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Ritual of Marriage

The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony, as it stands in the "Rituale Romanum" of the present day, is remarkably simple. It consists of the following elements:

  • A declaration of consent made by both parties and formally ratified by the priest in the words: "Ego conjungo vos in matrimonium in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Amen" (I unite you in wedlock in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Amen ).
  • A form for the blessing of the ring which the bridegroom receives back from the hand of the priest to place it upon the ring finger of the bride's left hand.
  • Certain short versicles and a final benedictory prayer. This ceremony according to the intention of the Church should be followed by
  • the Nuptial Mass, in which there are Collects for the married couple, as well as a solemn blessing after the Pater Noster and another shorter one before the priest's benediction at the close.
  • At this Mass also it is recommended that the bride and bride g room should communicate. But although here as elsewhere the "Rituale Romanum" may be regarded as providing the form of the Church's ceremonial, in treating of the Sacrament of Matrimony a special rubric is inserted in the following terms: "If, however, in any provinces, other laudable customs and ceremonies are in use besides the foregoing in the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony, the holy Council of Trent desires that they should be retained" (see Decreta Conc. Trid., Sess. XXIV, De Reformatione, cap. 1).

    The reason of this exceptional tolerance here shown towards diversity of ritual is not very far to seek. Matrimony being a sacrament in which the contracting parties themselves are the ministers, it is plain that its essential forms must be expressed not in Latin but in the vernacular, and this fact alone at once introduces a certain element of divergence. Moreover, change of established tradition in such matters is always disconcerting to the minds of the imperfectly educated. Hence the Church's wisdom is apparent in refraining from interference in those countries where certain rites and ceremonies, in themselves free from abuse, have been immemorially associated with this solemn contract. The effect of this tolerance is particularly noticeable in the British Isles. Before the Reformation a considerable variety of local usages prevailed in England, as elsewhere, affecting the ceremonial even of the Mass itself, as well as other ecclesiastical functions. The divergences of the "Use" of Sarum, or of York or of Hereford etc., from the practice of Rome or Augsburg or Lyons were not inconsiderable. When however through the Elizabethan persecution the clergy were forced to go abroad for their ecclesiastical training, the distinctively English customs of Sarum or York gradually became unfamiliar. No attempt or hardly any was made to print new Missals or Breviaries according to the English rite, and Roman usages were thus everywhere adopted by the missionary clergy. But in one respect an exception was made. The Catholic laity who lived on at home knew no other marriage service than that of their forefathers. Hence the Sarum form was in substance retained and in 1604 and again in 1610 in the English "Rituale" printed at Douai, under the title "Sacra Institutio Baptizandi, Matrimonium celebrandi etc.", the old Sarum text was reprinted unchanged, though at a later date, e.g. in the book of 1626 (? printed at Antwerp ), certain modifications were introduced, The form thus modified remains in force for England, Scotland and Ireland down to the present day. Seeing that the Anglican marriage service has also retained a great deal of the primitive Sarum rite, we find ourselves confronted by the curious anomaly that in the British Isles the Catholic marriage service resembles the Anglican service more nearly than it does the form provided in the "Rituale Romanum".

    Origin of Ecclesiastical Ceremonial

    Turning to the historical development of the ritual for matrimony we may say that the Church from the beginning realized that Matrimony was in its essence a contract between individuals. So far as regarded the external forms which gave validity to that contract, the Church was ready to approve all that was seemly and in accordance with national custom, recognizing that an engagement thus lawfully entered upon between two baptized Christians was elevated by Christ's institution to the dignity of a sacrament. Duchesne is thus probably right in connecting those broader outlines of a religious service, which we can trace amid the diversities of the different medieval rituals, with the pagan form of marriage which had prevailed at an earlier date in Rome and throughout the Roman empire. Tertullian expatiates upon the happiness of "that marriage which is made by the Church, confirmed by the Holy Sacrifice ( oblatio ), sealed by the blessing, which the angels proclaim and which is ratified by our Father in heaven " (Ad Uxor., ii, 9); while elsewhere he speaks of the crown, the veil and the joining of hands ("De Corona" xiii, "Do Virg. vel.", ii). We can hardly doubt, then, that the Church accepted the leading features of that ceremony of marriage which was most in honour in pagan Rome, i.e. the confarreatio , and that it blessed these rites, substituting in particular the holy Sacrifice of the Mass for the libations and sacrifices to the gods with which the profane ceremonies were solemnized.

    The matter is not entirely clear, and Freisen is tempted to look rather to Jewish prototypes, especially the blessing, for the outlines of the earliest ritual of Christian marriage (see "Archiv. f. Kathol. Kirchenrecht", LIII, 369 seq., 1885). Remembering, however, the details given by Pope Nicholas I (c. 866) in his answer to the Bulgars, and regarding this description as the type of Christian marriage then recognized in Rome, we find that the whole ceremonial of Christian Matrimony falls into two clearly defined parts. We have first the preliminaries constituting the betrothal ( sponsalia ) in its broader sense. Under this head we may reckon primarily the betrothal strictly so called, i.e. the expression of the consent of the couple to be married and of their parents to the projected union. But this is supplemented by;

  • the subarrhatio , i, e. the delivery of the arrhæ or pledges, ordinarily represented by the giving of a ring, which Nicholas I calls annulus fidei (the ring of fidelity), and
  • by the handing over of the dowry, secured by some legal document and delivered in the presence of witnesses. The second act, which may follow the sponsalia immediately or after some interval, comprises
    • the celebration of Mass, at which the bride and bridegroom communicate,
    • the solemn benediction which Pope Nicholas associates with the veil ( velamen ) held over the married pair, and
    • the wearing of crowns as they leave the church.
  • Although it is extremely difficult to determine in what precise measure the Roman and Teutonic marriage usages influenced each other from the time when the Goths and the Lombards made their power felt in Italy, there seems to be nothing here which may not be of purely Roman origin. Long before the birth of Jesus Christ , Roman custom drew a clear distinction between the sponsalia, or preliminaries, and the marriage itself, which latter culminated in the conducting of the bride to her husband's house ( in domum deductio ). The sponsalia usually consisted of a promise ratified by the giving of a ring as a pledge. The actual nuptials, especially the confarreatio, were marked by the offering of a bloodless sacrifice (a cake of spelt) to Jupiter; the bride always wore a flame-coloured veil ( flammeum ) and a crown encircled the brow of both bride and bridegroom. On the other hand some of these features, for example the clear distinction between the betrothal and the marriage, and the use of the wedding ring in the former ceremony, were also known among various Teutonic peoples at a very early date (see Sohm, "Recht der Eheschliessung", 55, and for Spanish usage, Férotin in "Monumenta Liturgica", V, 434 seq.) and seeing that other ancient Teutonic usages were undoubtedly retained in a service which in the end became purely religious and was conducted by the priest, it is not always easy to disentangle the elements of the later ritual and to assign the exact origin to each.

    Development of the Marriage Ritual

    Probably we shall be right in assuming that the first effort everywhere made by the Church to impart a religious character to the contract of marriage was by requiring or urging the married pair to be present at a special Nuptial Mass. The Mass itself constitutes the highest form of consecration and the available evidence points strongly to the conclusion that in such very different matters as the dedication of a church or the burial of the dead, the Christians of the first few centuries had no special ritual adapted for such occasions but were content to offer the holy Sacrifice with appropriate collects. Looking at our actual Nuptial Mass which has retained the essential features of that found in the Sacramentary ascribed to St. Leo, the earliest collection preserved to us of Roman origin, we find that the prayers themselves constitute a blessing of the married pair while the eucharistic benediction which is headed "Velatio nuptialis" is in effect a consecration of the bride alone to the estate of marriage, a point of view which vividly recalls the Roman conception of matrimony as the veiling of the woman for the special behoof of her husband. This velatio nuptialis spread in slightly varying forms to every part of Western Christendom which received the Roman Mass Book. Down to the present day the same nuptial benediction, specially devoted to the bride and introduced at an unwonted position (immediately after the Pater Noster of the Mass), remains the highest form of sanction which the Church can give to the union of man and woman. By a law of ancient date which is still in force, this special benediction is withheld in all cases in which the bride has been previously mated. Further, though in the early Middle Ages the Nuptial Mass seems sometimes to have been celebrated on the day after the first cohabitation of the pair (see Friedberg, "Eheschliessung", 82-84 and Sohm, "Recht der Eheschliessung", 159), these solemnities seem always to have been associated with the marriage itself as distinct from the espousals.

    For a long time, undoubtedly, the espousals and the actual nuptials remained distinct ceremonies throughout the greater part of the Western world, and except for the subsequent bringing of the parties before the altar for the celebration of the Mass, the Church seems to have had little directly to do with either function. Nevertheless a negative approval of such ceremonies as containing nothing unbefitting the Christian character may be presumed. Indeed this seems to be required even at the beginning of the second century by the epistle of St. Ignatius to St. Polycarp: "It becometh men and women, when they wed, to marry with the consent of the bishop, that the marriage may be after the Lord and not after concupiscence ". (Cf. Ephesians 5:32 , and the Didache, xi.) Moreover at Rome, Pope Siricius ( A. D. 385), in a letter accepted as genuine by Jaffé-Wattenbach (Regesta, n. 255), speaks clearly of the blessing pronounced by the priest at the ceremony of the betrothal (illa benedictio quam nupturæ sacerdos imponit) where the context seems to make it evident that the actual marriage is not meant. We may believe, though the point is contested, that in some places the Church by degrees came to take a part both in the betrothal and in that "gifta" or handing over of the bride in which our Teutonic forefathers seem to have seen the essence of the nuptial contract. This eventually successful effort of the Church everywhere to bring the solemnization of matrimony more immediately under her influence, is well summed up in the following Anglo-Saxon ordinance: "At the nuptials there shall be a Mass-priest by law who shall with God's blessing bind their union to all prosperity" (Liebermann, "Gesetze der Angel-Sachsen", I, 422).

    The great authority of Charlemagne was exerted in the same direction. Many times in his "Capitularies" it is enjoined that marriages should not be celebrated without the blessing of the priest (see "Beauchet in "Nouvelle Revue de Droit Français", VI, 381-383). He even declared that without this blessing marriages should not be held valid, but this view was not supported by later pronouncements of the Holy See. From about this period too the ring seems to have received an ecclesiastical blessing, one of the earliest known instances occurring in the marriage of Judith of France in 856 to the English King Ethelwulf, the father of Alfred the Great (see the whole ritual in M. G. H., Legum, 1, 450). With this exception the oldest ordines of a marriage service conducted by ecclesiastical authority are several centuries later in date, and those that bear a distinctly religious character almost always show the betrothal and the nuptial ceremony amalgamated into one. This is conspicuously the case in the "Ordinals" of Sarum and York and in the modern English Catholic service which is derived from them. Indeed it has been disputed whether the Church originally made any claim to bless the betrothal as distinct from the nuptials (see Freisen, "Geschichte des can. Eherechts", 131-134, and 160). But some ecclesiastical control of the betrothal ceremony seems in itself highly probable, especially when we take into account the analogy of the Oriental rituals; while the clearly marked division in the earliest Spanish Ordines between the "Ordo Arrharum" and the "Ordo ad benedicendum" (Férotin in "Monumenta Liturgica", V, 434 seq.) equally presupposes a double intervention of the priest.

    Indeed the Spanish rituals, especially that of Toledo, even down to modern times, recognize a double ceremony. In the first, after a solemn admonition to disclose any impediment that may exist, the parties give their consent "per verba de præsenti", and the priest, at least in the later forms (see "Manuale Toletanum", Antwerp, 1680, 457) pronounces the words: "I on the part of God Almighty join you in wedlock", etc. None the less the priest is directed in the rubric which immediately follows to warn the parties that "they must not dwell together in the same house before receiving the blessing of the priest and the Church ". Then follows under quite a separate heading the "Order for the Nuptial Benediction", which begins with the blessing of the rings and arrhæ in the church porch and is completed by the celebration of the Nuptial Mass. No doubt the contract of marriage and the nuptial benediction are distinct things in themselves and are neither of them identical with the betrothal, but it seems highly probable that the traces of duality which may be observed in so many of the older marriage rituals are primarily to be attributed to some confused and vague perpetuation of the betrothal and the nuptials as distinct ceremonies, as was the case both in Rome and among the Teutons.

    In the Sarum "Ordo ad faciendum Sponsalia" two points may be noticed which illustrate this duality. First, the celebration of the earlier part of the ceremony in the church porch ; a feature which indeed was common to all Western Christendom . Thus Chaucer writes of the Wife of Bath :

    "She was a worthy woman all hir live
    Housebondes at the chirche dore had she had five."

    The change of scene from the porch to the altar for the celebration of Mass is a marked feature in all early rituals. Secondly, we may note the italicized words in the following form for plighting troth, still retained in the English Catholic marriage service and closely reproducing the old Sarum Text: "I, N. take thee, N. for my wedded wife, to have and to hold, from this day forward, for better for worse, for richer for poorer, in sickness and in health, till death do us part, if Holy Church will it permit, and thereto I plight thee my troth." It is tolerably clear that this troth-plighting originally formed part of a betrothal ceremonial and recognized the possibility that the Church might still refuse to confirm and bless the union thus initiated. But as the words occur in the modern service, where the parties have already given their consent, where the marriage is consequently an accomplished fact and the priest has said "ego conjungo vos in matrimonium", they may readily cause a difficulty. Needless to say that this particular clause has been omitted in the Anglican "Book of Common Prayer".

    Ancient Observances surviving in later Rituals

    The traces of the old betrothal ceremony in the modern nuptial Ordinals of different countries are many and varied. First the wedding ring itself, in accordance with the old Roman custom, seems to have been originally a pledge or arrha given at the sponsalia by the bridegroom as the earnest of the future fulfilment of his share in the contract. At a later date however it probably became confused with certain German customs of "morning gifts" after marriage and consequently was transferred to the nuptials proper. Further in many places it ultimately became and still remains the custom for bride and bridegroom to present each other mutually with rings as a pledge of fidelity, and this is in fact the symbolical meaning attached to the ring in the modern ritual of the Church, as the form for its blessing plainly signifies. Perhaps the first trace of the use of two rings occurs in the early Spanish Ordines. Furthermore, while the use of the wedding ring has been retained among most, though not quite all, the rituals of the West, the manner of putting it on varies considerably. The English custom that the bridegroom should place it, first, on the bride's thumb with the words "in the name of the Father"—then on the index finger—"and of the Son" — then on the middle finger—"and of the Holy Ghost "— and finally on the fourth finger—"Amen"—is found in medieval ceremonials in places as far separated as Spain and Norway, but it was by no means universal. In some places the priest puts on the ring, and elsewhere it was customary to place the ring on the bride's right hand. This was the case in the Sarum rite and it was retained among English Catholics until the middle of the eighteenth century. The reason so frequently assigned for the choice of the fourth, or ring, finger, viz, that a vein runs from that finger to the heart, is found in early non-Christian writers like Pliny and Macrobius.

    A second survival which appears even in the concise Roman Ritual, is the hand-clasp of the married pair. This was a custom also in the pagan marriage ceremonial of Rome, and it is hard to say whether it comes to us through Roman or Teutonic traditions. Certain it is that the "hand-fast" constituted a sort of oath among most Germanic peoples and was used for the solemn ratification of all kinds of contracts (see Friedberg, "Eheschliessung", pp. 39-42). In many, and especially the German rituals, the priest was directed to wrap his stole around the clasped hands of the bride and bridegroom while he pronounced some words of ratification. This ceremony may often be noticed in medieval pictures of a marriage, e.g. the "Espousals of St. Joseph and our Lady". This also is quite probably of heathen origin for we find a reference to something very similar in Arbeo's "Life of St. Emmeram ", written before the year 800. It contains an account of a pagan woman summarily given in marriage to a Christian, her hand wrapped round with a cloak "as is the custom in espousals ". A most elaborate ceremony of this kind is prescribed in the "Rituale" compiled for the Christians of Japan in 1605. It was noticed above that the "gifta", or formal surrender of the bride, who thus passed from the "mund" of her father or guardian to that of her husband, was regarded as the most essential feature of Anglo-Saxon nuptials. This left its mark in the Sarum rite, and something of it still survives both in the Anglican and the Catholic ceremonial. In the former the minister asks "Who giveth this woman to be married to this man "; in the latter no question is put, but the rubric still stands "Then let the woman be given away by her father or by her friends".

    Most remarkable of all perhaps is the giving of gold and silver by the bridegroom to the bride. This has been much modified in the Anglican "Book of Common Prayer" which speaks only of "laying the ring upon a book with the accustomed duty to the priest and clerk"; but the Catholic rite, more closely following the Sarum, directs that gold and silver be placed with the ring and given to the bride while the bridegroom says: "With this ring I thee wed; this gold and silver I thee give, with my body I thee worship and with all my worldly goods I thee endow". This action takes us back to Tacitus's account of German marriage customs. "The wife", he says, "does not present a dower to her husband, but the husband to the wife" (Germania, xviii). Undoubtedly this is a trace of the primitive sale by which the bridegroom paid a sum of money for the transference to him of the "mund" or right of custody of the bride. Originally that money was paid to the father or guardian, but by successive stages it became a sort of dower for the bride and was represented by the symbolical payment to her of "arrhæ", the name by which the money thus given in the marriage ceremony is still designated. In certain branches of the Teutonic family, notably the Salians, this form of purchase of a bride was known as marriage "per solidum et denarium". See for example the account of the nuptials of Chlodwig and St. Clotilde in the history of the so-called Fredegarius (c. xviii). The solidus was a gold piece, the denarius a silver one, and in the time of Charlemagne and later the solidus was the equivalent in value of twelve denarii. When the custom of coining gold pieces was given up in the ninth century, it seems that the solidus and denarius were represented by their equivalent value, i.e. thirteen silver pieces. Certain it is, in any case, that in Spain and in some parts of France thirteen pieces of money, known in French as the "Treizain", are still blessed and given to the bride along with the ring. The ceremony was duly observed at the marriage of King Alfonso of Spain, in 1906 (see "The Messenger", 1906, 113-130).

    To mention the many observances peculiar to particular provinces, for example the Hungarian custom of taking an oath of mutual fidelity upon relics at the dictation of the priest, or the York practice by which the bride threw herself at the feet of her husband if he gave her land as part of her dower &151; would here be impossible. We must not however omit to note the pallium or pall (French, poêle ), which in a very large number of dioceses was held over the married pair, they in the meantime lying prone before the altar, while the nuptial benediction was pronounced in the Mass. The custom was retained until recently in many parts of France and is still observed in the more ceremonious weddings which follow the Toledan ritual. This and the "jugale", or parti-coloured yoke of ribbon binding together the married pair, are mentioned by St. Isidore of Seville, and it is not quite clear how far they are to be identified with the velum or flammeum of the bride in the Roman marriage. It is to be noted that according to certain rituals the pallium is completely to cover the bride but only the shoulders of the bridegroom. This seems clearly to be connected with the fact that, as already observed, the nuptial benediction is almost entirely devoted to the bride and consecrates her to her special responsibilities. The parallel of this marriage ceremony is seen in the pall held over nuns while the consecratory preface is being said at their clothing or profession. It follows that the idea that this is a funeral pall and is symbolical of the death of the religious to the world is not historically justifiable.

    The words of the priest, "Ego vos in matrimonium conjungo", which, though sanctioned by the Council of Trent, are apt to convey the false impression that the priest is the minister of the Sacrament, are not primitive, at any rate in this form, and are only to be found in Rituals of comparatively recent date. In the medieval Nuptial Mass, and in many places until long after the Reformation, the kiss of peace was given to the married pair. The bridegroom received it from the priest either directly or by means of the paxboard, or instrumentum pacis, and then per osculum oris conveyed it to the bride. The misconception, found in some modern writers, that the priest kissed the bride, is due to a misunderstanding of this piece of ritual, no such custom is recorded in manuals approved by ecclesiastical authority.

    Oriental Marriage Rituals

    That of the Orthodox Greek Church may be conveniently taken as a model, for the others, e.g. the Syrian and Coptic rites, resemble it in many particulars. The most noteworthy feature in a Greek or Russian marriage is the fact that there are two quite distinct religious services. In the service of the betrothal a contract is entered upon and two rings are presented. A gold ring is given by the priest to the bridegroom and a silver one to the bride, but these are subsequently exchanged betWeen the parties. The second ceremony is that of the nuptials proper and it is generally called the crowning. The service is one of considerable length in which the parties again solemnly express their consent to the union and towards the close of which a crown is placed by the priest on the head of each. The bridegroom and bride afterwards partake of a cup of wine previously blessed and exchange a kiss. Marriages in the Greek Church take place after the celebration of the Liturgy, and, as in the West, the season of Lent is a forbidden time. It may be noticed that some rituals of the Western Church retain more positive traces of the ancient ceremony of the crowning than is preserved in the wreath usually worn by the bride. Thus in a Latin ritual printed for Poland and Lithuania in 1691 it is directed that two rings be used, but if these are not forthcoming, then the priest is to bless two wreaths ( serta ) and present them to the married pair.

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    Missionary, b. in Italy, 1811; d. at St. Mary's, Montana, U. S. A., 2 Oct., 1884. He entered ...

    Ravenna

    Archdiocese of Ravenna (Ravennatensis) The city of Ravenna is the capital of a province in ...

    Ravesteyn, Josse

    Born about 1506, at Tielt, a small town in Flanders, hence often called T ILETANUS (J ODACUS ...

    Ravignan, Gustave Xavier Lacroix de

    French Jesuit, orator, and author, b. at Bayonne (Basses-Pyrénées), 1 Dec. 1795; ...

    Rawes, Henry Augustus

    Oblate of St. Charles, hymn-writer and preacher, b. at Easington near Durham, England, 11 Dec., ...

    Raymbault, Charles

    Missionary, b. in France, 1602; entered the Society of Jesus at Rouen (1621); d. at Quebec, ...

    Raymond IV, of Saint-Gilles

    Count of Toulouse and of Tripoli, b. about 1043; d. at Tripoli in 1105. He was the son of ...

    Raymond Lully

    (RAMON LULL) "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, ...

    Raymond Martini

    Dominican, theologian, Orientalist, b. at Subirats, Catalonia, c. 1220; d. after July, 1284. In ...

    Raymond Nonnatus, Saint

    (In Spanish SAN RAMON). Born 1200 or 1204 at Portello in the Diocese of Urgel in Catalonia ...

    Raymond of Peñafort, Saint

    Born at Villafranca de Benadis, near Barcelona, in 1175; died at Barcelona, 6 January, 1275. He ...

    Raymond of Sabunde

    (SABONDE, SEBON, SEBEYDE, etc.) Born at Barcelona, Spain, towards the end of the fourteenth ...

    Raymond VI

    Count of Toulouse, b. 1156; d. 1222; succeeded his father, Raymond V, in 1195. He was a ...

    Raymond VII

    Count of Toulouse, son of Raymond VI, b. at Beaucaire, 1197; d. at Milhaud, 1249; had espoused a ...

    Raynaldi, Odorico

    Oratorian, b. at Treviso in 1595; d. at Rome, 22 January, 1671. Of patrician birth, he studied ...

    Raynaud, Théophile

    Theologian and writer, b. at Sospello near Nice, 15 Nov., 1583; d. at Lyons, 31 Oct., 1663. He ...

    Raynouard, Françpois-Juste-Marie

    A French poet, dramatist, and philologist, b. at Brignoles, Var, 8 September, 1761; d. at Passy, ...

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    Re 118

    Reading Abbey

    Reading Abbey in Surrey, England, was founded by Henry I in 1121, who built it, writes ...

    Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Realism, Nominalism, Conceptualism

    These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...

    Reason

    GENERAL MEANINGS Both in ordinary life and in philosophical discussions the term reason is of ...

    Reason, Age of

    The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally ...

    Recanati and Loreto

    DIOCESE OF RECANATI AND LORETO (RECINETENSIS) Province of Ancona, Central Italy, so called ...

    Rechab and the Rechabites

    Rechab was the father of Jonadab who in 2 Kings 10:15-28 , appears as a fervent supporter of ...

    Recollection

    Recollection, as understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of ...

    Reconciliation, Sacrament of

    Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

    Rector

    (From the Latin regere , to rule). Priests who preside over missions or quasi- parishes ...

    Rector Potens, Verax Deus

    The daily hymn for Sext in the Roman Breviary finds its theme in the great heat and light of ...

    Recusants, English

    The first statute in which the term "Popish Recusants" is used is 35 Eliz. c. 2, "An Act for ...

    Red Sea

    (Hebrew Yâm-Sûph; Septuagint ‘e ’eruthrà thálassa; ...

    Redeemer, Feast of the Most Holy

    The feast is found only in the special calendar of some dioceses and religious orders, and ...

    Redeemer, Knights of the

    A secular community founded in 1608 by the Duke of Mentone, Vincent Gonzaga, on the occasion of ...

    Redemption

    The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God ...

    Redemption in the Old Testament

    Redemption means either strictly deliverance by payment of a price or ransom, or simply ...

    Redemptions, Penitential

    Penitential redemptions are the substitution of exercises (especially alms-deeds), either easier ...

    Redemptoristines

    The cradle of the Redemptoristines is Scala, not far from Amalfi, Italy. Father Thomas Falcoia, of ...

    Redemptorists

    (CONGREGATION OF THE MOST HOLY REDEEMER) A society of missionary priests founded by St. ...

    Redford, Sebastion

    Born 27 April, 1701; died 2 January, 1763. Educated at St. Omer , Watten, and Liège, ...

    Redi, Francesco

    Italian poet, b. at Arezzo, 18 February, 1626; d. at Pisa 1 March, 1698. After taking his ...

    Reding, Augustine

    Prince-Abbot of Einsiedeln and theological writer, born at Lichtensteig, Switzerland, 10 ...

    Reductions of Paraguay

    The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay, one of the most singular and beautiful creations of Catholic ...

    Referendarii

    The papal office of the referendarii (from refero , to inform) existed at the Byzantine ...

    Reform of a Religious Order

    Reform of a Religious Order, in the true sense of the word, is a return or bringing back of the ...

    Reformation, The

    The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the ...

    Reformed Churches

    The name given to Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the ...

    Refuge, Cities of

    Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had ...

    Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the

    The Institute of Our Lady of Charity was founded (1641) by [St. Jean] Eudes, at Caen, Normandy, ...

    Regale, Droit de

    ( jus regaliœ, jus regale, jus deportus; German Regalienrecht ) Droit de Regale ...

    Regalia

    According to the usage current in the British Isles the term regalia is almost always employed to ...

    Regeneration

    (Latin regeneratio ; Greek anagennesis and paliggenesia ). Regeneration is a ...

    Regensburg

    DIOCESE OF RATISBON (RATISBONENSIS), also called REGENSBURG. Suffragan of Munich-Freising. It ...

    Regesta, Papal

    Papal Regesta are the copies, generally entered in special registry volumes, of the papal ...

    Reggio dell' Emilia

    DIOCESE OF REGGIO DELL' EMILIA (REGINENSIS) Suffragan of Modena in central Italy. The city is ...

    Reggio di Calabria

    ARCHDIOCESE OF REGGIO DI CALABRIA (RHEGIENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, southern Italy. The ...

    Regina

    DIOCESE OF REGINA (REGINENSIS) A newly created (4 March, 1910) ecclesiastical division, ...

    Regina Coeli

    The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin, the recitation of which is ...

    Reginald of Piperno

    Dominican, theologian, companion of St. Thomas Aquinas, b. at Piperno about 1230; d. about 1290. ...

    Regino of Prüm

    Date of birth unknown; d. at Trier in 915. According to the statements of a later era Regino was ...

    Regionarii

    The name given in later antiquity and the early Middle Ages to those clerics and officials of ...

    Regis, John Francis, Saint

    Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...

    Registers, Parochial

    One having the cure of souls is commanded by Divine precept to know his subjects (Conc. Trid., ...

    Regnault, Henri Victor

    Chemist and physicist, b. at Aachen, 21 July, 1810; d. in Paris, 19 Jan., 1878. Being left an ...

    Regulæ Juris

    ("Rules of Law") General rules or principles serving chiefly for the interpretation of laws. ...

    Regulars

    ( Latin regula, rule). The observance of the Rule of St. Benedict procured for the monks ...

    Reichenau

    Reichenau, called Augia Dives in medieval Latin manuscripts and possessing a once ...

    Reichensperger, August

    Politician and author, born at Coblenz, 22 March, 1808; died at Cologne, 16 July, 1895. He studied ...

    Reichensperger, Peter

    Jurist and parliamentarian, b. at Coblenz, 28 May, 1810; d. at Berlin, 31 December, 1892. He ...

    Reifenstein

    A former Cistercian abbey in Eichsfeld, founded on 1 August, 1162 by Count Ernst of Tonna. It ...

    Reiffenstuel, Johann Georg

    In religion A NACLETUS Theologian and canonist; b. at Kaltenbrunn (Tegernsee) 2 July, 1641; d. ...

    Reims

    ARCHDIOCESE OF REIMS (RHEMENSIS) The Archdiocese of Reims comprises the district of Reims in ...

    Reims, Synods of

    The first synod said to have been held at Reims by Archbishop Sonnatius between 624 and 630 ...

    Reinmar of Hagenau

    A German minnesinger of the twelfth century, surnamed in the manuscripts der Alte (the old) to ...

    Reisach, Carl von

    Born at Roth, Bavaria, 7 July, 1800; died in the Redemptorist monastery of Contamine, France, ...

    Reisch, Gregor

    Born at Balingen in Wurtemberg, about 1467; died at Freiburg, Baden, 9 May, 1525. In 1487 he ...

    Relationship

    (CARNAL AND SPIRITUAL) The theologians understand by relationship in general a certain ...

    Relatives, Duties of

    The general precept of charity obliging us to love our neighbour as ourselves is of course ...

    Relativism

    Any doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the ...

    Relics

    The word relics comes from the Latin reliquiae (the counterpart of the Greek leipsana ) ...

    Religion

    I. Derivation, Analysis, and Definition. II. Subjective Religion. III. Objective ...

    Religion, Virtue of

    Of the three proposed derivations of the word "religion", that suggested by Lactantius and ...

    Religions, Statistics of

    I. DEFINITION This study concerns itself with religious bodies, the number of their members, and ...

    Religious Life

    I. GENERAL VIEW AND EVANGELICAL IDEA OF THE RELIGIOUS LIFE A. GENERAL VIEW We all have within us ...

    Religious Profession

    HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

    Reliquaries

    It would follow of necessity from the data given in the article RELICS that ...

    Remesiana

    A titular see in Dacia Mediterranea, suffragan of Sardica. Remesiana is mentioned by the ...

    Remigius of Auxerre

    A Benedictine monk, b. about the middle of the ninth century; d. 908. Remigius, or Remi, was a ...

    Remigius, Saint

    Apostle of the Franks, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Cerny or Laon, 437; d. at Reims, 13 January ...

    Remiremont

    Vosges, France, monastery and nunnery of the Rule of St. Benedict, founded by Sts. Romaricus ...

    Remuzat, Ven. Anne-Madeleine

    Born at Marseilles, 29 Nov., 1696; died 15 Feb., 1730. At nine years of age she asked her parents ...

    Remy, Abbey of Saint

    Founded at Reims before 590. Its early history is very obscure; at first a little chapel ...

    Renaissance, The

    The Renaissance may be considered in a general or a particular sense, as (1) the achievements of ...

    Renaudot, Eusebius

    An apologetical writer and Orientalist, b. at Paris, 22 July, 1648; d. there, 1 Sept., 1720. He ...

    Renaudot, Théophraste

    Born at Loudun, 1586; died at Paris, 25 October, 1653. Doctor of the medical faculty at ...

    Reni, Guido

    Italian painter, b. at Calvenzano near Bologna, 4 Nov., 1575; d. at Bologna, 18 Aug. 1642. At one ...

    Rennes

    (RHEDONENSIS) Rennes includes the Department of Ille et Vilaine. The Concordat of 1802 ...

    Renty, Gaston Jean Baptiste de

    Born 1611 at the castle of Beni, Diocese of Bayeux in Normandy ; died 24 April, 1649. The only ...

    Renunciation

    ( Latin renuntiare ). A canonical term signifying the resignation of an ecclesiastical ...

    Reordinations

    I. STATE OF THE QUESTION The Oratorian Jean Morin , in the seventeenth century, and Cardinal ...

    Reparation

    Reparation is a theological concept closely connected with those of atonement and satisfaction, ...

    Repington, Philip

    ( Also Repyngdon). Cardinal-priest of the title of SS. Nereus and Achilleus, Bishop of ...

    Repose, Altar of

    (Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository). The altar ...

    Reputation (as Property)

    It is certain that a man is indefeasibly the owner of what he has been able to produce by his ...

    Requiem, Masses of

    Masses of Requiem will be treated under the following heads: I. Origins; II. Formulary ; III. ...

    Rerum Crerator Optime

    The hymn for Matins of Wednesday in the Divine Office. It comprises four strophes of four ...

    Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor

    The daily hymn for None in the Roman Breviary, comprises (like the hymns for Terce and Sext ...

    Rerum Novarum

    The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the ...

    Rescripts, Papal

    ( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

    Reservation

    The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an ...

    Reserved Cases

    A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor, but is ...

    Residence, Ecclesiastical

    A remaining or abiding where one's duties lie or where one's occupation is properly carried on, ...

    Respicius, Tryphon, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

    Respighi, Lorenzo

    Born at Cortemaggiore, Province of Piacenza, 7 October, 1824; died at Rome, 10 December, 1889. He ...

    Responsorium

    Responsory, or Respond, a series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and ...

    Restitution

    Restitution has a special sense in moral theology. It signifies an act of commutative justice ...

    Resurrection of Jesus Christ

    Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...

    Resurrection, General

    Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. The Fourth Lateran ...

    Rethel, Alfred

    Born at Aachen, 1816; died at Düsseldorf, 1859. He combined in a brilliant and forcible ...

    Retreat of the Sacred Heart, Congregation of

    (DAMES DE LA RETRAITE) Originally founded in 1678 under the name of the Institute of Retreat, ...

    Retreats

    If we call a retreat a series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of ...

    Retz, Cardinal de

    ARCHBISHOP OF PARIS Born at the Château of Montmirail, Oct., 1614; died in Paris, 24 ...

    Reuben

    (REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

    Reuchlin, Johannes

    ( Græcized , Capnion). Celebrated German humanist, b. at Pforzheim, Baden, 22 ...

    Reumont, Alfred von

    Statesman and historian, b. at Aachen, 15 August, 1808; d. there, 27 April, 1887. After finishing ...

    Reusens, Edmond

    Archeologist and historian, b. at Wijneghem (Antwerp), 25 April, 1831; d. at Louvain, 25 Dec., ...

    Reuss

    Name of the two smallest states of the German Confederation, which lie almost in the centre of ...

    Revelation

    I. MEANING OF REVELATION Revelation may be defined as the communication of some truth by God ...

    Revelation, Book of

    Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto , to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the ...

    Revelations, Private

    There are two kinds of revelations: (1) universal revelations, which are contained in the Bible ...

    Revocation

    The act of recalling or annulling, the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the making ...

    Revolution, English

    James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...

    Revolution, French

    The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

    Rex Gloriose Martyrum

    Rex Gloriose Martyrum, the hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs (Commune plurimorum ...

    Rex Sempiterne Cælitum

    The Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time (from ...

    Rey, Anthony

    An educator and Mexican War chaplain, born at Lyons, 19 March, 1807; died near Ceralvo, Mexico, ...

    Reynolds, William

    (RAINOLDS, RAYNOLDS, REGINALDUS) Born at Pinhorn near Exeter, about 1544; died at Antwerp, ...

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    Rh 18

    Rhætia

    (RHÆTORUM). Prefecture Apostolic in Switzerland ; includes in general the district ...

    Rhaphanæa

    A titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Rhaphanæa is mentioned in ancient ...

    Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel

    A composer and organist, born at Vaduz, in the Principality of Lichtenstein, Bavaria, 17 March, ...

    Rhenish Palatinate

    ( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

    Rhesæna

    A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. Rhesæna (numerous variations of the name ...

    Rhinocolura

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium. Rhinocolura or Rhinocorura was a ...

    Rhithymna

    (RHETHYMNA) A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, mentioned by Ptolemy, III, 15, ...

    Rhizus

    ( Rizous .) A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus suffragan of Neocæsarea, ...

    Rho, Giacomo

    Missionary, born at Milan, 1593; died at Peking 27 April, 1638. He was the son of a noble and ...

    Rhode Island

    The State of Rhode Island and xxyyyk.htm">Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original ...

    Rhodes

    (RHODUS) A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades. It is an island opposite to Lycia and ...

    Rhodes, Alexandre De

    A missionary and author, born at Avignon, 15 March, 1591; died at Ispahan, Persia, 5 Nov., 1660. ...

    Rhodesia

    A British possession in South Africa, bounded on the north and north-west by the Congo Free ...

    Rhodiopolis

    A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, called Rhodia by Ptolemy (V, 3) and Stephanus ...

    Rhodo

    A Christian writer who flourished in the time of Commodus (180-92); he was a native of Asia ...

    Rhosus

    A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba. Rhosus or Rhossus was a seaport ...

    Rhymed Bibles

    The rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms. The oldest ...

    Rhythmical Office

    I. DESCRIPTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND DIVISION By rhythmical office is meant a liturgical horary ...

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    Ri 66

    Ribadeneira, Pedro de

    (Or RIBADENEYRA and among Spaniards often RIVADENEIRA) Pedro De Ribadeneira was born at ...

    Ribas, Andrés Pérez De

    A pioneer missionary, historian of north-western Mexico; born at Cordova, Spain, 1576; died in ...

    Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland)

    (RIPAE, RIPENSIS.) The diocese (29 deaneries, 278 parishes ) consisted of the modern ...

    Ribeirao Preto

    (DE RIBERAO PRETO) A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of São Paulo , Brazil, ...

    Ribera, Jusepe de

    Called also SPAGNOLETTO, L'ESPAGNOLET (the little Spaniard) Painter born at Jativa, 12 Jan., ...

    Ricardus Anglicus

    Ricardus Anglicus, Archdeacon of Bologna, was an English priest who was rector of the law ...

    Riccardi, Nicholas

    A theologian, writer and preacher; born at Genoa, 1585; died at Rome, 30 May, 1639. Physically ...

    Ricci, Lorenzo

    General of the Society of Jesus b. at Florence, 2 Aug., 1703; d. at the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ...

    Ricci, Matteo

    Founder of the Catholic missions of China, b. at Macerata in the Papal States, 6 Oct. 1552; ...

    Riccioli, Giovanni Battista

    Italian astronomer, b. at Ferrara 17 April, 1598; d. at Bologna 25 June, 1671. He entered the ...

    Rice, Edmund Ignatius

    Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as "Irish ...

    Rich, St. Edmund

    Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...

    Richard

    A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and ...

    Richard de Bury

    Bishop and bibliophile, b. near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, England, 24 Jan., 1286; d. at ...

    Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin

    Archbishop of Paris, born at Nantes, 1 March, 1819; died in Paris, 28 January, 1908. ...

    Richard de Wyche, Saint

    Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

    Richard Fetherston, Blessed

    Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

    Richard I, King Of England

    Richard I, born at Oxford, 6 Sept, 1157; died at Chaluz, France, 6 April, 1199; was known to ...

    Richard of Cirencester

    Chronicler, d. about 1400. He was the compiler of a chronicle from 447 to 1066, entitled "Speculum ...

    Richard of Cornwall

    (RICHARD RUFUS, RUYS, ROSSO, ROWSE). The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but he ...

    Richard of Middletown

    (A MEDIA VILLA). Flourished at the end of the thirteenth century, but the dates of his birth ...

    Richard of St. Victor

    Theologian, native of Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are unknown; d. 1173 and ...

    Richard Thirkeld, Blessed

    Martyr ; b. at Coniscliffe, Durham, England ; d. at York, 29 May, 1583. From Queen's College, ...

    Richard Whiting, Blessed

    Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

    Richard, Charles-Louis

    Theologian and publicist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 1711; d. at Mons, ...

    Richardson, Ven. William

    ( Alias Anderson.) Last martyr under Queen Elizabeth; b. according to Challoner at Vales in ...

    Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de

    Cardinal ; French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 1585; d. there 4 December 1642. At first ...

    Richmond, Diocese of

    (RICHMONDENSIS.) Suffragan of Baltimore, established 11 July, 1820, comprises the State of ...

    Ricoldo da Monte di Croce

    (PENNINI.) Born at Florence about 1243; d. there 31 October, 1320. After studying in various ...

    Riemenschneider, Tillmann

    One of the most important of Frankish sculptors, b. at Osterode am Harz in or after 1460; d. at ...

    Rienzi, Cola di

    (i.e., NICOLA, son of Lorenzo) A popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure. His ...

    Rieti

    (REATINA). Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See. The city is ...

    Rievaulx, Abbey of

    (RIEVALL.) Thurston, Archbishop of York, was very anxious to have a monastery of the newly ...

    Riffel, Caspar

    Historian, b. at Budesheim, Bingen, Germany, 19 Jan., 1807, d. at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1856. He ...

    Rigby, John, Saint

    English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

    Rigby, Nicholas

    Born 1800 at Walton near Preston, Lancashire; died at Ugthorpe, 7 September, 1886. At twelve years ...

    Right

    Right, as a substantive (my right, his right), designates the object of justice. When a person ...

    Right of Exclusion

    (Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

    Right of Option

    In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...

    Right of Voluntary Association

    I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

    Rimbert, Saint

    Archbishop of Bremen - Hamburg, died at Bremen 11 June, 888. It is uncertain whether he was ...

    Rimini

    DIOCESE OF RIMINI (ARIMINUM). Suffragan of Ravenna. Rimini is situated near the coast between ...

    Rimini, Council of

    The second Formula of Sirmium (357) stated the doctrine of the Anomoeans, or extreme Arians. ...

    Rimouski

    DIOCESE OF RIMOUSKI (SANCTI GERMANI DE RIMOUSKI) Suffragan of Quebec, comprises the counties of ...

    Ring of the Fisherman, The

    The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

    Rings

    Although the surviving ancient rings, proved by their devices, provenance, etc., to be of ...

    Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista

    Born at Rome, 1592; d. at Fermo, 1653; was the son of a Florentine patrician, his mother being a ...

    Rio Negro

    Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil, bounded on the south by a line running westwards from the ...

    Rio, Alexis-François

    French writer on art, b. on the Island of Arz, Department of Morbihan, 20 May, 1797; d. 17 June, ...

    Riobamba

    Diocese of (Bolivarensis), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, erected by Pius IX, 5 January, 1863. ...

    Rioja, Francisco de

    A poet, born at Seville, 1583; died at Madrid, 1659. Rioja was a canon in the cathedral at ...

    Ripalda, Juan Martínez de

    Theologian, b. at Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. at Madrid, 26 April, 1648. He entered the Society ...

    Ripatransone

    (RIPANENSIS). Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy. The city is situated on five hills, ...

    Ripon, Marquess of

    George Frederick Samuel Robinson, K.G., P.C., G.C.S.I., F.R.S., Earl de Grey, Earl of Ripon, ...

    Risby, Richard

    Born in the parish of St. Lawrence, Reading, 1489; executed at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1534. ...

    Rishanger, William

    Chronicler, b. at Rishangles, Suffolk, about ú d. after 1312. He became a Benedictine at ...

    Rishton, Edward

    Born in Lancashire, 1550; died at Sainte-Ménehould, Lorraine, 29 June, 1585. He was ...

    Rita of Cascia, Saint

    Born at Rocca Porena in the Diocese of Spoleto , 1386; died at the Augustinian convent of ...

    Rites

    I. NAME AND DEFINITION Ritus in classical Latin in means primarily, the form and manner of any ...

    Rites in the United States

    Since immigration from the eastern portion of Europe and from Asia and Africa set in with ...

    Ritschlianism

    Ritschlianism is a peculiar conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in ...

    Ritter, Joseph Ignatius

    Historian, b. at Schweinitz, Silesia, 12 April, 1787; d. at Breslau, 5 Jan., 1857. He pursued his ...

    Ritual

    The Ritual ( Rituale Romanum ) is one of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all ...

    Ritualists

    The word "Ritualists" is the term now most commonly employed to denote that advanced section of ...

    Rivington, Luke

    Born in London, May, 1838; died in London, 30 May, 1899; fourth son of Francis Rivington, a ...

    Rizal, José Mercado

    Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor ; b. at Calamba, Province of La Laguna, ...

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    Ro 133

    Robbers, Seven

    (Septem Latrones), martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their ...

    Robbia, Andrea della

    Nephew, pupil, assistant, and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 1528. It is ...

    Robbia, Lucia di Simone

    Sculptor, b. at Florence, 1400; d. 1481. He is believed to have studied design with a goldsmith, ...

    Robert Bellarmine, Saint

    (Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at ...

    Robert Johnson, Blessed

    Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

    Robert of Arbrissel

    Itinerant preacher, founder of Fontevrault, b. c. 1047 at Arbrissel (now Arbressec) near ...

    Robert of Courçon

    (DE CURSONE, DE CURSIM, CURSUS, ETC.). Cardinal, born at Kedleston, England ; died at ...

    Robert of Geneva

    Antipope under the name of Clement VII, b. at Geneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, 16 Sept., 1394. He ...

    Robert of Jumièges

    Archbishop of Canterbury (1051-2). Robert Champart was a Norman monk of St. Ouen at Rouen ...

    Robert of Luzarches

    (LUS). Born at Luzarches near Pontoise towards the end of the twelfth century; is said to have ...

    Robert of Melun

    (DE MELDUNO; MELIDENSIS; MEIDUNUS). An English philosopher and theologian, b. in England ...

    Robert of Molesme, Saint

    Born about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who bore the names of Thierry ...

    Robert of Newminster, Saint

    Born in the district of Craven, Yorkshire, probably at the village of Gargrave; died 7 June, 1159. ...

    Robert Pullus

    (PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

    Robert, Saint

    Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurilac, Auvergne, about 1000; d. in ...

    Roberts, Saint John

    First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

    Robertson, James Burton

    Historian, b. in London 15 Nov., 1800; d. at Dublin 14 Feb., 1877, son of Thomas Robertson, a ...

    Robinson, Venerable Christopher

    Born at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date unknown; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. ...

    Robinson, William Callyhan

    Jurist and educator, b. 26 July, 1834, at Norwich, Conn.; d. 6 Nov., 1911, at Washington, D.C. ...

    Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de

    Theologian, b. of a noble family at Perelada, in Catalina, c. 1624; d. at Madrid 13 June, 1699. ...

    Rocamadour

    Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the ...

    Rocca, Angelo

    Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome, b. at Rocca, now Arecevia, near Ancone, 1545; d. at ...

    Roch, Saint

    Born at Montpellier towards 1295; died 1327. His father was governor of that city. At his birth ...

    Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien

    Marshal, b. at Vendôme, France, 1 July, 1725; d. at Thoré, 10 May, 1807. At the age ...

    Roche, Alanus de la

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

    Rochester, Ancient See of

    (ROFFA; ROFFENSIS). The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was ...

    Rochester, Blessed John

    Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

    Rochester, Diocese of

    This diocese, on its establishment by separation from the See of Buffalo, 24 January, 1868, ...

    Rochet

    An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), ...

    Rochette, Désiré Raoul

    Usually known as Raoul-Rochette, a French archeologist, b. at St. Amand (Cher), 9 March, 1789; d. ...

    Rock, Daniel

    Antiquarian and ecclesiologist, b. at Liverpool, 31 August, 1799; d. at Kensington, London, 28 ...

    Rockford, Diocese of

    (ROCKFORDIENSIS). Created 23 September, 1908, comprises Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, ...

    Rockhampton

    Diocese in Queensland, Australia. In 1862 Father Duhig visited the infant settlement on the banks ...

    Rococo Style

    This style received its name in the nineteenth century from French émigrés , who ...

    Rodez

    (RUTHENAE) The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of ...

    Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre

    A Brazilian natural scientist and explorer, b. at Bahia in 1756; d. at Lisbon in 1815. He ...

    Rodriguez, Alonso

    Born at Valladolid, Spain, 1526; died at Seville 21 February, 1616. When twenty years of age he ...

    Rodriguez, Joao

    (GIRAM, GIRAO, GIRON, ROIZ). Missionary and author, b. at Alcochete in the Diocese of Lisbon ...

    Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus

    (Also Alonso). Born at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1532; died at Majorca, 31 October, 1617. ...

    Roe, Bartholomew

    (VENERABLE ALBAN). English Benedictine martyr, b. in Suffolk, 1583; executed at Tyburn, 21 ...

    Roermond

    (RUBAEMUNDENSIS). Diocese in Holland ; suffragan of Utrecht. It includes the Province of ...

    Rogation Days

    Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger ...

    Roger Bacon

    Philosopher, surnamed D OCTOR M IRABILIS , b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at ...

    Roger Cadwallador, Venerable

    English martyr, b. at Stretton Sugwas, near Hereford, in 1568; executed at Leominster, 27 Aug., ...

    Roger of Wendover

    Benedictine monk, date of birth unknown; d. 1236, the first of the great chroniclers of St. ...

    Roger, Bishop of Worcester

    Died at Tours, 9 August, 1179. A younger son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, he was educated ...

    Roh, Peter

    Born at Conthey (Gunthis) in the canton of Valais ( French Switzerland ), 14 August, 1811; d. at ...

    Rohault de Fleury

    A family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century, of which the most ...

    Rohrbacher, Réné François

    Ecclesiastical historian, b. at Langatte (Langd) in the present Diocese of Metz, 27 September, ...

    Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de

    Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Toledo, 4 Oct., 1607; d. 1680. Authentic information regarding the ...

    Rokewode, John Gage

    Born 13 Sept., 1786; died at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, 14 Oct., 1842. He was the fourth son of ...

    Rolduc

    (RODA DUCIS, also Roda, Closterroda or Hertogenrade). Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands. ...

    Rolfus, Hermann

    Catholic educationist, b. at Freiburg, 24 May, 1821; d. at Buhl, near Offenburg, 27 October, ...

    Rolle de Hampole, Richard

    Solitary and writer, b. at Thornton, Yorkshire, about 1300; d. at Hampole, 29 Sept., 1349. The ...

    Rollin, Charles

    Born in Paris, 1661; died there, 1741. The son of a cutler, intended to follow his father's ...

    Rolls Series

    A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official ...

    Rolph, Thomas

    Surgeon, b. 1800; d. at Portsmouth, 17 Feb., 1858. He was a younger son of Dr. Thomas Rolph and ...

    Roman Catacombs

    This subject will be treated under seven heads: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. ...

    Roman Catechism

    This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the ...

    Roman Catholic

    A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those ...

    Roman Catholic Relief Bill

    IN ENGLAND With the accession of Queen Elizabeth (1558) commenced the series of legislative ...

    Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early

    This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome. For ...

    Roman Colleges

    This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ...

    Roman Congregations

    Certain departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the ...

    Roman Curia

    Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff ...

    Roman Processional

    Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

    Roman Rite, The

    ( Ritus romanus ). The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, ...

    Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio

    The restoration by Pius IX, 29 Sept. 1850, by letters Apostolic "Universalis ecclesiæ" of ...

    Romanos, Saint

    Surnamed ho melodos and ho theorrhetor , poet of the sixth century. The only authority for ...

    Romans, Epistle to the

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. ...

    Romanus, Pope

    Of this pope very little is known with certainty, not even the date of his birth nor the exact ...

    Romanus, Saints

    (1) A Roman martyr Romanus is mentioned in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 155) ...

    Rome

    The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop ...

    Rome, University of

    The University of Rome must be distinguished from the "Studium Generale apud Curiam", established ...

    Romero, Juan

    Missionary and Indian linguist, b. in the village of Machena, Andalusia, Spain, 1559; d. at ...

    Romuald, Saint

    Born at Ravenna, probably about 950; died at Val-di-Castro, 19 June, 1027. St. Peter Damian, his ...

    Romulus Augustulus

    Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. His reign was purely ...

    Ronan, Saint

    There are twelve Irish saints bearing the name of Ronan commemorated in the "Martyrology of ...

    Ronsard, Pierre de

    French poet, b. 2 (or 11) Sept., 1524, at the Château de la Poissonniere, near ...

    Rood

    (Anglo-Saxon Rod, or Rode, "cross"), a term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, ...

    Roothaan, Johann Philipp

    Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus , b. at Amsterdam, 23 November, 1785; d. at Rome, ...

    Roper, William

    Biographer of St. Thomas More, born 1496; died 4 January, 1578. Both his father and mother ...

    Rorate Coeli

    (Vulgate, text), the opening words of Isaiah 45:8 . The text is used frequently both at Mass and ...

    Rosa, Salvatore

    (Also spelled SALVATOR; otherwise known as RENNELLA, or ARENELLA, from the place of his birth). ...

    Rosalia, Saint

    Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she in patroness. ...

    Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the

    The proper office granted by Leo XIII (5 August, 1888) to the feast contains four hymns ...

    Rosary, Confraternity of the

    In accordance with the conclusion of the article ROSARY no sufficient evidence is forthcoming to ...

    Rosary, Feast of the Holy

    Apart from the signal defeat of the Albigensian heretics at the battle of Muret in 1213 which ...

    Rosary, Seraphic

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

    Rosary, The

    Please see our How to Recite the Holy Rosary sheet in PDF format, and feel free to copy and ...

    Rosate, Alberico de

    (Or ROSCIATE). Jurist, date of birth unknown; died in 1354. He was bom in the village of ...

    Roscelin

    Roscelin, a monk of Compiègne, was teaching as early as 1087. He had contact with ...

    Roscommon

    Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland ; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman ...

    Rose of Lima, Saint

    Virgin, patroness of America, born at Lima, Peru 20 April, 1586; died there 30 August, 1617. ...

    Rose of Viterbo, Saint

    Virgin, born at Viterbo, 1235; died 6 March, 1252. The chronology of her life must always remain ...

    Rose Window

    A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

    Rosea

    A titular see. The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of ...

    Roseau

    (ROSENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I. The different islands of ...

    Rosecrans, William Starke

    William Born at Kingston, Ohio, U.S.A. 6 Sept., 1819; died near Redondo California, 11 March, ...

    Roseline, Saint

    (Rossolina.) Born at Château of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. 17 January, 1329. ...

    Rosenau

    ( Hungarian ROZSNYÓ; Latin ROSNAVIENSIS). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, ...

    Rosh Hashanah

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

    Rosicrucians

    The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic- theosophic "Rosicrucian ...

    Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark

    (ROSCHILDIA, ROSKILDENSIS.) Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536. The ...

    Roskoványi, August

    Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology, b. at Szenna in the County ...

    Rosmini and Rosminianism

    Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, ...

    Rosminians

    The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata , is a religious ...

    Ross

    (ROSSENSIS). Diocese in Ireland. This see was founded by St. Fachtna, and the place-name ...

    Ross, School of

    The School of Ross &151; now called Ross-Carbery, but formerly Ross-Ailithir from the large ...

    Rossano

    (ROSSANENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy. The city is ...

    Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico

    The youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stone cutters, family name Gamberelli (1427-78). He ...

    Rosselino, Bernardo

    (Properly BERNARDO DI MATTEO GAMBARELLI.) B. at Florence, 1409; d. 1464. Rosselino occupies ...

    Rosselli, Cosimo

    (LORENZO DI FILIPPO). Italian fresco painter, b. at Florence, 1439; d. there in 1507. The ...

    Rossi, Bernardo de

    (DE RUBEIS, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BERNARDO MARIA). Theologian and historian; b. at Cividale del ...

    Rossi, Giovanni Battista de

    A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman ...

    Rossi, Pellegrino

    Publicist, diplomat, economist, and statesman, b. at Carrara, Italy, 13 July, 1787; assassinated ...

    Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio

    Born 29 February, 1792, at Pesaro in the Romagna; died 13 November, 1868, at Passy, near Paris. ...

    Rostock, Sebastian von

    Bishop of Breslau, b. at Grottkau, Silesia, 24 Aug. 1607; d. at Breslau, 9 June, 1671. He ...

    Rostock, University of

    Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419 through the united efforts of Dukes John ...

    Roswitha

    A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

    Rota, Sacra Romana

    In the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" (29 June, 1908), II, 2, Pins X re-established the Sacra ...

    Roth, Heinrich

    Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar, b. of illustrious parentage at Augsburg, 18 December, ...

    Rothe, David

    Bishop of Ossory ( Ireland ), b. at Kilkenny in 1573, of a distinguished family ; d. 20 ...

    Rottenburg

    (ROTTENBURGENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine. It ...

    Rotuli

    Rotuli, i.e. rolls — in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one ...

    Rouen, Archdiocese of

    (ROTHOMAGENSIS) Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and ...

    Rouen, Synods of

    The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650. ...

    Rouquette, Adrien

    Born in Louisiana in 1813, of French parentage; died as a missionary among the Choctaw Indians ...

    Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste

    French poet, b. in Paris, 16 April 1670; d. at La Genette, near Brussels, 17 May, 1741. ...

    Rovezzano, Benedetto da

    Sculptor and architect, b. in 1490, either at Rovezzano, near Florence, or, according to some ...

    Rowsham, Stephen

    A native of Oxfordshire, entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. He took orders in the English ...

    Royal Declaration, The

    This is the name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in ...

    Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul

    Philosopher and French politician, b. at Sompuis (Marne), 21 June, 1763; d. at ...

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    Ru 42

    Ruadhan, Saint

    One of the twelve "Apostles of Erin" ; died at the monastery of Lorrha, County Tipperary, ...

    Ruben

    (REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

    Rubens, Peter Paul

    Eminent Flemish painter, b. at Siegen, Westphalia, 28 June, 1577; d. at Antwerp, 30 May, 1640. ...

    Rubrics

    I. IDEA Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica , ...

    Rubruck, William

    (Also called William of Rubruck and less correctly Ruysbrock, Ruysbroek, and Rubruquis), ...

    Rudolf of Fulda

    Chronicler, d. at Fulda, 8 March, 862. In the monastery of Fulda Rudolf entered the ...

    Rudolf of Habsburg

    German king, b. 1 May 1218; d. at Speyer, 15 July, 1291. He was the son of Albert IV, the founder ...

    Rudolf of Rüdesheim

    Bishop of Breslau, b. at Rüdesheim on the Rhine, about 1402; d. at Breslau in Jan., 1482. ...

    Rudolf von Ems

    [Hohenems in Austria ]. A Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century. Almost ...

    Rueckers, Family of

    Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp. Hans Rueckers, the founder, lived in ...

    Ruffini, Paolo

    Physician and mathematician, b. at Valentano in the Duchy of Castro, 3 Sept., 1765; d. at Modena, ...

    Rufford Abbey

    A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about ...

    Rufina, Saints

    The present Roman Martyrology records saints of this name on the following days: (1) On ...

    Rufinus, Saint

    The present Roman Martyrology records eleven saints named Rufinus: (1) On 28 February, a ...

    Rufus, Saint

    The present Roman Martyrology records ten saints of this name. Historical mention is made of ...

    Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de

    Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Mexico City, about 1580; d. at Madrid, 4 August, 1639. He received ...

    Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio

    One of the most distinguished pioneers of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay, and a ...

    Ruiz de Montoya, Diego

    Theologian, b. at Seville, 1562; d. there 15 March, 1632. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

    Rule of Faith, The

    The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...

    Rule of St. Augustine

    The title, Rule of Saint Augustine , has been applied to each of the following documents: ...

    Rule of St. Benedict

    This work holds the first place among monastic legislative codes, and was by far the most ...

    Rumania

    A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian ...

    Rumohr, Karl Friedrich

    Art historian, b. at Dresden, 1785; d. there, 1843. He became a Catholic in 1804. He was ...

    Rupe, Alanus de

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

    Rupert, Saint

    (Alternative forms, Ruprecht, Hrodperht, Hrodpreht, Roudbertus, Rudbertus, Robert, Ruprecht). ...

    Rusaddir

    A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana. Rusaddir is a Phoenician settlement whose name ...

    Rusicade

    A titular see of Numidia. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (IV, 3), Mela (I, 33), Pliny (V, 22), ...

    Ruspe

    Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the "Tabula" of ...

    Russell, Charles

    (BARON RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN). Born at Newry, Ireland, 10 November, 1832; died in London, 10 ...

    Russell, Charles William

    Born at Killough, Co. Down, 14 May, 1812; died at Dublin 26 Feb., 1880. He was descended from the ...

    Russell, Richard

    Bishop of Vizéu in Portugal, b. in Berkshire, 1630; d. at Vizéu, 15 Nov., 1693. He ...

    Russia

    GEOGRAPHY Russia ( Rossiiskaia Imperiia; Russkoe Gosudarstvo ) comprises the greater part of ...

    Russia, The Religion of

    A. The Origin of Russian Christianity There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity ...

    Russian Language and Literature

    The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE; ANCIENT POPULAR ...

    Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint

    Born either at Marseilles or at Narbonnaise, Gaul; died 26 Oct., 461. According to biographers, ...

    Ruth, Book of

    One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine ...

    Ruthenian Rite

    There is, properly speaking, no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but inasmuch as ...

    Ruthenians

    (Ruthenian and Russian: Rusin , plural Rusini ) A Slavic people from Southern Russia, ...

    Rutter, Henry

    ( vere BANISTER) Born 26 Feb., 1755; died 17 September, 1838, near Dodding Green, ...

    Ruvo and Bitonto

    (RUBENSIS ET BITUNTINENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, ...

    Ruysbroeck, Blessed John

    Surnamed the Admirable Doctor, and the Divine Doctor, undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish ...

    Ruysch, John

    Astronomer, cartographer, and painter, born at Utrecht about 1460; died at Cologne, 1533. Little ...

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    Ry 4

    Ryan, Father Abram J.

    The poet-priest of the South, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 15 August, 1839; died at Louisville, ...

    Ryan, Patrick John

    Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia, b. At Thurles, County Tipperary, ...

    Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley

    English Oratorian priest and controversialist, b. 3 Jan., 1837; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 7 ...

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