen and ...

Gnosticism

The doctrine of salvation by knowledge. This definition, based on the etymology of the word ( ...

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Go 89

Goa

(GOANENSIS.) Patriarchate of the East Indies, the chief see of the Portuguese dominions in the ...

Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of

Goajira is the most northern portion of South America is a peninsula running into the Caribbean ...

Goar, Jacques

A Dominican and hellenist, b. at Paris, 1601, d. 23 September, 1653. He entered the convent of ...

Goar, Saint

An anchorite of Aquitaine; b. about 585; d. near Oberwesel (Germany), 6 July, 649. He came of a ...

Gobat, George

Moral theologian ; born at Charmoilles, in the Diocese of Basil, now in the Department of the ...

Gobban Saer

Regarded in traditional lore as the greatest Irish architect of the seventh century, and ...

Gobelinus, Person

(Persona.) Born in 1358; died 17 November, 1421. He was a Westphalian and was known as an ...

God

Etymology of the Word "God" Discusses the root-meaning of the name "God", which is derived from ...

God, Existence of

The topic will be treated as follows: I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. The Problem Stated1. ...

God, Nature and Attributes of

I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...

God, Relation of the Universe to

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

God, Three Persons of

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Godard, Saint

(Also spelled GOTHARD, GODEHARD). Bishop of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony ; born about the ...

Godden, Thomas

(True name Tylden.) Born at Addington, Kent, 1624; died in London, 1 Dec., 1688. His father, ...

Godeau, Antoine

Bishop, poet and exegete ; b. at Dreux in the diocese of Chartres, 1605; d. at Vence, 21 ...

Godeberta, Saint

Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France ; died about the ...

Godelina, Saint

(GODELINA.) Born at Hondeforte-lez-Boulogne, c. 1049; died at Ghistelles, 6 July, 1070. The ...

Godet des Marais, Paul

Bishop of Chartres, France ; b. at Talcy, near Blois, 1647; d. at Chartres, 1709. He studied ...

Godfrey Goodman

Born at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 28 February, 1582-3; died at Westminster, 19 January, 1656. He was ...

Godfrey of Bouillon

Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and ...

Godfrey of Fontaines

(GODEFRIDUS DE fontIBUS, DOCTOR VENERANDUS) A scholastic philosopher and theologian ; born ...

Godfrey of Viterbo

German writer of the twelfth century. Nothing is known as to the place or date of his birth, ...

Godinez

(GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...

Godric

The name of two Abbots of Croyland. Godric I (870-941) Godrick I was the successor of the Abbot ...

Goesport, John Wessel

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Goetz, Marie Josephine

Second superior-general of the Society of the Sacred Heart, daughter of Joseph Goetz of ...

Goffe, Stephen

(Or Gough) Oratorian; b. 1605; d. at Paris, Christmas Day, 1681. He was the son of Stephen ...

Goffine, Leonard

(Or G OFFINÉ ). Born at Cologne, or according to some, at Broich, 6 December, 1648; ...

Gog and Magog

Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 ...

Golden Bull

(Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...

Golden Calf

An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Exodus 32 where ...

Golden Rose

A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have ...

Goldoni, Carlo

Dramatist; b. at Venice, 25 Feb., 1707; d. at Paris, 6 Jan., 1793. Goldoni is especially ...

Goldwell, Thomas

Bishop of St. Asaph, the last survivor of the ancient hierarchy of England ; b. probably at ...

Golgotha

The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. NAME Etymology and Use The word Calvary ( ...

Gomes De Amorim, Francisco

Portuguese poet, dramatist, and novelist; b. at Avelomar, near Oporto, 13 August, 1827; d. 4 ...

Gondulphus

(GUNDULFUS). The name of three saints, of whom one was Bishop of Tongres (Maestricht), the ...

Gonet, Jean Baptiste

Theologian, b. about 1616 at Beziers, in the province of Languedoc; d. there 24 Jan., 1681. From ...

Gonnelieu, Jérôme de

Theologian, ascetical writer, and preacher; born at Soissons, 8 Sept., 1640; died at Paris, 28 ...

González de Santalla, Thyrsus

Theologian and thirteenth general of the Society of Jesus, b. at Arganda, Spain, 18 January, ...

González, Zeferino

Dominican, cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province and Diocese ...

Gonzaga, Ercole

(Hercules.) Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 23 November, 1505; d. 2 March, 1563. He was the Son of ...

Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius

Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...

Gonzaga, Scipione

Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593. He belonged to ...

Gonzalez, Saint Peter

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

Gonzalo de Berceo

Spanish poet, active between 1220 and 1242. Born in the closing years on twelfth century, he ...

Good

"Good" is one of those primary ideas which cannot be strictly defined. In order to fix its ...

Good Faith

A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively ...

Good Friday

Definition and etymology Good Friday, called Feria VI in Parasceve in the Roman Missal, he ...

Good Hope, Cape of (Eastern)

The Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope was established in 1847, when the Vicariate of the ...

Good Hope, Cape of (Western)

The Western vicariate and the Central prefecture, although different in name, are virtually one. ...

Good Samaritan, Sisters of the

A congregation of Tertiaries Regular of St. Benedict, established 2 February, 1857, at Sydney, ...

Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

Good, Highest, The

"We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the ...

Goodman, Ven. John

Priest and martyr ; born in the Diocese of Bangor, Wales, 1590; died 1642. He was educated at ...

Goossens, Pierre-Lambert

Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin (Belgium), b. at Perck, near Vilvorde, 18 July, 1827; d. at ...

Gordian

( Latin GORDIANUS.) There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. ...

Gordianus and Epimachus, Saints

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

Gordon Riots

This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, ...

Gordon, Andrew

A Benedictine monk, physicist ; b. 15 June, 1712, at Cofforach in Forfarshire, Scotland ; d. ...

Gordos

A titular see in the province of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. The city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

Gorgonius, Saint

Martyr, suffered in 304 at Nicomedia during the persecution of Diocletian. Gorgonius held a high ...

Gorkum, The Martyrs of

The year 1572, Luther and Calvin had already wrested from the Church a great part of Europe. ...

Gortyna

A titular see, and in the Greek Church metropolitan see, of the Island of Crete. The city, ...

Goscelin

(Or GOTSELIN, according to the spelling in the earliest manuscripts of his works.) A ...

Gospel and Gospels

The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds. It is very ...

Gospel in the Liturgy

I. HISTORY From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important ...

Gospel of Mark

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

Goss, Alexander

Second Bishop of Liverpool ; born at Ormskirk, Lancashire, 5 July, 1814; died. at St. Edward's ...

Gossaert, Jan

Called M ABUSE from Maubeuge in Hainaut. Flemish painter ; b. about 1472; d. at Middelburg ...

Gosselin, Jean-Edmé-Auguste

Ecclesiastical author; b. at Rouen, France, 28 Sept., 1787; d. at Paris, 27 Nov., 1858. He ...

Gother, John

(Or JOHN GOTER) Priest and controversialist; b. at Southampton, date unknown; d. at sea on a ...

Gothic Architecture

The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...

Gottfried von Strasburg

One of the greatest of Middle High German epic poets. Of his life we know absolutely nothing; ...

Gotti, Vincent Louis

Cardinal and theologian, b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 1742. He received ...

Gottschalk of Orbais

A medieval theologian ; b. about 800, d. after 866, probable 30 October, 868 (or 869), in the ...

Gottschalk, Saint

(GODESCALCUS). Martyr Prince of the Wends; d. at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast ...

Goulburn

(Gulburnensis). One of the six suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical province of Sydney, ...

Gounod, Charles-François

One of the most distinguished French musicians and composers of the nineteenth century, b. in ...

Goupil, René

Jesuit missionary; born 1607, in Anjou; martyred in New York State, 23 September, 1642. Health ...

Gousset, Thomas-Marie-Joseph

French cardinal and theologian ; b. at Montigny-les-Charlieu, a village of ...

Government Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

Gower, John

Poet; born between 1327-1330, probably in Kent; died October, 1408. He was of gentle blood and ...

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco José de

Painter and etcher, b. in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 31 March, 1746; d. in Bordeaux, 16 ...

Goyaz, Diocese of

(Goyasiensis). Co-extensive with the state of the same name, one of the twenty states which, with ...

Gozo, Diocese of

The diocese of Gozo (Goulos-Gaudisiensis), comprises the Island of Gozo in the Mediterranean ...

Gozzi, Carlo

Italian author, born at Venice, 1720; died 1806. He spent in military service three years that ...

Gozzoli

(BENOZZO DI LESE DI SANDRO, surnamed GOZZOLI). Painter ; b. at Florence, 1420; d. at Pisa ...

Gozzolini, Saint Sylvester

Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...

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Gr 107

Grässel, Lorenz

Coadjutor-elect of Baltimore ; born at Ruemannsfelden, Bavaria, 18 August, 1753; died at ...

Gröne, Valentin

A Catholic theologian, b. at Paderborn, 7 December, 1817; d. at Irmgarteichen, in the district ...

Grün, Anastasius

A pseudonym for Anton Alexander (Maria), Count von Auersperg, an Austrian poet; b. at Laibach in ...

Grace

Actual Grace Explains the concept of actual grace, which is defined in the article as "a ...

Grace at Meals

In Apostolic times St. Paul counsels the faithful: "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever ...

Grace, Actual

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...

Grace, Controversies on

These are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will. How can the ...

Grace, Supernatural

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...

Grace, William Russell

Philanthropist and merchant, born at Cork, Ireland, 10 May, 1832; died at New York, 21 March, ...

Gradual

( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step) Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the ...

Gradual Psalms

Fifteen psalms -- namely, Psalms 119-133 (in Hebrew 120-134) -- bear a Hebrew inscription which ...

Gradwell, Robert

Bishop; b. at Clifton-in-the-Fylde, Lancashire, 26 Jan., 1777; d. in London, 15 March, 1833; went ...

Graffiti

The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched ...

Graham, Patrick

First Archbishop of St. Andrews and Metropolitan of Scotland, date of birth uncertain; d. ...

Grail, The Holy

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

Gramont, Eugénie de

Religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart ; b. at Versailles, 17 September, 1788; d. at ...

Gran

( Hungarian ESZTERGOM; Latin STRIGONIUM, STRIGONIENSIS) Located in Hungary. From the ...

Granada

Archdiocese of Granada (Granatensis). Archdiocese in Spain, founded by St. Cecilius about ...

Granada, University of

The origin of this university is to be traced to the Arab school at Cordova, which, when the ...

Grancolas, Jean

Doctor of the Sorbonne, theologian, liturgist; b. near Chateaudun, about 1660; d. at Paris, 1 ...

Grand Rapids

(Grandormensis) Diocese created 12 May, 1882 out of the diocese of Detroit, and made to ...

Grande Chartreuse, La

The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an ...

Granderath, Theodor

Born 19 June, 1839, at Giesenkirchen, Rhine Province; died 19 March, 1902, at Valkenburg, ...

Grandidier, Philippe-André

Priest and historian, b. at Strasburg, Alsace, 9 Nov., 1752; d. at the Abbey of Luntzel ...

Grandmont, Abbey and Order of

Abbey and Order in the department of Hte-Vienne, France. The exact date of the foundation of the ...

Grant, Thomas

First Bishop of Southwark ; b. at Ligny-les-Aires, Arras, France, 25 Nov., 1816; d. at Rome, ...

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

Known in history as CARDINAL DE GRANVELLE (GRANVELLA). Born at Ornans in Franche-Comté, ...

Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Grasse, François-Joseph-Paul

Count and Marquess de Grasse-Tilly, lieutenant-general of the naval forces; b. near Toulon, 1723; ...

Grassis, Paris de

Master of ceremonies to Julius II and Leo X ; b. at Bologna, about 1470; d. at Rome, 10 June, ...

Gratian

Roman Emperor; son of Valentinian I; born at Sirmium, 359; died at Lyons, 383. Before he had ...

Gratian, Jerome

Spiritual director of St. Teresa and first Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites ; born at ...

Gratian, Johannes

(GRATIANUS). The little that is known concerning the author of the "Concordantia discordantium ...

Gratianopolis

A titular see in Caesarea Mauretania, Africa. This city does not figure in a list of the ...

Gratius, Ortwin

(VAN GRAES) Humanist ; b. 1475 at Holtwick, near Coesfeld, Westphalia ; d. at Cologne, 22 ...

Gratry, Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse

French priest and writer; b. at Lille, 30 March, 1805; d. at Montreux, Switzerland, 7 February, ...

Gratz, Peter Aloys

Schoolmaster and exegete, b. 17 Aug., 1769, at Mittelberg, Allgäu, Bavaria ; d. at ...

Gravier, Jacques

Jesuit missionary; born 1651 at Moulins, where he studied classics and philosophy under the ...

Gravina and Montepeloso

DIOCESE OF GRAVINA AND MONTEPELOSO (GRAVINENSIS ET MONTIS PELUSII). Gravina is a town in the ...

Gravina, Dominic

Theologian ; b. in Sicily, about 1573; d. in the Minerva, at Rome, 26 Aug., 1643. He entered the ...

Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo

Italian jurist and littérateur of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. at ...

Graz, University of

The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its ...

Great Falls

DIOCESE OF GREAT FALLS (GREATORMENSIS). Created by Pope Pius X, 18 May, 1904; comprises the ...

Greco, El

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Greece

Greece will be treated in this article under the following heads: I. The Land and the People; II. ...

Greek Catholics in America

The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States ...

Greek Church

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Explanation of Terms; II. The Greek ...

Greek Orthodox Church in America

The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are ...

Greek Rites

(1) Rite, Language, Religion These are three things that must always be distinguished. A rite is ...

Green Bay

(SINUS VIRIDIS) The Diocese of Green Bay — established 3 March, 1868, from the territory ...

Green, Hugh

Martyr ; born about 1584; martyred 19 August, 1642. His parents, who were Protestants, sent him ...

Green, Thomas Louis

Priest and controversialist; b. at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, 1799; d. at Newport, Shropshire, ...

Greenland

An island stretching from within the Arctic Circle south to about 59 degrees N. latitude, being ...

Gregorian Chant

The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of ...

Gregory Bæticus

Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...

Gregory I, Pope Saint

Doctor of the Church ; born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. Gregory is certainly one of ...

Gregory II, Pope Saint

(Reigned 715-731). Perhaps the greatest of the great popes who occupied the chair of Peter ...

Gregory III, Pope Saint

(Reigned 731-741.) Pope St. Gregory III was the son of a Syrian named John. The date of his ...

Gregory IV, Pope

Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a ...

Gregory IX

(UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Born about 1145, at Anagni in the Campagna; died 22 August, 1241, ...

Gregory of Heimburg

Humanist and Statesman, b. at Würzburg in the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at ...

Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint

Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. He ...

Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint

Known at THAUMATURGUS, ( ho Thaumatourgos , the miracle-worker). Born at Neocæsarea in ...

Gregory of Nyssa, Saint

Date of birth unknown; died after 385 or 386. He belongs to the group known as the "Cappadocian ...

Gregory of Rimini, Saint

An Augustinian theologian ; born at Rimini, Italy, in the second half of the thirteenth ...

Gregory of Tours, Saint

Born in 538 or 539 at Arverni, the modern Clermont-Ferrand; died at Tours, 17 Nov., in 593 or ...

Gregory of Utrecht, Saint

Abbot; b. about 707 or 708; d. 775 or 780. Gregory was born of a noble family at Trier. His ...

Gregory of Valencia

Professor of the University of Ingolstadt , b. at Medina, Spain, March, 1550 (1540, 1551?); d. ...

Gregory the Illuminator

Born 257?; died 337?, surnamed the Illuminator (Lusavorich). Gregory the Illuminator is the ...

Gregory V, Pope

Born c. 970; died 4 February, 999. On the death of John XV the Romans sent a deputation to Otto ...

Gregory VI

On the death of Sergius IV in June, 1012, "a certain Gregory", opposed the election of ...

Gregory VI, Pope

(JOHN GRATIAN). Date of birth unknown; elected 1 May 1045; abdicated at Sutri, 20 December, ...

Gregory VII, Pope Saint

(HILDEBRAND). One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men ...

Gregory VIII

Antipope. He was Mauritius Burdinus (Bordinho, Bourdin), who was placed upon the papal chair by ...

Gregory VIII, Pope

(ALBERTO DI MORRA). Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento ; elected ...

Gregory X

Born 1210; died 10 January, 1276. The death of Pope Clement IV (29 November, 1268) left the ...

Gregory XI

(PIERRE ROGER DE BEAUFORT). Born in 1331, at the castle of Maumont in the Dioceses of Limoges ...

Gregory XII

(ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism ; born at Venice, of a ...

Gregory XIII, Pope

(UGO BUONCOMPAGNI). Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied ...

Gregory XIV, Pope

(N ICCOLÒ S FONDRATI ). Born at Somma, near Milan, 11 Feb., 1535; died at Rome, 15 ...

Gregory XV, Pope

(ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. ...

Gregory XVI, Pope

(MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 ...

Greifswald, University of

The oldest university of Prussia, founded in 1456. Even before this, Greifswald had, for a short ...

Greith, Karl Johann

Bishop and church historian, b. at Rapperswyl, Switzerland, 25 May, 1897; d. at St. Gall, 17 ...

Gremiale

A square or oblong cloth which the bishop, according to the "Cæremoniale" and ...

Grenoble

DIOCESE OF GRENOBLE (GRATIANOPOLITANA) Now comprises the Department of Isère and the Canton ...

Gresemund, Dietrich

German humanist ; b. in 1477, at Speyer ; d. 1512, at Mainz. His father, also named Dietrich, ...

Greslon, Adrien

French missionary; b. at Perigueux, in 1618; entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 5 ...

Gresset, Jean Baptiste

Born 29 August, 1709; died 16 June, 1777, at Amiens. Having finished his studies at the college ...

Gretser, Jacob

A celebrated Jesuit writer; b. at Markdorf in the Diocese of Constance in 1562; d. at ...

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste

French painter, b. at Tournus in Ardeche, 21 August, 1725; d. at Paris, 21 March, 1805. His ...

Grey Nuns

The Order of Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal, commonly ...

Grey Nuns of the Cross

A community founded in 1745 at Monteal by Madame d'Youville, known as the Grey Sisters, or Grey ...

Griffin, Gerald

A novelist, dramatist, lyricist; b. 12 December, 1803, at Limerick, Ireland ; d. at Cork, 12 ...

Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph

Journalist, historian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 10 Nov., 1911. In early ...

Griffiths, Thomas

Born in London, 2 June, 1791; died 19 August, 1847; the first and only Vicar Apostolic of the ...

Grillparzer, Franz

An Austrian poet, b. at Vienna, 15 January, 1791, d. 21 January, 1872. After desultory ...

Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

Italian physicist, b. at Bologna, 2 April, 1618; d. in the same city, 28 Dec., 1663. He entered ...

Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco

An eclectic painter of the Bolognese school ; b. at Bologna, 1606; d. at Rome, 1680. He was a ...

Grimmelshausen, Johann Jacob Christoffel von

The greatest German novelist of the seventeenth century. What we know of his life is largely ...

Groote, Gerard

( Or Geert De Groote; Gerhardus Magnus.) Founder of the "Brethren of the Common Life" , b. ...

Gropper, John

An eminent jurist and theologian, b. 24 Feb., 1503, at Soest, Westphalia ; d. at Rome, 13 March, ...

Grosseteste, Robert

Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages ; b. about 1175; d. 9 ...

Grosseto

(Grossetana) Grosseto, suffragan diocese of Siena, has for its episcopal city the capital ...

Grosswardein

( Hungarian Nagy-Várad; Magno-Varadinensis) A diocese of the Latin Rite in ...

Grottaferrata, Abbey of

( Latin Crypta ferrata .) A Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site ...

Grueber, Johann

A German Jesuit missionary in China and noted explorer of the seventeenth century; b. at Linz, ...

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Gu 49

Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal

Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sablé-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 ...

Guérard, Robert

Born at Rouen, 1641; died at the monastery of Saint-Ouen, 2 January, 1715. For some time he ...

Guérin

(1) Eugénie de Guérin A French writer; b. at the château of La Cayla, in ...

Guérin, Anne-Thérèse

(In religion, Mother Theodore) Born at Etables (Côte du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 ...

Guadalajara

(Guadalaxara) Archdiocese in Mexico, separated from the Diocese of Michoacan by Paul III, 31 ...

Guadalupe, Shrine of

Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the ...

Guadeloupe

(Or Basse Terre; Guadalupensis; Imæ Telluris) Diocese in the West Indies, comprises the ...

Guadix, Diocese of

(GUADICENSIS) The Diocese of Guadix, in Spain, comprises the greater part of the Province of ...

Guaicuri Indians

(Pronounced Waikuri .) A group of small tribes, speaking dialectic forms of a common ...

Guamanga, Diocese of

( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...

Guaraní Indians

(Pronounced Waraní .) One of the most important tribal groups of South America, ...

Guarantees, Law of

(LA LEGGE DELLE GUARENTIGIE) A name given to the law passed by the senate and chamber of the ...

Guarda, Diocese of

(EGITANIENSIS.) Province of Beira, Portugal. Near the episcopal city are the ruins of Idanha, ...

Guardi, Francesco

Venetian painter ; born at Venice, 1712; died in the same city, 1793. He was a pupil of ...

Guardian Angels

( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...

Guardian Angels, Feast of

This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar. It was not ...

Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

Guardianship is "the condition or fact of being a guardian; the office or position of guardian" ...

Guarini, Battista

An Italian poet, b. at Ferrara, 1538, d. at Venice, 7 Oct., 1612. His father, Francesco ...

Guarino da Verona

A humanist, b. 1370, at Verona, Italy ; d. 1460, at Ferrara. He studied Latin in the school ...

Guastalla, Diocese of

(GUASTELLENSIS). In the province of Reggio Emilia (Central Italy ) on the left bank of the Po ...

Guastallines

Luigia Torelli, Countess of Guastalla (b. about 1500; d. 29 Oct., 1559 or 1569), widowed for ...

Guatemala, Santiago de

(Sancti Jacobi majoris de Guatemala) Archdiocese conterminous with the Republic of Guatemala, ...

Guayaquil

A RCHDIOCESE OF G UAYAQUIL (G UAYAQUILENSIS ). Guayaquil, the capital of the Ecuadorian ...

Gubbio

Diocese of Eugubinensis, in the province of Perugia in Umbria (Central Italy ). The city ...

Gudenus, Moritz

A German convert to the Catholic faith from the Protestant ministry; b. 11 April, 1596, at ...

Gudula, Saint

(Latin, Guodila ). Born in Brabant, Belgium, of Witger and Amalberga, in the seventh ...

Guelphs and Ghibellines

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

Guglielmini, Giovanni Battista

Scientist, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1763; d. in the same city, l5 December, 1817. He is known as ...

Guiana

(Or Guayana .) Guiana was the name given to all that region of South America which extends ...

Guibert of Ravenna

An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at ...

Guicciardini, Francesco

An historian and statesman; born at Florence, 1483; died there, 23 May, 1540. His parents, Piero ...

Guido of Arezzo

(Guido Aretinus). A monk of the Order of St. Benedict, b. (according to Dom Morin in the ...

Guigues du Chastel

(Guigo de Castro). Fifth prior of the Grande Chartreuse, legislator of the Carthusian Order ...

Guijon, André

Bishop and orator; born in November, 1548, at Autun ; died in September, 1631. He was the son ...

Guilds

Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These ...

Guiney, Patrick Robert

Second and eldest surviving son of James Roger Guiney and Judith Macrae; born at Parkstown, Co. ...

Guiscard, Robert

Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; born about 1016; ...

Guise, House of

The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the ...

Guitmund

A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius ; born at an ...

Gulf of St. Lawrence

Vicariate erected 12 September, 1905, and formed from the prefecture Apostolic of the same name ...

Gunpowder Plot, The

(Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605). Robert Catesby, the originator of the ...

Gunther, Blessed

A hermit in Bohemia in the eleventh century; b. about 955; d. at Hartmanitz, Bohemia, 9 ...

Gurk

(GURCENSIS) A prince-bishopric of Carinthia, suffragan to Salzburg, erected by Archbishop ...

Gury, Jean-Pierre

Moral theologian ; b. at Mailleroncourt, Haute-Saône, 23 January, 1801; d. at Merc ur, ...

Gusmão, Bartholomeu Lourenço de

Naturalist, and the first aeronaut; b. in 1685 at Santos in the province of São Paulo , ...

Gutenberg, Johann

(Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg). Inventor of printing; born about ...

Guthlac, Saint

Hermit; born about 673; died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life ...

Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte-

A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...

Guzmán, Fernando Pérez de

Señor de Batres; Spanish historian and poet (1376-1458). He belonged to a family ...

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