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The Reformation

The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs. We shall review the general characteristics of this movement from the following standpoints:

I. Causes of the Reformation ;
II. Original Ideas and Purposes of the Reformers;
III. Methods of Spreading the Reformation;
IV. Spread of the Reformation in the Various Countries;
V. Different Forms of the Reformation ;
VI. Results and Consequences of the Reformation.

CAUSES OF THE REFORMATION

The causes of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century must be sought as far back as the fourteenth. The doctrine of the Church, it is true, had remained pure; saintly lives were yet frequent in all parts of Europe, and the numerous beneficient medieval institutions of the Church continued their course uninterruptedly. Whatever unhappy conditions existed were largely due to civil and profane influences or to the exercise of authority by ecclesiastics in civil spheres; they did not obtain everywhere with equal intensity, nor did they always occur simultaneous in the same country. Ecclesiastical and religious life exhibited in many places vigour and variety; works of education and charity abounded; religious art in all its forms had a living force; domestic missionaries were many and influential; pious and edifying literature was common and appreciated. Gradually, however, and largely owing to the variously hostile spirit of the civil powers, fostered and heightened by several elements of the new order, there grew up in many parts of Europe political and social conditions which hampered the free reformatory activities of the Church, and favoured the bold and unscrupulous, who seized a unique opportunity to let loose all the forces of heresy and schism so long held in check by the harmonious action of the ecclesiastical and civil authorities.

A

Since the barbarian invasions the Church had effected a complete transformation and revival of the races of Western Europe, and a glorious development of religious and intellectual life. The papacy had become the powerful centre of the family of Christian nations, and as such had for centuries, in union with the episcopate and the clergy, displayed a most beneficent activity. With the ecclesiastical organization fully developed, it came to pass that the activities of the governing ecclesiastical bodies were no longer confined to the ecclesiastical domain, but affected almost every sphere of popular life. Gradually a regrettable worldliness manifested itself in many high ecclesiastics. Their chief object -- to guide man to his eternal goal -- claimed too seldom their attention, and worldly activities became in too many cases the chief interest. Political power, material possessions, privileged position in public life, the defence of ancient historical rights, earthly interests of various kinds were only too often the chief aim of many of the higher clergy. Pastoral solicitude, the specifically religious and ecclesiastical aim, fell largely into the background, notwithstanding various spirited and successful attempts to rectify the existing evils.

B

Closely connected with the above were various abuses in the lives of the clergy and the people. In the Papal Curia political interests and a worldly life were often prominent. Many bishops and abbots (especially in countries where they were also territorial princes) bore themselves as secular rulers rather than as servants of the Church. Many members of cathedral chapters and other beneficed ecclesiastics were chiefly concerned with their income and how to increase it, especially by uniting several prebends (even episcopal sees ) in the hands of one person, who thus enjoyed a larger income and greater power. Luxury prevailed widely among the higher clergy, while the lower clergy were often oppressed. The scientific and ascetic training of the clergy left much to be desired, the moral standard of many being very low, and the practice of celibacy not everywhere observed. Not less serious was the condition of many monasteries of men, and even of women (which were often homes for the unmarried daughters of the nobility). The former prestige of the clergy had thus suffered greatly, and its members were in many places regarded with scorn. As to the Christian people itself, in numerous districts ignorance, superstition, religious indifference, and immorality were rife. Nevertheless, vigorous efforts to revive life were made in most lands, and side by side with this moral decay appear numerous examples of sincere and upright Christian life. Such efforts, however, were too often confined to limited circles. From the fourteenth century the demand for "reform of head and members" ( reformatio in capite et in membris ) had been voiced with ever-increasing energy by serious and discerning men, but the same cry was taken up also by many who had no real desire for a religious renewal, wishing merely to reform others but not themselves, and seeking only their own interests. This call for reformation of head and members, discussed in many writings and in conversation with insistence on existing and often exaggerated abuses, tended necessarily to lower the clergy still more in the eyes of the people, especially as the councils of the fifteenth century, though largely occupied with attempts at reformation, did not succeed in accomplishing it extensively or permanently.

C

The authority of the Holy See had also been seriously impaired, partly through the fault of some of its occupants and partly through that of the secular princes. The pope's removal to Avignon in the fourteenth century was a grievous error, since the universal character of the papacy was thus obscured in the minds of the Christian people. Certain phases of the quarrel with Louis the Bavarian and with the Franciscan Spirituals clearly indicate a decline of the papal power. The severest blow was dealt by the disastrous papal schism (1378-1418) which familiarized Western Christians with the idea that war might be made, with all spiritual and material weapons, against one whom many other Christians regarded as the only lawful pope. After the restoration of unity, the attempted reforms of the Papal Curia were not thorough. Humanism and the ideals of the Renaissance were zealously cultivated in Rome, and unfortunately the heathen tendencies of this movement, so opposed to the Christian moral law, affected too profoundly the life of many higher ecclesiastics, so that worldly ideas, luxury, and immorality rapidly gained ground at the centre of ecclesiastical life. When ecclesiastical authority grew weak at the fountain-head, it necessarily decayed elsewhere. There were also serious administrative abuses in the Papal Curia. The ever-increasing centralization of ecclesiastical administration had brought it about that far too many ecclesiastical benefices in all parts of Christendom were conferred at Rome, while in the granting of them the personal interests of the petitioner, rather than the spiritual needs of the faithful, were too often considered. The various kinds of reservation had also become a grievous abuse. Dissatisfaction was felt widely among the clergy at the many taxes imposed by the Curia on the incumbents of ecclesiastical benefices. From the fourteenth century these taxes called forth loud complaints. In proportion as the papal authority lost the respect of many, resentment grew against both the Curia and the Papacy. The reform councils of the fifteenth century, instead of improving the situation, weakened still more the highest ecclesiastical authority by reason of their anti-papal tendencies and measures.

D

In princes and governments there had meanwhile developed a national consciousness, purely temporal and to a great extent hostile to the Church ; the evil powers interfered more frequently in ecclesiastical matters, and the direct influence exercised by laymen on the domestic administration of the Church rapidly increased. In the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries arose the modern concept of the State. During the preceding period many matters of a secular or mixed nature had been regulated or managed by the Church, in keeping with the historical development of European society. With the growing self-consciousness of the State, the secular governments sought to control all matters that fell within their competence, which course, although in large measure justifiable, was new and offensive, and thus led to frequent collisions between Church and State. The State, moreover, owing to the close historical connection between the ecclesiastical and secular orders, encroached on the ecclesiastical domain. During the course of the Western Schism (1378-1418) opposing popes sought the support of the civil powers, and thus gave the latter abundant occasion to interfere in purely ecclesiastical affairs. Again, to strengthen their authority in the face of anti-papal tendencies, the popes of the fifteenth century made at various times certain concessions to the civil authorities, so that the latter came to regard ecclesiastical affairs as within their domain. For the future the Church was to be, not superordinate, but subordinate to the civil power, and was increasingly menaced with complete subjection. According as national self-consciousness developed in the various countries of Europe, the sense of the unity and interpendence of the Christian family of nations grew weaker. Jealousy between nations increased, selfishness gained ground, the rift between politics and Christian morality and religion grew wider, and discontent and perilous revolutionary tendencies spread rapidly among the people. Love of wealth was meanwhile given a great incentive by the discovery of the New World, the rapid development of commerce, and the new prosperity of the cities. In public life a many-sided and intense activity revealed itself, foreshadowing a new era and inclining the popular mind to changes in the hitherto undivided province of religion.

E

The Renaissance and Humanism partly introduced and greatly fostered these conditions. Love of luxury was soon associated with the revival of the art and literature of Graeco-Roman paganism. The Christian religious ideal was to a great extent lost sight of; higher intellectual culture, previously confined in great measure to the clergy, but now common among the laity, assumed a secular character, and in only too many cases fostered actively and practically a pagan spirit, pagan morality and views. A crude materialism obtained among the higher classes of society and in the educated world, characterized by a gross love of pleasure, a desire for gain, and a voluptuousness of life diametrically opposed to Christian morality. Only a faint interest in the supernatural life survived. The new art of printing made it possible to disseminate widely the works of pagan authors and of their humanistic imitators. Immoral poems and romances, biting satires on ecclesiastical persons and institutions, revolutionary works and songs, were circulated in all directions and wrought immense harm. As Humanism grew, it waged violent war against the Scholasticism of the time. The traditional theological method had greatly degenerated owing to the finical, hair-splitting manner of treating theological questions, and a solid and thorough treatment of theology had unhappily disappeared from many schools and writings. The Humanists cultivated new methods, and based theology on the Bible and the study of the Fathers, an essentially good movement which might have renewed the study of theology, if properly developed. But the violence of the Humanists, their exaggerated attacks on Scholasticism, and the frequent obscurity of their teaching aroused strong opposition from the representative Scholastics. The new movement, however, had won the sympathy of the lay world and of the section of the clergy devoted to Humanism. The danger was only too imminent that the reform would not be confined to theological methods but would reach the content of ecclesiastical dogma, and would find widespread support in humanistic circles.

The soil was thus ready for the growth of revolutionary movements in the religious sphere. Many grave warnings were indeed uttered, indicating the approaching danger and urging a fundamental reform of the actual evil conditions. Much had been effected in this direction by the reform movement in various religious orders and by the apostolic efforts of zealous individuals. But a general renewal of ecclesiastical life and a uniform improvement of evil conditions, beginning with Rome itself, the centre of the Church, were not promptly undertaken, and soon it needed only an external impulse to precipitate a revolution, which was to cut off from the unity of the Church great territories of Central and almost all Northern Europe.

II. ORIGINAL IDEAS AND PURPOSES OF THE REFORMERS

The first impulse to secession was supplied by the opposition of Luther in Germany and of Zwingli in German Switzerland to the promulgation by Leo X of an indulgence for contributions towards the building of the new St. Peter's at Rome. For a long time it had been customary for the popes to grant indulgences for buildings of public utility (e.g. bridges). In such cases the true doctrine of indulgences as a remission of the punishment due to sin (not of guilt of sin ) had been always upheld, and the necessary conditions (especially the obligation of a contrite confession to obtain absolution from sin ) always inculcated. But the almsgiving for a good object, prescribed only as a good work supplementary to the chief conditions for the gaining of the indulgence, was often prominently emphasized. The indulgence commissaries sought to collect as much money as possible in connexion with the indulgence. Indeed, frequently since the Western Schism the spiritual needs of the people did not receive as much consideration as a motive for promulgating an indulgence, as the need of the good object by promoting which the indulgence was to be gained, and the consequent need of obtaining alms for this purpose. The war against the Turks and other crises, the erection of churches and monasteries, and numerous other causes led to the granting of indulgences in the fifteenth century. The consequent abuses were heightened by the fact that secular rulers frequently forbade the promulgation of indulgences within their territories, consenting only on condition that a portion of the receipts should be given to them. In practice, therefore, and in the public mind the promulgation of indulgences took on an economic aspect, and, as they were frequent, many came to regard them as an oppressive tax. Vainly did earnest men raise their voices against this abuse, which aroused no little bitterness against the ecclesiastical order and particularly the Papal Curia. The promulgation of indulgences for the new St. Peter's furnished Luther with an opportunity to attack indulgences in general, and this attack was the immediate occasion of the Reformation in Germany. A little later the same motive led Zwingli to put forth his erroneous teachings, thereby inaugurating the Reformation in German Switzerland. Both declared that they were attacking only the abuses of indulgences ; however, they soon taught doctrine in many ways contrary to the teaching of the Church.

The great applause which Luther received on his first appearance, both in humanistic circles and among some theologians and some of the earnest-minded laity, was due to the dissatisfaction with the existing abuses. His own erroneous views and the influence of a portion of his followers very soon drove Luther into rebellion against ecclesiastical authority as such, and eventually led him into open apostasy and schism. His chief original supporters were among the Humanists, the immoral clergy, and the lower grades of the landed nobility imbued with revolutionary tendencies. It was soon evident that he meant to subvert all the fundamental institutions of the Church. Beginning by proclaiming the false doctrine of "justification by faith alone", he later rejected all supernatural remedies (especially the sacraments and the Mass), denied the meritoriousness of good works (thus condemning monastic vows and Christian asceticism in general), and finally rejected the institution of a genuine hierarchical priesthood (especially the papacy ) in the Church. His doctrine of the Bible as the sole rule of faith, with rejection of all ecclesiastical authority, established subjectivism in matters of faith. By this revolutionary assault Luther forfeited the support of many serious persons indisposed to break with the Church but on the other hand won over all the anti-ecclesiastical elements, including numerous monks and nuns who left the monasteries to break their vows, and many priests who espoused his cause with the intention of marrying. The support of his sovereign, Frederick of Saxony, was of great importance. Very soon secular princes and municipal magistrates made the Reformation a pretext for arbitrary interference in purely ecclesiastical and religious affairs, for appropriating ecclesiastical property and disposing of it at pleasure, and for deciding what faith their subjects should accept. Some followers of Luther went to even greater extremes. The Anabaptists and the "Iconoclasts" revealed the extremest possibilities of the principles advocated by Luther, while in the Peasants' War the most oppressed elements of German society put into practice the doctrine of the reformer. Ecclesiastical affairs were now reorganized on the basis of the new teachings; henceforth the secular power is ever more clearly the supreme judge in purely religious matters, and completely disregards any independent ecclesiastical authority.

A second centre of the Reformation was established by Zwingli at Zurich. Though he differed in many particulars from Luther, and was much more radical than the latter in his transformation of the ceremonial of the Mass, the aims of his followers were identical with those of the Lutherans. Political considerations played a great role in the development of Zwinglianism, and the magistracy of Zurich, after a majority of its members had declared for Zwingli, became a zealous promoter of the Reformation. Arbitrary decrees were issued by the magistrates concerning ecclesiastical organization; the councillors who remained true to the Catholic Faith were expelled from the council, and Catholic services were forbidden in the city. The city and the canton of Zurich were reformed by the civil authorities according to the ideas of Zwingli. Other parts of German Switzerland experienced a similar fate. French Switzerland developed later its own peculiar Reformation; this was organized at Geneva by Calvin. Calvinism is distinguished from Lutheranism and Zwinglianism by a more rigid and consistent form of doctrine and by the strictness of its moral precepts, which regulate the whole domestic and public life of the citizen. The ecclesiastical organization of Calvin was declared a fundamental law of the Republic of Geneva, and the authorities gave their entire support to the reformer in the establishment of his new court of morals. Calvin's word was the highest authority, and he tolerated no contradiction of his views or regulations. Calvinism was introduced into Geneva and the surrounding country by violence. Catholic priests were banished, and the people oppressed and compelled to attend Calvinistic sermons.

In England the origin of the Reformation was entirely different. Here the sensual and tyrannical Henry VIII, with the support of Thomas Cranmer, whom the king made the Archbishop of Canterbury, severed his country from ecclesiastical unity because the pope, as the true guardian of the Divine law, refused to recognize the invalid marriage of the king with Anne Boleyn during the lifetime of his lawful wife. Renouncing obedience to the pope, the despotic monarch constituted himself supreme judge even in ecclesiastical affairs; the opposition of such good men as Thomas More and John Fisher was overcome in blood. The king wished, however, to retain unchanged both the doctrines of the Church and the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and caused a series of doctrines and institutions rejected by Luther and his followers to be strictly prescribed by Act of Parliament (Six Articles) under the pain of death. In England also the civil power constituted itself supreme judge in matters of faith, and laid the foundation for further arbitrary religious innovations. Under the following sovereign, Edward VI (1547-53), the Protestant party gained the upped hand, and thenceforth began to promote the Reformation in England according to the principles of Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin. Here also force was employed to spread the new doctrines. This last effort of the Reformation movement was practically confined to England ( see ANGLICANISM ).

III. METHOD OF SPREADING THE REFORMATION

In the choice of means for extending the Reformation its founders and supporters were not fastidious, availing themselves of any factor which could further their movement.

A

Denunciation of real and supposed abuses in religious and ecclesiastical life was, especially at the beginning, one of the chief methods employed by the reformers to promote their designs. By this means they won over many who were dissatisfied with existing conditions, and were ready to support any movement that promised a change. But it was especially the widespread hatred of Rome and of the members of the hierarchy, fostered by the incessantly repeated and only too often justifiable complaints about abuses, that most efficiently favoured the reformers, who very soon violently attacked the papal authority, recognizing in it the supreme guardian of the Catholic Faith. Hence the multitude of lampoons, often most vulgar, against the pope, the bishops, and in general against all representatives of ecclesiastical authority. These pamphlets were circulated everywhere among the people, and thereby respect for authority was still more violently shaken. Painters prepared shameless and degrading caricatures of the pope, the clergy, and the monks, to illustrate the text of hostile pamphlets. Waged with every possible weapon (even the most reprehensible), this warfare against the representatives of the Church, as the supposed originators of all ecclesiastical abuses, prepared the way for the reception of the Reformation. A distinction was no longer drawn between temporary and corrigible abuses and fundamental supernatural Christian truths ; together with the abuses, important ecclesiastical institutions, resting on Divine foundation were simultaneously abolished.

B

Advantage was also taken of the divisions existing in many places between the ecclesiastical and civil authorities. The development of the State, in its modern form, among the Christian peoples of the West gave rise to many disputes between the clergy and laity, between bishops and the cities, between monasteries and the territorial lords. When the reformers withdrew from the clergy all authority, especially all influence in civil affairs, they enabled the princes and municipal authorities to end these long-pending strifes to their own advantage by arbitrarily arrogating to themselves all disputed rights, banishing the hierarchy whose rights they usurped, and then establishing by their own authority a completely new ecclesiastical organization. The Reformed clergy thus possessed from the beginning only such rights as the civil authorities were pleased to assign them. Consequently the Reformed national Churches were completely subject to the civil authorities , and the Reformers, who had entrusted to the civil power the actual execution of their principles, had now no means of ridding themselves of this servitude.

C

In the course of centuries an immense number of foundations had been made for religious, charitable, and educational objects, and had been provided with rich material resources. Churches, monasteries, hospitals, and schools had often great incomes and extensive possessions, which aroused the envy of secular rulers. The Reformation enabled the latter to secularize this vast ecclesiastical wealth, since the leaders of the Reformation constantly inveighed against the centralization of such riches in the hands of the clergy. The princes and municipal authorities were thus invited to seize ecclesiastical property, and employ it for their own purposes. Ecclesiastical principalities, which were entrusted to the incumbents only as ecclesiastical persons for administration and usufruct, were, in defiance of actual law, by exclusion of the incumbents, transformed into secular principalities. In this way the Reformers succeeded in depriving the Church of the temporal wealth provided for its many needs, and in diverting the same to their own advantage.

D

Human emotions, to which the Reformers appealed in the most various ways, were another means of spreading the Reformation. The very ideas which these innovators defended -- Christian freedom, license of thought, the right and capacity of each individual to found his own faith on the Bible , and other similar principles -- were very seductive for many. The abolition of religious institutions which acted as a curb on sinful human nature ( confession, penance, fasting, abstinence, vows ) attracted the lascivious and frivolous. The warfare against the religious orders, against virginity and celibacy, against the practices of a higher Christian life, won for the Reformation a great number of those who, without a serious vocation, had embraced the religious life from purely human and worldly motives, and who wished to be rid of obligations towards God which had grown burdensome, and to be free to gratify their sensual cravings. This they could do the more easily, as the confiscation of the property of the Churches and monasteries rendered it possible to provide for the material advancement of ex-monks and ex- nuns, and of priests who apostasized. In the innumerable writings and pamphlets intended for the people the Reformers made it their frequent endeavour to excite the basest human instincts. Against the pope, the Roman Curia , and the bishops, priests, monks, and nuns who had remained true to their Catholic convictions, the most incredible lampoons and libels were disseminated. In language of the utmost coarseness Catholic doctrines and institutions were distorted and ridiculed. Among the lower, mostly uneducated, and abandoned elements of the population, the baser passions and instincts were stimulated and pressed into the service of the Reformation.

E

At first many bishops displayed great apathy towards the Reformers, attaching to the new movement no importance; its chiefs were thus given a longer time to spread their doctrines. Even later, many worldly-inclined bishops, though remaining true to the Church, were very lax in combating heresy and in employing the proper means to prevent its further advance. The same might be said of the parochial clergy, who were to a great extent ignorant and indifferent, and looked on idly at the defection of the people. The Reformers, on the other hand, displayed the greatest zeal for their cause. Leaving no means unused by word and pen, by constant intercourse with similarly minded persons, by popular eloquence, which the leaders of the Reformation were especially skilled in employing, by sermons and popular writings appealing to the weaknesses of the popular character, by inciting the fanaticism of the masses, in short by clever and zealous utilization of every opportunity and opening that presented itself, they proved their ardour for the spread of their doctrines. Meanwhile they proceeded with great astuteness, purported to adhere strictly to the essential truths of the Catholic Faith, retained at first many of the external ceremonies of Catholic worship, and declared their intention of abolishing only things resting on human invention, seeking thus to deceive the people concerning the real objects of their activity. They found indeed many pious and zealous opponents in the ranks of the regular and secular clergy, but the great need, especially at the beginning, was a universally organized and systematically conducted resistance to this false reformation.

F

Many new institutions introduced by the Reformers flattered the multitude -- e.g. the reception of the chalice by the whole people, the use of the vernacular at Divine service, the popular religious hymns used during services, the reading of the Bible , the denial of the essential difference between clergy and laity. In this category may be included doctrines which had an attraction for many -- e.g. justification by faith alone without reference to good works, the denial of freedom of will, which furnished an excuse for moral lapses, personal certainty of salvation in faith (i.e. subjective confidence in the merits of Christ ), the universal priesthood, which seemed to give all a direct share in sacerdotal functions and ecclesiastical administration.

G

Finally, one of the chief means employed in promoting the spread of the Reformation was the use of violence by the princes and the municipal authorities. Priests who remained Catholic were expelled and replaced by adherents of the new doctrine, and the people were compelled to attend the new services. The faithful adherents of the Church were variously persecuted, and the civil authorities saw to it that the faith of the descendants of those who had strongly opposed the Reformation was gradually sapped. In many places the people were severed from the Church by brutal violence ; elsewhere to deceive the people the ruse was employed of retaining the Catholic rite outwardly for a long time, and prescribing for the reformed clergy the ecclesiastical vestments of the Catholic worship. The history of the Reformation shows incontestably that the civil power was the chief factor in spreading it in all lands, and that in the last analysis it was not religious, but dynastic, political, and social interests which proved decisive. Add to this that the princes and municipal magistrates who had joined the Reformers tyrannized grossly over the consciences of their subjects and burghers. All must accept the religion prescribed by the civil ruler. The principle "Cuius regio, illius et religio" (Religion goes with the land) is an outgrowth of the Reformation, and was by it and its adherents, wherever they possessed the necessary power, put into practice.

IV. SPREAD OF THE REFORMATION IN THE VARIOUS COUNTRIES

A. Germany and German Switzerland

The Reformation was inaugurated in Germany when Luther affixed his celebrated theses to the doors of the church at Wittenberg, 31 October, 1517. From the consequences of papal excommunication and the imperial ban Luther was protected by Elector Frederick of Saxony, his territorial sovereign. While outwardly adopting a neutral attitude, the latter encouraged the formation of Lutheran communities within his domains, after Luther had returned to Wittenberg and resumed there the leadership of the reform movement, in opposition to the Anabaptists. It was Luther who introduced the arbitrary regulations for Divine worship and religious functions; in accordance with these, Lutheran communities were established, whereby an organized heretical body was opposed to the Catholic Church. Among the other German princes who early associated themselves with Luther and seconded his efforts were:

  • John of Saxony (the brother of Frederick);
  • Grand-Master Albet of Prussia, who converted the lands of his order into a secular duchy, becoming its hereditary lord on accepting Lutheranism ;
  • Dukes Henry and Albert of Mecklenburg ;
  • Count Albert of Mansfield;
  • Count Edzard of East Friesland;
  • Landgrave Philip of Hesse, who declared definitively for the Reformation after 1524.

Meanwhile in several German imperial cities the reform movement was initiated by followers of Luther -- especially in Ulm, Augsburg, Nuremburg, Nördlingen, Strasburg, Constance, Mainz, Erfurt, Zwickau, Magdeburg, Frankfort-on-the-Main, and Bremen. The Lutheran princes formed the Alliance of Torgau on 4 May, 1526, for their common defence. By their appearance at the Diet of Speyer in 1526 they secured the adoption of the resolution that, with respect to the Edict of Worms against Luther and his erroneous doctrine, each might adopt such attitude as he could answer for before God and emperor. Liberty to introduce the Reformation into their territories was thus granted to the territorial rulers. The Catholic estates became discouraged, while the Lutheran princes grew ever more extravagant in their demands. Even the entirely moderate decrees of the Diet of Speyer (1529) drew a protest from the Lutheran and Reformed estates.

The negotiations at the Diet of Augsburg (1530), at which the estates rejecting the Catholic faith elaborated their creed (Augsburg Confession), showed that the restoration of religious unity was not to be effected. The Reformation extended wider and wider, both Lutheranism and Zwinglianism being introduced into other German territories. Besides the above-mentioned principalities and cities, it had made its way by 1530 into the principalities of Bayreuth, Ansbach, Anhalt, and Brunswick-Lunenburg, and in the next few years into Pomerania, Jülich-Cleve, and Wurtemberg. In Silesia and the duchy of Liegnitz the Reformation also made great strides. In 1531 the Smalkaldic League, an ofensive and defensive alliance, was concluded between the Protestant princes and cities. Especially after its renewal (1535) this league was joined by other cities and princes who had espoused the Reformation, e.g. Count Palatine Rupert of Zweibrücken, Count William of Nassau, the cities of Augsburg, Kempten, Hamburg, and others. Further negotiations and discussions between the religious parties were instituted with a view to ending the schism, but without success. Among the methods adopted by the Protestants in spreading the Reformation force was ever more freely employed. The Diocese of Naumburg-Zeitz becoming vacant, Elector John Frederick of Saxony installed by force in the see the Lutheran preacher Nicholas Amsdorf (instead of the cathedral provost, Julius von Pflug , chosen by the chapter) and himself undertook the secular government. Duke Henry of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel was exiled in 1542, and the Reformation introduced into his domains by force. In Cologne itself the Reformation was very nearly established by force. Some ecclesiastical princes proved delinquent, taking no measures against the innovations that spread daily in widening circles. Into Pfalz-Neuburg and the towns of Halberstadt, Halle, etc., the Reformation found entrance. The collapse of the Smalkaldic League (1547) somewhat stemmed the progress of the Reformation: Julius von Pflug was installed in his diocese of Naumburg, Duke Henry of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel recovered his lands, and Hermann von Wied had to resign the Diocese of Cologne, where the Catholic Faith was thus maintained.

The formula of union established by the Diet of Augsburg in 1547-48 (Augsburg Interim ) did not succeed in its object, although introduced into many Protestant territories. Meanwhile the treachery of Prince Moritz of Saxony, who made a secret treaty with Henry II of France, Germany's enemy, and formed a confederation with the Protestant princes William of Hesse, John Albert of Mecklenburg, and Albert of Brandenburg, to make war on the emperor and empire, broke the power of the emperor. At the suggestion of Charles, King Ferdinand convened the Diet of Augsburg in 1555, at which, after long negotiations, the compact known as the Religious Peace of Augsburg was concluded. This pact contained the following provisions in its twenty-two paragraphs:

  • between the Catholic imperial estates and those of the Augsburg Confession (the Zwinglians were not considered in the treaty) peace and harmony was to be observed;
  • no estate of the empire was to compel another estate or its subjects to change religion, nor was it to make war on such on account of religion;
  • should an ecclesiastical dignitary espouse the Augsburg Confession, he was to lose his ecclesiastical dignity with all offices and emoluments connected with it, without prejudice, however, to his honour and private possession. Against this eccclesiastical proviso the Lutheran estates protested:
  • the holders of the Augsburg Confession were to be left in possession of all ecclesiastical property which they had held since the beginning of the Reformation; after 1555 neither party might seize anything from the other;
  • until the conclusion of peace between the contending religious bodies (to be effected at the approaching Diet of Ratisbon ) the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic hierarchy was suspended in the territories of the Augsburg Confession;
  • should any conflict arise between the parties concerning land or rights, an attempt must first be made to settle such disputes by arbitration ;
  • no imperial estate might protect the subjects of another estate from the authorities;
  • every citizen of the Empire had the right of choosing either of the two recognized religions and of practising it in another territory without loss of rights, honour, or property (without prejudice, however,

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    One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...

    Tabor, Mount

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

    Tacana Indians

    The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...

    Tacapæ

    Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...

    Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

    First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...

    Taché, Etienne-Pascal

    Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...

    Tadama

    A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...

    Taensa Indians

    A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...

    Tahiti

    Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...

    Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

    ( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...

    Tait Indians

    ( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...

    Takkali

    (More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...

    Talbot, James

    Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...

    Talbot, John

    English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...

    Talbot, Peter

    Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...

    Talbot, Thomas Joseph

    Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...

    Tallagaht, Monastery of

    The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...

    Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

    Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...

    Tallis, Thomas

    English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...

    Talmud

    1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...

    Talon, Jean

    First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...

    Talon, Nicolas

    French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...

    Talon, Pierre

    A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...

    Tamanac Indians

    A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...

    Tamassus

    A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...

    Tamaulipas

    (CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...

    Tamburini, Michelangelo

    Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...

    Tamburini, Thomas

    Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...

    Tametsi

    ("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

    Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

    (Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

    Tanagra

    A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...

    Tancred

    Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

    Taney, Roger Brooke

    (Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

    Tanguay, Cyprien

    Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...

    Tanis

    A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...

    Tanner, Adam

    Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...

    Tanner, Conrad

    Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...

    Tanner, Edmund

    Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...

    Tanner, Matthias

    Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

    Tantum Ergo

    The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

    Tanucci, Bernardo

    Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

    Taoism

    (TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

    Taos Pueblo

    An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...

    Taparelli, Aloysius

    (D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

    Tapestry

    A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...

    Tapis, Esteban

    Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...

    Tarabotti, Helena

    Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...

    Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

    Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

    Taranto

    DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...

    Tarapacá

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...

    Tarasius, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...

    Tarazona

    DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

    Tarbes

    DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...

    Tarentaise

    (TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...

    Targum

    Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...

    Tarisel, Pierre

    Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...

    Tarkin, Saint

    (Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...

    Tarnow

    DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...

    Tarquini, Camillus

    Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...

    Tarragona

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...

    Tarsicius, Saint

    Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...

    Tarsus

    A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...

    Tartaglia, Nicolò

    (T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...

    Tartini, Giuseppe

    Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...

    Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

    Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...

    Tassé, Joseph

    Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...

    Tassach, Saint

    Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...

    Tassin, René-Prosper

    French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...

    Tasso, Torquato

    Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...

    Tassoni, Alessandro

    Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...

    Tatian

    A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...

    Tatwin, Saint

    (TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...

    Taubaté

    (DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...

    Tauler, John

    German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...

    Taunton, Ethelred

    Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...

    Taverner, John

    Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...

    Tavistock Abbey

    Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...

    Tavium

    A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...

    Taxa Innocentiana

    A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...

    Taxster, John de

    (TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

    Taylor, Frances Margaret

    (MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...

    Taylor, Ven. Hugh

    English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...

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    Te 69

    Te Deum, The

    An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

    Te Lucis Ante Terminum

    The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

    Tebaldeo, Antonio

    Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...

    Tegernsee

    Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...

    Tehuantepec

    (Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

    Teilo, Saint

    (Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

    Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

    (Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

    Teleology

    (From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...

    Telepathy

    ( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

    Telese

    (TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

    Telesio, Bernardino

    Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

    Telesphorus of Cosenza

    (THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

    Telesphorus, Pope Saint

    (Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...

    Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

    The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

    Tellier, Michel Le

    Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

    Telmessus

    Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

    Temiskaming

    The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

    Temnus

    A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

    Tempel, Wilhelm

    (ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

    Temperance

    (Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

    Temperance Movements

    EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

    Templars, The Knights

    The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

    Temple

    The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

    Temple of Jerusalem

    The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

    Temple, Sisters of the

    The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

    Temptation

    ( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

    Temptation of Christ

    In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

    Ten Commandments, The

    Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

    Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

    On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

    Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

    French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

    Tenebræ

    Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

    Tenebrae Hearse

    The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

    Tenedos

    A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

    Teneriffe

    DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

    Teniers, David

    The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

    Tennessee

    The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

    Tenney, William Jewett

    An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

    Tentyris

    (TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...

    Tenure, Ecclesiastical

    I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

    Teos

    Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

    Tepic

    DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

    Tepl

    A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

    Teramo

    Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

    Terce

    The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

    Terenuthis

    Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

    Teresa of Avila, Saint

    Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

    Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

    Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

    Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

    Terill, Anthony

    English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

    Termessus

    A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

    Termoli

    (THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

    Ternan, Saint

    Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

    Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

    (TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

    Terrasson, André

    A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

    Terrestrial Paradise

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

    Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

    Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

    Tertiaries

    (From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

    Tertullian

    (Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

    Teruel

    (TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

    Test-Oath, Missouri

    In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

    Testament, New

    I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

    Testament, Old

    I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

    Testem Benevolentiae

    An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

    Tetzel, Johann

    First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

    Teuchira

    A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

    Teutonic Order

    A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

    Tewdrig

    (THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

    Texas

    S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

    Textual Criticism

    The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

    × Close

    Th 147

    Thænæ

    A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

    Thébaud, Augustus

    Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

    Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

    Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

    Théophane Vénard

    (JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

    Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

    Thabor, Mount

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

    Thabraca

    A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

    Thacia Montana

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

    Thagaste

    (TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

    Thagora

    (Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

    Thais, Saint

    (THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

    Thalberg, Sigismond

    Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

    Thalhofer, Valentin

    German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

    Thangmar

    (THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

    Thanksgiving before and after Meals

    The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

    Thanksgiving Day

    A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

    Thapsus

    A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

    Thasos

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

    Thaumaci

    A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

    Thayer, John

    Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

    Theatines

    (CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

    Theatre, The

    Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

    Thebaid

    The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

    Thebes

    (THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

    Thebes

    (THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

    Thecla, Saint

    Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

    Thecla, Saints

    I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

    Theft

    Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

    Thegan (Degan) of Treves

    Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

    Theiner, Augustin

    Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

    Thelepte

    A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

    Themiscyra

    A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

    Themisonium

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

    Thennesus

    A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

    Theobald

    (T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

    Theobald, Saint

    Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

    Theocracy

    A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

    Theodard, Saint

    Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

    Theodicy

    Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

    Theodore I, Pope

    Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

    Theodore II, Pope

    Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

    Theodore of Amasea, Saint

    Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

    Theodore of Gaza

    A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

    Theodore of Studium, Saint

    A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

    Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

    Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

    Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

    Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

    Theodoret

    Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

    Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

    A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

    Theodoric the Great

    King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

    Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

    (Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

    Theodorus Lector

    A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

    Theodosiopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

    Theodosius Florentini

    Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

    Theodosius I

    Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

    Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

    Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

    Theodulf

    (Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

    Theology of Christ (Christology)

    Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

    Theology, Ascetical

    Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

    Theology, Dogmatic

    Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

    Theology, History of Dogmatic

    The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

    Theology, Moral

    Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

    Theology, Mystical

    Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

    Theology, Pastoral

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

    Theonas

    Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

    Theophanes Kerameus

    ( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

    Theophanes, Saint

    Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

    Theophilanthropists

    ("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

    Theophilus

    Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

    Theophilus

    Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

    Theosophy

    ( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

    Theotocopuli, Domenico

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

    Thera (Santorin)

    DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

    Thermae Basilicae

    A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

    Thermopylae

    A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

    Thessalonians, Epistles to the

    Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

    Thessalonica

    (SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

    Theveste

    Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

    Thibaris

    Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

    Thibaut de Champagne

    Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

    Thierry of Freburg

    ( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

    Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

    French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

    Thignica

    A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

    Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

    Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

    Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

    Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

    Thimelby, Richard

    ( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

    Third Orders

    I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

    Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

    Thmuis

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

    Thomas á Jesu

    (Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

    Thomas à Kempis

    Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

    Thomas Abel, Blessed

    (Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

    Thomas Alfield, Venerable

    (AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

    Thomas Aquinas, Saint

    Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

    Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

    Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

    Thomas Becket, Saint

    Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

    Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

    A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

    Thomas Christians, Saint

    An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

    Thomas Cottam, Blessed

    Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

    Thomas Ford, Blessed

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

    Thomas Garnet, Saint

    Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

    Thomas Johnson, Blessed

    Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

    Thomas More, Saint

    Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

    Thomas of Beckington

    (BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

    Thomas of Bradwardine

    (BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

    Thomas of Cantimpré

    Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

    Thomas of Celano

    Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

    Thomas of Dover

    Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

    Thomas of Hereford

    (THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

    Thomas of Jesus

    (THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

    Thomas of Jorz

    (Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

    Thomas of Strasburg

    A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

    Thomas of Villanova, Saint

    Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

    Thomas Percy, Blessed

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

    Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

    Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

    Thomas the Apostle, Saint

    Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

    Thomas Thwing, Venerable

    Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

    Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

    Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

    Thomas, Charles L.A.

    French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

    Thomassin, Louis

    Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

    Thomism

    In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

    Thompson River Indians

    (THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

    Thompson, Blessed James

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

    Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

    The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

    Thompson, Francis

    Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

    Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

    Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

    Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

    Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

    Thorlaksson, Arni

    An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

    Thorney Abbey

    (i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

    Thorns, Crown of

    Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

    Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

    The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

    Thorpe, Venerable Robert

    Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

    Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

    French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

    Thou, Nicolas de

    Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

    Three Chapters

    The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

    Three Rivers

    DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

    Throne

    (Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

    Thuburbo Minus

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

    Thugga

    Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

    Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

    Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

    Thulis, Venerable John

    English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

    Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

    Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

    Thundering Legion

    ( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

    Thuringia

    The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

    Thurmayr, Johannes

    (Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

    Thyatira

    A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

    Thynias

    A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

    Thyräus, Hermann

    German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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    Ti 45

    Tiara

    The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

    Tibaldi, Pellegrino

    Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

    Tiberias

    Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

    Tiberias, Sea of

    So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

    Tiberiopolis

    Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

    Tiberius

    The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

    Tibet

    A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

    Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

    Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

    Ticelia

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

    Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

    Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

    Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

    Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

    Ticonius

    (Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

    Ticuna Indians

    A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

    Tieffentaller, Joseph

    Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

    Tiepolo

    Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

    Tierney, Mark Aloysius

    Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

    Tigris, Saint

    Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

    Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

    French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

    Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

    Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

    Timbrias

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

    Time

    The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

    Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

    Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

    Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Timucua Indians

    A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

    Tincker, Mary Agnes

    Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

    Tingis

    A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

    Tinin

    SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

    Tinos and Mykonos

    DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

    Tintern Abbey

    This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

    Tintoretto, Il

    (J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

    Tipasa

    A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

    Tiraboschi, Girolamo

    Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

    Tiraspol

    DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

    Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

    An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

    Tissot, James

    (JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

    Tithes

    (Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

    Tithes, Lay

    Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

    Titian

    (T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

    Titopolis

    (TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

    Titulus

    In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

    Titus

    Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

    Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Titus, Bishop of Bostra

    Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

    Tius

    (TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

    Tivoli

    DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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    Tl 2

    Tlaxcala

    (TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

    Tlos

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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    To 56

    Toaldo, Giuseppe

    Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

    Toba Indians

    One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

    Tobias

    We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

    Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

    (CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

    Todi

    (T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

    Tokio

    (Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

    Toledo (Ohio)

    (Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

    Toledo (Spain)

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

    Toledo, Francisco

    Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

    Tolentino and Macerata

    Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

    Toleration, History of

    In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

    Toleration, Religious

    Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

    Tolomei, John Baptist

    A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

    Tomb

    A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

    Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

    Tomb, Altar

    A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

    Tomi

    A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

    Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

    A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

    Tongerloo, Abbey of

    Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

    Tongiorgi, Salvator

    Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

    Tongues, Gift of

    (Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

    Tonica Indians

    (Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

    Tonkawa Indians

    A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

    Tonsure

    ( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

    Tootell, Hugh

    Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

    Torah

    I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

    Torbido, Francesco

    Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

    Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

    Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

    Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

    Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

    Torone

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

    Toronto

    (TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

    Torquemada, Tomás de

    First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

    Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

    Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

    Torres, Francisco

    (TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

    Torricelli, Evangelista

    Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

    Torrubia, José

    Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

    Tortona

    DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

    Tortosa

    DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

    Toscanella and Viterbo

    (VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

    Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

    Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

    Tosephta

    ( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

    Tostado, Alonso

    (ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

    Tosti, Luigi

    Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

    Totemism

    Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

    Totonac Indians

    One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

    Touchet, George Anselm

    Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

    Toulouse

    A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

    Tournély, Honoré

    Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

    Tournai

    DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

    Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

    French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

    Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

    Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

    Touron, Antoine

    Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

    Tours

    (TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

    Toustain, Charles-François

    French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

    Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

    A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

    Tower of Babel

    The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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    Tr 77

    Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

    Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

    Tradition and Living Magisterium

    The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

    Traditionalism

    A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

    Traducianism

    Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

    Trajan

    Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

    Trajanopolis

    Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

    Trajanopolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

    Tralles

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

    Trani and Barletta

    (T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

    Transcendentalism

    The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

    Transept

    A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

    Transfiguration

    The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

    Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

    Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

    Transubstantiation

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Transvaal

    Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

    Transylvania

    (Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

    Trapani

    (TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

    Trapezopolis

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

    Trappists

    The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

    Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

    Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

    Treason, Accusations of

    A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

    Trebizond

    (TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

    Trebnitz

    A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

    Tredway, Lettice Mary

    (Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

    Tregian, Francis

    Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

    Tremithus

    Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

    Trent

    (TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

    Trent, Council of

    The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

    Trenton

    (T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

    Tresham, Sir Thomas

    Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

    Treviso

    (TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

    Tribe, Jewish

    ( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

    Tricarico, Diocese of

    (TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

    Tricassin, Charles Joseph

    One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

    Tricca

    Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

    Trichinopoly, Diocese of

    (TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

    Trichur

    (TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

    Tricomia

    Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

    Triduum

    (Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

    Trier

    (TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

    Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

    Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

    Triest-Capo d'Istria

    (TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

    Trincomalee

    (TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

    Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

    Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

    Trinitarians, Order of

    The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

    Trinity College

    An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

    Trinity Sunday

    The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

    Trinity, The Blessed

    This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

    Triple-Candlestick

    A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

    Trissino, Giangiorgio

    Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

    Tritheists

    (TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

    Trithemius, John

    A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

    Trivento

    (Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

    Trivet, Nicholas

    (Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

    Troas

    A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

    Trocmades

    (Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

    Trokelowe, John de

    (THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

    Trondhjem, Ancient See of

    (NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

    Trope

    Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

    Tropology, Scriptural

    The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

    Troy, John Thomas

    Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

    Troyes

    (TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

    Truce of God

    The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

    Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

    Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

    Trudo, Saint

    (TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

    Trudpert, Saint

    Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

    True Cross, The

    (AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

    Trueba, Antonio de

    Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

    Trujillo

    Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

    Trullo, Council in

    This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

    Trumpets, Feast of

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

    Trumwin, Saint

    (TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

    Trustee System

    I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

    Trusts and Bequests

    A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

    Truth

    Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

    Truth Societies, Catholic

    This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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    Ts 2

    Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

    Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

    Tschupick, John Nepomuk

    A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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    Tu 27

    Tuam

    (TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

    Tuam, School of

    (Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

    Tubunae

    A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

    Tucson

    (T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

    Tucumán

    (T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

    Tudela

    (TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

    Tuguegarao

    (TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

    Tulancingo

    (D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

    Tulasne, Louis-René

    A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

    Tulle

    (TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

    Tunic

    By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

    Tunis

    French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

    Tunja

    (T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

    Tunkers

    ( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

    Tunstall, Cuthbert

    Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

    Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

    Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

    Tunsted, Simon

    English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

    Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

    Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

    Turin

    (Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

    Turin, Shroud of

    This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

    Turin, University of

    The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

    Turkestan

    I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

    Turkish Empire

    Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

    Turnebus, Adrian

    Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

    Turpin

    Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

    Tuscany

    Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

    Tuy

    (Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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    Tw 2

    Twenge, Saint John

    Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

    Twiketal of Croyland

    (THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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    Ty 7

    Tyana

    A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

    Tychicus

    A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

    Tynemouth Priory

    Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

    Types in Scripture

    Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

    Tyrannicide

    Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

    Tyre

    (TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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