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Virginia

Surnamed "The Old Dominion", "The Mother of States and of Statesmen", one of the thirteen original states, and the most southern of the Middle Atlantic division, lies between 36°31' and 39°27' N. lat., and 75°13' and 83°37' W. long. Its area is 42,627 sq. miles, of which 40,262 square miles represent land and 2365 square miles, water. Its greatest measurement from east to west is 476 miles, and from north to south, 192 miles. The boundaries are, north, West Virginia and Maryland ; east, Maryland and the Atlantic Ocean; south, North Carolina and Tennessee ; and west, Kentucky and West Virginia. The state contains one hundred counties.

POPULATION

The population of Virginia in 1910 was 2,061,612; whites, 1,389,809; negroes, 671,096; Indians, Chinese, and Japanese, 707. The general increase during the last decade was 11.2 per cent, that of the negroes only 1.6 per cent. In 1890 the negroes formed 38.4 per cent of the total population; in 1900, 35.6 per cent; in 1910, 32.6 per cent; their relative decrease being due to absence of negro immigration, neglect of hygiene, exposure, overcrowding, poverty, and, in many cases, lack of ambition and energy, or indulgence in alcoholic or other excesses. The density of population in 1910 was 51.2 persons per square mile.

The state contains 19 cities, all, except Hampton and Williamsburg, being independent of counties. They are, with their population of 1910: Richmond, (127,628), the State capital and former capital of the Confederacy, noted for historic associations and monuments; Norfolk (67,452), Virginia's great shipping port; Roanoke (34,874), called "The Magic City", because of its rapid growth; Portsmouth (33,190), a progressive city with one of the country's greatest naval yards; Lynchburg 929,494), known as "the Hill City", because of its many hills, one of the richest per capita cities in the United States ; Petersburg (24,127), of Civil War fame; Newport News (20,205), at the mouth of the James River, famed for its ship-building and immense shipments to all quarters of the glove of coal and grain; Danville (19,020), one of the greatest tobacco cities in the world; Alexandria (15,329), of historic interest and a Potomac port for Virginia's products; Staunton (10,604), with fine educational and corrective institutions; Charlottesville (6765), the seat of the University of Virginia; Bristol (64227); Fredericksburg (5874); Winchester (5864); Clifton Forge (5748); Hampton (5505); Radford (4202); Buena Vista (3245); and Williamsburg (2714).

The church membership (1906) was 793,546, of which the Baptists numbers 415,987; Methodists, 200,771; Presbyterians, 39,628; Protestant Episcopal, 28,487; Disciples, 26,248; Lutherans, 15,010; the remainder consisting of Dunkers, Christians, and other denominations. The Catholics were given as 28,700. The total value of Church property of all denominations in 1906 was $19,699,014, and the Church debt $996,367. Owing to dearth of Catholic immigration, the Church depends for accessions principally on natural increase and conversions. Seventy years ago the Catholic population was but 3000. In 1912 the faithful numbered 41,000, composed mainly of native Americans, Irish, Germans, italians, Bohemians, Poles, Slavs, and Syrians, with a few French, Belgians, and other nationalities. There is one parish each for Germany, Italians, and Bohemians.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Virginia is divided into six great natural sections: (1) Tidewater, (2) Middle, (3) Piedmont, (4) Blue Ridge, (5) The Valley, and (6) Appalachia. Some make a seventh division into Trans-Appalachia. Certain sections possess some things in common, yet all differ greatly in topography, climate, soil, and resources. The altitude varies from a few feet in Tidewater to more than 5000 feet in the mountainous regions. The highest mountains are Mount Rogers (5700 feet) and the Peaks of Otter (3993 feet). Nearly the whole of the state is drained by five large rivers, navigable to the head of Tidewater, and their tributaries; namely the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, James, and Roanoke or Staunton, all flowing in an easterly direction; while the Shenandoah, Kanawha, or New, and Holston, or Tennessee rivers, drain the valley. Because of the gradual, and sometimes abrupt, lowering of the river beds from their elevated sources to the basins into which they empty, an almost limitless supply of waterpower is found within the borders of the state. The state is famed for natural wonders, including the Natural Bridge; Luray, Weyer's, Madison, Blowing, and Saltpetre caverns; Mountain Lake, Balcony Falls, Natural Tunnel; and the great Dismal Swamp (30 by 10 miles, extending into North Carolina ), with beautiful Lake Drummond (7 by 5.5 miles), in the centre. There are 68 accredited mineral springs. The climate is mild, the temperature varying from an average mean annual of 64° in Tidewater to 48° in the mountains, the average temperature being 56°. The rainfall is plentiful, averaging from 32 to 60 inches. The border ranges of mountains protect the state from unusual storms and hurricanes. Government statistics show the piedmont region to be the most helpful belt in the United States .

RESOURCES

In agriculture Virginia ranks as one of the foremost states of the union. Every product grown in the other states, except the tropical and semi-tropical, thrives upon her soil. The total value of farm lands with buildings, implements, machinery, and live stock, in 1910 was $625,065,000; an increase in a decade of 93.2 per cent. The farms embrace more than three-fourths of the total land area, or 19,494,636 acres; over one-half representing improved acreage. The number of farms was 184,018, of which 84 per cent was free of debt ; the average value per farm, including equipment, being $3397, and of farm land per acre, $20.24. Tidewater, the great trucking section, and the Valley of Virginia, are considered the most fertile regions. The trucking has increased 500 per cent in thirty years. In 1910 the Norfolk truckers shipped 4,555,200 packages of truck. There are many varieties of fruits, including the Albemarle pippins, recognized as the best-flavoured of all apples. The orchard are numerous, some yielding $500.00 per acre. The state ranks first in peanuts (output, 4,284,000 pounds; value, $4,240,000), second in tobacco (output, 132,979,000 pounds; value, $12,169,000), and fourth in fertilizers (output 364,63 tons; value, $6,56,000). In 1910 the yield in bushels was, corn, 38,295,000 (value, $28,886,000); wheat, 8,077,000 ($8,776,000); Irish potatoes, 8,771,000 ($5,668,000); sweet potatoes and yams, 5,270,000 ($2,681,000); oats, 2,884,000 ($1,610,000); rye, 438,000 ($344,000); buckwheat, 332,000 ($196,000); barley, 254,000 (4180,000); and in tons of hay and forage 823,000 ($10,257,000). The cultivation of alfalfa (now 3126 acres) is rapidly increasing. The total value of crops in 1910 was $236,000,000 from 3,300,000, an increase over 1900 of nearly 100 per cent. The farming interests are greatly furthered by the Commissioner of Agriculture, literature, farmers' institutes, inspectors of fertilizers, seed and lime laws a horticultural society, test farms, and a truck and an agricultural station.

The rapid development of dairying is due principally to the efforts of the dairy and pure food department. The number of dairy cows (1910) was 356,000 (value $10,285,000). Effective means towards the eradication of tuberculosis and other diseases existing amongst cattle are employed by the state. With an abundance of forage crop, a long grazing season, and mild winters, the conditions for stock raising are peculiarly favourable. Thousands of beef and other cattle are annually exported. Within 30 years the sheep industry has increased 150 per cent. The value of live stock in 1010 was $74,891,000. Virginia has (1911) taken the lead of the other states in fisheries, the annual output totalling $7,500,000, thus distributed: oysters, $3,500,000; crabs and clams, $1,000,000; menhaden fish, $1,250,000; from pound nets, $1,500,000; other fish, $250,000. The increase over four years is 300 per cent. Of the nearly 3000 square miles of salt-water bottom, 4000 acres are set aside for oyster planting and about 200,000 acres as a reserve, making the Virginia waters one of the greatest oyster sections in the world. Tidewater abounds in water-fowl such as the canvasback, black mallard, water-goose, and teal. There are various species of birds, including quails, woodcocks, and sora, with some wild deer, bears, foxes, and wild turkeys, and many rabbits, squirrels, opossums, muskrats, and lesser game.

Every wood, except the sub-tropical, including the valuable hardwoods, is grown in Virginia. The Tidewater section contains vast forests of pine and cypress and much cedar, willow, locust, juniper, and gum. In the inland region abound the oak, walnut, hickory, chestnut, beech, birch, maple, poplar, ash, cherry, elm, and sycamore; whilst the mountains are rich in white pine, spruce, and hemlock. The bark of the oak and sumac leaves are much used in tanning and dyeing. In 1909 there were 2,102,000,000 feet of cut lumber, an increase in 10 years of over 100 per cent.

Beneath the soil of Virginia are found geologic rocks of all ages, with almost every known mineral of commercial value. The estimated yearly mineral output in 1905 was $30,000,000. The minerals may be divided into (1) building and ornamental stone, including the famous Richmond and Virginia granites, sandstone, slate, and limestone; (2) cement and cement materials; (3) clays, sands, marls, and gem minerals; (4) metallic minerals, embracing iron, copper, zinc, lead, gold, silver, tin, nickel, and cobalt; in 1010 Virginia produced 800,000 tons of iron ore and 444,976 tons of pig iron; (5) non-metallic minerals, including graphite, sulphides, sulpharsenides, the halides, embracing sodium chloride, or common salt, oxides, silicates, phosphates, nitrates, sulphates, and the hydrocarbons: namely, coal, coke and their by-products, gas, tar, and ammonia. There are in the state 1900 square miles of coal fields, the production (1910) being 5,000,000 tons, and of coke, 1,435,000 tons. In 1910 the shipment of coal from Hampton Roads was greater than from any other port in the world. Newport News alone exported 786,000 tons (value, $2,083,000).

Manufactures

In 1909 the output in manufactures amounted to $219,794,000; capital, $216,392,000, an increase over 1900 of over 100 per cent. The output from iron and machine works alone in 1911 was $24,143,000; capital, $24, 982,000; wages, $8,206,000; and from tobacco manufactures, $21,445,000; capital, $6,321,000; wages, $2,378,000. Some of the other principal products, in order of output, are flour and grist, woodenware, leather, cotton goods, paper and pulp, and boots and shoes. The total manufacturing capital in 1912 should reach $260,000,000, with output of about $285,000,000. If to these last figures is added the value of the products of farms, fisheries, forests, and mines, the yearly production of the state (1912) should approximate $435,000,000.

Banking, Real Estate, Insurance

There were in Virginia (December, 1911) 130 national banks with total resources, $151,932,000, a marked increase since 1900. The resources of state banks (April, 1912) amounted to $73,862,000. In Richmond alone the bank clearings (1911) were $392,000,000; deposits, $45,800,000; loans and discounts, $43,000,000. The total valuation of real estate (1911), other than mineral lands and standing timber, was $486,339,000, divided as follows: counties, $267,923,000; cities, $218,416,000. Of the total, the whites owned $461,242,000; the negroes, $25,097,000. The building operations in the city of Richmond equalled $6,017,000. The gross insurance risks written in Virginia (1910) were as follows: fire insurance, $315,957,000; marine insurance, $21,697,000; life insurance, $225,717,000.

TRANSPORTATION

The Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake Bay and its numerous inlets, with large navigable rivers, give Virginia direct water communication with every seaport. Hampton Roads, the manoeuvring place of the United States fleet, is considered one of the world's finest bodies of water. Extensive shipping is carried on by Norfolk (1911: exports, $10,880,000; imports, $2,010,000), Newport News (exports, $5,821,000; imports, $982,000), Portsmouth, and Fort Monroe. The principal river ports are Richmond, on the James; Petersburg, on the Appomattox; West Point, on the York; Fredericksburg, on the Rappahannock; and Alexandria, on the Potomac. The steam railroads in Virginia number 41; with branch lines listed separately, 50. The total mileage (1910) was 4609. The principal lines are the Atlantic Coast Line; Chesapeake and Ohio ; New York, Philadelphia, and Norfolk; Norfolk and Western; Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac; Seaboard Air Line; Southern; Virginia and South-western; Virginian; and Washington Southern. There are 22 electric railroads, some of great length, extending between cities. Much is being done for public highways by the good roads movement, due in part to the increasing use of automobiles.

EDUCATION

A. General

The Constitution requires the General Assembly to maintain an efficient system of public free education. The schools for whites and negroes are separate, for both of which annual appropriations are made. The State appropriations for 1912 were more than double those of the last six years, being as follows: elementary and high schools, $1,733,081; higher institutions, approximately $500,000; total, $2,233,081. The local funds raised from taxation and otherwise for elementary and high schools amounted to $3,434,357, giving grand total for public educational purposes of $5,667,438. State aid is refused to all denominational schools, although provision is made for their incorporation, as also for that of all religious and charitable institutions. Statistics of public schools (1911) show: school population, 616,168; total enrolment, 409,397; in high schools, 16,471; average daily attendance, 263,241; teachers, 10,676; number of school houses, 6838; school revenue, $5,073,000; salaries of teachers, $2,935,000; annual cost of buildings, $1.021,000; libraries and class apparatus, $30,000; total value school property, $8,553,000, an increase in 6 years of over 100 per cent. The University of Virginia was begun by Thomas Jefferson in 1819. There are departments of law and of medicine. It numbers amongst its graduates some of the state's most illustrious sons. In 1911 there were 96 professors, 24 officials, 784 students, and including the summer school, 2070. Other advanced state institutions are William and Mary College, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Virginia Military Institute, Miller Manual Labour School, and the Female State Normal School. Among private schools, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, with law school, and the Lynchburg Women's College, like the University of Virginia, have a high rank. Other colleges, many of a denominational character, are Bridgewater, Eastern, Emory and Henry, Fredericksburg, Hampden-Sidney, Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hawthorne, Hollins, Martha Washington, Mary Baldwin, Newmarket Polytechnic Institute, Randolph-Macon, Richmond, with law school, Richmond Women's, Roanoke Southern Female ; Staunton Military, Stonewall Jackson Institute, Sweetbriar, Virginia Christian, Virginia Intermont, and Virginia Union (coloured university ). There are many business colleges, various seminaries of different denominations for white and for coloured, and three highly-rated medical colleges : the Medical College of Virginia, the University College of Medicine, both of Richmond, and the Medical College attached to the University of Virginia.

B. Catholic

Each parish in the larger, as in some of the smaller, cities, has its own parochial school or schools. There are three colleges : namely, Old Point Comfort, under the Xaverian Brothers , the Richmond Benedictine Military, and Van de Vyver (coloured), Richmond. St. Emma's Industrial and Agricultural School for Coloured Boys and St. Francis' Institute for Coloured Girls, Rock Castle, were founded and are supported, the one by General and Mrs. Edward Morrell, the other by Mother Mary Katherine Drexel [Tr. note-now Blessed Mary Katherine Drexel], both of Pennsylvania. The Benedictine Fathers have charge of St. Joseph's Institute, and the Benedictine Sisters of St. Edith's Academy, Bristow. The Xaverian Brothers teach in academies at Richmond, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Newport News, whilst the Christian Brothers labour at Rock Castle. The teaching Sisters are Sisters of Charity; of Charity of Nazareth ; Visitation; Benedictine ; of the Holy Cross; of St. Francis; of the Blessed Sacrament ; and of Perpetual Adoration.

CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS

A. General

There are city and county almshouses, private charitable organizations, many the result of denominational efforts, with various orphanages and homes for the aged. These, with the associated charities, nurses' settlements, free dispensaries, and charity hospitals, are doing a most commendable work. The white and the coloured are provided each with a school for the deaf, dub, and blind, and one each for delinquent youths. A sanatorium for tuberculosis patients is maintained by the State at Catawaba. There are four state asylums for the insane : namely, the Eastern, Williamsburg; the Western, Staunton; the South-western, Marion; and the Central (coloured), Petersburg. A late institution is the Epileptic Colony, Amherst County, near Lynchburg. The state convicts not working ont he public roads are located either in the penitentiary, Richmond, or at the James River State Farm. There were (1 jan., 1912) 2135 state convicts, of whom 84 per cent were coloured. Of the 89 women prisoners, only 3 were white, the remainder being negroes.

B. Catholic

The Catholics have 4 orphanages (inmates, 215), 1 coloured infant asylum (inmates, 65), 4 industrial schools, 2 each for boys and girls, half for coloured (pupils, 395), and 1 home for the aged, conducted by the Little Sisters of the Poor , form of religion being no bar to entrance (inmates, 200). For the relief of the poor are found in various parishes conferences of St. Vincent de Paul, and women's aid and benevolent societies.

GOVERNMENT

The governor and lieutenant-governor are elected by the people for four years, and the secretary of State, treasurer, and auditor, by the General Assembly for two years. The legislature embraces 40 senators, popularly chosen for four years, and 100 representatives for two years. Biennial sessions of sixty days, unless extended by vote to ninety days, begin the second Wednesday in January. Five judges, chosen by the legislature for twelve years, form the Supreme Court of Appeals. There are also circuit and county courts, and various state departments. The right to vote is given to male citizens of the United States, twenty-one years of age, who have resided in the state one year and in the city or county in which they offer to vote three months preceding an election. A capitation tax is also levied.

NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Fort Monroe, with its extensive fortifications and garrison, together with a National Soldiers; Home near Hampton, Fort Meyer near Washington, and the Norfolk (Portsmouth) Navy Yard, are government institutions of renown. The principal national cemeteries are at Alexandria, Arlington, Fredericksburg, Hampton, Petersburg, Seven Pines, and Richmond.

LEGISLATION AFFECTING RELIGION

The following data concerning legislation has been carefully compiled by Attorney Maurice A. Powers, Secretary Treasurer of the Richmond Bar Association; Violation of the Sabbath by labouring at any trade or calling, except household or other work of necessity or charity, hunting on Sunday, carrying dangerous weapons on Sunday, or to a place of religious worship, and disturbance of religious worship, are misdemeanours, and punishable either by fine or imprisonment, or both. Profane cursing and swearing, publication of obscene books and pictures, and, generally, all offences against morality and decency are likewise misdemeanours. Officers of the State must take and subscribe an oath to support the State and Federal Constitutions, to faithfully and impartially discharge the duties of their respective offices, and against duelling. Jurors are required to take an oath to try the case according to the law and the evidence. Witnesses in the several courts are sworn to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Any person required to take an oath, if he has religious scruples against doing so, may make a solemn affirmation. No form is prescribed for the administration of oaths ; but they are usually administered by using the Bible to swear upon, or by uplifted hand. New Year's, Christmas, and Thanksgiving Days are legal holidays, but no holy days, as such, are recognized by law. Daily, while in session, the General Assembly is opened with prayer, but its use is not sanctioned by legislative provision.

Church Incorporations

The incorporation of a church or a religious denomination is prohibited by Section 59 of Article IV of the Constitution of Virginia, but, to a limited extent, conveyances, devises, and dedications of lands to a Church, or unincorporated religious society, as a place of public worship, or as a burial place, or a residence for a minister, are valid.

Tax, Jury, and Military Exemptions

Churches, church lots, church rectories, and public burying-grounds, not held for speculative purposes, are exempt from taxation, as is also the property of literary, educational, and charitable institutions, actually occupied and used solely for the specific purposes indicated. Legacies and devises to such institutions are not subject to the collateral inheritance tax. Ministers of the Gospel are exempted from jury duty. Exemptions from military service are the same as provided by the statutes of the United States.

Matrimony and Divorce

A minister of any religious denomination, with authority from any county or corporation court, may witness the rites of marriage, or the court may appoint one or more persons to celebrate such rites. Marriages must be under a license and solemnized as provided by the statutes of the State. Parental consent, or consent of guardian, is necessary when the contracting parties, or either of them, are under the age of twenty-one years. In addition to the direct line of consanguinity, no man may marry his step-mother, sister, aunt, son's widow, wife's daughter, or her granddaughter, or her stepdaughter, brother's daughter or sister's daughter; and no woman may marry her stepfather, uncle, daughter's husband, husband's son or his grandson or stepson, brother's son, sister's son, or husband of her brother's, or sister's, daughters. Marriages between white and coloured persons are forbidden, and marriages between such persons and between persons under the age of consent, the age of consent of the male being fourteen years and of the female twelve years, and bigamous marriages, are void without decree of court. Seven years' absence of the husband or wife without knowledge that he or she be living, will entitle the other to remarry without incurring the penalty for bigamy. The statutory grounds for divorce a vinculo are: consanguinity or affinity within the prohibited degrees; want of mental or physical capacity existing at the time of the marriage; felony; desertion for a period of three years; pregnancy of the wife at the time of marriage, by some person other than the husband; and prostitution of the wife before marriage. Divorces a mensa are granted for cruelty, reasonable apprehension of bodily hurt, and abandonment. One year's residence in the state of either the husband or wife is necessary to the jurisdiction of the court. From 1867 to 1886, 2635, and from 1887 to 1907, 12,129 divorces were granted.

Denominational Appropriations

Appropriations by the General Assembly of money or other property to any Church or denominational or sectarian institution, directly or indirectly controlled by any Church or denominational or sectarian society, are prohibited by the Constitution; nor has the General Assembly power to make any appropriation of money or other property to any charitable institution which is not owned or controlled by the State.

Intoxicating Liquors

The General Assembly has full power to enact local option, or dispensary laws or any other laws controlling, regulating, or prohibiting, the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors; but local option has been to the present time (1912) the policy of the legislature. On 1 January, 1912, 66 of the 100 counties, and 8 of the 19 cities of the state had no form of liquor license.

Wills and Bequests

No person of unsound mind, or under twenty-one years of age, is, by law, capable of making a will, except that minors, eighteen years of age or over, may, by will, dispose of their personal estate. A will to be valid must be signed by the testator, or by someone for him, in his presence, and by his direction, in such manner as to make it manifest that the name is intended as a signature, and, moreover, unless the will be wholly written by the testator, the signature must be made, or the will acknowledged by him, in the presence of two witnesses, present at the same time, and the witnesses must subscribe the will in the presence of the testator, but no form of attestation is necessary. Wills are revoked by the marriage of the maker. A devisee or legatee under a will is a competent witness thereto, if the will may not otherwise be proved, but the devise or legacy to him is void. The influence which will vitiate a will must amount to force and coercion, destroying free agency. Bequests to incorporated charitable institutions are valid, but those to unincorporated institutions generally fail for uncertainty as to the beneficiaries.

HISTORY

Spanish Settlements (1526-70)

Eighty-one years before the coming of the English to Jamestown in 1607, a settlement was made in Virginia by Spaniards from San Domingo, under the leadership of Lucas Vasquez de Ayllón , one of the judges of the island, who, 12 June, 1526, had obtained from the King of Spain a patent empowering him to explore the coast for 800 leagues, make settlements within three years and Christianize the natives. Accompanied by the Dominican Fathers Antonio de Montesinos and Antonio de Cervantes with Brother Peter de Estrada, the expedition set sail in three vessels from Puerto de la Plata, June, 1526. It was composed of no less than 600 persons of both sexes, with horses and extensive supplies. Entering the Virginia capes and ascending a wide river (the James), the Spaniards landed at Guandape, which Ayllón named St. Michael. Rude buildings were erected and the Sacrifice of the Mass offered in a log chapel. On the death by fever of Ayllón, 18 October, 1526, Francis Gomez succeeded to the command. The severity of the winter, the rebellion of the settlers, and the hostility of the Indians caused the abandonment of the settlement in the spring of 1527, the party setting sail in two of the vessels. The one containing the remains of Ayllón foundered with all on board, leaving only 150 souls to reach San Domingo.

Menendez, the Governor of Florida, sent to Virginia a second Spanish expedition, which settled on the Rappahannock River at Axacan, 10 September, 1570. It was composed of Fathers Segura, Vice-Provincial of the Jesuits, and Louis de Quiros, with six Jesuit brothers and some friendly Indians. Bent on a permanent settlement, the missionaries carried chapel furnishings, implements, and necessary winter supplies. A log house with chapel served as residence. Don Luis de Velasco, so named by the Spaniards, a treacherous Indian guide, led a party of Indians who slew Father Quiros and Brothers Solis and Mendez, 14 February, 1571. Father Segura, with the remaining brothers, Linares, Redondo, Gabriel Gomez, and Sancho Zevalles, met a similar fate four days afterwards. In the late spring a Spanish pilot was sent to Axacan to get news of the missionaries. He returned, bringing an account of their murder, whereupon Menendez again sailed to Axacan and had eight of the murderers hanged, they being converted and baptized before their execution by Father Rogel, a Jesuit missionary.

English Colonization (1607-1775)

Sebastian Cabot probably explored the Virginia shores in 1498. In 1584, 1585, and 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh sent fleets to the coast of North Carolina, but no permanent settlement was effected. The name "Virginia", in honour of Queen Elizabeth, was given to all the territory from the French colonies on the north to the Spanish settlements on the south, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. In 1606 when Virginia extended to the 34th to the 45th parallels, it was divided by James I between the London and the Plymouth companies, the former getting the land from the 34th to the 41st parallels. Colonists to the number of 143, the prime mover being Captain John Smith, set sail from England in three small ships. Passing up a large river, which they named the James, they formed on its shores the first permanent English settlement in America, 13 May, 1607, calling the place Jamestown. That the English settlement was on the exact spot (Guandape) where the Spaniards had settled the preceding century, appears from the relation of Ecija, the pilot-in-chief of Florida, who was sent to Virginia by the Spanish in 1609, to learn the movements of the English. His statement is practically conclusive, since he possessed Spanish charts and maps of the coast, which he studied accurately, and made careful measurements to establish his assertion, written only 83 years after the landing in Virginia of the Spaniards under Ayllón. It is probable that some evidences of the Spanish occupation remained to help determine the English in their choice of Guandape as a place of settlement. The colonists elected Edward Wingfield president and proceeded to construct houses and a suitable fort. Meantime, Captain Christopher Newport, who had commanded the vessels, with Captain John Smith and 23 others, explored the James River as far as the falls (now Richmond ), 10 June, 1607; this event they commemorated by setting up a cross. On the party's return to Jamestown, Smith found himself in disgrace, and the colony upset, owing to an attack by the Indians. He was arrested and tried for ambitious machinations, the charge being the result of jealousy. President Wingfield acquitted him and restored him to favour, after which Smith became the real leader, and, later, the president of the colony. As might be expected, the colonists had many ups and downs. The arrival of Lord Delaware, Sir Thomas Gates, and Sir George Somers prevented the abandonment of the colony. About 1611 settlements were made at Henrico (now Dutch Gap ), and where the James and Appomattox Rivers join near Bermuda Hundred. Some ten years later new settlements were made on Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Potomac Rivers. The marriage of John Rolfe, 1613, to Pocahontas, the daughter of the great chieftain, Powhatan, helped for a time the maintenance of peace between the English and the Indians.

In 1619 slavery was introduced. The same year a shipload of young women, to serve as wives for the colonists, came to Virginia. One hundred and twenty pounds of tobacco was the purchase price of a wife. The London Company was dissolved in 1624, Virginia becoming a colony of the Crown. During the troubles with Parliament, Virginia remained loyal to the king, Charles I. Tobacco constituted the great staple and wealth of the colonists. King Charles appointed Sir George Yeardley governor of the colonies, to succeed Samuel Argall, recalled. From time to time, Indian massacres of the whites occurred. Owing to the tyranny of Lord Berkeley, Nathaniel Bacon, with some followers, headed a rebellion against him in 1676, which did not accomplish its purpose, owing to Bacon's death. Berkeley's successors were Sir Herbert Jeffries, Sir Henry Chicheley, and Lord Culpeper. William and Mary College, the oldest college, after Harvard, in the United States was founded in 1693, and the seat of government, shortly after (1698), transferred to Williamsburg. Governor Spotswood proved a far greater governor than any of his predecessors. Under his able rule of twelve years, beginning in 1710, Virginia made marked progress. In the French and Indian War, which began in 1754, George Washington won distinction during the regime of Governor Dinwiddie. Braddock's defeat was due to his not following Washington's advice. Francis Fauquier succeeded Governor Dinwiddie.

Revolutionary Period (1775-81)

Owing principally to the wars carried on by the mother-country, the colonies were burdened with taxation, and this, too, without representation. Nor were they allowed to trade with any nation other than England. These were the primary causes of the Revolutionary War, which was fanned into flame by the passage of the Stamp Act and Patrick Henry's historic speech in St. John's Church, Richmond. Other great Virginia statesmen of the time who helped the cause of liberty were Thomas Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee, Peyton Randolph, Edmund Pendleton, Richard Bland, George Mason, George, Wythe, James Monroe, James Madison, and John Marshall. Washington was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, 15 June, 1775, and the war began in earnest. George Mason wrote the Bill of State Rights, which was followed by the Declaration of Independence, composed by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the colonists, 4 July, 1776. Each colony was to have a governor, legislature, and three courts. Patrick Henry was elected as Virginia's first governor. The Seal of Virginia was adopted from the suggestion of George Wythe. This was followed by a law ensuring liberty of conscience as to religion. Henry would not stand for re-election, and Jefferson was chosen second governor. In 1779 Richmond became the state capital. The British were defeated in their shops from shore at Hampton, but (1779) burned Norfolk, and in 1781 Richmond was burned and occupied by Benedict Arnold. The war ended with the surrender of Cornwallis to Washington, assisted by Lafayette, Rochambeau, and Count De Grasse, at Yorktown, 19 Oct., 1781.

American Period (1781-1861)

A special Virginia convention, 2 to 25 June, 1788, adopted the code of laws proposed by the Philadelphia National Convention of May, 17687. In the war with the British of 1812 some little fighting occurred along the Virginian coast at and near Norfolk and Hampton. Meantime Virginia grew in wealth, power, and influence. The state constitution was revised at richmond, 5 October, 1829. A serious negro insurrection took place under Nat Turner in 1831. The slave question became now a paramount issue. Virginia, as far back as 1778, with other states, introduced in congress a bill for the abolition of slavery, which was defeated by the New England states, which made money by importing slaves to be sold to the South, and by the cotton states, desirous of negro service for the plantations. Later, after being freed from the presence of the negroes, New England became the hotbed of abolition. Because of agricultural interests, Virginia was naturally a slave state. The agitation of the slave question, together with that of state rights, grew in bitterness, culminating in John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry, October, 1859, which helped materially to precipitate the Civil War.

The Confederacy (1861-65)

Virginia brought about a peace conference of the States at Washington with no result, 4 February, 1861. Lincoln's call for 75,000 troops caused Virginia to secede from the Union, 17 April, the vote of the General Assembly being ratified by the people, 23 May. Jefferson Davis had already been chosen President of the Confederacy. It was with untold reluctance and grief that the state was practically forced out of the Union, for which she had fought, and to further whose interest she had supplied seven presidents, the revolutionary commander-in-chief, the drafter of the Bill of Rights and that of the Declaration of Independence, a Patrick Henry, the mouthpiece of liberty, a chief justice, John Marshall, and many other national heroes of renown. The state could not remain neutral. The question was whether she would take up arms against the North or her sister states of the South. The Confederate capital was removed from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, 21 May, 1861, and the command of the Virginia forces tendered to Col. Robert E. Lee, who later became commander-in-chief. General Thomas (Stonewall) J. Jackson proved his mainstay, and, with Lee, won widespread fame. Virginia also gave to the Confederacy Generals Joseph E. Johnston, J.E.B. Stuart, Jubal A. Early, and other notable military leaders. The state became a veritable battlefield, the scene of many of the most sanguinary conflicts of all time. The Southern troops, at first victorious, were later overcome by superior numbers and the tremendous resources of the North; the war being virtually ended by Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox, 9 April, 1865.

The so-called "Reconstruction Days" were the darkest in the history of the state. Her former prestige gone, many of her best sons killed, or maimed, in war, families broken up and scattered, agriculture and industries paralyzed, burdened with debt, the negro problem to handle, and part of her territory formed into another state, the prospects of Virginia after the war were gloomy in the extreme. The South was put under federal military rule and became the rendezvous of unscrupulous office seekers and fraudulent persons.

Recent Progress (1870-1912)

The state was restored to her constitutional rights, 26 January, 1870. Headway gained against adverse conditions, slow at first, gradually became more rapid, until within the last twenty years the progress of Virginia has been marked, a striking indication of which was evinced in the character, quality, and quantity of the state exhibits at the Jamestown Tercentenary Exposition of 1907. The great debt of $45,718,000 in 1871 had in 1911 been reduced to $25,159,000. With the occurrence of the Spanish-American War in 1898, Virginia readily sent her sons to the front, including Major-General Fitzhugh Lee, who had also proved a valiant Southern leader during the Civil War. The Constitutional Convention of 1901-2 made radical changes concerning qualifications for the right of suffrage.

RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS

The state constitution allows full religious liberty, yet during colonial times, because of the establishment of the English Church, intense hostility was shown to adherents of other beliefs and to Catholics in particular. In vain did Lord Baltimore attempt to plant a Catholic colony in Virginia (1629-30). Soon stringent legislation was enacted against Catholics. In 1641 a decree declared that adherents of the pope were to be fined 1000 pounds of tobacco if they attempted to hold office. The following year all priests were given five days within which to leave the colony. In 1661 all persons were obliged to attend the Established services or pay a fine of £20. The governor issued orders to magistrates, sheriffs, constables, and people to be diligent in the apprehension and bringing to justice of all Catholic priests. The records of Norfolk County (1687) show Fathers Edmonds and Raymond arrested for exercising their priestly offices. In 1699 Catholics were deprived of their right of voting, and later a fine of 500 pounds of tobacco was imposed upon violators of the law. They were declared incompetent as witnesses in 1705, and in 1753 such incompetency was made to cover all cases. In 1776, however, Virginia declared for religious freedom, and ten years later, enacted a special statute further guaranteeing the same.

Seal of the Confessional-Concerning the seal of the confessional there has been no legislative enactment, nor judicial decision by Virginia's supreme court of appeals. However, a particular judge has rendered a decision in favour of the Church's position in the interesting case which follows. At Richmond in October, 1855, Very Rev. John Teeling, D.D., the vicar-general, was summoned to testify against John Cronin, who, prompted by jealousy, had fatally wounded his wife, whose confession Dr. Teeling had heard as she lay dying. The priest was ordered to reveal her confession. Dr. Teeling's reply, that any other priest would in substance have made, was as follows: "Any statement made in her sacramental confession, whether inculpatory or exculpatory of the prisoner, I am not at liberty to reveal." In various ways were questions put to the priest, who always refused to answer concerning the confession, and finally explained to the court his motives. Judge John A. Meredith, who presided, then gave the following decision, which was spoken of for years afterwards as the "Teeling Law": "I regard any infringement upon the tenets of any denomination as a violation of the fundamental law, which guarantees perfect freedom to all classes in the exercise of their religion. To encroach upon the confessional, which is well understood to be a fundamental tenet in the Catholic Church, would be to ignore the Bill of Rights, so far as it is applicable to that Church. In view of these circumstances, as well as other considerations connected with the subject, I feel no hesitation in ruling that a priest enjoys a privilege of exemption from revealing what is communicated to him in the confessional."

Catholic Missionary Period (1526-1820)

An account of the Spanish settlements and missions of 1526 and 1570 has been given elsewhere. Bishop Richard Challoner, of the London District, to whom the early English missions were intrusted, wrote, in 1756, that he had about twelve Jesuit missionaries in Maryland and four in Pennsylvania, who also attended the few Catholics in Virginia upon the borders of Maryland. Rev. John Carroll (Afterwards bishop and archbishop ), who, before his consecration as bishop, laboured much in Virginia, in a letter (1785) to Cardinal Antonelli stated that there were 200 Catholics in Virginia, attended four or five times a year by a priest. He added, however, that many more Catholics were said to be scattered throughout the state. The coming to Richmond in 1791-92 of the Rev. Jean Dubois (afterwards third Bishop of New York) marked an epoch for Catholicism in Virginia. He carried letters of introduction from Lafayette to the greatest Virginian families, the General Assembly then in session giving him the use of a hall in the State Capitol, where he offered the first Mass ever said in Richmond. During his stay he instructed Patrick Henry in French, the latter in turn teaching him English. The successors of the Abbé Dubois in the capital city were Fathers Mongrand, Michel, McElroy, Baxter, Mahoney, Walsh, Horwe, and Hoerner. In 1794 Rev. John Thayer was labouring at Alexandria where he was succeeded two years later by Rev. Francis Neale, who built there a brick church. Rev. James Bushe began a church at Norfolk in 1796. He was succeeded by Very Rev. Leonard Neale (Afterwards Archbishop of Baltimore ). Fathers Lacy, Delaney, Stokes, Cooper, Van Horsigh, Hitzelberger, O'Keefe, and Doherty were later missionaries of note. In the Valley of Virginia laboured successively Fathers Cahill, Gildea, Florid, Mahoney, Du Hamille, and McElroy.

Notable Catholics

Besides the names of the great bishops and zealous priests already mentioned, it is proper to note those of Rev. Abram J. Ryan , the "Poet Priest of the South", and Rev. John B. Tabb whose verses are read abroad. Besides the notable Catholic laymen already noted, mention should be made of the names of Rear-Admiral Boarman, U.S.N.; United States Senators John W. Johnston and John S. Barbour; Judge Anthony M. Keiley, Judge of the International Court, Egypt ; Major Peter J. Otey, congressman; Dr. George Ben Johnston, Richmond, surgeon, and Dr. Daniel J. Coleman; John J. Lynch, reformer; Mr. and Mrs. thomas F. Ryan, donors of churches, schools, convents, and charitable institutions ; Joseph Gallego; Captain John P. Matthews; William S. Caldwell; Mark Downey; John Pope ; and Michael Murphy.

The conversion to the Faith about 1832 of Mrs. Letitia Floyd Lewis, daughter of Governor John Floyd, which, owing to her prominence, caused a sensation throughout the state, was followed by that of her two sisters, Mrs. Lavalette Floyd Holmes, wife of the erudite Professor George F. Holmes f the University of Virginia; Mrs. Nicotai Floyd Johnston, wife of Senator John W

More Volume: V 294

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Vácz, Diocese of

(VÄCZ or VACIENSIS). Located in Hungary ; suffragan of Gran ; probably founded by King ...

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Vénard, Théophane

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

Véron, François

French controversialist, b. at Paris about 1575; d. at Charenton, 1625. After brilliant studies ...

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Völuspá

"The wisdom of the prophetess ", the most famous mythological poem of the "Elder Edda", relates ...

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Va 77

Vaast, Abbey of Saint

Situated at Arras, the ancient capital of Artois, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France ; founded ...

Vacancy

The state of being vacant, free, unoccupied: a term applied to an office or position devoid of an ...

Vadstena, Abbey of

Motherhouse of the Brigittine Order, situated on Lake Wetter, in the Diocese of Linköping, ...

Vaga

A titular see of Numidia, frequently mentioned by historians and ancient geographers. Before ...

Vaillant de Gueslis, François

Jesuit missionary, born at Orlxans, 20 July, 1646; died at Moulins, 24 Sept., 1718. He entered ...

Vaison, Ancient Diocese of

(VASIONENSIS.) This was suppressed by the Concordat of 1801 , and its territory is now ...

Valdés, Alfonso de

Spanish Humanist and chancellor of the Emperor Charles V, born at Cuenca in Castile about 1500; ...

Valence, Diocese of

(VALENTINENSIS). See also UNIVERSITY OF VALENCE. Comprises the present Department of Drome. ...

Valence, University of

See also DIOCESE OF VALENCE . Erected 26 July, 1452, by letters patent from the Dauphin Louis, ...

Valencia

(VALENTINA). Archdiocese located in Spain ; comprises the civil Provinces of Valencia, ...

Valencia, University of

At the request of Jaime I the Conqueror, Innocent IV in 1246, authorized by a Bull the ...

Valens, Flavius

Emperor of the East, b. in Pannonia (now Hungary ) c. 328; d. near Adrianople, in Thrace, ...

Valentine, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died about October, 827. Valentine was by birth was Roman, belonging to the ...

Valentine, Saint

At least three different Saint Valentines, all of them martyrs, are mentioned in the early ...

Valentinian I

(FLAVIUS VALENTINIANUS). Emperor of the West, 364-75. Born at Cibalis (probably Mikanovici), ...

Valentinian II

(FLAVIUS VALENTINIANUS) Reigned 375-392; born in Gaul, about 371, murdered at Vienne, ...

Valentinian III

Reigned 425-55, b. at Ravenna, 3 July, 419; d. at Rome, 16 March, 455; son of Constantius III ...

Valentinus and Valentinians

Valentinus, the best known and most influential of the Gnostic heretics, was born according to ...

Valerian

(Publius Aurelius Licinius Valerianus). Roman emperor (253-60). Member of a distinguished ...

Validation of Marriage

Validation of marriage may be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises ...

Vallée-Poussin, Charles-Louis-Joseph-Xavier de la

Professor of geology and mineralogy at the Catholic University of Louvain (1863), doctor honoris ...

Valla, Lorenzo

(DELLA VALLE). Humanist and philosopher, b. at Rome, 1405; d. there, 1 Aug., 1457. His ...

Valladolid, Archdiocese of

(VALLISOLETANA). Bounded on the north by Palencia, east by Burgos and Segovia, south by ...

Valladolid, University of

The name of the founder and the date of foundation of the University of Valladolid are not known ...

Vallarsi, Dominic

An Italian priest, born at Verona, 13 November, 1702; died there, 14 August, 1771. He studied ...

Valle, Pietro della

Italian traveller in the Orient, b. at Rome, 2 April, 1586; d. there, 21 April, 1652. He ...

Valleyfield, Diocese of

(CAMPIVALLENSIS.) Valleyfield is a thriving city of about 10,000 inhabitants, situated at the ...

Vallgornera, Thomas de

Dominican theologian and ascetical writer, renowned for his learning and piety, born in ...

Valliscaulian Order

("Vallis Caulium", or "Val-des-Choux", the name of the first monastery of that order, in Burgundy ...

Vallo and Capaccio

(CAPUTAQUENSIS ET VALLENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Salerno. Capaccio is a city in the ...

Vallumbrosan Order

The name is derived from the motherhouse, Vallombrosa (Latin Vallis umbrosa, shady valley), ...

Valois, Henri

(HENRICUS VALESIUS). Philologist, b. at Paris, 10 Sept., 1603; d. at Paris, 7 May, 1676. He ...

Valona

Titular see, suffragan of Dyrrachium, in Epirus Nova. The ancient name was Aulon, mentioned for ...

Valroger, Hyacinthe de

French Oratorian, born at Caen, 6 January, 1814; died 10 October, 1876. He first studied ...

Valva and Sulmona, Dioceses of

(VALVEN. ET SULMONEN.) Located in Italy ; united aeque principaliter . Valva, a medieval ...

Valverde, Vincent de

Born at Oropesa, Spain towards the close of the fifteenth century; d. at the Island of ...

Van Beethoven, Ludwig

Born at Bonn, probably on 16 December, 1770; died at Vienna, 26 March, 1827. The date of his ...

Van Beneden, Pierre-Joseph

Born at Mechlin, Belgium, 19 Dec., 1809; died at Louvain, 8 Jan., 1894. Educated for the ...

Van Buren, William Home

Distinguished American surgeon, b. at Philadelphia, 5 April, 1819; d. at New York, 25 March, 1883. ...

Van Cleef, Jan

A Flemish painter, b. in Guelderland in 1646, d. at Ghent, 18 December, 1716. He was a pupil of ...

Van Cleef, Joost

(JOSSE VAN CLEVE). The "Madman", a Flemish painter born in Antwerp c. 1520, died c. 1556. ...

Van Cleef, Martin

A Flemish painter, born at Antwerp in 1520; died in 1570; was the son of the painter William ...

Van de Velde, Peter

(PEDRO CAMPAÑA). Painter, b. at Brussels, 1503; d. in that city in 1580. This artist ...

Van De Vyver, Augustine

Sixth Bishop of Richmond, Virginia ; b. at Haesdonck, East Flanders, Belgium, 1 Dec., 1844; ...

Van den Broek, Theodore J.

Priest and missionary, b. at Amsterdam, Holland, 5 Nov., 1783; d. at Little Chute, Wisconsin, 5 ...

Van der Bundere, Joannes

(VAN DEN BUNDERE). A Flemish theologian and controversialist, born of distinguished parents ...

Van der Sandt, Maximilian

(SANDAUS). Born at Amsterdam, 17 April, 1578; d. at Cologne, 21 June, 1656. He entered the ...

Van der Weyden, Rogier

Painter, b. at Tournai, 1399 or 1400; d. at Brussels, 1464. His original name was De la Pasture, ...

Van Eyck, Hubert and Jan

Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...

Vancouver

(VANCOUVERIENSIS). Archdiocese ; includes that part of the mainland of the Province of British ...

Vandal, Albert

French writer, b. at Paris, 7 July, 1853; d. there, 30 Aug., 1910. His father was director ...

Vandals

A Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans. According to Tacitus, they were ...

Vane, Thomas

The place and time of his birth and death are not known; but he was educated at Christ's ...

Vannes, Diocese of

(VENETENSIS). Comprises the Department of Morbihan, and was re-established by the Concordat ...

Vanni, Andrea

Painter and statesman, b. at Siena, 1320; d. 1414. He entered politics after the democratic ...

Vanni, Francesco

Painter, b. at Siena, 1565; d. there, 1609. Vanni was one of the better class of artists of the ...

Varani, Blessed Baptista

(Varano). An ascetical writer, b. at Camerino, in the Camerino, belonged to an illustrious ...

Vargas y Mexia, Francisco de

Spanish diplomat and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Madrid, date unknown; d. At the ...

Vargas, Luis de

Painter, b. at Seville, in 1502; d. there in 1568. He has two claims upon our attention; he was ...

Vasari, Giorgio

Painter, architect, and writer, b. at Arezzo, 1511; d. at Florence, 1574. Although an artist of ...

Vase, Altar

Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar. The Cæremoniale Episcoporum (I, xii, ...

Vasquez, Gabriel

Theologian, b. at Villaescusa de Haro, near Belmonte, Cuenca, 1549 or 1551; d. at Alcalá, ...

Vatable, François

(Or better WATEBLED, the name is also written GASTEBLED or OUATEBLE). French Hellenist and ...

Vatican as a Scientific Institution, The

Regarded from the point of view of scientific productivity, the Vatican is the busiest ...

Vatican Council

The Vatican Council, the twentieth and up to now [1912] the last ecumenical council, opened on 8 ...

Vatican Observatory

The Vatican Observatory now bears the official title, "Specola Astronomica Vaticana". To ...

Vatican, The

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Introduction; II. Architectural ...

Vaticanus, Codex

(CODEX B), a Greek manuscript, the most important of all the manuscripts of Holy Scripture . ...

Vaudreuil

Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil Governor of Canada, born in Languedoc, France, in the ...

Vaughan, Herbert

Cardinal, and third Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Gloucester, 15 April, 1832; d. at St. ...

Vaughan, Roger William

(B EDE ). Second Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Courtfield, Herefordshire, 9 January, 1834; ...

Vauquelin, Louis-Nicolas

Born at Saint-André d'Hebertot, Normandy, 16 May, 1763; died 14 Nov., 1829. In youth as ...

Vaux, Laurence

(V OSE ). Canon regular, author of a catechism, martyr in prison, b. at Blackrod, ...

Vaux-de-Cernay

A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in the Diocese of Versailles, Seine-et-Oise, in what was ...

Vavasour, Thomas

English Catholic physician, pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, b. about 1536-7; d. at ...

Vavasseur, François

Humanist and controversialist, b. at Paray-le-Monial, 8 Dec., 1605; d. at Paris, 16 Dec., ...

Vaz, Blessed Joseph

A Goanese priest, Apostle of Ceylon [ Sri Lanka ], b. at Goa, 21 April, 1651; d. at Kandy, 16 ...

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Ve 75

Vecchietta, Lorenzo di Pietro

Painter, sculptor, goldsmith, and architect, b. at Castiglione di Val d'Orcia, 1412; d. there, ...

Vedas

The sacred books of ancient India. The Sanskrit word veda means "knowledge", more particularly ...

Vega, Andreas de

Theologian and Franciscan Observantine, b. at Segovia in Old Castile, Spain, at unknown date ...

Veghe, Johannes

German preacher and religious writer, b. at Münster in Westphalia about 1435; d. there, 21 ...

Vegio, Maffeo

(MAPHEUS VEGIUS.) Churchman, humanist, poet, and educator, b. at Lodi, Italy, 1406; d. at ...

Veglia, Diocese of

(VEGIENSIS ET ARBENSIS). In Austria, suffragan of Görz-Gradisca. Parallel to the Dinaric ...

Vehe, Michael

Born at Bieberach near Wimpfen; died at Halle, April, 1559. He joined the Dominicans at Wimpfen, ...

Veil, Humeral

This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

Veil, Religious

In ancient Rome a red veil, or a veil with red stripes, distinguished newly-married women from ...

Veit, Philipp

Painter, b. at Berlin, 13 Feb., 1793; d. at Mainz, 18 Dec., 1877. Veit was a grandson of the ...

Veith, Johann Emanuel

Preacher, b. of Jewish parents at Kuttenplan, Bohemia, 1787; d. at Vienna, 6 Nov., 1876. In ...

Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y

Spanish painter, b. at Seville 5 June, 1599 (the certificate of baptism is dated 6 June); d. at ...

Venezuela

A republic formed out of the provinces which, under Spanish rule, constituted the captaincy ...

Veni Creator Spiritus

The "most famous of hymns " (Frere), is assigned in the Roman Breviary to Vespers (I and II) ...

Veni Sancte Spiritus Et Emitte Coelitus

The sequence for Pentecost (the "Golden Sequence "). It is sung at Mass from Whitsunday until ...

Veni Sancte Spiritus Reple

A prose invocation of the Holy Ghost . The Alleluia following the Epistle of Whitsunday ...

Venice

Venice, the capital of a province in Northern Italy, is formed of a group of 117 small islands ...

Venosa

(VENUSIN.) Diocese in Southern Italy. The city is situated on a high precipitous hill, one of ...

Ventimiglia

(VENTIMILIENSIS) Located in the Province of Porto Maurizio, northern Italy. The city is ...

Ventura di Raulica, Gioacchino

Italian pulpit orator, patriot, phyilosopher, b. at Palermo, 8 Dec., 1792; d. at Versailles, 2 ...

Venturino of Bergamo

Preacher, b. at Bergamo, 9 April, 1304; d. at Smyrna, 28 March, 1346. He received the habit of ...

Venusti, Raffaele

(VENOSTA.) Born at Tirano, Valtellina, northern Italy, about the end of the fifteenth ...

Vera Cruz

(VERAE CRUCIS or JALAPENSIS). Diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the Archbishopric ...

Verapoly, Archdiocese of

(VERAPOLITANA.) Located on the Malabar Coast, India, having the Diocese of Quilon as ...

Verbiest, Ferdinand

Missionary and astronomer, b. at Pitthem near Coutrai, Also spelled "Kortrijk" Belgium, 9 ...

Verbum Supernum Prodiens

The first line of two hymns celebrating respectively the Nativity of Christ and the Institution ...

Vercelli

(VERCELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy. The city of Vercelli ...

Vercellone, Carlo

Biblical scholar, born at Biella, Milan ; died at Rome, 19 January, 1869. He entered the Order ...

Verdaguer, Jacinto

Poet, b. at Riudeperas, Province of Barcelona, Spain, 17 April, 1845; d. at Vallvidrera, ...

Verdi, Giuseppe

Composer, b. at Le Roncole, Parma, Italy, 10 October, 1813; d. at S. Agata, near Busseto, 27 ...

Verdun, Diocese of

(VIRODUNENSIS.) Comprises the Department of the Meuse. Suppressed by the Concordat of 1802, ...

Verecundus

sentence --> Bishop of Junca, in the African Province of Byzacena, in the middle of the ...

Vergani, Paolo

Italian political economist, b. in Piedmont, 1753; d. in Paris, about 1820. As a student, he ...

Vergerio, Pier Paolo, the Elder

Humanist, statesman, and canonist, b. at Capodistria, 23 July, 1370; d. at Budapest, 8 July, 1444 ...

Vergil, Polydore

Born at Ubino about 1470; died there probably in 1555. Having studied at Bologna and Padua, he ...

Vergilius of Salzburg, Saint

Irish missionary and astronomer, of the eighth century. Vergilius (or Virgilius, in Irish ...

Vering, Friedrich Heinrich

A German canonist, b. at Liesborn in Westphalia, 9 March, 1833; d. at Prague, 30 March, 1896. ...

Vermont

One of the New England states, extends from the line of Massachusetts, on the south 42° 44' N. ...

Verna, La

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...

Vernazza, Tommasina

Born at Genoa, 1497; died there, 1587. Her father, Ettore Vernazza, was a patrician, founder of ...

Verne, Jules

Novelist, b. at Nantes, France, 1828; d. at Amiens, 1905. His first literary venture was a ...

Vernier, Pierre

Inventor of the instrument which bears his name, b. at Ornans, Franche-Comte, c. 1580; d. there, ...

Veroli, Diocese of

(VERULANA). Located in the Province of Rome. The city of Veroli (Verulae) is situated on the ...

Verona

(VERONENSIS.) Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The city, situated on both branches of ...

Veronica Giuliani, Saint

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

Veronica, Saint

In several regions of Christendom there is honored under this name a pious matron of ...

Verot, Augustin

Third Bishop of Savannah, first of St. Augustine, b. at Le Puy, France, May, 1804; d. at St. ...

Verrazano, Giovanni da

Navigator, b. about 1485, of good family, at Val di Greve, near Florence ; executed at Puerto ...

Verreau, Hospice-Anthelme

A French-Canadian priest, educator, and historian, b. at l'Islet, P.Q., 6 Sept., 1828, of Germain ...

Verri, Count Pietro

Economist, b. at Milan, Dec., 1728; d. there, 29 June, 1797. After studying at Monza, Rome, and ...

Verrocchio, Andrea del

Born at Florence, 1435; d. at Venice, 1488. He was called Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' ...

Versailles

(VERSALIENSIS). Diocese ; includes the Department of Seine-et-Oise, France. Created in ...

Versions of the Bible

Synopsis GREEK : Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions. VERSIONS FROM THE ...

Versions of the Bible, Coptic

DIALECTS The Coptic language is now recognized in four principal dialects, Bohairic (formerly ...

Verstegan, Richard

( Alias ROWLANDS). Publisher and antiquarian, born at London, about 1548; died at Antwerp ...

Vertin, John

Third Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A. b. at Doblice, Diocese of Laibach (Carniolia), Austria, 17 ...

Vertot, Réné-Aubert, Sieur de

French historian, b. at Benetot, Normandy, 25 Nov., 1655; d. in Paris, 15 June, 1735. He was for ...

Veruela

A celebrated Cistercian monastery and church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. It is situated ...

Vesalius, Andreas

(WESALIUS.) The reorganizer of the study of anatomy ; b. at Brussels, 31 Dec., 1514; d. in a ...

Vespasian

(TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS). Roman Emperor, b. at Reate (now Rieti ), the ancient capital of ...

Vespasiano da Bisticci

( Or FIORENTINO.) Florentine humanist and librarian, b. in 1421; d. in 1498. He was ...

Vespers

This subject will be treated under the following headings: I. Vespers in the sixth century; II. ...

Vespers, Music of

The texts (e.g. antiphons, psalms, hymn ) sung in Vespers vary according to the feast or the ...

Vespers, Sicilian

The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 ...

Vespucci, Amerigo

A famous Italian navigator, born at Florence, 9 March, 1451; died at Seville, 22 February, 1512. ...

Vessels, Altar

The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained. ...

Vestibule (in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Vestments

IN WESTERN EUROPE By liturgical vestments are meant the vestments that, according to the rules ...

Veszprém

(VESPRIMIENSIS.) Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, one of the sees founded about 1009 by ...

Veto, The Royal

(In the appointment of Bishops in Ireland and England.) Although the penal laws enacted ...

Vetter, Conrad

Preacher and polemical writer, b. at Engen in the present Grand Duchy of Baden, 1547; d. at ...

Veuillot, Louis

Journalist and writer, b. at Boynes, Loiret, 11 Oct., 1813; d. in Paris, 7 April, 1883. He was ...

Vexiö, Ancient See of

(WEPIONENSIS.) The Ancient See of Vexiö, in Sweden, comprised the County of Kronoberg ...

Vexilla Regis Prodeunt

This "world-famous hymn, one of the grandest in the treasury of the Latin Church " (Neale), and ...

Vezzosi, Antonio Francesco

Member of the Theatine Congregation and biographical writer, born at Arezzo, Italy, 4 October, ...

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Vi 116

Via Crucis

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Via Dolorosa

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Viader, José

Born at Gallimes, Catalonia, 27 August, 1765. He received the habit of St. Francis at Barcelona ...

Vianney, Saint Jean-Baptiste-Marie

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...

Viaticum

Name Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a ...

Viator, Clerics of Saint

St. Viator, lector of the cathedral at Lyons, France, lived in the fourth century and is the ...

Viborg, Ancient See of

(VIBERGAE, VIBERGENSIS.) The ancient See of Viborg, in Denmark, comprised the Province of ...

Vicar

( Latin vicarius , from vice , "instead of") In canon law, the representative of a person ...

Vicar Apostolic

(1) In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the ...

Vicar Capitular

The administrator of a vacant diocese, elected by a cathedral chapter. On the death of a ...

Vicar of Christ

(Latin Vicarius Christi ). A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal ...

Vicar-General

The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary. He is a cleric legitimately deputed to ...

Vicari, Hermann von

Archbishop of Freiburg in Baden, b. at Aulendorf in Wurtemberg, 13 May, 1773; d. at Freiburg, ...

Vicariate Apostolic (Updated List)

The following is an account of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and of those changed so ...

Vice

( Latin vitium , any sort of defect) is here regarded as a habit inclining one to sin. It is ...

Vicelinus, Saint

Bishop of Oldenburg, apostle of Holstein, b. at Hameln about 1086; d. 12 Dec., 1154. Orphaned ...

Vicente, Gil

Portuguese dramatist, b. about 1470; he was living in 1536. He took up the study of law but ...

Vicenza, Diocese of

(VICENTINA). The city is the capital of a province in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The ...

Vich, Diocese of

(Vicensis, Ausonensis). Suffragan of Tarragona, bounded on the north by Gerona, on the east ...

Vico, Francescoe de

Astronomer, b. at Macerata, States of the Church, 19 May, 1805; d. at London, England, 15 Nov., ...

Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani

The first stanza of the Easter sequence. Medieval missals placed it on various days within the ...

Victor

Bishop of Tunnunum (Tonnenna, Tunnuna) in Northern Africa and zealous supporter of the Three ...

Victor I, Pope Saint

(189-198 or 199), date of birth unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" makes him a native of Africa ...

Victor II, Pope

(GEBHARD, COUNT OF CALW, TOLLENSTEIN, AND HIRSCHBERG.) Born about 1018; died at Arezzo, 28 ...

Victor III, Pope Blessed

(DAUFERIUS or DAUFAR). Born in 1026 or 1027 of a non-regnant branch of the Lombard dukes of ...

Victor IV

Two antipopes of this name. I. Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II ...

Victor of Capua

A sixth-century bishop about whose life nothing is known except what is found in his epitaph ...

Victor Vitensis

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Victoria

(VICTORIEN. IN INS. VANCOUVER.) Diocese in southwestern British Columbia, of which province it ...

Victoria Nyanza, Northern

The Mission of Victoria Nyanza, founded in 1878 by the White Fathers of Cardinal Lavigerie, was ...

Victoria Nyanza, Southern

Vicariate apostolic erected from the mission of Nyanza, 13 June, 1894, lies north of the ...

Victorinus, Caius Marius

(Called also VICTORINUS MARIUS, or MARIUS FABIUS VICTORINUS, and frequently referred to as ...

Victorinus, Saint

An ecclesiastical writer who flourished about 270, and who suffered martyrdom probably in 303, ...

Vida, Marco Girolamo

Italian Humanist, b. at Cremona about 1490; d. in 1566. He came to Rome under Julius II ; a ...

Vieira, Antonio

Missionary, diplomat, orator, b. at Lisbon, 6 February, 1608; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 July, 1697. ...

Viel, Nicholas

Died 1625, the first victim of apostolic zeal on the shores of the St. Lawrence. After ...

Vienna

Vienna -- the capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin ...

Vienna, University of

Foundation of the University Next to the University of Prague that of Vienna is the oldest ...

Vienne, Council of

Pope Clement V, by the Bull "Regnans in coelis" of 12 Aug., 1308, called a general council to ...

Vierthaler, Franz Michael

A distinguished Austrian pedagogue, b. at Mauerkirchen, Upper Austria, 25 September, 1758; d. ...

Vieta, François

(VIÈTE.) Father of modern algebra, b. at Fontenay-le-Comte (Poitou), 1540; d. in ...

Viger, Denis-Benjamin

French-Canadian statesman and writer, b. at Montreal, 19 Aug., 1774; d. 1861. After studying ...

Viger, Jacques

French-Canadian antiquarian and archaeologist, b. at Montreal, 7 May, 1787; d. 12 Dec., 1858. ...

Vigevano

(VIGLEVANENSIS.) Diocese in Lombardy, Province of Pavia. The city is a great agricultural ...

Vigilius

Bishop of Tapsus, in the African Province of Byzacena. Mentioned in the "Notitia" appended to ...

Vigilius, Pope

Reigned 537-55, date of birth unknown; died at Syracuse, 7 June 555. He belonged to a ...

Vigilius, Saint

Bishop of Trent, martyr, patron of Trent and of Tyrol, b. c. 353; d. 26 June, 405; feast 26 ...

Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi da

A theoretical and practical architect of the Transition Period between the Renaissance and ...

Vigor, Simon

French bishop and controversialist, b. at Evreux, Normandy, about 1515; d. at Carcassonne, 1 ...

Vikings

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

Villalpandus, Juan Bautista

Born at Cordova, Spain, in 1552; entered the Society of Jesus in 1575; died on 22 May, 1608. His ...

Villani, Giovanni

Florentine historian, b. about 1276; d. of the plague in 1348. Descended from a wealthy family ...

Villanovanus, Arnaldus

(ARNALDUS OF VILLANUEVA, or VILLENEUVE, or BACHUONE). Celebrated in his day as a physician, ...

Villefranche, Jacques-Melchior

Publicist, b. at Couzon-sur-Saone, 17 Dec., 1829; d. at Bourg, 10 May, 1904. After excellent ...

Villehardouin, Geoffroi de

Maréchal de Champagne, warrior, and first historian in the French language, b. about 1150; ...

Villeneuve-Barcement, Jean-Paul-Alban

Vicomte de, b. at Saint-Auban, Var, 8 Aug., 1784; d. at Paris, 8 June, 1850. After having taken ...

Villermé, Louis-René

French economist, b. at Paris, 10 March, 1782; d. there, 16 Nov., 1863. He was devoted to ...

Villers, Cistercian Abbey of

Situated on the confines of Villers and Tilly, Duchy of Brabant, present Diocese of Namur ...

Vilna

(VILENSIS). Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, is situated at the junction of the Rivers ...

Vincent de Paul, Saint

Born at Pouy, Gascony, France, in 1580, though some authorities have said 1576; died at Paris, ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint

A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint (New York)

(Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of ...

Vincent de Paul, Society of Saint

An international association of Catholic laymen engaging systematically in personal service of ...

Vincent Ferrer, Saint

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

Vincent Kadlubek, Blessed

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Vincent of Beauvais

Priest and encyclopedist. Little is known of his personal history. The years of his birth and ...

Vincent of Lérins, Saint

Feast on 24 May, an ecclesiastical writer in Southern Gaul in the fifth century. His work is ...

Vincent, Saint

(MALDEGARIUS). Founder and abbot of the monasteries of Hautmont and Soignies, b. of a noble ...

Vincent, Saint

Deacon of Saragossa, and martyr under Diocletian, 304; mentioned in the Roman Martyrology, 22 ...

Vincentians

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Vincenzo de Vit

Latinist, b. at Mestrina, near Padua, 10 July, 1810; d. at Domo d'Ossola, 17 Aug., 1892. He made ...

Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Vindicianus, Saint

Bishop of Cambrai - Arras, b. if tradition is to be believed, perhaps at Beaulaincourt, near ...

Vineam Domini

An Apostolic Constitution issued by Clement XI against the Jansenists on 16 July, 1705. It ...

Violence

Violence ( Latin vis ), an impulse from without tending to force one without any concurrence on ...

Viotti, Giovanni Battista

Founder of the modern school of violinist, b. at Fontanetto, Piedmont, 23 May, 173; d. 3 ...

Viraggio, Jacopo di

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Virgilius, Saint

(VIRGILE). Archbishop of Arles, died c. 610. According to a life written in the eighth ...

Virgin Birth of Christ

The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, ...

Virgin Mary, Devotion to the

Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...

Virgin Mary, Name of

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...

Virgin Mary, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

Virginia

Surnamed "The Old Dominion", "The Mother of States and of Statesmen", one of the thirteen original ...

Virginity

Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous ...

Virtue

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Definitions; II. Subjects; III. ...

Virtue, Heroic

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

Vischer, Peter

Sculptor and metal founder, b. at Nuremberg about 1460; d. in 1529. His father Hermann, who ...

Visdelou, Claude de

Born at the Château de Bienassis, Pléneuf, Brittany, 122 Aug., 1656; died at ...

Visigoths

One of the two principal branches of the Goths. Until 375 their history is combined with that of ...

Visions

This article will deal not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to ...

Visit ad Limina

(Sc. Apostolorum ) The visit ad limina means, technically, the obligation incumbent on ...

Visitation Convent, Georgetown

Located in the District of Columbia , United States of America . This convent was founded by ...

Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

I. THE EVENT Assuming that the Annunciation and the Incarnation took place about the vernal ...

Visitation Order

The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and ...

Visitation, Canonical

The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or ...

Visitors Apostolic

Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates. Visitors differ from other Apostolic ...

Visits to the Blessed Sacrament

By this devotional practice, which is of comparatively modern development, the presence of ...

Vitalian, Pope Saint

(Reigned 657-72). Date of birth unknown; d. 27 January, 672. Nothing is known of Vitalian's ...

Vitalini, Bonifazio

(DE VITALINIS). Jurist, b. at Mantua, Italy, about 1320; d. at Avignon after 1388. After ...

Vitalis and Agricola, Saints

Martyred at Bologna about 304 during Diocletian's persecution. Agricola, who was beloved for ...

Vitalis of Savigny, Saint

Founder of the monastery and Congregation of Savigny (1112), b. at Tierceville near Bayeaux ...

Vitalis, Saint

Martyr. His legend, which is of little historical value, relates that he was martyred by order ...

Vitelleschi, Muzio

Born at Rome 2 Dec., 1563; died there 9 Feb., 1645. He belonged to a distinguished family but ...

Vitellius, Lucius

Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, ...

Vitensis, Victor

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Vitoria

(VICTORIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Burgos, in Spain, bounded on the north by the Bay of ...

Vittorino da Feltre

(VITTORINO DE' RAMBALDONI). Humanist educator, b. at Feltre, 1397; d. at Mantua, 1446. He was ...

Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia, Saints

According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...

Viva, Domenico

Writer, b. at Lecce, 19 Oct., 1648; d. 5 July, 1726. He entered the Society of Jesus 12 May, ...

Vivarini

A family of Italian painters. Alvise Vivarini Born in 1446 or 1447; died in 1502. He was the ...

Vives, Juan Luis

Spanish humanist and philosopher, b. at Valencia, 6 March, 1492; d. at Bruges, 6 May, 1540. ...

Viviers

(VIVARIUM). Diocese ; includes the Department of Ardèche, France. It was suppressed ...

Vivisection

Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures; ordinarily it ...

Vizagapatam, Diocese of

Located in the east of India, suffragan to Madras. It is bounded on the north by the River ...

Vizeu

(VISENSIS). Diocese in north central Portugal. The bishopric dates from the sixth century and ...

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Vladimir the Great, Saint

(VLADIMIR or VOLODOMIR). Grand Duke of Kieff and All Russia, grandson of St. Olga, and the ...

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Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious

An ecclesiastical or religious vocation is the special gift of those who, in the Church of God, ...

Vogüé, Eugène-Melchior, Vicomte de

Critic, novelist, and historian, born at Nice, 25 February, 1848; died in Paris, 24 February, ...

Vogler, George Joseph

Theorist, composer and organist, b. at Würzburg, 15 June 1749, d. at Darmstadt, 6 May, ...

Volk, Wilhelm

(Pseudonym, LUDWIG CLARUS). Born at Halberstadt 25 Jan., 1804; died at Erfurt 17 March, 1869. ...

Volksverein

(PEOPLE'S UNION) FOR CATHOLIC GERMANY. A large and important organization of German Catholics ...

Volta, Alessandro

Physicist, b. at Como, 18 Feb., 1745; d. there, 5 March, 1827. As his parents were not in ...

Volterra

(VOLTARRANENSIS). Diocese in Tuscany. The city stands on a rocky mountain 1770 feet above the ...

Volterra, Daniele da

(RICCIARELLI). Italian painter, b. at Volterra, 1509; d. in Rome, 1566. Ricciarelli was called ...

Voluntarism

Voluntarism ( Latin voluntas , will) in the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which ...

Voluntary

Wilful, proceeding from the will. It is requisite that the thing be an effect of the will ...

Voluntary Association, Right of

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

Von Gagern, Max, Freiherr

Born at Weilburg (in Nassau), Germany, 25 March, 1810; died at Vienna, 17 October, 1889. He was ...

Vondel, Joost van Den

Netherland poet and convert, b. at Cologne, 17 Nov., 1587, of parents whose residence was ...

Voragine, Jacopo de

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Votive Mass

( Missa votiva ) A Mass offered for a votum , a special intention. So we frequently find ...

Votive Offerings

The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in ...

Votive Offices

A votive office is one not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying ...

Vows

I. GENERAL VIEW A vow is defined as a promise made to God. The promise is binding, and so differs ...

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Vrau, Philibert

"The holy man of Lille ", organizer of numerous Catholic activities; b. at Lille, 19 Nov., ...

Vrie, Theodoric

Historian of the Council of Constance . He describes himself as a brother of the Order of ...

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