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The Vatican

This subject will be treated under the following heads:

I. Introduction;
II. Architectural History of the Vatican Palace;
III. Description of the Palace;
IV. Description of the Gardens;
V. The Chapels of the Vatican;
VI. The Palace as a Place of Residence;
VII. The Palace as a Treasury of Art;
VIII. The Palace as a Scientific Institute;
IX. The State-Halls of the Vatican;
X. The State Staircases of the Vatican;
XI. The Administrative Boards of the Vatican;
XII. The Juridical and Hygienic Boards of the Vatican;
XIII. The Policing of the Vatican;
XIV. The Vatican as a Business Centre;
XV. The Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana;
XVI. The Legal Position of the Vatican.

Inasmuch as by this disposition of the subject analogous things may be treated together regardless of their various locations in the Palace, this has an advantage over others which follow a topographical and historical method.

I. INTRODUCTION

The territory on the right bank of the Tiber between Monte Mario and Gianicolo (Janiculum) was known to antiquity as the Ager Vaticanus, and, owing to its marshy character, the low-lying portion of this district enjoyed an ill repute. The origin of the name Vaticanus is uncertain; some claim that the name comes from a vanished Etruscan town called Vaticum. This district did not belong to ancient Rome, nor was it included within the city walls built by Emperor Aurelian. In the imperial gardens situated in this section was the Circus of Nero. At the foot of the Vatican Hill lay the ancient Basilica of St. Peter. By extensive purchases of land the medieval popes acquired possession of the whole hill, thus preparing the way for building activity. Communication with the city was established by the Pons Ælius, which led directly to the mausoleum of Hadrian. Between 848 and 852 Leo IV surrounded the whole settlement with a wall, which included it within the city boundaries. Until the pontificate of Sixtus V this section of Rome remained a private papal possession and was entrusted to a special administration. Sixtus, however, placed it under the jurisdiction of the urban authorities as the fourteenth region.

II. ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE VATICAN PALACE

It is certain that Pope Symmachus (498-514) built a residence to the right and left of St. Peter's and immediately contiguous to it. There was probably a former residence, since, from the very beginning, the popes must have found a house of accommodation necessary in the vicinity of so prominent a basilica as St. Peter's. By the end of the thirteenth century the building activity of Eugene III, Alexander III, and Innocent III had developed the residence of Symmachus into a palatium which lay between the portico of St. Peter's and the Vatican Hill. Nicholas III began building on the Vatican Hill a palace of extraordinary dimensions, which was completed by his immediate successors. He also secured land for the Vatican Gardens. The group of buildings then erected correspond more or less with the ancient portions of the present palace which extend around the Cortile del Maresciallo and the eastern, southern, and western sides of the Cortile del Papagallo. These buildings were scarcely finished or fitted when the popes moved to Avignon and from 1305 to 1377 no pope resided permanently in the Vatican Palace. Urban V spent a short time in Rome, and Gregory XI died there. When Urban V resolved to return to Rome, the Lateran Palace having been destroyed by fire, the ordinary papal residence was fixed at the Vatican. The apartments, roofs, gardens, and chapels of the Vatican Palace had to be entirely overhauled, so grievous had been the decay and ruin into which the buildings had fallen within sixty years ( see Kirsch, "Die Rüchkehr der Päpste Urban V. u. Gregor. XI.", Paderborn, 1908). The funds devoted to the repairs of the Vatican during the residence at Avignon had been entirely inadequate.

Urban VI (1378) and his successors restored to the palace a degree of comfort as a place of residence, so that, when Martin V came from Constance to Rome (28 September, 1420), little remained to be undertaken except some rearrangement of the apartments. Nicholas V erected buildings on the east and north sides of the Cortile del Papagallo, on the spot where the Loggia of Raphael and the Appartamento Borgia and the Stanze stand today. Alexander added to the Palace of Nicholas V the Torre Borgia, which bears his name. Pius II and Paul II beautified the buildings of the south aide, and Innocent VIII effected such alterations in the old palace in the portico of St. Peter's at the foot of the hill that it was henceforth known as the Palazzo di Innocenzo VIII. Directly south, in the direction of Sant' Angelo, Nicholas V erected a mighty bastion (called the Torrione di Niccolò V), running down from the summit of the hill to Sant' Angelo. The space mounting the hill in a northerly direction was enclosed by a wall and served as a garden ( viridarium, vigna ). At a distance of about 700 metres from the palace, Innocent VIII erected a fairly large villa, which may be seen today, and which was remodelled by Clement XIV and Pius VI into one of the most stately portions of the museum of sculpture. Sixtus IV, who dwelt in the apartments of the Cortile del Papagallo, made important alterations in the rooms of the ground floor to accommodate there the Bibliotheca Palatina.

The wing to the south (Galleria delle inscrizioni and Museo Chiaramonti) was built by Julius II ; the northern wing (picture-gallery and library ), by Pius IV. A little later both wings were fully developed into their present form. The large Loggia ( il gran nicchione ) near the villa of Innocent VIII was erected by Pius IV. Pius V erected the apartments to the north of the Torre Borgia, and built the three chapels, situated one over the other, in the western portion of the northern wing. One of these chapels is attached to the library (that on the ground floor) and one to the picture-gallery on the second floor. Pius V and his successor Gregory XIII extended the palace by the construction of the wing running southwards to the Torrione. The present papal palace was begun by Sixtus V and completed by his successors, Urban VII, Innocent XI, and Clement VIII.

The buildings extending along the southern slope of the hill to Piazza S. Pietro, occupied today by the maestro di camera and the majordomo, were erected by Julius III, and completed under Pius IX with the construction of the magnificent Scala Pia. The buildings branching off from the northern wing toward the gardens, in the vicinity of the chapels of Pius V , were built by Paul V. Sixtus V established connection between the two longitudinal wings of the palace by erecting in the middle the Salone Sistino, in which he housed the library. A second transverse building, constructed by Pius VII in the eastern court, contains the Braccio Nuovo, one section of the museum of sculpture. All the other museum buildings at the eastern end of the palace were erected or remodelled by Pius VI and Pius VII. The casino constructed by Leo XIII on one of the towers of Leo IV in the gardens now serves as the Vatican Observatory. This broad sketch of the architectural history of the Vatican and the following description of the various edifices will afford a fairly exact idea of the gradual growth of this vast collection of buildings.

III. DESCRIPTION OF THE PALACE

The Vatican Palace is situated on the eastern sections of the Vatican Hill. Behind it rises the summit of the hill with the gardens; at the highest points may still be seen the only remains of the Leonine Wall with its two mighty towers. The palace is approached by the road leading around St. Peter's and by the Scala Pia, which extends from the Portone di Bronzo to the Court of St. Damasus. The covered way which leads from the Cortile di Belvedere to the Cortile della Sentinella and thence to the exit door situated at the back of the palace is used only for official purposes. From the Portone di Bronzo downwards run the powerful buttresses of the palace around the eastern and northern sides of the hill as far as the Galleria Lapidaria (Corridoio delle Iscrizioni). These buttresses are interrupted by the Torrione, which was formerly of great strategic importance and now serves as a magazine. At the rear of the Cortile del Forno is the entrance to the Nicchione and the museum buildings, which are the most elevated portions of the palace.

From the cupola of St. Peter's may be seen the whole collection of buildings included under the name of Vatican Palace, a long stretch of edifices with many courts, ending in a row of smaller connected buildings before which stands a great loggia, known as the Nicchione. To the right and left of the loggia and at right angles to it are two narrow buildings, which are connected transversely by the Braccio Nuovo at a distance of 328 feet from the loggia. These four buildings enclose the Giardino della Pigna, so called because in the loggia stands a gigantic pine-cone of bronze, preserved from old St. Peter's. Except the few unsightly buildings lying immediately to the left, all the buildings behind the loggia are given over to the museum -- especially to sculptures and to the Egyptian and Etruscan museums. In the longitudinal wing to the left are accommodated a portion of the library, the Galleria dei Candelabri, and Raphael's tapestries ; the right wing forms the Museo Chiaramonti, while the transverse building, or Braccio Nuovo, also belongs to the museum of sculpture. After the Giardino della Pigna succeeds the Cortile della Stamperia, a narrow building deriving its name from the fact that it served as the seat of the Vatican Press (founded by Sixtus V ) until 1909. At the back of this court stands the Braccio Nuovo; to the left lie the library, the Galleria delle Carte Geografiche, and the Torre dei Quattro Venti; to the right the library and the Galleria Lapidaria; and in the transverse building in front the Library. The third huge court, Cortile di Belvedere, lies on a much lower level in an exact line with the other two. At the rear and to the left is the library, to the right the Galleria Lapidaria, and in the transverse wing in front the Appartemento Borgia, the Stanze of Raphael, and the Museum of Modern Paintings.

Between these long stretches of the palaces with the three courts and the Basilica of St. Peter lie a large number of courts, surrounded in a somewhat irregular fashion by a group of buildings of which we shall mention the most important. The Sistine Chapel to the extreme left adjoins the Cortile della Sentinella, and the Cortile del Portoncino; opposite to this ends the left wing of the library. To the right from the chapel is the Sala, Regia, beyond which, extending towards St. Peter's, is the Cappella Paolina. Running somewhat obliquely from the Sala Regia is the Sala Ducale, which, with the Stanze di Raffaello and the Appartamento Borgia, encloses the Cortile del Papagallo on the north and south sides. The eastern side of this court is bordered by the group of buildings containing the Camere dei Paramenti (with the Loggie di Giovanni da Udine extending in front) and the Cappella di Niccolo V (one story higher), situated before which is the Loggie di Raffaello. The above-mentioned loggie form the western side of the Cortile di San Damaso; the northern side is also composed of loggie, behind which, on the second floor, is the Sala Matilde and on the third a portion of the old picture-gallery. The eastern side of the loggie stands in front of that portion of the palace occupied by the pope and the secretary of state. There are some lesser courts on the east side.

The exterior of the palace presents an imposing ensemble. Architectonic decorativeness is found nowhere. Extreme simplicity characterizes the exterior walls. According as necessity dictated, æsthetic effect being little considered, new buildings and annexes were erected, roofs raised, external passages laid out, lofty halls divided horizontally and pierced for the upper~half of windows which disfigure the lines of the buildings. Those who seek for uniformity find much to censure in the palace, but the general effect, viewed from an historical standpoint, is most pleasing. The Cortile di San Damaso, the view towards St. Peter's of graceful arcades opening out before the staircase leading to the Sala Regia by the Portal of Paul II, the lofty entrance door to the library of Sixtus IV, in the Cortile del Papagallo, the Cortili del Portoncino and della Sentinella are all magnificent. The Portone della Sentinella leads to the Cortile di Belvedere, decorated with a beautiful fountain. The view to the right from the windows and galleries of the Appartemento Borgia and the Stanze di Raffaello is admirable. An added story replaced the turret of the Palace of Nicholas V ; the adjacent Torre Borgia has lost its ancient windows, its roof thereby losing the character of a tower. Above the transverse wing is the Torre dei Quattro Venti, where was the Specola Gregoriana, the observatory dating from the days of Gregory XIII, with its paintings by the Zuccari.

The Giardino della Pigna, lying to the north, is beautifully laid out. In the centre of the court has stood since 1886, mounted on a marble column, a bronze statue of St. Peter, in commemoration of the Vatican Council of 1870 ; numerous fragments of statues and reliefs are artistically placed standing or flat along the walls. The quarters of the Swiss Guards on the east side consist of two narrow parallel buildings, which, with the Sistine Palace and the Torrione di Niccolò V, form two courts. The inner court is adjacent to the palace, in the other is a gate leading directly to the city by the colonnades. Beyond this gate is the covered passage from the palace to Sant' Angelo, now walled up at the point where it leaves the Vatican territory. A tablet and Inscription and a large coat of arms give evidence that Alexander VI initiated here extensive works of improvement and decoration. In the immediate vicinity of the Torrione di Niccolò V earlier lay the Cavallerizza, the riding ground for the Noble Guard. Between this building and the quarters of the Swiss Guards is another gate leading to the town. The Cavallerizza was entirely reconstructed three years ago to accommodate the Stamperia Segreta (the private press of the Vatican) and the Tipografia Vaticana. On this occasion Pius X introduced extensive reforms in the printing, bringing it to the highest level attained by modern technic. North of the printing offices and parallel to the eastern longitudinal wing of the palace is the huge house which Pius X reconstructed for the married officials and the servants of the palace. It is solidly built, conveniently divided and fitted with the best sanitary requirements.

The palace forms a special parish, the administration of which is entrusted to the Monsignor Sagrista, sacristan of the pope, assisted by the sottosagrista, who has charge of all the vestments and vessels used in the five chapels of the palace. The chaplain of the Swiss Guards attends to the vestments of their chapel. The Cappella Paolina is regarded as the parish church, and is thus one of the churches of Rome where the Forty Hours' Adoration is inaugurated at the beginning of each ecclesiastical year. By the Bull, "Ad sacram ordinis", of 15 October, 1497, the ancient custom of selecting the Prefect of the Apostolic Chapel (the sagrista) from the Augustinian Order was given a legal foundation. The sagrista is Titular Bishop of Porphyreon, assistant at the throne, and domestic prelate, and before 1870 was pastor of the Vatican Palace, of the Quirinal, and of the Lateran. The Quirinal was provisionally attached in 1870 to the parish of SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio, and in the Lateran the sagrista was represented in parochial affairs by the pastor of the basilica. In addition to other privileges the sagrista has the right of administering Extreme Unction to the dying pope. Since the reign of Pius IV he is an ex-officio member of the Conclave. Although, as a bishop, the sagrista enjoys the use of the rochet, he wears it only in very exceptional cases, always wearing the mozzetta over the manteletta. His appointment is for life, so that he is not affected by a change of pontificate.

IV. THE VATICAN GARDENS

Enclosed between the city walls, the zecca (the mint) with the adjacent houses, and the Viale del Museo, lie the Vatican Gardens, or Boscareccio, into which visitors are admitted only with the special permission of the sub-Prefect of the Vatican Palace. They are reached through the museum entrance on the western side of the palace. To the left of the entrance below is the English Garden, in which the palma grande (the tallest palm in Rome ) and fine citron and orange trees grow under a protecting roof. At the end of the broad path to the right is a walk, bordered by boxwood trees fifteen to twenty feet high, which leads between oaks and ilex trees up the hill on which stands the Casino of Leo XIII, resting on one of the huge towers of the Leonine Wall ( see VATICAN OBSERVATORY ). The pavilion, to the right of the Casino, is on a level with the roof of St. Peter's . In this section of the garden vineries have been laid out, and vegetables are cultivated. Before the first Leonine tower a terrace affords a wide view across the Valle dell' Inferno, from whose ancient brick-works half of Rome has been built. To the left of the tower is an oak grove where wild flowers grow. Ancient fragments of marble are strewn everywhere, the paths are kept in entirely rural fashion, so that this small grove forms an especially enchanting portion of the gardens. One of the rough walks leads to the Fontana di Paolo Quinto, which is fed with water from the Lago di Bracciano. The arms of the Borghese proclaims it the work of Paul V . In the immediate vicinity are the barracks of the papal gendarmes entrusted with the guarding of the gardens. A few hundred feet below is the Fontana del Santissimo Sacramento, a fountain so called because in the centre stands a monstrance whose rays are formed by the water; on either side rise three vertical streams of water, which represent the candles. A path bordered by boxwood leads to the court of the Casino of Pius IV, a double building erected by Pirro Ligorio in 1560, with walls decorated with flint mosaic work. Women were there received in audience until they were allowed admission to the papal apartments by Pius IX. Thousands of artistic addresses received by Pius IX, Leo XIII, and Pius X have been transferred from the library to this Casino, where they are now preserved (cf. Bouchet, "La Villa Pia des Jardins du Vatican, architecture de Pirro Ligorio", Paris, 1837). The paintings in the Casino are by Baroccio, Federigo Zuccaro, and Santi di Titi. Immediately before the casino opens the subterranean passage which Pius X had constructed so that he might pass with as little inconvenience as possible from the palace to the gardens. The appearance of the surrounding park has been altered by excavations, but the trees have been untouched. The distribution of numerous species of trees and flowering shrubs makes this portion of the gardens very picturesque. The stretch of the gardens to the right of the entrance consists of a thick, magnificent alley of ilex trees, in which some cages may still be seen; these formerly sheltered ibexes and other animals. The view from here towards Monte Mario over the circular fountains, and to the right towards the Prati di Castello with Soracte in the background, is admirable. Scattered around the garden are four other cages for animals, which contained until a few years ago the lions presented to the pope by King Menelik, and also ostriches, gazelles, and a number of species of poultry. All these animals have died, have been given away, or sold, since their maintenance and care demanded too much attention. The Vatican Gardens are the only place in which the pope can take exercise in the open air. (Cf. Friedlander, "Das Kasino Pius des Vierten. Kunstgeschichtliche Forschungen", ed. Royal Prussian Historical Institute, III, Leipzig, 1912; Donovan, "Rome, Ancient and Modern, and its Environs", II, Rome, 1844.)

V. THE CHAPELS OF THE VATICAN

In the papal palace there are a large number of chapels which serve various purposes. By far the largest and the most famous of these is the Sistine Chapel.

A. The Sistine Chapel

The Sistine Chapel is the palatine and court chapel, where all papal ceremonies and functions and papal elections are held. It was built between 1473 and 1481 by Giovanni de' Dolci at the commission of Sixtus IV. In length 133 feet and in breadth 46, it has at each side six stained-glass windows, given by the Prince Regent Leopold of Bavaria in 1911. The lower third of the chapel is separated from the rest by beautiful marble barriers, which divide the space reserved for invited visitors on the occasion of great solemnities from that reserved for the pope, the cardinals, and the papal family. On the wall to the right is the box for the singers of the famous Sistine Choir . The marble barriers and the balustrade of the box are by Mino da Fiesole and his assistants.

The rear wall of the chapel is now without a window, being broken only by a small door on the right, which leads to the sacristy of the chapel. Almost the whole of this space is occupied by the painting of the Last Judgment ( see MICHELANGELO BUONARROTTI ). The frescoes on the side walls were executed between 1481 and 1483 by Florentine and Umbrian masters. On the left side are given, as the prototypes, scenes from the life of Moses, and on the right scenes from the life of Christ -- beginning in both cases from the high altar and meeting at the entrance door. Perugino, Pinturicchio, Botticelli, Pier di Cosimo, Rosselli, Signorelli, della Gatta, Ghirlandajo, and Salviati were the collaborators in the wonderful cycle of paintings. Fiammingo, Matteo da Lecce, and Diamante are also here immortalized. Some years ago the ceiling frescoes by Michelangelo were thoroughly cleansed by Ludwig Seitz, and all the plasterwork blisters which by falling away threatened to work irremediable damage to the paintings, were again skilfully fastened to the masonry. To lessen the effect on the paintings caused by any great change of temperature, Leo XIII installed in the chapel a system of central heating which prevents the walls from becoming icy cold in winter. ( See Steinmann "Die Sixtinische Kapelle", 2 vols. and atlas, Munich, 1900-05.)

B. The Cappella Paolina

The Cappella Paolina, which serves as the parish church of the Vatican, is separated from the Sistine Chapel only by the Sala Regia. It received its name from Paul III, who had it erected in 1540 by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Before 1550 Michelangelo painted two frescoes here, the Conversion of Paul and the Crucifixion of Peter. Other paintings in the chapel are by Lorenzo Sabbatini and Federico Zuccaro. The statues in the background are by P. Bresciano. Before the opening of the conclave the Sacred College assembles in this chapel to attend a sermon in which the members are reminded of their obligation quickly to give to the Church her ablest son as ruler and guide. The cardinals then withdraw to the Sistine Chapel. In the Cappella Paolina are sung daily the conclave Solemn Masses "De Spiritu Sancto", at which all members of the conclave must be present.

C. The Chapel of Nicholas V

While the two above-named chapels are situated on the first floor of the palace, which bounds the Cortile di San Damaso, the Chapel of Nicholas V ( chapel of San Lorenzo) lies on the second floor in the immediate vicinity of the Stanze and Loggie of Raphael. Built by Nicholas V, the chapel was adorned (1450-55) by Fra Angelico with frescoes, depicting chiefly scenes from the lives of Sts. Laurence and Stephen. This wonderful series of paintings is Angelico's greatest work.

D. The Pope's Private Chapel

In the reception rooms of the pope, between the Sala degli Arazzi and the Sala del Trono, lies a smaller room, from which a door leads to the private chapel of the pope, where the Blessed Sacrament is always reserved. Here the pope usually celebrates his Mass, and hither are invited those who are accorded the privilege of receiving Communion from his hand. The lay members of the papal family usually make their Easter Communion in this chapel on the Monday in Holy Week ; the prelates of Rome make theirs on Holy Thursday. On both these occasions the pope celebrates. After Mass all are entertained at breakfast in the Sala dei Paramenti, the majordomo representing the pope as host.

E. Cappella della Sala Matilde

On days when a larger number of strangers are admitted to assist at the pope's Mass, the Holy Father uses the Cappella della Sala Matilde, a simple but tastefully decorated chapel which Pius X had erected in the Sala Matilde on the second floor in the middle building.

F. The Chapel of the Swiss Guards

The Chapel of the Swiss Guards lies at the foot of the papal residence in the immediate vicinity of the Portone di Bronzo and the quarters of the Swiss Guards, and in it the services for the Guards are celebrated by their special chaplain. This Chapel of Sts. Martin and Sebastian dates from the sixteenth century, and has a special charm.

The former Cappelle di San Pio V lay on the southern end of the present halls of the library, the chapels being situated under one another on three floors. The middle chapel on the first floor formerly contained the addresses recently transferred to the Casino of Pius IV. The paintings here are by Giorgio Vasari.

VI. THE PALACE AS A PLACE OF RESIDENCE

The Vatican Palace was not intended and built as a residence. Only a comparatively small portion of the palace is residential; all the remainder serves the purposes of art and science or is employed for the administration of the official business of the Church and for the management of the palace. The rooms formerly intended specially for residence are today utilized to accommodate collections or as halls of state. Hence, the Vatican can more properly be regarded as a huge museum and a centre of scientific investigation than as a residence. The residential portion of the palace is around the Cortile di San Damaso, and includes also the quarters of the Swiss Guards and of the gendarmes situated at the foot of this section. Of some 1000 rooms in the whole palace about 200 serve as residential apartments for the pope, the secretary of state, the highest court officials, the high officials in close attendance on the pope, and some scientific and administrative officials. This limited number could be increased only with the most costly and extensive alterations. When the temporal dominion of the pope came to an end in 1870, a large number of the minor officials and servants of the Quirinal Palace had to be sustained during the confusion of the time ; these latter were temporarily assigned previously unused rooms of the Vatican. Pius X executed the plan of erecting in the immediate vicinity of the Vatican a special large residence for all these families, where they are now accommodated. This practical innovation affords them pleasant and commodious quarters.

In the eastern wing (facing towards Rome ) of the residential section the pope occupies two floors. On the upper floor (the third) he resides with his two private secretaries and some servants; on the second floor he works and receives visitors. One suite of rooms receives the morning, and the other the midday and afternoon sun. The second floor includes the reception rooms, which the visitor enters through the wonderful Sala Clementina, where a division of the Swiss Guards keep watch at the entrance to the papal apartments. The next room is the Anticamera Bassa, in which the servants stand, and in which all summoned to an audience lay aside their wraps. An air-trap opens into the Sala dei Gendarmi, so called because two gendarmes in court uniform are there stationed. A covered way leads backwards through the court to the working-room of the pope. The next hall is known as the Sala del Cantone or Sala della Guardia Palatina, as it is a corner room where during the reception a division of the Palatine Guards are drawn up. The eastern suite of rooms begins with the Sala degli Arazzi, in which three huge Gobelin tapestries resented by Louis XV adorn the walls. Between this and the Sala del Trono is a smaller room which serves to accommodate the Noble Guard, and leads to the pope's private chapel. The floor of the throne room is covered with a specially manufactured and costly Spanish carpet presented to Leo XIII. The room is simply fitted, giving a very impressive and restful effect.

Behind the throne room stands the Anticamera Segreta, at the entrance of which a member of the Noble Guard stands. The old and very valuable Gobelin tapestry which covers the floor is practically indestructible, but is tended with great care. In this room wait the majordomo or the maestro di camera and one or more spiritual chamberlains, when audiences are to be given. Here also wait the cardinals and persons of rank and station until their turn comes, while the others summoned to the audience wait in the throne room or in the other above-named halls. Situated on a corner, this room offers a wonderful view of the city and the Campagna to the east, the Piazza S. Pietro and the Janiculum to the south. Two smaller rooms and the Sala del Tronetto lie between the Anticamera Segreta and the pope's library, which is both his working-room and his reception room for current private audiences. Not far from the entrance of the library stands the pope's unpretentious, large writing-desk, beside which are some seats for visitors. In the middle of this large room, which is splendidly lighted by three windows, stands a broad mahogany table several yards long. The library cases run along the four walls, and above them hang twelve exquisite paintings of animals. Other decorations and fittings of the room combine in perfect harmony ; it is an ideal working-room.

Over the Anticamera Segreta, the Sala del Tronetto, and the two adjoining rooms is the pope's private chancellery, accessible only by a staircase from the inner vestibule of the library. Here, under the pope's direction, two secretaries with a staff of assistants transact all the unofficial affairs of the pontiff.

Immediately under these working and reception rooms of the pope is the suite of the secretary of state, who under Pius IX and Leo XIII occupied what are now the private rooms of the pope. Leo XIII assigned this suite temporarily to Cardinal Ledochowski, when he came to Rome from the prison of Ostrowo. These neglected rooms were recently renovated by a Spanish ecclesiastic of wealthy family. Here the secretary of state receives twice weekly the diplomats accredited to the Holy See and numerous other visitors. Along the Scala Pia, built and covered by Pius IX, which leads from the Portone di Bronzo to the Court of St. Damasus , lie the extensive apartments of the maestro di camera and the majordomo. The other residents of the palace are the four spiritual chamberlains in immediate attendance, the monsignor sagrista, the maestro del sacro palazzo (a Dominican, theological adviser of the pope and censor of the books printed in Rome ), under-secretary of state, prefect of the Vatican Library, household administrator of the Apostolic Palace, other court and administrative officials, and a few servants.

VII. THE PALACE AS A TREASURY OF ART

The Vatican contains an abundance of works of art, which are now catalogued in every tourist's guide-book. On the one hand are museums and collections and on the other the interior decoration of the palace. The Vatican treasures of art also include much of scientific importance, which will be treated in the following section. Here belong especially the rich treasures exhibited in the library and various other objects. The Vatican works of art represent in their entirety an irreplaceable treasure, which is not actively at the disposal of the Curia, but passively in their possession, since the repair and maintenance of these objects make great claims on the resources of the Holy See. Those who proclaim the riches of the Curia should know that, though the works of art are worth many hundred millions, they have no market value. The Holy See, notwithstanding its difficult financial position, values too highly its civilizing mission to divest itself of these treasures, which are being constantly increased.

A. The Vatican Museums

Cosimo Stornaiolo says in one passage: "The attitude of the Church towards the statues of the false gods and similar works of art was proclaimed by the Christian poet Prudentius in the fourth century as follows (Contra Symmachum, 1, 502): 'Let the statues be retained merely as the works of great masters; as such they may constitute the greatest ornament of our native town [ Rome ] without the misuse of an art which serves the wicked contaminating these memorials.' In accordance with this spirit of the Church, the early Christian emperors issued repeatedly laws against the destroyers of ancient works of art, and medieval Rome saw on all sides -- in its public squares, in the ruins of the ancient palaces, and in the villas of the neighbourhood -- numberless statues of gods, emperors, and renowned men. It is true that, during a period of unrestrained barbarism when the popes transferred their residence from Rome to Avignon, works in marble found their way to the lime-kilns; but scarcely were these times past, during which Petrarch declares the Romans had degenerated to a nation of cowherds, than the popes, in accordance with their full conviction that the Church was the first-called protectress and patroness of art, devoted their attention to the preservation of the ancient objects of art. The papal palaces thus possess so great an abundance of masterpieces of all ages for the instruction and enjoyment of both the friends and the enemies of the papacy that, were all the other collections of the world destroyed by some catastrophe, the Vatican collection would suffice for the perpetuation of all æsthetic culture, both pagan and Christian. The popes were not alone the first to establish museums, but they have also by their example spurred all other governments of Europe to imitation, and thereby performed a great service in the refining of artistic taste among all modern nations. For the Vatican museums, in contrast to so many others, were instituted purely from æsthetic, and not from historical considerations." These important remarks apply not alone to the museums, but likewise to all the Vatican collections and scientific institutions. The Vatican museums are: (1) The Museo Pio-Clementino; (2) the Galleria Chiaramonti; (3) the Braccio Nuovo; (4) the Egyptian Museum; (5) the Etruscan Museum.

(1) The Museo Pio-Clementino

The first collection of antiquities in the world was made by Popes Julius II, Leo X , Clement VII, and Paul III in the Belvedere. Of the treasures there collected, most of which were a few decades later (especially by Pius V ) given away or removed, only a few of the prominent objects maintain their place in the Vatican today. To these belong, for example, the Torso of Heracles, the Belvedere Apollo, and the Laocoon. Clement XIV's activity in collecting antiquities was continued by Pius VI with such great success that their combined collections, arranged by Ennio Quirino Visconti, were united in one large museum, named for these popes, the Museo Pio-Clementino. It contains eleven separate rooms, filled with celebrated antiquities.

(a) Sala a croce greca. -- At the expense of half a million lire ($100,000) Pius VI had the two gigantic porphyry sarcophagi of Sts. Helena and Constantia, the mother and daughter of Constantine the Great, repaired and transferred to this museum, built by Simonetti. Conspicuous among the statues is that of the youthful Octavian, one of the very few ancient statues of which the head was never separated from the trunk. Among the few mosaics is the Cnidian Venus, which is esteemed the most perfect copy of the masterpiece of Praxiteles.
(b) Sala della Biga. -- The masterly restoration of an ancient two-wheeled racing chariot, drawn by two horses, by the sculptor Franzoni has given its name to the beautiful circular room erected by Camporesi. The wheels and one of the horses are new, a fact which only the expert can discern. In this room are also a bearded Bacchus, two discus-throwers, a bearded athlete, sarcophagi, and other works of art.
(c) Galleria dei Candelabri. -- Under Pius VI the very long Hall of Bramante was closed on this side, and was divided into six compartments by arches resting on Dorian columns of vari-coloured marble. In addition to many vessels of costly marbles, eight magnificent candelabra of white marble, after which this hail is named, are especially conspicuous. The exquisitely fine tracings and arabesques are among the finest examples of this form of art. A Ganymede carried away by an eagle, a local goddess of a town in Antiochia, a Greek runner, and a fighting Persian are the most important among the numerous sculptures. Especially valuable is a sarcophagus with a representation in mezzo-rilievo of the tragedy of the daughters of Niobe. This hail was selected by Leo XIII to immortalize, through Ludwig Seitz, some of the most important acts of his pontificate. In a deeply thoughtful composition the artist represented St. Thomas Aquinas as the teacher of Christian philosophy, the agreement between religion and science, the union of ancient pagan and Christian art, the Rosary and the battle of Lepanto, and Divine grace in its various activities as working in Sts. Clara of Montefalco, Benedict Labre, Laurence of Brindisi, and John Baptist de Rossi, canonized in 1881. Seitz also painted a symbolic representation of four ideas taken from the Encyclicals of Leo XIII : Christian marriage, the praise of the Third Order of St. Francis, the condemnation of Freemasonry, and the agreement between secular and religious authority. This classical cycle of paintings is important (cf. Senes, "Galleria dei Candelabri, affreschi di Ludovico Seitz", Rome, 1891).
(d) Sala rotonda. -- Built after the model of the Pantheon by Simonetti, this hall contains as its most precious object the bust of the Zeus of Otricoli. Pius IX paid 268,000 lire ($53,600) for the colossal gilt bronze statue of Hercules. The Barberini Hera, as it is called, is an exquisite work of art. The great mosaic in the floor, in the centre of which is a monster porphyry shell, was discovered at Otricoli in 1780.
(e) Sala delle Muse. -- The eight-cornered hall, which Pius VI commissioned Simonetti to build, was intended to receive the nine Muses under the leadership of Apollo, as well as busts of all those who should have acquired renown in the service of the same. Pius VI here paid brilliant homage to art and science, representing truth with a noble magnanimity against the brutal caricatures of culture of the waning eighteenth century.
(f) Sala degli animali. -- This room contains the richest collection in the world of (about 150) representations of animals from classical antiquity, many of the works of art being of high importance.
(g) Galleria delle statue. -- Innocent VIII (1484-92) had a summer-house erected in the vicinity of the Belvedere, and had it adorned with frescoes by Mantegna and Pinturicchio. Clement XIV and Pius VI had this building altered, and transferred thither such important treasures as the Weeping Penelope, the Apollo Sauroktonos, the Amazon from the Villa Mattei, a Greek monumental stele, the Sleeping Ariadne, and the Barberini Candelabra.
(h) Sala dei Busti. -- In this second division of the former summer-house are over 100 busts of Romans, gods and goddesses, etc.
(i) Gabinetto delle Maschere. -- The floor mosaic with masques, found in the Villa Hadriana at Tivoli in 1780, gives this third division of the summer-house its name. Worthy of special mention is the renowned Satyr, of rosso antico, and the dancing woman of Pentelic marble from Naples.
(j) Cortile del Belvedere. -- The former square court belonging to the ancient Belvedere was adorned in 1775 with a pillared hall, and in 1803 the chamfered corner halls were converted into little temples. In the first of these stands the unrivalled and celebrated Laocoon group. It was discovered near Sette Sale in 1506, during the reign of Julius II, and was named by Michelangelo the miracle of art. In the second little temple is the admirable Belvedere Apollo, discovered near Grotta Ferrata about 1490. Canova was allowed to exhibit his Perseus and the Two Boxers in the third temple, where, however, they are not seen to advantage. In the fourth temple is the well-known Hermes dating from the fourth century before Christ; formerly this statue was thought to represent Antinous.
(k) Gabinetti del Belvedere. -- In the three cabinets, or atria, are conspicuous the statue of Meleager, the above-mentioned Torso of Belvedere, and the sarcophagi and inscriptions relating to the Scipio family.

(2) The Galleria Chiaramonti

Thirty-four pilasters indicate the thirty sections into which the Galleria Chiaramonti is divided in the corridor 492 feet long. More than 300 sculptures, mostly of smaller dimensions and of a variety of subjects, are here artistically exhibited. They are chiefly the work of Greek sculptors living in Rome, and are carved after Grecian models. Prominent among the original Greek works are the Daughters of Niobe, a relief in Bœotian limestone, and the head of Neptune.

(3) The Braccio Nuovo

Although many of the halls of the Museo Pio-Clementino, especially those built by Simonetti, viewed from the purely architectonic standpoint, make a very brilliant impression and justly command much admiration, still the Braccio Nuovo is incontestably the crown of the museum buildings. The general impression of absolute perfection and symmetry is effected by the harmonious proportions of the long hall, the method of lighting, and the arrangement of the masterpieces exhibited. This hall was erected by Raphael Stern at the commission of Pius VII, at a cost of 1,500,000 lire ($300,000). The magnificent barrel-vault is decorated with richly gilt cassettes; the cornices, the fourteen antique columns of giallo antico, cipollino, alabaster, and Egyptian granite, the transverse hall equally dividing the whole, the marble floor, all contribute an appropriate setting for the masterpieces. In this museum stand twenty-eight statues in as many niches, while in the transverse hall are fifteen more. Between the niches on marble consoles are twenty-eight busts; others rest on mural consoles; between these and the cornice beautiful bas-reliefs are set in the walls. At the rear of the hall stands the statue of the Athlete (or Apoxyomenus) cleaning himself of sweat and dust with a scraper. This statue, as well as that of the other Athlete (the Doryphorus, or spearsman), are antique copies of the Greek originals of Lysippus and Polycletus. The majestic

More Volume: T 528

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Tænarum

Tænarum, a titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth. Tænarum, or Tænarus, ...

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Téllez, Gabriel

Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, b. at Madrid, c. ...

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Tübingen, University of

Located in Würtemberg ; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477, after Pope ...

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Ta 91

Tabæ

Titular see in Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis ; according to Strabo (XII, 570, 576) it was ...

Tabasco

(TABASQUENSIS) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archbishopric of ...

Tabb, John Bannister

An American poet and educator, born at "The Forest" near Richmond, 1845; died at Ellicott City, ...

Tabbora

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Tabbora or Talbora has been ...

Tabernacle

(TABERNACULUM). Tabernacle signified in the Middle Ages sometimes a ciborium-altar, a ...

Tabernacle

(Latin tabernaculum , tent). Tabernacle in Biblical parlance usually designates the ...

Tabernacle Lamp

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Tabernacle Societies

The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches ...

Tabernacle Society

Notre Dame Convent, Philadelphia; a society of persons affiliated with the Association of ...

Tabernacles, Feast of

One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...

Tabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Tacana Indians

The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...

Tacapæ

Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...

Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...

Taché, Etienne-Pascal

Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...

Tadama

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...

Taensa Indians

A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...

Tahiti

Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...

Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...

Tait Indians

( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...

Takkali

(More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...

Talbot, James

Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...

Talbot, John

English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...

Talbot, Peter

Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...

Talbot, Thomas Joseph

Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...

Tallagaht, Monastery of

The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...

Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...

Tallis, Thomas

English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...

Talmud

1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...

Talon, Jean

First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...

Talon, Nicolas

French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...

Talon, Pierre

A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...

Tamanac Indians

A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...

Tamassus

A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...

Tamaulipas

(CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...

Tamburini, Michelangelo

Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...

Tamburini, Thomas

Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...

Tametsi

("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

(Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

Tanagra

A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...

Tancred

Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

Taney, Roger Brooke

(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

Tanguay, Cyprien

Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...

Tanis

A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...

Tanner, Adam

Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...

Tanner, Conrad

Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...

Tanner, Edmund

Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...

Tanner, Matthias

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

Tanucci, Bernardo

Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

Taoism

(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

Taos Pueblo

An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...

Taparelli, Aloysius

(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

Tapestry

A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...

Tapis, Esteban

Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...

Tarabotti, Helena

Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...

Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Taranto

DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...

Tarapacá

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...

Tarasius, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...

Tarazona

DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

Tarbes

DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...

Tarentaise

(TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...

Targum

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...

Tarisel, Pierre

Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...

Tarkin, Saint

(Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...

Tarnow

DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...

Tarquini, Camillus

Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...

Tarragona

ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...

Tarsicius, Saint

Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...

Tarsus

A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...

Tartaglia, Nicolò

(T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...

Tartini, Giuseppe

Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...

Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...

Tassé, Joseph

Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...

Tassach, Saint

Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...

Tassin, René-Prosper

French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...

Tasso, Torquato

Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...

Tassoni, Alessandro

Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...

Tatian

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...

Tatwin, Saint

(TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...

Taubaté

(DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...

Tauler, John

German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...

Taunton, Ethelred

Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...

Taverner, John

Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...

Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...

Tavium

A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...

Taxa Innocentiana

A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...

Taxster, John de

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

Taylor, Frances Margaret

(MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...

Taylor, Ven. Hugh

English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...

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Te 69

Te Deum, The

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

Tebaldeo, Antonio

Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...

Tegernsee

Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...

Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

Teilo, Saint

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Teleology

(From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...

Telepathy

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

Telesio, Bernardino

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

Telesphorus, Pope Saint

(Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...

Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

Tellier, Michel Le

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

Tempel, Wilhelm

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

Temple, Sisters of the

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

Ten Commandments, The

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

Tenebræ

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

Teniers, David

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

Tenney, William Jewett

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...

Tenure, Ecclesiastical

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

Teresa of Avila, Saint

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

Terill, Anthony

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

Ternan, Saint

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

Terrasson, André

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

Terrestrial Paradise

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

Test-Oath, Missouri

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

Testament, New

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

Testament, Old

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

Tetzel, Johann

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

Textual Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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Th 147

Thænæ

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

Thébaud, Augustus

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

Théophane Vénard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Thabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

Thais, Saint

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

Thalberg, Sigismond

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

Thalhofer, Valentin

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

Thanksgiving before and after Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

Thayer, John

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

Theatre, The

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

Thecla, Saint

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

Thecla, Saints

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

Theiner, Augustin

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

Theobald, Saint

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

Theodard, Saint

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

Theodore I, Pope

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

Theodore II, Pope

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

Theodore of Amasea, Saint

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

Theodore of Studium, Saint

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

Theology, Ascetical

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

Theology, History of Dogmatic

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

Theology, Moral

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

Theology, Mystical

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

Theophanes, Saint

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

Theotocopuli, Domenico

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Thera (Santorin)

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

Thierry of Freburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

Thimelby, Richard

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

Thomas á Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

Thomas à Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

Thomas Abel, Blessed

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

Thomas Alfield, Venerable

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

Thomas Aquinas, Saint

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

Thomas Becket, Saint

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

Thomas Christians, Saint

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

Thomas Ford, Blessed

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

Thomas Garnet, Saint

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Thomas More, Saint

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

Thomas of Cantimpré

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

Thomas of Villanova, Saint

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

Thomas Percy, Blessed

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

Thomas the Apostle, Saint

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Thomas, Charles L.A.

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

Thomassin, Louis

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

Thompson, Blessed James

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

Thompson, Francis

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

Thorlaksson, Arni

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

Thorns, Crown of

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

Thou, Nicolas de

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

Three Rivers

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

Thulis, Venerable John

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

Thurmayr, Johannes

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

Thyräus, Hermann

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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Ti 45

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

Tiberias, Sea of

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

Tieffentaller, Joseph

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

Tigris, Saint

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

Tincker, Mary Agnes

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

Tinin

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

Tintoretto, Il

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

Tissot, James

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

Tithes, Lay

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

Titopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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Tl 2

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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Toaldo, Giuseppe

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

Tokio

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

Toledo, Francisco

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

Tolentino and Macerata

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

Toleration, History of

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

Toleration, Religious

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

Tolomei, John Baptist

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

Tomb, Altar

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

Tongerloo, Abbey of

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

Tongiorgi, Salvator

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

Tongues, Gift of

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

Tootell, Hugh

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

Torbido, Francesco

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

Torquemada, Tomás de

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

Torres, Francisco

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

Torricelli, Evangelista

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

Torrubia, José

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

Toscanella and Viterbo

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

Tostado, Alonso

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

Tosti, Luigi

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

Touchet, George Anselm

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

Tournély, Honoré

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

Touron, Antoine

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

Toustain, Charles-François

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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Tr 77

Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

Transubstantiation

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

Treason, Accusations of

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

Tredway, Lettice Mary

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

Tregian, Francis

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

Trent, Council of

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

Tresham, Sir Thomas

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

Tribe, Jewish

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

Tricarico, Diocese of

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

Tricassin, Charles Joseph

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

Trichinopoly, Diocese of

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

Trinitarians, Order of

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

Trinity, The Blessed

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

Trissino, Giangiorgio

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

Trithemius, John

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

Trivet, Nicholas

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

Trokelowe, John de

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

Trondhjem, Ancient See of

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

Tropology, Scriptural

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

Troy, John Thomas

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

Trudo, Saint

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

Trudpert, Saint

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

True Cross, The

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

Trueba, Antonio de

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

Trullo, Council in

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

Trumpets, Feast of

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Trumwin, Saint

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

Truth Societies, Catholic

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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Ts 2

Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

Tschupick, John Nepomuk

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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Tu 27

Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

Tuam, School of

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

Tucumán

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

Tulasne, Louis-René

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

Tunstall, Cuthbert

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

Tunsted, Simon

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

Turin, Shroud of

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

Turin, University of

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

Turnebus, Adrian

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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Tw 2

Twenge, Saint John

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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Ty 7

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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