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Henry Edward Manning

Cardinal Priest of Sts. Andrew and Gregory on the Coelian Hill and second Archbishop of Westminster, b. 15 July, 1808; d. 14 January, 1892.

Henry Edward Manning, who was born at his grandfather's home, Copped Hall, Totteridge, Herts., England, was the son of William Manning, M.P. for Evesham and Lymington and sometime governor of the Bank of England. His father's family was of an old Kentish stock, and though born in Hertfordshire, the future cardinal spent some years of his boyhood at Combe Bank, near Sevenoaks in Kent, whither his father had moved when his son was but seven years old. His mother, William Manning's second wife, was a daughter of Henry Lannoy Hunter, who was of a French Huguenot family originally known by the name of Veneur. His father's mother was a Miss Ryan, whose name betrays her Irish origin, and from some old diaries which have only lately come to life it appears that she was a Catholic and faithfully practiced the duties of her religion. This fact, it would seem, was never known to Cardinal Manning himself, as the diaries have only been discovered since his death.

After learning his first rudiments at home and at a private school at Totteridge, Henry Manning went to Harrow, in 1822, and on leaving school continued his studies for a time under a private tutor. It had at first been his purpose to follow his father in the banking business and to enter Parliament. But the banker having suffered a reverse of fortune, he was fain to take a different course. In 1827 he went up to Oxford and entered at Balliol College. Although he no longer had a parliamentary career in view, he continued to take an interest in political questions, and his natural powers of oratory soon made him conspicuous in the debating of the Union, where he was succeeded by Gladstone in the presidency. In later life he still cherished pleasing recollections of the memorable debate of 1829, when Monckton Milnes and Hallam and Sunderland came from Cambridge to prove the poetical superiority of Shelley to Byron.

These rhetorical distractions, however, did not interfere with his studies, and in 1830 he took a first class in classics. On leaving Oxford, he accepted a subordinate post in the Colonial Office, and devoted his attention to questions of political economy, a study which stood him in good stead when in later years he took a prominent part in the practical discussion of social problems. But though this time was in no wise wasted, he had not yet found his rightful place and his real work in life. He had scarcely relinquished his dreams of political ambition, when he felt himself called to the service of God and his brethren. For this reason he once more went back to Oxford, where, in 1832, he was elected a Fellow of Merton College. After completing the course of reading required for orders, he was ordained to the Anglican ministry later in the same year and preached his first sermon in Cuddesdon Church on Christmas Day. Soon after his ordination he went to act as curate to the Rev. John Sargent, Rector of Lavington-with-Graffham, Sussex, who was stricken with illness, and in taking what seemed to be a temporary work he found what was to be his home for the next seventeen years. On the death of the rector, he was presented to the living in May, 1833, by the patroness, Mrs. Sargent at Lavington, the mother of the Rev. John Sargent. In November of the same year he married Caroline Sargent, the third daughter of his predecessor in the incumbency. His marriage may be said to have had some part, however indirectly, in leading him into the Catholic Church, for it brought him into a family circle that was destined to be strongly affected by the rising Romeward movement. Of the four famous Sargent sisters, Mrs. Henry Wilberforce and Mrs. George Ryder were received into the Church with their husbands and their children; the other two, Caroline Manning, who died in July, 1837, and her eldest sister, the wife of Samuel Wilberforce afterwards Bishop of Winchester, were already dead when the movement had scarce begun; yet one of them eventually gave her husband and the other her daughter to the Church.

In his country parish at Lavington, though Henry Manning had not yet attained to the fullness of the Faith, nor as yet received the sacramental grace and the spiritual powers of the Catholic pastor, he was already, according to the light so far vouchsafed him, serving his Divine master and labouring for the salvation of souls in a true spirit of zeal and generous self-sacrifice, in the spirit that speaks in later days from the pages of his "Eternal Priesthood " and his "Pastoral Office". In 1841, after some years of simple parish work, a wider field was opened to him by his appointment to the office of Archdeacon of Chichester. The office in his case was assuredly no sinecure. The volume of charges delivered on the periodical visitations of the archdeaconry remains to show the intelligent and tireless zeal with which he entered into these new duties. Here also we may find some things that seem to foreshadow his larger work in later years, notably the pages that bear witness to his love for God's poor, his resolute resistance to wrong, and his zeal for reforming abuses. Meanwhile, all this active work was accompanied by a corresponding growth in the knowledge of Catholic truth.

The Oxford Movement was now in full swing, and some of its leaders were already, however unconsciously, well on their way to Rome. Newman had begun to see the light in 1839 (two years before Manning's appointment as archdeacon ), but six more years had to elapse before his final submission to the Holy See in 1845. This fact is worth recalling here, for it reminds us that a conversion is often a matter of some time. Between the beginning of difficulties, misgivings, and fears that may prove illusory, and the period when the misgivings become convictions, and duty becomes clear, a considerable time may often elapse. It is difficult to lay down any general rule; some may have little need to seek for outward help in coming to a decision, but where, as so often happens, the process of conviction is slow, and some wise counsel is needed, it may be a duty to confide to some competent adviser fears and misgivings which it would be a crime to proclaim in public. In such a position the most candid and consistent writer must needs speak in a different strain in his confidential letters setting forth his difficulties, and in letters addressed to others to whom it would be wrong to make them known. And the reader who can appreciate this position will readily understand the seeming inconsistency between the language of Manning's private correspondence unfolding conscientious perplexities and that of his public utterances at this time, wherein all doubt is silenced. He has been accused of remaining an Anglican after losing faith in Anglican teachings; and it has been alleged that he became a Catholic for motives of worldly ambition. A change of religion for such unworthy motives is quite out of keeping with the character of the man as revealed in his letters and journals of that date, and is unintelligible if Manning had been the astute and ambitious man imagined by his accusers. When he first began to break away from the Church of England there was no Catholic hierarchy or cardinal archbishop in England, and the position of a vicar Apostolic could not offer any great temptation to an ambitious Anglican archdeacon. And if we once suppose him to be so unprincipled as to change his belief or profession for the sake of preferment, why should he go so far and get so little? There would certainly be less trouble and greater prospect of success in a change of course within the Church of England . An astute and ambitious Archdeacon of Chichester would have broken with the High Church party and taken a line agreeable to the men in high places. The real cause and motive of his conversion to the Church may be plainly seen in the whole history of the Oxford Movement, as well as in his own published writings and his private letters and journals. In common with the Tractarian leaders he had from the first taken hold of great Catholic principles which he found in the writings of the early Fathers. And in his case the truth that came home to him with special force, and dominated and moulded his whole life and character was the abiding presence of the Holy Ghost in the Church of God. This, it may be said, is at once his leading idea in his Anglican sermons, his main motive at the time of his conversion and in the course he took in the Vatican Council, and it forms the favourite theme in his later spiritual and theological writings. At first, like other Anglican divines, he was able to satisfy himself that the Church of England was a part of the one Holy Catholic Apostolic Church of the Creed, and as such was guided and quickened by the presence of the Holy Spirit . For this reason he looked to the Church to guard and cherish the revealed doctrines committed, as he supposed, to her care.

His faith in Anglicanism had already been somewhat shaken by other doctrinal or historical difficulties. It was finally shattered by the Gorham Judgment of 1850, when the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council directed the Dean of Arches to institute a clergyman who was accused of holding unorthodox views on the subject of Baptismal Regeneration. As Newman had said of the Jerusalem Bishopric, this act of the state Church was for Manning "the beginning of the end". Even then he did not act with any undue haste, and joined in an attempt to free the Church of England from a compromising association with heresy. His zeal and devotion to the Establishment caused him at this time to be looked up to as the leader of the High Church party as distinguished from the Tractarians in the Anglican body. On 23 January, 1847, in reply to Dr. Pusey's lament over Canon MacMullen's conversion he had written to him: "You know how long I have to you expressed my conviction that a false position has been taken up by the Church of England. The direct and certain tendency of what remains of the original movement is to the Roman Church. You know the minds of men about us better than I do, and will therefore know how strong an impression the claims of Rome have upon them. . . . It is also clear that they are revising the Reformation ; that the doctrine, ritual, and practice of the Church of England taken at its best does not suffice them. . . . I say all this not in fault-finding but in sorrow. How to help to heal it I do not presume to say." Within a few days after the Gorham Judgment (March, 1850) he still clung to the Church of England as a living branch of the Church of Christ, and he was the first to sign a protest calling on the Church to free itself from a heresy imposed on it by the civil power. A bill was introduced in the House of Lords to provide that the ultimate decision as to questions of doctrine should be transferred to the Upper House of Convocation, but was lost by 84 votes to 31, and Manning was driven to consider whether the Church of England could claim to be an unerring guide and teacher of the Faith. He took pains to inform his friends that he was acting with calmness and deliberation. In June, 1850, he wrote from Lavington to his sister, Mrs. Austen: "Let me tell you to believe nothing of me but what comes from me. The world has sent me long ago to Pius IX, but I am still here, and if I may lay my bones under the sod in Lavington Churchyard with a soul clear before God, all the world could not move me." With Wilberforce and Mill he circulated a declaration that the oath of supremacy only obliged the conscience in matters of a civil and not of a spiritual kind; it was sent to 17,000 clergymen, but only about 1800 signed it. When these efforts failed, and the truth was borne in upon him with irresistible force, his own course was at length clear before him. At Michaelmas in the same year he took steps to resign his living, and on Passion Sunday, 6 April, 1851, together with his friend J. R. Hope-Scott, Q.C., he was received into the Catholic Church, by Father Brownbill, S.J.

To those who knew the archdeacon's zeal in the pastoral office for the salvation of souls, there was no doubt of his call to the sacred ministry. It seemed only a matter of course that his submission to the Church should be followed, after the necessary interval of preparation, by his ordination to the Catholic priesthood. Few could have expected that this ordination would come as speedily as it did. Cardinal Wiseman , recognizing that the circumstances of the case were exceptional, decided to let no time be lost, and Henry Edward Manning was ordained priest by his predecessor in the See of Westminster on Trinity Sunday, 14 June, 1851, little more than two months after his reception into the Church. There may seem to be a strange irony of fate in this hurried promotion of one who was to lay so much stress on the importance of due preparation for the priesthood. But the want of preparation in this case was apparent rather than real. Whether we regard the theological learning or the spiritual holiness of life required of candidates for the priesthood, Manning had already made no little progress in preparation. In his final years at Lavington he had made good way in the study of Catholic theology and spiritual literature, and, as his journal with its searching self-examination and generous resolutions bears witness, the other side of that preparation was in no wise wanting. At the same time, it was certainly desirable that some more systematic training should be added to this self-education. For this reason his ordination was followed by a course of studies in Rome. These studies, however, were not allowed to prevent that immediate missionary work which had doubtless been one of Cardinal Wiseman's main motives in hastening the ordination of the neophyte. During these years of Roman study, Manning took advantage of the summer vacation to exercise his pastoral office in London, preaching, receiving converts into the Church, and hearing confessions at the Jesuit church in Farm Street. In this church he had said his first Mass on 16 June, 1851, assisted by Père de Ravignan .

By a significant coincidence his ordination took place on 14 June, the Feast of St. Basil, one of the Fathers who was in a special manner his pattern, and who has left us a great work on the Holy Ghost, and, as he noticed at the time with delight, the Introit of his first Mass (on the feast of St. Francis Regis) was the text: "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; wherefore he hath anointed me, to preach the Gospel to the poor he hath sent me" ( Luke 4:18 ; Isaiah 61:1 ), words that bring before us both his active work for the poor and the devotion to the Holy Ghost, which was, so to say, the soul of all his life and labour. The priestly labours which thus began were continued on a large field and with fresh advantages when, in 1857, he founded at St. Mary of the Angels, Bayswater, the Congregation of the Oblates of St. Charles. This new community of secular priests was in some sort the joint work of Cardinal Wiseman and Manning, for both had independently conceived the idea of a community of this kind, and Manning had studied the life and work of St. Charles in his Anglican days at Lavington and had, moreover, visited the Oblates at Milan, in 1856, to satisfy himself that their rule could be adapted to the needs of Westminster. In the same year that he became superior of this congregation, another office was laid upon him. At the instigation of Dr. Whitty , who was about to enter the Society of Jesus, he was appointed, by Pius IX, provost of the Westminster Metropolitan Chapter. During the eight years of his tenure of these two offices, the provost and superior accomplished a great amount of work both for the diocese and for his own community, and the eloquence which had made him one of the foremost Anglican preachers of the time now helped to spread and strengthen the Catholic Faith in England. His pastoral labour was now no longer hampered by inward struggles or by the uncertainties of doctrinal differences that troubled the Anglican archdeacon.

Though the old time of storm and stress was ended, he was now to have trouble of another kind; and through no fault of his own he found himself involved in a domestic controversy which became the cause of considerable misunderstanding. In the circumstances of the time it was almost inevitable that the new community, partly composed of converts and apparently aiming at a revival in English Catholic ecclesiastical life, should be a subject of some difference of opinion. Men of the old school, who looked with suspicion on any novelties, may be pardoned for feeling alarm at the participation of the new community in the work of the diocesan seminary. Likely enough, neither side quite understood the ideas and motives of the other. Be this as it may, the majority of the Metropolitan Chapter adopted views at variance with those of Wiseman and Manning, and in the controversy that ensued the canons were supported by Archbishop Errington, at that time Cardinal Wiseman's coadjutor "with right of succession" to the see. In the event the Oblates had to retire from St. Edmund's College (1861), where their presence had given offence to the chapter. But the most important outcome of the struggle was the removal of Archbishop Errington from his office of coadjutor cum jure successionis. And as this decision of the Holy See followed upon a controversy in which Manning took a conspicuous part, some critics, imperfectly acquainted with the facts, have regarded him as an ambitious aspirant for office removing a rival from his path. But in this they strangely mistake the situation, and forget or overlook the fact that Manning's part in the controversy was strictly defensive. This can hardly be disputed by any careful and candid student of the documents. For even a reader who shared Archbishop Errington's unfavourable view of the Oblate Community and its position and influence in the diocese could hardly blame the superior of the Oblates for writing a vigorous vindication of himself and his community.

Though this struggle was certainly not of his seeking, and though he clearly had no thought of securing the succession for himself; it is none the less true that this controversy with the chapter and the coadjutor did lead in the event to his own elevation. If the rupture had never come to pass there would have been no vacancy on Cardinal Wiseman's death, since the coadjutor would have succeeded in due course. At the same time, the attack and the vindication had the effect of making Manning's merits and labours better known in Rome, and marked him out as the man most in sympathy with Wiseman's policy, and thus suggested him as a suitable successor. Hence, when the vacancy occurred on Wiseman's death in February, 1865, the natural result followed. This was made more certain when the chapter sent up Archbishop Errington's name at the head of the terna , and the other candidates did their best to secure his appointment. As the Holy See could hardly accept such a reversal of the decision made a few years before, it was inevitable that the names should be set aside; and the pope himself decided to appoint Mgr. Manning. While the matter still hung in the balance, Manning endeavoured to secure the appointment of another, and, in a confidential letter to Mgr. George Talbot in Rome, urged the claims of Bishop Ullathorne and Bishop Cornthwaite. From resolutions which he made as to his future conduct towards the coming archbishop it is clear that he did not anticipate his own appointment.

The new archbishop was consecrated at St. Mary Moorfields, on 8 June, 1865, by Bishop Ullathorne of Birmingham. Later in the year he went to Rome to receive the pallium, returning to England by November, when he was solemnly enthroned, and set himself to the great work that lay before him. If the choice made by the Holy See was naturally received with satisfaction by all who really knew him, others who had not that advantage regarded it with some misgiving. Yet some who had hitherto misunderstood him may possibly have gained a new sense of his power, and of his fitness for the post, from the sermon that he preached at the funeral of Cardinal Wiseman. In that graphic sketch of his predecessor's career, wherein he showed how the man had been fashioned and prepared for the work he was destined to do in England, the discerning reader may see how well the preacher had grasped the needs and hopes of the country, and may moreover be led to reflect how he, too, though in other ways than Wiseman's, had been made ready to carry the Catholic standard forward to further victories. While those who rightly understood Manning's merits may well have had high hopes for the future, few if any can have anticipated anything like the actual accomplishment. For one thing, his age and his apparently frail health gave little promise of such a long lease of active and laborious life. He said himself that he thought he had twelve years of work in him; and some may have considered this over sanguine. Yet he was to have a life full of strenuous and varied labour for more than a quarter of a century.

He inaugurated a memorial to his predecessor Cardinal Wiseman and determined that it should take the form of a cathedral for Westminster. In 1868 he was able to secure a site, but in after years a more favourable one was determined on. His efforts to procure education for the poor Catholic children of London were unceasing; and in his Lenten Pastoral of 1890 he was able to say that the names of 23,599 Catholic children were on the books of his parochial schools, and that during the previous quarter of a century 4542 children had been provided for in the homes of the archdiocese. He was one of the 500 bishops assembled in Rome to take part in the eighteenth centenary of Sts. Peter and Paul, and he was, therefore, present when Pius IX announced his intention of convoking a General Council. He returned to Rome in 1869, arriving for the opening of the Vatican Council, 8 December, and was put on the Committee "De Fide". To this Committee, in March, 1870, was referred the question of Papal Infallibility, and on 18 July the Decree was passed.

On his return to England, Manning protested in the press against the charges made by Mr. Gladstone against Catholics who accepted the Vatican Decrees, and his three pastoral letters published under the title "Petri Privilegium" did much to remove prejudice and misconception even among Catholics. In 1878 his "True Story of the Vatican Council " appeared in "The Nineteenth Century" in reply to incorrect statements that had obtained credence. In 1875 he was summoned to Rome to receive the cardinalate and the title of Sts. Andrew and Gregory, the church on the Coelian, once the home of St. Gregory the Great, whence St. Augustine and his companions had been sent to convert England. In 1878 Cardinal Manning took part in the conclave that elected Leo XIII, receiving a vote or two himself in the scrutiny ; and Pope Leo's encyclical "On the condition of labour", to use the words of Bishop Hedley, "owes something to the counsels of Cardinal Manning."

A matter of importance which took up not a little of his time and caused him some anxiety arose at the Low Week meeting of the bishops in 1877, when he proposed that they should prepare a petition to be sent to Rome asking that the pope should determine the relations which ought to exist between the regulars and the episcopate. The main questions at issue affected the right of the bishops to divide missions already in the hands of regulars and the control bishops had over missions served by regulars in matters concerning visitation and the auditing of funds collected intuitu missionis. After some necessary delay the famous Constitution "Romanos Pontifices" was issued in 1881, and in course of time its provisions have been extended to nearly all English-speaking countries. It deals mainly with matters of jurisdiction and discipline, and treats of many subjects involving nice and complicated points of prudence and equity. To his zeal in the cause of elementary religious education, Cardinal Manning's later years saw added his efforts on behalf of the poor and outcast. He was invited to join the commission for the better housing of the working classes, he founded his League of the Cross for the promotion of temperance, and the "Cardinal's Peace" recalls the success of his efforts at mediation between the strikers and their employers at the time of the great London Dock Strike in 1889. Such are some of the salient works of Manning's life. And it may be remarked that while any one of these various lines of activity might have been enough, or more than enough for any ordinary man, all of them together by no means make up the whole life work of Cardinal Manning. Besides these special theological, literary, or social labours, there remain his ordinary pastoral activities. If he had done none of those things that seem at first sight most striking and characteristic, his life would sill have been sufficiently full with the administration of the affairs of his diocese, with his care in training the clergy, his daily "solicitude for all the Churches", with holding ordinations and presiding at diocesan synods, with the building and blessing of new churches. And nothing in the way of special work could make him neglect those primary episcopal duties or perform them in a perfunctory fashion. These, it may be safely said, came first and foremost. For him the Catholic bishop was the father of the flock, solicitous in every way for the welfare of his children. It was, therefore, as a bishop sent by the Holy Ghost, the "Pater pauperum", to rule the Church of God , that he spent himself in works of charity or social reform, or defended the truth against attack from all forms of error, or from the corruptions of an evil life, and spoke in the same spirit, whether addressing dockers in the East End, or agnostics in the Metaphysical Society or bishops and theologians in the Vatican Council.

Theological controversy may be said to hold the first place in the earlier part of his episcopate, culminating in the Vatican Council, and continuing with somewhat abated vigour for a few years longer. Social work gradually becomes more conspicuous in the years after 1876, and reaches its climax in the Dock Strike in 1889. And most of his active work in the League of the Cross and among working men comes after his elevation to the cardinalate in 1875. For the last two years of his life, his failing health made him for the most part a prisoner. At length the end came, after a few days of illness, and he went to his rest on 14 January, 1892. A striking proof of the hold he had on the hearts of the poor and the working people of London was given when thousands thronged to get a last glimpse of him as he lay in state in his house at Westminster, and to follow his funeral to Kensal Green Cemetery. After some years in that field of the dead which he had described so well in his words on Wiseman, he was once more brought back to Westminster and given his last earthly resting place in the crypt of the cathedral.

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Historian, b. at Volkermarkt, Carinthia, Austria, 25 April, 1683; d. at Vienna, 5 September, ...

Hanthaler, Chrysostomus

(JOHANNES ADAM.) A Cistercian, historical investigator and writer; b. at Marenbach, Austria, ...

Hanxleden, Johann Ernest

Jesuit missionary in the East Indies: b. at Ostercappeln, near Osnabrück, in Hanover, ...

Happiness

( French bonheur ; German Glück ; Latin felicitas ; Greek eutychia, eudaimonia ). ...

Haraldson, Saint Olaf

Martyr and King of Norway (1015-30), b. 995; d. 29 July, 1030. He was a son of King Harald ...

Harbor Grace

(Portus Gratiæ) Diocese in Newfoundland, erected in 1856. It comprises all the northern ...

Hardee, William J.

Soldier, convert, b. at Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. 1817, d. at Wytheville, Virginia, 6 Nov., ...

Hardey, Mary Aloysia

Of the Society of the Sacred Heart, who established all the convents of her order, up to the ...

Harding, St. Stephen

Confessor, the third Abbot of Cîteaux, was born at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, England, ...

Harding, Thomas

Controversialist; b. at Combe Martin, Devon, 1516 d. at Louvain, Sept., 1572. The registers of ...

Hardman, Mary Juliana

Known in religion as Sister Mary; b. 26 April, 1813; d. 24 March, 1884; was the daughter of John ...

Hardouin, Jean

Jesuit, and historian; b. at Quimper, Brittany, 23 Dec., 1646, son of a bookseller of that town; ...

Hardyng, John

An English chronicler; b. 1378; d. about 1460. He was of northern parentage and entered the ...

Hare Indians

A Déné tribe which shares with the Loucheux the distinction of being the ...

Harland, Henry

Novelist, b. of New England parentage, at St. Petersburg, 1 Mar., 1861; d. at San Remo, 20 Dec., ...

Harlay, Family of

An important family of parliamentarians and bishops, who deserve a place in religious ...

Harlez de Deulin, Charles-Joseph de

A Belgian Orientalist, domestic prelate, canon of the cathedral of Liège, member of the ...

Harmony

(Greek, harmonia ; Latin, harmonia ) A concord of sounds, several tones of different ...

Harney

(1) William Selby Harney Soldier, convert ; b. near Haysboro, Tennessee, U.S.A. 27 August, ...

Harold Bluetooth

(B LAATAND ) Born 911; died 1 November, 985 or 986. He was the son of King Gorm the Old of ...

Harold, Francis

Irish Franciscan and historical writer, d. at Rome, 18 March, 1685. He was for some time ...

Harpasa

A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. Nothing is known of the history of this ...

Harper, Thomas Morton

Priest, philosopher, theologian and preacher. Born in London 26 Sept., 1821, of Anglican ...

Harrington, Ven. William

English martyr ; b. 1566; d. 18 February, 1594. His father had entertained Campion at the ...

Harris, Joel Chandler

Folklorist, novelist, poet, journalist; born at Eatonton, Georgia, U.S.A. 1848; died at Atlanta, ...

Harrisburg

(Harrisburgensis.) Established 1868, comprises the Counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, Lancaster, ...

Harrison, James

Priest and martyr ; b. in the Diocese of Lichfield, England, date unknown; d. at York, 22 ...

Harrison, William

Third and last archpriest of England, b. in Derbyshire in 1553; d. 11 May, 1621. He was ...

Harrowing of Hell

This is the Old English and Middle English term for the triumphant descent of Christ into hell ...

Hart, William

Born at Wells, 1558; suffered at York, 15 March, 1583. Elected Trappes Scholar at Lincoln ...

Hartford

Diocese of Hartford, established by Gregory XVI, 18 Sept., 1843. When erected it embraced the ...

Hartley, Ven. William

Martyr ; b. at Wyn, in Derbyshire, England, of a yeoman family about 1557; d. 5 October, 1588. ...

Hartmann von Aue

A Middle High German epic poet and minnesinger; died between 1210 and 1220. Little is known ...

Hartmann, Georg

Mechanician and physicist ; b. at Eckoltsheim, Bavaria, 9 Feb. 1489; d. at Nuremberg, 9 ...

Hasak, Vincenz

Historian, b. at Neustadt, near Friedland, Bohemia, 18 July, 1812; d. 1 September, 1889, as ...

Haschka, Lorenz Leopold

A poet-author of the Austrian national anthem; b. at Vienna, 1 Sept. 1749, d. there 3 Aug., ...

Haspinger, Johann Simon

A Tyrolese priest and patriot ; b. at Gries, Tyrol, 28 October, 1776; d. in the imperial palace ...

Hassard, John Rose Greene

An editor, historian; b. in New York, U.S.A. 4 September, 1836; d. in that city, 18 April, 1888. ...

Hasslacher, Peter

Preacher; b. at Coblenz, 14 August, 1810; d. at Paris, 5 July, 1876. He was one of that band of ...

Hatred

Hatred in general is a vehement aversion entertained by one person for another, or for ...

Hatto

Archbishop of Mainz ; b. of a noble Swabian family, c. 850; d. 15 May, 913. He was educated at ...

Hatton, Edward Anthony

Dominican, apologist ; b. in 1701; d. at Stourton Lodge, near Leeds, Yorkshire, 23 October, ...

Hauara

A titular see of Palestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. Peutinger's map locates a place of ...

Haudriettes

A religious congregation founded in Paris early in the fourteenth century by Jeanne, wife of ...

Haughery, Margaret

Margaret Haughery, "the mother of the orphans ", as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, ...

Hauréau, Jean-Barthélemy

Historian and publicist; b. at Paris, 1812; d. there, 1896. He was educated at the Louis le Grand ...

Hautecombe

(Altacomba, Altæcombæum) A Cistercian monastery near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, ...

Hautefeuille, Jean de

French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...

Hautefeuille, Jean de

French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...

Hauteserre

(ALTESERRA). Antoine Dadin d'Hauteserre Born 1602, died 1682; a distinguished French historian ...

Hauzeur, Mathias

A Franciscan theologian, b. at Verviers, 1589; d. at Liège 12 November, 1676, for many ...

Havana

Diocese of Havana (San Cristóbal de la Habana) — Avanensis The city of Havana is ...

Havestadt, Bernhard

German Jesuit ; b. at Cologne, 27 February, 1714; died at Münster after 1778. He entered ...

Hawarden, Edward

(HARDEN). Theologian and controversialist, b. in Lancashire, England, 9 April, 1662; d. in ...

Hawes, Stephen

Poet; b. in Suffolk about 1474; d. about 1523. Very little is known of his life. He was educated ...

Hawker, Robert Stephen

Poet and antiquary; b. at Plymouth 3 December, 1803, d. there 15 August, 1875, son of Jacob ...

Hawkins, Sir Henry

Raised to the peerage as Lord Brampton, eminent English lawyer and Judge, b. at Hitchin, ...

Hay, Edmund and John

(1) Edmund Hay Jesuit, and envoy to Mary Queen of Scots, b. 1540?; d. at Rome, 4 Nov., 1591. he ...

Hay, George

Bishop and writer, b. at Edinburgh, 24 Aug., 1729; d. at Aquhorties, 18 Oct., 1811. His parents ...

Haydn, Franz Joseph

Born of staunch Catholic parents at Rohrau, Austria, 1 April, 1732; died at Gumpendorf, Vienna, ...

Haydn, Johann Michael

A younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn ; born at Rohrau, Austria, 14 September, 1737; died at ...

Haydock, George Leo

Priest and Biblical scholar; b. 11 April, 1774, at Cottam, near Wood Plumpton, Lancashire; d. 29 ...

Haydock, Venerable George

English martyr ; born 1556; executed at Tyburn, 12 February, 1583-84. He was the youngest son of ...

Haymo

( Or Haimo). A Benedictine bishop of the ninth century; d. 26 March, 853. The exact date ...

Haymo of Faversham

English Franciscan and schoolman, b. at Faversham, Kent; d. at Anagni, Itlay, in 1243, according ...

Haynald, Lajos

Cardinal, Archbishop of Kalocsa-Bács in Hungary ; b. at Szécsény, 3 ...

Hazart, Cornelius

Controversialist, orator, and writer, b. 28 October, 1617, at Oudenarde in the Netherlands ; ...

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He 165

Healy, George Peter Alexander

An American portrait and historical painter, b. at Boston, 15 July, 1808; d. at Chicago, 14 June ...

Hearse, Tenebrae

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the

The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...

Heart of Mary, Congregations of

I. Sisters of the Holy Heart of Mary Founded in 1842 at Nancy, by Mgr Menjaud, Bishop of ...

Heart of Mary, Devotion to the

As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...

Heath, Ven. Henry

English Franciscan and martyr, son of John Heath; christened at St. John's, Peterborough, 16 ...

Heaven

This subject will be treated under seven headings: I. Name and Place of Heaven; II. Existence of ...

Hebrew Bible

As compared with the Latin Vulgate , the Hebrew Bible includes the entire Old Testament with ...

Hebrew Language and Literature

Hebrew was the language spoken by the ancient Israelites, and in which were composed nearly all ...

Hebrews, Epistle to the

This will be considered under eight headings: (I) Argument; (II) Doctrinal Contents; (III) ...

Hebrides, New

Vicariate Apostolic in Oceania; comprises the New Hebrides, with Banks and Torres, islands ...

Hebron

( hbrwn, chebrón ) An ancient royal city of Chanaan, famous in biblical history, ...

Hecker, Isaac Thomas

Missionary, author, founder of the Paulists ; b. in New York, 18 December, 1819; d. there, 22 ...

Hedonism

( hedoné, pleasure). The name given to the group of ethical systems that hold, with ...

Hedwig, Saint

Duchess of Silesia, b. about 1174, at the castle of Andechs ; d. at Trebnitz, 12 or 15 ...

Heeney, Cornelius

Merchant and philanthropist; b. in King's County, Ireland, 1754; d. at Brooklyn, U.S.A. 3 May, ...

Heereman von Zuydwyk, Freiherr von

(Clemens Aug. Ant.). Catholic statesman and writer on art, b. 26 Aug., 1832, at Surenburg near ...

Heeswijk

A village in the diocese of Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), Holland, in which the dispersed ...

Hefele, Karl Joseph von

Bishop of Rottenburg, b. at Unterkochen, Würtemberg, 15 March, 1809; d. at Rottenburg, 5 ...

Hegelianism

(1) Life and Writings of Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born at Stüttgart in 1770; ...

Hegesippus, Saint

(Roman Martyrology, 7 April). A writer of the second century, known to us almost exclusively ...

Hegesippus, The Pseudo-

A fourth-century translator of the "Jewish War" of Flavius Josephus. The name is based on an ...

Hegius, Alexander

Humanist ; b. probably in 1433, at Heeck (Westphalia); d. 7 December, 1498, at Deventer ...

Heidelberg, University of

Heidelberg, a city of 41,000 inhabitants, is situated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, on the left ...

Heiligenkreuz

(SANCTA CRUX). An existing Cistercian monastery in the Wienerwald, eight miles north-west of ...

Heilsbronn

(FONS SALUTIS). Formerly a Cistercian monastery in the Diocese of Eichstätt in Middle ...

Heilsbronn, Monk of

This name indicates the unknown author of some small mystical treatises, written about the ...

Heim, François Joseph

French historical painter, b. near Belfort, 1787, d. in Paris, 1865. This clever painter ...

Heinrich der Glïchezäre

( Glïchezäre , i.e. the hypocrite, in the sense of one who adopts a strange name or ...

Heinrich von Ahaus

(Hendrik van Ahuis) Founder of the Brethren of the Common Life in Germany, b. in 1371, the ...

Heinrich von Laufenberg

A German poet of the fifteenth century, d. at Strasburg in 1460; he was a priest in Freiburg ...

Heinrich von Meissen

Usually called "Frauenlob" (Woman's praise), a Middle High German lyric poet; b. at Meissen ...

Heinrich von Melk

German satirist of the twelfth century; of knightly birth and probably a lay brother in the ...

Heinrich von Veldeke

A medieval German poet of knightly rank; b. near Maastricht in the Netherlands about the ...

Heinz, Joseph

Swiss painter ; b. at Basle, 11 June, 1564; d. near Prague, Bohemia, October, 1609. He appears ...

Heis, Eduard

German astronomer, b. at Cologne, 18 February, 1806; d. at Münster, Westphalia, 30 June, ...

Heisterbach

(Vallis S. Petri). A former Cistercian monastery in the Siebengebirge near the little town ...

Helen of Sköfde, Saint

Martyr in the first half of the twelfth century. Her feast is celebrated 31 July. Her life ...

Helena (Montana)

(Helenensis) Erected from the Vicariate of Montana, 7 March, 1884. It comprises the western ...

Helena, Saint

The mother of Constantine the Great , born about the middle of the third century, possibly in ...

Helenopolis

A titular see of Bithynia Prima, suffragan of Prusa. On the southern side of the Sinus Astacenus ...

Heli

Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

Heliae, Paul

(POVL HELGESEN) A Carmelite, opponent of the Reformation in Denmark, born at Warberg (in the ...

Heliand, The

( German Heiland , Saviour) The oldest complete work of German literature . Matthias Flacius ...

Heliogabalus

(E LAGABAL ) The name adopted by Varius Avitus Bassianus, Roman emperor (218-222), born of ...

Hell

This subject is treated under eight headings: (I) Name and Place of Hell; (II) Existence of ...

Hell, Maximilian

(Höll). Astronomer, b. at Schemnitz in Hungary, 15 May, 1720; d. at Vienna, 14 April, ...

Hello, Ernest

French philosopher and essayist, b. at Lorient, Brittany, 4 Nov., 1828; d. at Kéroman, ...

Helmold

A historian, born in the first half of the twelfth century; died about 1177. He was a native of, ...

Helmont, Jan Baptista van

Born at Brussels, 1577; died near Vilvorde, 30 December, 1644. This scientist, distinguished in ...

Helpers of the Holy Souls, Society of the

( Auxiliatrices des Ames du Purgatoire ) A religious order of women founded in Paris, ...

Helpidius, Flavius Rusticius

The name of several Latin writers. It appears in the manuscript of Pomponius Mela and Julius ...

Hemmerlin, Felix

(MALLEOLUS) properly HEMERLI A provost at Solothurn, in Switzerland, born at Zurich, in 1388 ...

Henderson, Issac Austin

Born at Brooklyn, 1850; died in Rome, March, 1909. His family was of Scotch and Irish ...

Hendrick, Thomas Augustine

First American and the twenty-second Bishop of Cebú, Philippine Islands, b. at Penn Yan, ...

Hengler, Lawrence

Catholic priest and the inventor of the horizontal pendulum, b. at Reichenhofen, ...

Hennepin, Louis

One of the most famous explorers in the wilds of North America during the seventeenth century, b. ...

Henoch

(Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

Henoch, Book of

The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

Henoticon

The story of the Henoticon forms a chapter in that of the Monophysite heresy in the fifth and ...

Henríquez, Crisóstomo

A Cistercian religious of the Spanish Congregation; b. at Madrid, 1594; d. 23 December, 1632, ...

Henríquez, Enrique

Noted Jesuit theologian, b. at Oporto, 1536; d. at Tivoli, 28 January, 1608. At the age of ...

Henri de Saint-Ignace

A Carmelite theologian, b. in 1630, at Ath in Hainaut, Belgium ; d. in 1719 or 1720, near ...

Henrion, Mathieu-Richard-Auguste

Baron, French magistrate, historian, and journalist; b. at Metz, 19 June, 1805; d. at Aix, ...

Henry Abbot

Layman, martyred at York, 4 July, 1597, pronounced Venerable in 1886. His acts are thus related ...

Henry II

King of England, born 1133; died 6 July, 1189; was in his earlier life commonly known as Henry ...

Henry II, Saint

German King and Holy Roman Emperor, son of Duke Henry II (the Quarrelsome) and of the Burgundian ...

Henry III

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Conrad II; b. 1017; d. at Bodfeld, in the Harz Mountains, 5 ...

Henry IV

King of France and Navarre, son of Jeanne d'Albret and Antoine de Bourbon, b. 14 December, 1553, ...

Henry IV

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry III and Agnes of Poitou, b. at Goslar, 11 November, ...

Henry of Friemar

(DE VRIMARIA) German theologian ; b. at Friemar, a small town near Gotha in Thuringia, about ...

Henry of Ghent

(HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, known as the DOCTOR SOLEMNIS) A notable scholastic philosopher and ...

Henry of Herford

(Or HERWORDEN; HERVORDIA) Friar and chronicler; date of birth unknown; died at Minden, 9 Oct., ...

Henry of Huntingdon

Historian; b. probably near Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, between 1080 and 1085; d. 1155. Little is ...

Henry of Kalkar

(Egher). Carthusian writer, b. at Kalkar in the Duchy of Cleves in 1328; d. at Cologne, 20 ...

Henry of Langenstein

(Henry of Hesse the Elder.) Theologian and mathematician; b. about 1325 at the villa of ...

Henry of Nördlingen

A Bavarian secular priest, of the fourteenth century, date of death unknown; the spiritual ...

Henry of Rebdorf

Alleged author of an imperial and papal chronicle of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is ...

Henry of Segusio, Blessed

Usually called Hostiensis , an Italian canonist of the thirteenth century, born at Susa (in ...

Henry Suso, Blessed

(Also called Amandus , a name adopted in his writings). German mystic, born at Constance on ...

Henry the Navigator, Prince

Born 4 March, 1394; died 13 November, 1460; he was the fourth son of John I, King of Portugal, by ...

Henry V

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV ; b. in 1081; d. at Utrecht, 23 May, 1125. He ...

Henry VI

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy ; b. in ...

Henry VIII

King of England, born 28 June, 1491; died 28 January, 1547. He was the second son and third ...

Henryson, Robert

Scottish poet, born probably 1420-1430; died about 1500. His birthplace, parentage, and place of ...

Henschen, Godfrey

(Or Henskens .) Jesuit, hagiographer ; b. at Venray (Limburg), 21 June, 1601; d. at ...

Hensel, Luise

Poetess and convert ; born at Linum, 30 March, 1798; died at Paderborn, 18 December, 1876. Her ...

Henten, John

Biblical exegete, born 1499 at Nalinnes Belgium ; died 10 Oct., 1566, at Louvain. When quite ...

Heortology

(From the Greek heorte , festival, and logos , knowledge, discourse) Heortology ...

Hephæstus

A titular see of Augustamnica Prima, mentioned by Hierocles (Synecd., 727, 9), by George of ...

Heptarchy

(A NGLO -S AXON H EPTARCHY ) By the term heptarchy is understood that complexus of ...

Heraclas

Bishop of Alexandria from 231 or 232; to 247 or 248. Of his earlier life Origen tells us, ...

Heraclea

A titular see of Thracia Prima. Heraclea is the name given about four centuries before the ...

Heraldry, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical heraldry naturally divides itself into various branches, principally: the arms of ...

Herbart and Herbartianism

The widespread and increasing influence of Herbart and his disciples in the work of education ...

Herbert of Bosham

A biographer of St. Thomas Becket , dates of birth and death unknown. He was probably born in ...

Herbert of Derwentwater, Saint

(Hereberht). Date of birth unknown; d. 20 March, 687; an anchorite of the seventh century, ...

Herbert of Lea, Lady Elizabeth

Authoress, and philanthropist, b. in 1822; d. in London 30 Oct., 1911. Lady Herbert was the ...

Herbst, Johann Georg

Born at Rottweil, in Würtemberg, 13 January, 1787; died 31 July, 1836. His college course, ...

Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo, Alejandro

Born at Lisbon, 28 March, 1810; died near Santarem, 13 Sept., 1877. Because of his liberal ...

Herder

The name of a German firm of publishers and booksellers. Bartholomäus Herder Founder of the ...

Herdtrich, Christian Wolfgang

(According to Franco, Christianus Henriques ; Chinese, Ngen ). An Austrian Jesuit ...

Heredity

The offspring tends to resemble, sometimes with extraordinary closeness, the parents ; this is ...

Hereford, Ancient Diocese of

(HEREFORDENSIS) Located in England. Though the name of Putta, the exiled Bishop of ...

Hereswitha, Saint

(HAERESVID, HERESWYDE). Daughter of Hereric and Beorhtswith and sister of St. Hilda of Whitby. ...

Heresy

I. Connotation and DefinitionII. Distinctions III. Degrees of heresy IV. Gravity of the sin of ...

Hergenröther, Joseph

Church historian and canonist, first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives, b. at ...

Heribert

(ARIBERT) Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045) An ambitious and warlike prince of the ...

Heribert, Saint

Archbishop of Cologne ; born at Worms, c. 970; died at Cologne, 16 March, 1021. His father was ...

Heriger of Lobbes

A medieval theologian and historian; born about 925; died 31 October, 1007. After studying at ...

Herincx, William

A theologian, born at Helmond, North Brabant, 1621; died 17 Aug., 1678. After receiving his ...

Hermann Contractus

(Herimanus Augiensis, Hermann von Reichenau ). Chronicler, mathematician, and poet; b. 18 ...

Hermann I

Landgrave of Thuringia (1190-1217), famous as a patron of medieval German poets. He was the ...

Hermann Joseph, Saint

Premonstratensian monk and mystic; b. at Cologne about 1150; d. at Hoven, 7 April, 1241. ...

Hermann of Altach

(Niederaltaich). A medieval historian; b. 1200 or 1201; d. 31 July, 1275. He received his ...

Hermann of Fritzlar

With this name are connected two works on mysticism written in German. The first, "Das ...

Hermann of Minden

Provincial of the German province of Dominicans ; b. at or near Minden on an unknown date ; d. ...

Hermann of Salza

Fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , descendant of the noble Thuringian house of Salza; ...

Hermanos Penitentes, Los

(The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

Hermas

(First or second century), author of the book called "The Shepherd" ( Poimen , Pastor), a work ...

Hermas, Saint

Martyr The Roman Martyrology sets down for 18 August (XV Kal. Septembris) the feast of the ...

Hermeneutics

Derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god Hermes, the reputed messenger and ...

Hermengild, Saint

Date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 585. Leovigild, the Arian King of the Visigoths (569-86), ...

Hermes, George

Philosopher and theologian, b. at Dreierwalde near Theine (Westphalia), 22 April, 1775; d. at ...

Hermes, Saint

Martyr, Bishop of Salano (Spalato) in Dalmatia. Very little is known about him; in Romans ...

Hermite, Charles

Born at Dieuze, Lorraine, 24 December, 1822; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1901; one of the greatest ...

Hermits

( Eremites , "inhabitants of a desert ", from the Greek eremos ), also called anchorites, ...

Hermits of St. Augustine

(Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons ). A ...

Hermon

[From the Hebrew meaning "sacred (mountain)"; Septuagint, Aermon ] A group of mountains ...

Hermopolis Magna

A titular see of Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoe, in Egypt. The native name was Khmounoun; ...

Hermopolis Parva

A titular see of Ægyptus Prima, suffragan of Alexandria. Its ancient name, Dimanhoru or ...

Herod

(Greek Herodes , from Heros .) Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. ...

Herodias

Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus -- son of Herod the Great and Mariamne -- was a descendant of ...

Heroic Act of Charity

A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences dated 18 December, 1885, and confirmed the ...

Heroic Virtue

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

Herp, Henry

(Or HARP, Latin CITHARŒDUS, or ERP as in the old manuscripts ) A fifteenth century ...

Herrad of Landsberg

(or LANDSPERG) A twelfth-century abbess, author of the "Hortus Deliciarum"; born about 1130, ...

Herregouts

There were three artists of the name of Herregouts, father, son, and grandson, of whom the chief ...

Herrera Barnuevo, Sebastiano de

A painter, architect, sculptor and etcher; born in Madrid, 1611 or 1619; died there, 1671; son ...

Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de

A Spanish historian; born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia, in 1559; died at Madrid, 27 ...

Herrera, Fernando de

A Spanish lyric poet; born 1537; died 1597. The head of a school of lyric poets who gathered ...

Herrera, Francisco

(1) Francisco Herrera (el Viejo, the Elder) A Spanish painter, etcher, medallist, and architect; ...

Herrgott, Marquard

A Benedictine historian and diplomat; born at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 9 October, 1694; died ...

Hersfeld

An ancient imperial abbey of the Benedictine Order, situated at the confluence of the Geisa and ...

Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo

Spanish Jesuit and famous philologist; b. at Horcajo, 1 May, 1735; d. at Rome, 24 August, 1809. ...

Hervetus, Gentian

French theologian and controversialist; b. at Olivet, near Orléans, in 1499; d. at ...

Hesebon

(A.V. HESHBON; Greek Esebon, Esbous ; Latin Esbus). A titular see of the province of ...

Hesse

(H ESSEN ). The name of a German tribe, and also a district in Germany extending along the ...

Hessels, Jean

A distinguished theologian of Louvain ; born 1522; died 1566. He had been teaching for eight ...

Hesychasm

(Greek hesychos , quiet). The story of the system of mysticism defended by the monks of ...

Hesychius of Alexandria

Grammarian and lexicographer; of uncertain date, but assigned by most authorities to the later ...

Hesychius of Jerusalem

Presbyter and exegete, probably of the fifth century. Nothing certain is known as to the dates ...

Hesychius of Sinai

A priest and monk of the Order of St. Basil in the Thorn-bush (Batos) monastery on Mt. ...

Hethites

(A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

Hettinger, Franz

A Catholic theologian ; born 13 January, 1819, at Aschaffenburg; died 26 January, 1890, at ...

Heude, Pierre

Missionary to China and zoologist; b. at Fougères in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine, ...

Hewett, John

(Alias WELDON). English martyr ; son of William Hewett of York; date of birth unknown; ...

Hewit, Augustine Francis

Priest and second Superior General of the Institute of St. Paul the Apostle ; b. at Fairfield, ...

Hexaemeron

Hexaemeron signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of ...

Hexapla

The name given to Origen's edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek, the most colossal ...

Hexateuch

A name commonly used by the critics to designate the first six books of the Old Testament, i.e. ...

Hexham and Newcastle

Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle (Hagulstadensis et Novocastrensis). Hexham, in ...

Heynlin of Stein, Johann

(A LAPIDE) A theologian, born about 1425; died at Basle, 12 March, 1496. He was apparently of ...

Heywood, Jasper and John

(1) Jasper Heywood A poet and translator; born 1535 in London ; died 1598 at Naples. As a boy ...

Hezekiah

Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

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Hibernians, Ancient Order of

This organization grew up gradually among the Catholics of Ireland owing to the dreadful ...

Hickey, Antony

A theologian, born in the Barony of Islands, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1586; died in Rome, 26 ...

Hidalgo, Miguel

Born on the ranch of San Vicente in the district of Guanajuato, 8 May, 1753; executed at ...

Hierapolis

Titular Archdiocese, metropolis of the Province of Euphrates, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. ...

Hierapolis

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. It is usually called by its ...

Hierarchy

(Greek Hierarchia ; from hieros , sacred; archein , rule, command). This word has been ...

Hierarchy of the Early Church

The word hierarchy is used here to denote the three grades of bishop, priest, and deacon ( ...

Hierocæsarea

A titular see of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. This town is mentioned by Ptolemy (VI, ii, 16). ...

Hieronymites

In the fourth century, certain Roman ladies, following St. Paula, embraced the religious life ...

Hierotheus

All attempts to establish as historical a personality corresponding to the Hierotheus who ...

Higden, Ranulf

(HYDON, HYGDEN, HIKEDEN.) Benedictine chronicler; died 1364. He was a west-country man, and ...

High Altar

(ALTARE SUMMUM or MAJUS.) The high altar is so called from the fact that it is the chief altar ...

High Priest, The

The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

Higher Criticism

Overview Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary ...

Hilarion, Saint

Founder of anchoritic life in Palestine; born at Tabatha, south of Gaza, Palestine, about 291; ...

Hilarius of Sexten

(In the world, CHRISTIAN GATTERER.) Moral theologian ; born 1839, in the valley of Sexten in ...

Hilarius, Pope Saint

[ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

Hilarus, Pope Saint

[ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

Hilary of Arles, Saint

Archbishop, b. about 401; d. 5 May, 449. The exact place of his birth is not known. All that may ...

Hilary of Poitiers, Saint

Bishop, born in that city at the beginning of the fourth century; died there 1 November, according ...

Hilda, Saint

Abbess, born 614; died 680. Practically speaking, all our knowledge of St. Hilda is derived from ...

Hildebert of Lavardin

Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours, and celebrated medieval poet; b. about 1056, at the ...

Hildegard, Saint

Born at Böckelheim on the Nahe, 1098; died on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, 1179; feast 17 ...

Hildesheim

Diocese of Hildesheim (Hildesheimensis). An exempt see, comprising the Prussian province of ...

Hilduin, Abbot of St-Denis

He died 22 November, 840. He was a scion of a prominent Frankish family, hut the time and place ...

Hill, Ven. Richard

English Martyr, executed at Durham, 27 May, 1590. Very little is known of him and his ...

Hillel

A famous Jewish rabbi who lived about 70 B.C.-A.D. 10. Our only source of information concerning ...

Hilton, Walter

Augustinian mystic, d. 24 March, 1396. Little is known of his life, save that he was the head of a ...

Himeria

A titular see in the province of Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. The "Notitia" of Anastasius, ...

Himerius

(called also EUMERIUS and COMERIUS) An Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, 385. He is the ...

Hincmar

An archbishop of Reims ; born in 806; died at Epernay on 21 December, 882. Descended from a ...

Hincmar

Bishop of Laon; died 879. In the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar, a nephew on the mother's ...

Hinderer, Roman

(Chinese TE). A German missionary in China, born at Reiningen, near Mülhausen, date ...

Hinduism

Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices ...

Hingston, Sir William Hales

Canadian physician and surgeon, b. at Hinchinbrook near Huntingdon, Quebec, June 29, 1829; d. at ...

Hippo Diarrhytus

(Or HIPPO ZARRHYTUS.) A titular see of Northern Africa, now called Bizerta, originally a ...

Hippo Regius

A titular see of Numidia, now a part of the residential see of Constantine. Hippo was a Tyrian ...

Hippolytus of Rome, Saint

Martyr, presbyter and antipope ; date of birth unknown; d. about 236. Until the publication ...

Hippolytus, Saints

Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

Hippos

Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

Hirena

A titular see of southern Tunis. Nothing is known of the city, the name of which may have been ...

Hirschau, Abbey of

A celebrated Benedictine monastery in Würtemberg, Diocese of Spires, about twenty-two ...

Hirscher, Johann Baptist von

Born 20 January, 1788, at Alt-Ergarten, Ravensburg; died 4 September, 1865. He studied at ...

Historical Criticism

Historical criticism is the art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of ...

History, Ecclesiastical

I. NATURE AND OFFICE Ecclesiastical history is the scientific investigation and the methodical ...

Hittites

(A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

Hittorp, Melchior

A theologian and liturgical writer, born about 1525, at Cologne ; died there in 1584. On the ...

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Hladnik, Franz von Paula

Botanist and schoolmaster, b. 29 March, 1773, at Idria, Carniola, Austria ; d. 25 November, ...

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Hobart

(HOBARTENSIS) Hobart comprises Tasmania, Bruni Island, and the Cape Barren, Flinders, King, ...

Hodgson, Sydney

A lawman and martyr ; date and place of birth unknown; d. at Tyburn, 10 Dec., 1591. He was a ...

Hofer, Andreas

A patriot and soldier, born at St. Leonhard in Passeyrthale, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1767; executed at ...

Hogan, John Baptist

Better known, on account of his long sojourn in France, as Abbé Hogan, born near Ennis in ...

Hohenbaum van der Meer, Moritz

A Benedictine historian; born at Spörl near Belgrade, 25 June, 1718; died at the monastery ...

Hohenburg

(ODILIENBERG; ALTITONA) A suppressed nunnery, situated on the Odilienberg, the most famous of ...

Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Alexander Leopold

A titular Bishop of Sardica, famous for his many supposedly miraculous cures, born 17 August, ...

Holbein, Hans

(The Elder Holbein) A German painter ; b. at Augsburg about 1460; d. at Isenheim, Alsace, in ...

Holden, Henry

An English priest ; born 1596; died March, 1662. Henry Holden was the second son of Richard ...

Holiness

(A.S. hal , perfect, or whole). Sanctitas in the Vulgate of the New Testament is the ...

Holland, Ven. Thomas

An English martyr, b. 1600 at Sutton, Lancashire; martyred at Tyburn, 12 December, 1642. He ...

Hollanders in the United States

The Hollanders played by no means an insignificant part in the early history of the United ...

Holmes, John

Catholic educator and priest ; born at Windsor, Vermont, in 1799; died at Lorette, near ...

Holocaust

As suggested by its Greek origin ( holos "whole", and kaustos "burnt") the word designates an ...

Holstenius, Lucas

(HOLSTE). German philologist, b. at Hamburg, 1596; d. at Rome, 2 February, 1661. He studied ...

Holtei, Karl von

German novelist, poet, and dramatist; b. at Breslau, 24 January, 1798; d. in that city, 12 ...

Holy Agony, Archconfraternity of

An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony ...

Holy Alliance

The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I ...

Holy Child Jesus, Society of the

The Society was founded in England in 1840 by Mrs. Cornelia Connelly, née Peacock, ...

Holy Childhood, Association of the

A children's association for the benefit of foreign missions. Twenty years after the foundation of ...

Holy Coat

(OF TRIER AND ARGENTEUIL). The possession of the seamless garment of Christ (Gr. chiton ...

Holy Communion

By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Ascetic writers ...

Holy Cross Abbey

The picturesque ruins of this monastery are situated on the right bank of the River Suir, about ...

Holy Cross, Congregation of

A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state by the simple vows of ...

Holy Cross, Sisters Marianites of

The congregation of the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross was founded in 1841, in the parish of ...

Holy Cross, Sisters of the

(Mother House, St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame, Indiana) As an offset to ...

Holy Faith, Sisters of the

Founded at Dublin, in 1857, by Margaret Aylward, under the direction of Rev. John Gowan, C.M., ...

Holy Family, Archconfraternity of the

This archconfraternity owes its origin to Henri Belletable, an officer in the Engineers' Corps, ...

Holy Family, Congregations of the

I. ASSOCIATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY Founded in 1820 by the Abbé Pierre Bienvenue Noailles (d. ...

Holy Ghost

I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

Holy Ghost, Orders of the

The Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome was the cradle of an order, which, beginning in the ...

Holy Ghost, Religious Congregations of the

I. THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY GHOST AND OF THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY This Congregation was ...

Holy Grail, The

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

Holy House of Loreto

(The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

Holy Humility of Mary, Sisters of the

Founded at Dommartin-sous-Amance, France, in 1855, by John Joseph Begel (b. 5 April, 1817; d. 23 ...

Holy Infancy, Brothers of the

Founded in 1853 by the Right Rev. John Timon, the first Bishop of Buffalo. The special aim of ...

Holy Innocents

The children mentioned in St. Matthew 2:16-18 : Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise ...

Holy Name of Jesus

We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...

Holy Name, Feast of the

This feast is celebrated on the second Sunday after Epiphany (double of the second class). ...

Holy Name, Litany of the

An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

Holy Name, Society of the

(Confraternity of the Most Holy Name of God and Jesus). An indulgenced confraternity in the ...

Holy Oils

(OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

Holy Oils, Vessels for

In Christian antiquity there existed an important category of vessels used as receptacles for ...

Holy Orders

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

Holy Saturday

In the primitive Church Holy Saturday was known as Great, or Grand, Saturday, Holy Saturday, the ...

Holy See

(From the Latin Sancta Sedes , Holy Chair). A term derived from the enthronement ...

Holy Sepulchre

Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death ...

Holy Sepulchre, Canonesses Regular of the

Concerning the foundation there is only a tradition connecting it with St. James the Apostle and ...

Holy Sepulchre, Fathers of the

(Guardians) The Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre are the six or seven Franciscan Fathers, who ...

Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the

Neither the name of a founder nor a date of foundation can be assigned to the so-called Order of ...

Holy Spirit

I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

Holy Stairs (Scala Sancta)

Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition ...

Holy Synod

In its full form M OST H OLY D IRECTING S YNOD , the name of the council by which the ...

Holy Thursday

The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

Holy Water

The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...

Holy Water Fonts

Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

Holy Week

Holy Week is the week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and ...

Holy Year of Jubilee

The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

Holyrood Abbey

Located in Edinburgh, Scotland ; founded in 1128 by King David I for the Canons Regular of ...

Holywell

A town in North Wales, situated on the declivity of a hill overlooking a picturesque valley, ...

Holywood, Christopher

( Latinized , A Sacrobosco.) Jesuit ; b. At Artane, Dublin, in 1559; d. 4 September, 1626. ...

Holywood, John

(John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...

Holzhauser, Bartholomew

Parish priest, ecclesiastical writer, and founder of a religious community; born 24 Aug., ...

Homes

This term, when used in an eleemosynary sense, covers all institutions that afford the general ...

Homicide

( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

Homiletics

Homiletics is the science that treats of the composition and delivery of a sermon or other ...

Homiliarium

A collection of homilies, or familiar explanations of the Gospels (see HOMILY). From a very ...

Homily

The word homily is derived from the Greek word homilia (from homilein ), which means to ...

Homoousion

(Gr. homoousion - from homos , same, and ousia , essence ; Latin consubstantialem , of ...

Honduras

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF BRITISH HONDURAS. The territory of the vicariate is co-extensive with ...

Hong-Kong

The island of Hong-Kong was ceded by the Chinese Government to Great Britain in January, 1841, ...

Honoratus a Sancta Maria

A Discalced Carmelite ; born at Limoges, 4 July, 1651 ; died at Lille, 1729. Blaise Vauxelles ...

Honoratus, Saint

Archbishop of Arles; b. about 350; d. 6 (or, according to certain authors, 14 or 15) January, ...

Honorius I, Pope

Pope (625-12 October, 638), a Campanian, consecrated 27 October (Duchesne) or 3 November ...

Honorius II, Pope

(Lamberto Scannabecchi) Born of humble parents at Fagnano near Imola at an unknown date ; ...

Honorius III, Pope

(Cencio Savelli) Born at Rome, date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 18 March, 1227. For a ...

Honorius IV, Pope

(Giacomo Savelli) Born at Rome about 1210; died at Rome, 3 April, 1287. He belonged to the ...

Honorius of Autun

(HONORIUS AUGUSTODUNENSIS) A theologian, philosopher, and encyclopedic writer who lived in ...

Honorius, Flavius

Roman Emperor, d. 25 August, 423. When his father, the Emperor Theodosius, divided up the ...

Honorius, Saint

Archbishop of Canterbury, fifth in succession from St. Augustine, elected 627; consecrated at ...

Honour

Honour may be defined as the deferential recognition by word or sign of another's worth or ...

Hontheim, Johannes Nicolaus von

(FEBRONIUS) An auxiliary Bishop of Trier ; born at Trier, 27 January, 1701; died at ...

Hood

A flexible, conical, brimless head-dress, covering the entire head, except the face. It is either ...

Hoogstraten, Jacob van

(also HOCHSTRATEN) A theologian and controversialist, born about 1460, in Hoogstraeten, ...

Hooke, Luke Joseph

Born at Dublin in 1716; died at St. Cloud, Paris, 16 April, 1796, son of Nathaniel Hooke the ...

Hope

Hope, in its widest acceptation, is described as the desire of something together with the ...

Hope-Scott, James Robert

(Originally H OPE ) Parliamentary barrister, Q.C.; b. 15 July, 1812, at Great Marlow, ...

Hopi Indians

(From Hopita, "peaceful ones" their own name; also frequently known as Moki, or Moqui, an alien ...

Hopkins, Gerard Manley

Jesuit and poet, born at Stratford, near London, 28 July, 1844; died at Dublin, 8 June, 1889. ...

Hormisdas, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown, elected to the Holy See, 514; d. at Rome, 6 August, 523. This able and ...

Horner, Nicholas

Layman and martyr, born at Grantley, Yorkshire, England, date of birth unknown; died at ...

Horns, Altar

On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns ...

Hornyold, John Joseph

A titular Bishop of Phiomelia, Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England ; born 19 ...

Hortulus Animæ

(L ITTLE G ARDEN OF THE S OUL ). A prayer book which both in its Latin and German ...

Hosanna

"And the multitudes that went before and that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of ...

Hosea

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

Hosius of Cordova

The foremost Western champion of orthodoxy in the early anti-Arian struggle; born about 256; ...

Hosius, Stanislaus

(HOE, HOSZ) Cardinal and Prince- Bishop of Ermland ; born of German parents at Cracow, 5 ...

Hospice

( Latin hospitium , a guest house). During the early centuries of Christianity the hospice ...

Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus

These sisters are established in religion under the Rule of St. Augustine, the institute being ...

Hospitality

The Council of Trent in its twenty-fifth session, cap. viii, De Ref., enjoins "all who hold any ...

Hospitallers

During the Middle Ages, among the hospitals established throughout the West ( Maisons-Dieu ...

Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

Hospitals

(Latin hospes , a guest; hence hospitalis , hospitable; hospitium , a guest-house or ...

Hospitius, Saint

(Sospis) Recluse, b. according to tradition in Egypt, towards the beginning of the sixth ...

Hossche, Sidron de

( Latin HOSSCHIUS) Sidron de Hossche, poet and priest ; born at Mercken, West Flanders, in ...

Host

Archaeological and Historical Aspects The bread destined to receive Eucharistic Consecration is ...

Host, Johann

One of the seven Dominicans, who distinguished themselves in the struggle against Luther in ...

Hottentots

The Hottentot is one of three tribes of South Africa which may be divided — Bantus, ...

Houbigant, Charles François

Born in Paris, 1686; died there 31 October, 1783. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in ...

Houdon, Jean-Antoine

Born at Versailles, 1741; died 16 July, 1828; the most distinguished sculptor of France ...

Houdry, Vincent

Preacher and writer on ascetics; b. 23 January, 1631, at Tours ; d. 21 March, 1729, at Paris. ...

Houghton, John, Blessed

Protomartyr of the persecution under Henry VIII, b. in Essex, 1487; d. at Tyburn, 4 May, 1535. ...

Houghton, William

(Variously called DE HOTUM, DE HOTHUM, DE HOZUM, BOTHUM, DE HONDEN, HEDDON, HEDDONEM, according as ...

Hours, Canonical

I. IDEA By canonical hour is understood all the fixed portion of the Divine Office which the ...

Hours, Liturgy of the

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

Hove, Peter van

Friar Minor, lector in theology and exegete ; b. at Rethy, in Campine (Belgium); d. at Antwerp, ...

Howard, Mary, of the Holy Cross

Poor Clare, born 28 December, 1653; died at Rouen, 21 Mary's 1735, daughter of Sir Robert Howard, ...

Howard, Philip Thomas

Dominican and cardinal, commonly called the "Cardinal of Norfolk"; born at Arundel House, ...

Howard, Philip, Venerable

Martyr, Earl of Arundel; born at Arundel House, London, 28 June 1557, died in the Tower of London, ...

Howard, Venerable William

Viscount Stafford, martyr ; born 30 November, 1614; beheaded Tower-Hill, 29 December, 1680. He ...

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Hroswitha

A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

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Huánuco

(Huanucensis) Suffragan of Lima in Peru. The department of Huánuco contains an ...

Huajuápam de León

(Huajuapatamensis) Diocese in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, erected by Bull of Leo XIII , ...

Huaraz

Diocese of Huaraz (Huaraziensis) Suffragan of Lima. It comprises the entire department of ...

Huber, Alphons

An historian; born 14 October, 1834, at Fügen, Zillerthal (Tyrol); died 23 November, 1898, at ...

Hubert Walter

Archbishop of Canterbury (1193-1205); died 13 July, 1205; son of Hervey (Herveus) Walter and ...

Hubert, Jean-François

The ninth Bishop of Quebec, born at Quebec, 23 February, 1739; died 17 October, 1799; son of ...

Hubert, Saint

Confessor, thirty-first Bishop of Maastricht, first Bishop of Liège, and Apostle of ...

Hubert, Saint, Military Orders of

I. The highest order of Bavaria, founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard V, Duke of Jülich, in ...

Huc, Evariste Régis

A French Lazarist missionary and traveller; born at Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne), 1 June, 1813; died ...

Hucbald of St-Amand

(HUGBALDUS, UBALDUS, UCHUBALDUS) A Benedictine monk ; born in 840; died in 930 or 932. The ...

Huddleston, John

Monk of the Order of St. Benedict; b. at Farington Hall, Lancashire, 15 April, 1608; exact date ...

Hudson, Blessed James

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

Hueber, Fortunatus

A Franciscan historian and theologian, born at Neustadt on the Danube; died 12 Feb., 1706, at ...

Huelgas de Burgos

The royal monastery of Las Huelgas de Burgos was founded by Alfonso VIII at the instance of ...

Huesca

(OSCENSIS) Huesca embraces parts of the province of Huesca in north-eastern Spain, seven ...

Huet, Pierre-Daniel

A distinguished savant and celebrated French bishop ; born 8 February, 1630, at Caen (Normandy), ...

Hug, Johann Leonhard

A German Catholic exegete, b. at Constance, 1 June, 1765; d. at Freiburg im Br., 11 March, ...

Hugh Capet

King of France, founder of the Capetian dynasty, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. ...

Hugh Faringdon, Blessed

( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

Hugh of Digne

Friar Minor andascetical writer; b. at Digne, south-east France, date uncertain; d. at ...

Hugh of Flavigny

Benedictine monk and historian; b. about 1064, probably at Verdun (Lorraine); d. before the ...

Hugh of Fleury

(Called also HUGO A SANTA MARIA, from the name of the church of his native village). ...

Hugh of Lincoln, Saint

Born about the year 1135 at the castle of Avalon, near Pontcharra, in Burgundy ; died at London, ...

Hugh of Remiremont

Surnamed CANDIDUS or BLANCUS. Cardinal, born of a noble family, probably in Lorraine, died soon ...

Hugh of St-Cher

(Latin D E S ANCTO C ARO ; D E S ANCTO T HEODORICO ). A Dominican cardinal of the ...

Hugh of St. Victor

Medieval philosopher, theologian, and mystical writer; b. 1096, at the manor of Hartingham in ...

Hugh of Strasburg

Theologian, flourished during the latter half of the thirteenth century. The dates of his birth ...

Hugh the Great, Saint

Abbot of Cluny, born at Semur (Brionnais in the Diocese of Autun, 1024; died at Cluny, 28 ...

Hugh, Saint

(Called LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN.) St. Hugh was the son of a poor woman of Lincoln ...

Hughes, John

Fourth bishop and first Archbishop of New York, born at Annaloghan, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, 24 ...

Hugo, Charles-Hyacinthe

Born 20 Sept., 1667, at St. Mihiel (Department of Meuse, France ); died 2 August, 1739. He ...

Huguccio

(HUGH OF PISA) Italian canonist, b. at Pisa, date unknown; d. in 1210. He studied at ...

Huguenots

A name by which the French Protestants are often designated. Its etymology is uncertain. ...

Hulst, Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'

A prelate, writer, orator; born at Paris, 10 Oct., 1841; died there, 6 Nov., 1896. After a ...

Human Acts

Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are ...

Humanism

Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the ...

Humbert of Romans

(DE ROMANIS). Fifth master general of the Dominican Order, b. at Romans in the Diocese of ...

Humeral Veil

This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

Humiliati

I. A penitential order dating back, according to some authorities, to the beginning of the ...

Humility

The word humility signifies lowliness or submissiveness an it is derived from the Latin ...

Humphrey Middlemore, Blessed

English Carthusian martyr, date of birth uncertain; d. at Tyburn, London, 19 June, 1535. His ...

Humphreys, Laurence

Layman and martyr, born in Hampshire, England, 1571; died at Winchester, 1591. Of Protestant ...

Hungarian Catholics in America

The Kingdom of Hungary (Magyarország) comprises within its borders several races or ...

Hungarian Literature

The language which has prevailed in Hungary for nearly a thousand years and is spoken at the ...

Hungary

GEOGRAPHY AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ...

Hunolt, Franz

The most popular German preacher of the early part of the eighteenth century, b. 31 March, 1691, ...

Hunt, Ven. Thurston

An English martyr (March, 1601), who belonged to the family seated at Carlton Hall, near ...

Hunter, Sylvester Joseph

English Jesuit priest and educator; b. at Bath, 13 Sept., 1829; d. at Stonyhurst, 20 June, 1896. ...

Hunting, Canons on

From early times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics. Thus, in the ...

Huntington, Jedediah Vincent

Clergyman, novelist; born 20 January, 1815, in New York City; died 10 March, 1862, at Pau, France. ...

Hunyady, János

(JOHN) Governor of Hungary, born about 1400; died 11 August, 1456; the heroic defender of the ...

Huron Indians

The main divisions of the subject are: I. THE HURONS BEFORE THEIR DISPERSION (1) Their Place in ...

Hurst, Richard

(Or HERST.) Layman and martyr, b. probably at Broughton, near Preston, Lancashire, England, ...

Hurtado, Caspar

A Spanish Jesuit and theologian, b. at Mondejar, New Castle, in 1575; d. at Alcalá, 5 ...

Hurter

(1) Friedrich Emmanuel Von Hurter Convert and historian, b. at Schaffhausen, 19 March, 1787; d. at ...

Hus, Jan

(Also spelled John ). Born at Husinetz in southern Bohemia, 1369; died at Constance 6 ...

Husenbeth, Frederick Charles

Born at Bristol, 30 May, 1796; died at Cossey, Norfolk, 31 October, 1872. The son of a Bristol ...

Hussey, Thomas

Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, b. at Ballybogan, Co. Meath, in 1746; d. at Tramore, Co. ...

Hussites

The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they ...

Hutton, Peter

Priest, b. at Holbeck, Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 29 June, 1811; d. at Ratcliffe, ...

Huysmans, Joris Karl

A French novelist; born in Paris, 5 February, 1848; died 12 May, 1907. He studied at the Lycee ...

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Hy 16

Hyacinth and Protus, Saints

Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

Hyacinth, Saint

Dominican, called the Apostle of the North, son of Eustachius Konski of the noble family of ...

Hyacintha Mariscotti, Saint

A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

Hydatius of Lemica

( Also IDATIUS; LEMICA is more correctly LIMICA.) A chronicler and bishop, born at the end ...

Hyderabad-Deccan, Diocese of

Hyderabad, also called Bhagnagar, and Fakhunda Bunyad, capital of the Nizam's dominions, was ...

Hyginus, Pope Saint

Reigned about 138-142; succeeded Pope Telesphorus, who, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., IV, ...

Hylozoism

(Greek hyle , matter + zoe , life ) The doctrine according to which all matter ...

Hymn

A derivative of the Latin hymnus , which comes from the Greek hymnos , derived from hydein ...

Hymnody and Hymnology

Hymnody, taken from the Greek ( hymnodia ), means exactly " hymn song", but as the hymn-singer ...

Hypæpa

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus; it was a small town on the southern slope of ...

Hypnotism

(Greek hypnos , sleep) By Hypnotism , or Hypnosis , we understand here the nervous ...

Hypocrisy

(Greek hypo , under, and krinesthai , to contend — hence adequately "to answer" on the ...

Hypostatic Union

A theological term used with reference to the Incarnation to express the revealed truth ...

Hypsistarians

Hypsistarians or worshippers of the Hypsistos , i.e. of the "Most High" God ; a distinct ...

Hyrtl, Joseph

Austrian anatomist, b. at Eisenstadt in Hungary, December 7, 1810; d. 17 July, 1894, on his ...

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