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Prisons

I. IN ANCIENT TIMES

Many jurisconsults and Scriptural interpreters include imprisonment among the number of penalties recognized in Hebrew legislation, but the fact may well be questioned. However, on the coming of the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar, there were at least three prisons at Jerusalem, and, about the same time, the names of the places of detention were expressive of the regime to which the culprits were subjected, such as Beth ha-keli (house of detention), Beth haasourim (house of those in chains), Beth ha-mah-pecheth (from the name of an instrument for chaining the hands and feet), and Bor (cistern, underground receptacle) [cf. Thonissen, "Etudes sur l'histoire du droit criminel des peuples anciens" (Brussels, 1869)].

At Athens imprisonment was imposed as a penalty, though this is doubted by many. It seems there was only one prison placed under the authority of the Eleven. The prisoners were not isolated and could be visited by their friends and the members of their family. Some were deprived of freedom of movement by having their feet attached to wooden blocks (Thonissen, "Le droit pénal de la république athénienne", 1875). At Rome there still remains at the foot of the Capitol the ancient Mamertine prison. It comprised an upper portion and a dungeon, the Tullianum. The prisoners were enclosed in the former which was lighted only by narrow loopholes, and, if they were condemned to death, they were thrown into the dungeon through an opening in its roof, to be strangled like Cataline's accomplices or starve to death like Jugurtha. Their naked corpses were then thrown out on the steps on the Gemonies. Imprisonment, which the laws did not usually pronounce, was of two kinds, simple detention or detention in chains. It was for life or for a time, according to the gravity of the offence. The supervision of the public prisons at Rome was entrusted to the triumviri capitales. Under the empire perpetual imprisonment was abolished theoretically, imprisonment being considered not so much a penalty as a means of supervising culprits. The care of the jails, up to the middle of the third century, was included among the duties of the triumviri capitales. In the provinces a more regular administration entirely under military control was then being instituted. At first the accused do not seem to have been separated from the convicted, nor were the sexes kept apart; though there are instances of solitary imprisonment (Humbert in Daremburg and Saglio, "Dict. des antiquités grecques et romaines", s.v. Career).

II. INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY

It was natural that when Christians were being hunted down and cast into jail for their faith, the Church should recommend the faithful to visit the prisoners. The deacons and deaconesses were especially charged with the care of the incarcerated Christians, bringing them the comfort of religion, food, clothing, and especially money, which was needed to procure certain mitigations, even liberty. The deaconesses more particularly were appointed to this office, for in visiting the Christians they ran less risk of awakening the suspicion of the pagans. At an early period the bishops began to purchase the liberty of the prisoners. For this they made collections, and if the receipts were not sufficient, they sold the church property. Not only their own flock but the Christians in distant lands were objects of their charitable zeal. Debtors, towards whom Rome was so heartless, were not forgotten. Justinian granted private debtors the right of asylum in the house of God, but only if the creditors abused their rights ; this favour was not, however, extended to public or state debtors. The Church, the help of sinners, could not but extend her assistance and protection to criminals; for crime is primarily a sin. In the earliest times, as soon as more peaceful days had dawned, she endeavoured to free them from prison, to punish and correct them in another way. For this she employed three means.

  • The paschal indulgence. By virtue of an edict of Valentinian I in 367 all prisons were opened at Easter and the prisoners set free. This edict was called the indulgentia pascalis. The privilege was not extended to those arrested for sacrilege, poisoning, treason, adultery, rapine, or murder. Valentinian the Younger, Theodosius, and Theodoric issued similar edicts, but they excluded in addition recidivists.
  • The right of asylum. Under Constantine the Church had the right of asylum, which was granted also by his successors. Charlemagne ordained in a capitulary that no one taking refuge in a church should be taken from it by force, but should be unmolested till the court had pronounced its decision. This privilege in the course of time was abused and consequently was abolished. The right of asylum was not extended to adulterers, ravishers of young girls, or public debtors; it was confined to those who were unjustly pursued.
  • The right of intercession. The bishops had the right to ask the civil judge to pardon condemned prisoners, especially those sentenced to death ; frequently, however, they petitioned to have prisoners discharged.
In the course of time, through the influence of the Church, the lot of prisoners was greatly improved. The Council of Nicaea (325) ordered the procuratores pauperum to visit the jails and offer their services. The Synod of Orléans (549) obliged the archdeacon to see all the prisoners on Sundays. The active intervention of the Church began in the days of Constantine the Great and continued for a long period. The bishops and priests were invited and authorized to supervise the conduct of the judges, to visit prisoners on a certain weekday, Wednesdays or Fridays, and find out the reason of their imprisonment, to speak with them about their position and wants, to inform the proper authorities of any defects they noticed and to have changes made. During the Middle Ages this right and duty was enforced only here and there. St. Charles Borromeo was a great reformer and reorganized the whole prison system in his diocese, even to the smallest details, on an essentially humanitarian and Christian basis. The clergyman deputed by the bishop to look after the prisoners had to inquire constantly "quae illorum cura adhibeatur, cum in primis ad animae salutem, tum etiam ad corporis sustentationem", i.e. what care was taken of them, first in regard to their spiritual needs and then as to their physical welfare. Influence of the Papacy

The influence of the Papacy also was very great, and the prison system at Rome became a model. Popes Eugenius IV (1435), Paul V (1611), and Innocent X (1655) passed regulations improving the conditions of prisoners, until finally Clement XI (1703), by constructing St. Michael's prison, introduced the most essential change needed to ameliorate the penal system: the construction of a house of correction for youthful offenders, as is recorded in the inscription on the façade "Perditis adolescentibus corrigendis instituendisque ut qui inertes oberant instructi reipulicae serviant" (for the correction and education of abandoned youths; that they who, without training, were detrimental to the State, may, with training, be of service to it). The methods employed to reclaim culprits were separation, silence, work, and prayer. Each prisoner had his cell at night, but all worked in common during the day. A religious confraternity supervised them and undertook their education. Each one was taught a trade, and was encouraged by a system of rewards. The punishments consisted in bread and water diet, work in their cells, black holes, and flogging. In the large workshop of the jail was inscribed the motto: "Parum est coercere improbos poena nisi probos efficias disciplina" (It avails little to punish the wicked unless you reform them by discipline ). In 1735 Clement XII erected a prison for women on the model of St. Michael's. If Clement is considered the creator of the modern penitentiary system, it must be pointed out that at Amsterdam the principle of separation at night and work in common during the day had been introduced in 1603 (Von Hippel, "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Freiheitstrafe" in "Zeitschr. fur die Gesch. Straf.", 1897, p. 437, and Roux, "Revue pénitentiaire", 1898, p. 124 sqq.), and that the work of the Dutch inspired many imitators in Germany and Italy, where learned jurisconsults proclaimed that the reformation of the culprit was the object of punishment (Rivière, "Revue penitentiaire", 1895, p. 1152). A priest, Filippo Franci, after experimenting at Venice and Naples on the effect of separating prisoners according to sex, age, and social rank, succeeded in making his house of refuge at Florence ( casa pia di refulgio ), by the application of individual separation, a model establishment for the correctional education of children.

Influence of the Religious Orders

In the Middle Ages the Church founded religious orders which bound themselves by vow to the redemption of captives; the Trinitarians, or Mathurins, established in 1198 by St. John of Matha and Felix de Valois, and the Nolascans, founded in 1223. In Spain, France, and especially Italy, there were, moreover, associations or confraternities labouring to improve the condition of prisoners: the Confraternità della Misericordia and the Compagnia di Santa Maria della croce al Tempio detta de Neri at Florence, the Pia Casa di Misericordia at Pisa, the Casa della pietà at Venice, etc. Besides the prisons depending on the State, there were prisons under the control of the religious authorities. Each convent had one or at times two prisons in which religious were incarcerated. The term of imprisonment was temporal or perpetual. The culprit had to do penance and amend his ways. He was isolated and often chained. Generally the discipline was severe; not unfrequently corporal punishment was added to incarceration and the prisoner put on bread and water. The Church had the right to punish clerics for penal offences and had its own episcopal prisons, but from the middle of the sixteenth century, as a result of the changed relations of Church and State, the privilegium fori disappeared and the State resumed its right of punishing clerics in non-religious matters. In the episcopal prisons clerics were treated more gently than were the monks in convent prisons, nevertheless in certain cases the discipline was very rigorous. The Church had jurisdiction also over the laity in offences of a religious character. Finally, it created a new procedure, differing from the ordinary, viz. The inquisitorial procedure in cases of heresy. Imprisonment was the severest punishment the inquisitors could inflict directly. According to the inquisitional theory, it was not really a punishment, but a means for the culprit to obtain pardon for his crimes, and to amend and be converted, while close supervision prevented him from infecting the rest of the flock. The prisoners were subjected to two regimes: the severe and the milder; but, in either case, the captive was given only bread and water; he was confined to a cell, and forbidden all communication, though the latter provision was not strictly enforced. Those under the milder discipline could, if they behaved well, take a little exercise in the corridors, a privilege granted also to the aged and infirm. Those condemned to the severe regime were cast fettered into a narrow dark cell; sometimes they were chained to the walls. The prisons were constructed without any regard to the health or convenience of the inmates, and the condition of the latter was wretched. The Inquisition sometimes commuted or remitted the punishment. The remission was ad tempus , for a longer or shorter period, according to the case.

III. MODERN PRISON REFORMS

In spite of these efforts to better the prison system in earlier days there was much room for improvement in the buildings, diet, and discipline. Usually the main object of the authorities was to punish rather than to reform the culprit. Not unfrequently the greatest criminals and persons convicted of trifling offences were imprisoned together. Fortunately, after the construction of St. Michael's prison by Clement XI, the development of cellular imprisonment went on uninterruptedly. From Central Italy the movement spread towards Northern Italy, to Turin (erection of the House of Good Counsel, 1757), Venice (1760), Milan, where Empress Maria Theresa established in 1759 a house of correction containing 140 cells, 25 of which were for women and 20 for children. From Milan the system, as might be expected, was introduced almost immediately into the Austrian Low Countries where Maria Theresa's efforts were earnestly seconded by Viscount Jean Vilain XIV, Burgomaster of Ghent (Vicomte Vilain XIV, "Mémoires sur les moyens de corriger les malfaiteurs", Brussels, 1841). At his suggestion the celebrated prison of Ghent, finished in 1775, was erected (Holtzendorf, "Handbuch", I, pl. 3, gives the plan of this prison). The system adopted there was isolation by night and work in common by day. Moreover a division of the culprits according to juridical and moral classification was seriously undertaken.

A general change in prison discipline was effected through the efforts of John Howard the philanthropist, b. in 1726 at Hackney, London (Rivière, "Howard, sa vie, son oeuvre" in "Revue pénitentiaire", 1891, pp. 662 sqq.; Howard-Wines, "Punishment and Reformation ", 122 sqq.; Krohne, "Lehrbuch"; Cuche, "Traité de science et de législation pénitentiares", 304). Having visited the prisons of England, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, Turkey, and North America, he published in 1744 a remarkable work, "State of the prisons in England and Wales with preliminary observations and an account of some foreign prisons". Howard described the wretched conditions of the prisons: imprisonment in common without regard to age or sex, want of space, bad food, damp and vitiated air, want of light, filth, immorality, the use of spirituous liquors, gambling with cards and dice. After noting the evils, he proposes the remedies. It is on a religious training of the prisoners that he relies most for a reform; the second great means is work; he holds that society is bound by the ties of brotherhood and even by the hope of reclaiming the culprit, to provide him with proper food and subject him to a hygienic regime; he favoured the separation of prisoners, though he did not approve of the system of shutting them alone in cells both by day and night, except for certain classes of culprits; all others he would separate only during the night. Howard was the interpreter of the opinion of the civilized world. It is interesting to note the results of this change of opinion in the different countries, or, at least, to point out the original systems.

United States of America

(1) The Pennsylvania system is the work of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, founded in 1776. The fundamental idea of this regime is rigorous and continued isolation to excite to repentance and lead the culprit to a better life. At first the system was carried to such an extreme that the cells were without light in order that the darkness might act more powerfully on the prisoner's mind and conscience. Some writers say that the culprits had no work to do, but that is uncertain. The Pennsylvania system, in its rigorous form as it was originally established, prevented, it is true, the mutual corruption of the prisoners and the planning of crimes to be committed on their release, which are the negative effects of individual separation; but it was not suited to produce positive results, that is, an awakening of the moral sense in man left to his own meditations; the cell can have an influence for moral good only when it enables the reflections of solitude to be guided and strengthened by outside influences (Cuche, op. cit., 312 sqq.).

(2) The system of Auburn or silence (Chestel, "Avantages du Système d'Auburn", 1900), introduced in the State of New York, consists in isolating the prisoners only at night, in making them work together in strict silence during the day, and in separating them according to age and morality. This is, in general, the same as the regime of the prisons of Amsterdam, St. Michael, and Ghent. The principal objection urged against it is the difficulty of enforcing silence, and of preventing the inmates from communicating with one another. Moreover, such unnatural life makes the culprits irascible.

(3) In the so-called system of classification, the prisoners are divided not only according to sex, age, degree of guilt, aptitude for work, but also according to their moral character and the possibility of amendment; in each division work is in common. Such a system depending entirely on the judgment of the governor of the jail seems difficult to carry out in practice.

(4) In the mitigated Pennsylvania system, the inmates are isolated in cells day and night; they are separated also in church, in school, and on the grounds, but they work at a lucrative trade, read books, are visited by members of the prison staff, are allowed to received their relations from time to time, and may write to them.

(5) The state reformatories are intended to provide rigorous training for prisoners between the ages of sixteen and thirty who give hope of being corrected; the indeterminate sentence is the basis and the paroling of prisoners the completion of this system. The model established is the Reformatory at Elmira (Aschrott, "Aus dem Strafen u. Gefängnisswesen Nordamerikas", 1889; Winter, "Die New-Yorker staatliche Besserungsanstalten zu Elmira", 1890; Yoon, "Rapport sur l'organisation pénitentiare aux Etats-Unis" in "Revue pénitentiare", 1895; Barrows, "The Reformatory System in the United States ";, Washington, Govt. Printing Office, 1900; Sanborn, "Rapport sur le Reformatory d'Elmira"; Cuche, op. cit., 358 sqq.). The committee of directors release, before the end of their term, those who deserve this favour. The convicts are isolated at night; and in the daytime receive a professional, physical, and intellectual training. Every opportunity is taken to provide for the moral and religious improvement of the culprits. It is not the object of the system to train the prisoners only at specified hours but rather to do so continually, by bringing them into constant contact with an intelligent and devoted staff of instructors, and thus gradually inspire better resolutions. A last characteristic of the system is the multiplication of classifications and gradations. The reward consists in being promoted from trade to grade, which results in an increase of comfort and a greater remuneration for manual work; the punishment in a corresponding descent. When he has been promoted to the first class or category, the convict, if his conduct during the preceding six months has been satisfactory, may be let out on parole. Generally a situation is found for him, and his employer sends in regularly an account of his conduct to the administration of the reformatory; certain officers are, moreover, appointed to watch over the paroled convicts and are authorized to arrest them and bring them back to the reformatory if their conduct is not satisfactory. This last stage of freedom on parole lasts six months, after which the prisoners are discharged from prison for good. (For treatment of juvenile offenders see JUVENILE COURTS.)

Great Britain

Captain Maconochie introduced about 1840 a special system called the progressive into the convict settlement of Norfolk Island. This system consisted in proportioning the duration of the punishment to the work done and the good conduct of the convict. The duration was represented by a certain figure or number of good marks settled according to the gravity of the crime. The culprit had to merit these good marks before being liberated; each day he was awarded one or more, according to his work; if his conduct was unsatisfactory a slight penalty was imposed. Maconochie thus gave the convict the control of his own lot. The results were marvellous. When transportation was abolished, England remained faithful to the idea of making imprisonment in a cell only a small part of the penalty, and of gradually preparing the convict to return to society when he had gained his complete freedom. This system comprises the following stages:

  • The prisoner is at first confined to the cells for nine months.
  • He is then sent to one of the central public works prisons, Chatham, Dover, or Plymouth, where the Auburn regime is in force -- separation at night, work in common during the day. The culprits are divided into four classes, according to their work and conduct, by means of a system of marks, enabling them to reach a higher grade. Violation of discipline relegates them to a lower grade and even to the cells.
  • The third period is one of conditional liberty, the prisoner being liberated on a ticket-of-leave. In Ireland Walter Crofton devised an intermediate stage between the public jail and conditional liberty. To test the moral character of the convict and to see if he was fit for liberty, he was compelled to reside six months in the prison at Lusk, a prison without walls, bars, or bolts, where the culprits were employed as free workmen in agriculture or a trade. This intermediate state was abolished when Crofton's connection with the Irish prisons ceased.
  • The progressive system has been adopted in Hungary ; during the intermediate stage the prisoners are employed on farms. What characterizes the regime of penal servitude, in addition to its progressive organization, is the nature of the work imposed on the prisoners. In the second stage the prisoners are engaged only in public works. The jail at Wormwood-Scrubs was built entirely by convicts, as were the breakwater at Portsmouth and part of the docks at Chatham, etc. Prins (Science penale et droit positif, p. 445 sq. believes that the progressive regime, while not perfect, offers perhaps more scope than the purely cellular system, as it approaches more closely the normal conditions of life. The successive stages bring the convict nearer to liberty, and enable him to appreciate the advantages, the dangers, the meaning, and significance of freedom. The shops, where groups of prisoners work under the control of the authorities, accustom them to the conditions of free work. Riviere and Cuche, viewing the question from another standpoint, hold that if the common prison is only a preparatory school for recidivists, it still retains that character when it is imposed on a criminal who has just completed his stay in the cells. Persons who have caught a cold are not placed in a draught to fortify them against the draughts they must be exposed to later. At all events, what may have succeeded in one country or in the case of a particular race might produce evil results if applied elsewhere (Cuche, op. cit., 325). Belgium

    When a discussion arises among prison experts as to the merits and demerits of the cell, the typical example is always the Belgian cell says Cuche (cf. "Notice sur l'organisation des prisons en Belgique", Brussels, 1910). It is necessary, therefore, to study it in detail. The cellular regime is due to Ducpetiaux, Inspector-General of Prisons, who, in 1830, determined to put an end to the abuses of the penitentiary system in vogue in Belgium, and to place the criminal in a cell, compensating for the severity of the punishment by curtailing its duration. Although he soon had the satisfaction of seeing his plan succeed so far as to have cellular jail erected, it was only on 4 March, 1870, that cellular imprisonment was adopted by law. All penalties of deprivation of liberty are undergone under the regime of cellular isolation by day and night. The rule, however, admits of exceptions. The physical or mental condition of some prisoners will not allow the application or continuance of cellular discipline. Again the crowding of the cellular jails sometimes makes it necessary to allow the prisoners to be put together. Finally, those who are condemned to hard labour or perpetual imprisonment are isolated only during the first ten years in prison. At the expiration of that time, those condemned to a life sentence are allowed to choose either to continue their form of imprisonment or to be placed under ordinary discipline. From 1870 to 1909, 170 (76 per cent) selected to continue their cellular life, and 55 (24 per cent) choose the ordinary discipline.

    The cellular system as it exists in Belgium is considered at present the most practical, though criminologists and practical experts are far from agreeing on the advantages and inconveniences of the cell, except in the cases of short terms, when there is unanimity. "The real value of a penitential institution is in no way absolute", says Cuche (op. cit., p. 331); "we have merely to see if its advantages are considerably greater than its inconveniences; it must be remembered, too, that its merit is greatly increased when intelligent and devoted men are in charge of the establishment. If it be laid down as a principle that the prisoners shall be subjected to the cellular regime only as long as is judged proper by the physician who shall examine them on their admission and visit them regularly afterwards during the course of their punishment; if there be an official staff and a sufficient number of visitors to preserve the social element in each prisoner; finally if, in confining prisoners to their cells, due discrimination as to sex, age, and race is made, the evil results of prolonged isolation will in large measure disappear". M. Henri Joly ("Problèmes de science criminellel", Paris, 1910, pp. 195, 211), who visited the central prison of Louvain on three occasions, was very favourably impressed by the system; he recognized that an excellent programme is being carried out: the prisoner is separated as much as possible from his fellows, and brought into contact as far as possible with society properly so-called, with which he maintains the best relations; his only regrets are that there are so many prisoners and that conditional liberations are granted so rarely.

    Proportional and progressive reductions of the term of incarceration are granted. The rule in force reduces a sentence of 6 months to 4 months and 23 days; a year to 9 months and 12 days; 3 years to 2 years, 1 month, and 8 days; 5 years to 3 years, 5 months, and 10 days; 10 years to 6 years, 3 months, and 9 days; 20 years to 9 years, 9 months, and 12 days. The legislature not having provided cases in which the original sentence is between 20 and 25 years, a conditional liberation is granted to the prisoner when he would have been definitely liberated if he had been granted a reduction of 10-12 of the years over 20. Experience shows that a mathematical reduction, uniform in every case, ignoring the principle of the individualization of the penalty, does not meet the necessity of repression. The only result of the system is to weaken the effect of prison restraint and to liberate much too rapidly criminals unworthy of the favour (Prins, op. cit., 523 sqq.).

    The prisons are divided into two classes: central prisons, two in number, Louvain and Ghent ; secondary prisons, numbering twenty- seven. The central prison of Louvain, and all the secondary prisons, except two which are to be changed, are arranged with a view to complete separation night and day. The central prison of Ghent, erected towards the close of the eighteenth century, has eight divisions, only one of which has been arranged for cellular imprisonment by day and night; the others contain only night cells, the prisoners being assembled during the day. The central prisons receive only male convicts. There is no central prison for women, on account of the few crimes committed by women ; they are incarcerated in the secondary prisons. The central prison of Louvain receives those condemned to hard labour and seclusion, as well as prisoners sentenced to correctional imprisonment for more than five years. There is a special quarter in the central prison at Ghent for youthful convicts. The inmates are isolated in cells at night and work in common during the day. The law allows the courts and tribunals in sentencing an individual under the age of eighteen years completed to order him to remain at the disposal of the Government after the end of his term till he attains his majority : such persons are also sent to Ghent. However, those who on account of their youth, the moral conditions in which they are situated, or their previous conduct, do not deserve to be subjected to the more rigid discipline of the special quarters till their majority are sent to a philanthropic school. The secondary prisons, which with one exception have two distinct sections, one for men and one for women, are principally prisons for punishment; accused persons are detained there; they contain, moreover, different classes of inmates, such as those detained only temporarily, beggars and vagabonds awaiting transference to the mendicity institutions.

    The central administration of the prisons is under the control of the minister of justice. Connected with the central administration is the inspection department, divided into three sections: the first includes everything, except the accounting and construction departments; the second is engaged on the accounts; the third attends to buildings, improvements, and repairs. Besides the supervision of the inspectors, which embraces the prisons as a whole, there is permanent local supervision which, in each establishment, is confided to a commission, called the administrative commission. The members of this body, numbering three, six, or nine, according to the importance of the prison, are appointed by the king and selected preferably from the ranks of the clergy, physicians, manufacturers or merchants, engineers or architects. The royal procurator of the arrondissement , the burgomaster of the commune, and the military auditor, if there be one in the locality, are ex officio members. The commission participates in the work of reforming the lives of the condemned by visiting the cells as often as possible. It advises pardons and conditional liberation, and is consulted on the suggestions made by the governor. It is not a mere organ of control and consulting council; it participates in the working of the establishment, at least in the cases provided for by law, such as granting holidays to the staff, approving contracts, regulating the conditions relating to the work of the prisoners. The members of the staff of the central prison of Louvain may be taken as an example: a governor, two assistant governors, three Catholic chaplains, two Protestant chaplains, a Jewish chaplain, two teachers, two doctors, a druggist, two accountants, two store-keepers, five clerks, a head-warder, fifty guards, five assistant warders, and four inspectors of work. As the central Prison of Louvain contains about 600 ordinary cells, there are about twelve prisoners for each warder. The inspectors of work are employed exclusively to give professional instruction to the prisoners, and to supervise the work of the principal trades, shoemaking, tailoring, etc., as well as the repairing of the furniture and buildings. In five jails where the small number of female inmates requires only one wardress, the latter is a lay person. In all the others the supervision of the female prisoners is confined to nuns.

    The duty of the chaplains consists in presiding at religious exercises, and fulfilling the obligations of their ministry; religious instruction, administration of the sacraments, assistance to the dying. They go to the cells of their co-religionists unless the latter decline to receive them. The exercise of Catholic worship includes Mass and Benediction and also a moral and religious instruction on Sundays and feast days in the prison chapel. In the more important jails a spiritual retreat is given every year by an outside clergyman. Attendance at religious exercises is optional. Cuche remarks quite correctly that "for adults as for children, experience proves that religion is the best method of inculcating morality". This incontestable truth has been admitted by every prison expert in the neighbouring countries. Krohne declares that it is only by means of religion that we can hope through punishment to reform the criminal, which is the principal object of imprisonment. Kraus, in the "Handbuch d'Holtzendorff", gives an excellent refutation of the objection drawn from the liberty of conscience of the culprit. "Besides the moral influence of religion there is," adds Cuche, "the Divine service with its ceremonies, a fact often forgotten. In a prison, especially if it is cellular, assistance at Divine worship and singing of hymns, are excellent distractions, while they offer the prisoner an occasion for salutary reflection. In Germany choruses in four parts are sung in the evening. Krohne gives a simple and touching description of this ceremony. The same author recommends that each culprit should be given a hymn-book, as well as a New Testament, a Bible history, and a psalter. He even expresses the desire that the prisoner should be induced to purchase the hymn-book and the New Testament with his own money in order that he might keep them after his liberation."

    Conditional Liberation

    Prins remarks: "As the system of conditional condemnation allows the judges to exercise their discretion, and remit the penalty in the case of offenders for whom a warning seems sufficient, conditional liberation allows the administration to act similarly towards those in prison, and to decide who should remain in prison till the end of their term and who should be prepared for definitive liberation by a conditional liberation. This plan acts as a stimulus, since it holds out to well-conducted prisoners the possibility of having their term shortened; it acts too as a restraint, as the liberated convict recognizes that the favour may be withdrawn; it is a stage of the punishment since it prepares the prisoner for his definitive liberation." Conditional liberation has become an essential part of the penal system throughout the world. As there is anticipated liberation, when the culprit seems reformed before the end of the term to which he was sentenced, so it logically follows there should be a supplementary detention when the criminal at the expiration of his term does not appear to be reformed. Under such circumstances an indeterminate sentence is advocated (Cuche, "Traité de science et de législation pénitentiaires", 356-9). Some see in this theory the logical result of a repressive system having as its sole aim the moral reformation of the criminal; others consider it the logical result of the theory which considers the punishment as an act of social defence, the intensity of which is proportioned to the danger personified in the delinquent (cf. Prins, "Science penale et droit positif", 455). This writer (op. cit., 459 sqq.) does not favour the indeterminate sentence as a penalty properly so called imposed on a normal responsible culprit, because it is not in harmony with the principles of our public law, which endeavours in the matter of punishment to safeguard the liberty of every individual against arbitrary use of power, and because it is very complicated in practice; he admits, however, that it is different when there is question of subjecting to government control youthful offenders, beggars, and vagabonds, or in the case of degenerates, lunatics or weak-minded persons.

    Care of Liberated Criminals

    It is a duty of society to come to the aid of deserving liberated prisoners; for oftentimes they are not in a position to support themselves, and so fall again easily. Many societies have been established everywhere to assist and encourage liberated prisoners; their efforts should be directed especially towards youthful offenders. A new Central Association for the Aid of Discharged Prisoners was established in England early in 1911. While the association is an official body it combines and co-ordinates all the private philanthropic societies which in a disconnected way endeavoured to assist convicts on their discharge. Besides aiming to help the prisoner on his release more effectively than formerly, it aims to do away in most cases with the ticket-of-leave system. Persons discharged from penal servitude come under the cognizance and control of the central body. Representatives of the different societies are admitted to the convict prisons, and are thus enabled to divide the ground among the different agencies and to make a study of individual cases in time to deal with them on the release of the prisoners. On discharge from prison the convict keeps in touch with the society to which he belongs. Except in unsuitable cases police supervision is suspended so long as the convict behaves well and obeys the conditions imposed upon him by the central association, working through the particular society. If he misbehaves, or if, in the opinion of the authorities charged with his care, he is not sincere in his efforts to abstain from criminal courses, he may be returned to police control. But so long as he makes an honest endeavour to regain his position, guided and aided by the association, he is freed from direct contact with the police or from anything likely to obtrude his past upon the notice of his neighbors or employers.

    Prison-Reform Associations

    The international prison congresses have played an important part in prison reform. The first was held at Frankfort-on-the Main in 1846. The Congress of London (1872), in which twenty-two countries were represented by 100 delegates, led to the creation of an international prison commission. The last, the ninth quinquennial session of the International Prison Congress, was held in Washington in 1910. Twenty-two countries belonging to the association were represented by delegates as well as a number of countries not yet officially members, among them China, Japan, and Egypt. One of the principal achievements of the congress was the formal approval of the indeterminate sentence, a product of American developments. The congress also approved the centralization of control of all penal institutions, including local jails, and the useful employment of all inmates, whether merely detained for trial or sentenced for long terms; and it favoured the discreet use of the probation system, advocating central supervision of probation in each state. Considerable attention was paid also to the methods of criminal procedure suitable for children and minors. The Prisons' Society of Rhenish Prussia and Westphalia (founded in 1826); the Society of Officers of the German Prisons (founded in 1864); the German Juristentag (founded in 1867); the International union of Penal Law (founded in 1889); the Société générale des prisons in France, and the National Prison Congress of the United States , have likewise materially aided the work of prison reform.

    The following reforms among others have been warmly advocated:

    • The uniform repressive system should be differentiated into a system of education, a system of repression, and a system of preservation, and each of these should be in turn subdivided according to the various classes of delinquents. In particular there should be a good division of the culprits, and a social effort made to reform those who are susceptible of it.
    • Short sentences are undesirable, as they are likely neither to intimidate nor to educate.
    • The cellular system is by far the most preferable, so long as danger to the physical and mental well-being of the culprit is averted.
    • The prisoner's work should be both useful and productive; it should not be monotonous or wearisome; the criminal should be applied to work in which he will easily find occupation on his liberation; the kinds of work should be sufficiently varied to suit the natural aptitude of the various prisoners. State public work is preferable.
    • While enforcing as far as possible the individualization of the penalty, the progressive system should be introduced, as it leads up gradually to liberty, and prepares the culprit to enter again into society.
    • In the case of youthful offenders it is more than ever necessary to substitute education and protection for punishment (see Collard, "L' education protectrice de l'enfance en Prusse, La loi du 2 Juillet 1900 et son application", Louvain, 1908).
    • The treatment of women in prisons should be based on different principles from those applied to men.
    • In the case of conditional liberation the time of probation should be sufficiently prolonged.

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    Pápago Indians

    An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock, speaking a dialect of the Pima language and ...

    Pázmány, Peter

    A famous Hungarian ecclesiastic of the seventeenth century; died 19 March, 1637. He was born of ...

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    Pérez de Hita, Ginés

    Spanish writer, born at Murcia. Little is known of his life except that he lived during the ...

    Périgueux

    (PETROCORICENSIS) Comprises the Department of Dordogne and is suffragan to the Archbishopric of ...

    Pétau, Denis

    (DIONYSIUS PETAVIUS) One of the most distinguished theologians of the seventeenth century, ...

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    Pa 223

    Pacandus

    Titular see, recorded under "Pacanden." Among the titular sees in the official list of the Curia ...

    Pacca, Bartolommeo

    Cardinal, scholar, and statesman, b. at Benevento, 27 Dec., 1756; d. at Rome, 19 Feb., 1844; ...

    Pachomius, Saint

    Died about 346. The main facts of his life will be found in MONASTICISM (Section II: Eastern ...

    Pachtler, George Michael

    Controversial and educational writer, b. at Mergentheim, Wurtemberg, 14 Sept., 1825; d. at ...

    Pacificus

    A disciple of St. Francis of Assisi, born probably near Ascoli, Italy, in the second half of ...

    Pacificus of Ceredano, Blessed

    (Also known as Pacificus of Novara, or Novariensis ). Born 1420 at Cerano, in the Diocese ...

    Pacificus of San Severino, Saint

    Born at San Severino, in the parents died soon after his confirmation when three years old; he ...

    Pacioli, Lucas

    (Paciuolo.) Mathematician, born at Borgo San Sepolco, Tuscany, toward the middle of the ...

    Paderborn

    (Paderbornensis) Suffragan diocese of Cologne, includes: the District of Minden, ...

    Padilla, Juan de

    Friar Minor, protomartyr of the United States of America , member of the Andalusian province, ...

    Padua

    (Patavina) Diocese in northern Italy. The city is situated on a fertile plain and is ...

    Padua, University of

    The University of Padua dates, according to some anonymous chronicles (Muratori, "Rer. Ital. ...

    Paganism

    Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, ...

    Pagano, Mario

    Jurisconsult and man of letters, born in Brienza, Province of Salerno, 8 Dec., 1748; died at ...

    Page, Venerable Anthony

    English martyr, born at Harrow-on-the-Hill, Middlesex, 1571; died at York, 20 or 30 April, 1593. ...

    Pagi, Antoine

    French ecclesiastical historian. Born 31 March, 1624, at Rognes in the Department of ...

    Pagi, François

    French ecclesiastical historian, nephew of Antoine Pagi. Born 7 September, 1654, at Lambesc in ...

    Pagnino, Santes

    (Or XANTES) A Dominican, born 1470 at Lucca, Tuscany ; died 24 Aug., 1541, at Lyons, one of ...

    Painting, Religious

    Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. From the time of the ...

    Pakawá Indians

    (Also written Pacoá) One of a group of cognate tribes, hence designated the ...

    Palæography

    ( palaia , "ancient", graphe , "writing") The art of deciphering ancient writing in ...

    Palæontology

    ( logos ton palaion onton ) Palæ ontology, or the science of fossils, deals with ...

    Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de

    Bishop of La Puebla de Los Angeles, b. at Fitero in Navarre, 24 June, 1600; d. at Osma in ...

    Palasor, Venerable Thomas

    ( Or Palliser). English martyr, born at Ellerton-upon-Swale, parish of Catterick, North ...

    Palatinate, Rhenish

    ( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

    Palatini

    ( Latin palatium , palace) The designation, primarily, of certain high officials in the ...

    Palawan

    Prefecture Apostolic in the Philippine Islands ; comprises Palawan, Cuyo, Culion, Twahig, and ...

    Palencia

    (PALENTINA) This Diocese comprises the civil provinces of Palencia, Santander, Valladolid, ...

    Paleopolis

    (Palæopolis) A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The history of this ...

    Paleotti, Gabriele

    Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna. Born at Bologna, 4 October, 1522; died at Rome, 22 July, ...

    Palermo

    Archdiocese of Palermo (Panormitana), in Sicily. The city is built on an inlet of the ...

    Palermo, University of

    The Convent of St. Dominic of Palermo may be considered the nucleus of the future University of ...

    Palestrina

    (PBÆNESTINENSIS) The town of Palestrina, in the province of Rome, central Italy, is the ...

    Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da

    The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time, born at Palestrina (ancient ...

    Paley, Frederick Apthorp

    Classical scholar, born at Easingwold near York, 14 Jan., 1815; died at Bournemouth, 9 December, ...

    Pall

    A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque ...

    Pall, Funeral

    A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

    Palladio, Andrea

    Italian architect, born at Vicenza 1508; died at Venice, 19 August, 1580. There is a tradition ...

    Palladius

    ( Palladios ) Born in Galatia, 368; died probably before 431. The identity of the author of ...

    Palladius, Saint

    First bishop sent by Pope Celestine to Ireland (431). The chronicle of the contemporary St. ...

    Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza

    A cardinal, born 28 Nov., 1607; died 5 June, 1667. Descended from the line of Parma of the ...

    Pallium

    Form and Use of the Modern Pallium The modern pallium is a circular band about two inches wide, ...

    Pallotti, Vincent Mary

    The founder of the Pious Society of Missions , born at Rome, 21 April, 1798 [other sources say ...

    Palm in Christian Symbolism

    In pre-Christian times the palm was regarded as a symbol of victory (Aulus Gellius, "Noct. Att.", ...

    Palm Sunday

    The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week, a Sunday of the highest rank, ...

    Palma Vecchio

    (JACOPO NIGRETI) Born at Serinalta near Bergamo, about 1480; d. at Venice, 30 July 1528. ...

    Palmer, William

    Born at Mixbury, Oxfordshire, 12 July, 1811; died at Rome, 4 April, 1879; the elder brother of ...

    Palmieri, Domenico

    A theologian, born at Piacenza, Italy, 4 July, 1829; died in Rome, 29 May, 1909. He studied in ...

    Palmieri, Luigi

    Physicist and meteorologist, b. at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy, 22 April, 1807; d. in Naples, 9 ...

    Palmyra

    Titular metropolitan see in Phoenicia Secunda. Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:18 ) built Palmira (A. V. ...

    Palou, Francisco

    A Friar Minor, born at Palma, Island of Majorca, about 1722; died in 1789 or 1790. He entered the ...

    Paltus

    A titular see and suffragan of Seleucia Pieria in Syria Prima. The town was founded by a ...

    Paludanus, Peter

    (PETRUS DE PALUDE) A theologian and archbishop, born in the County of Bresse, Savoy, about ...

    Pamelius

    (Jacques de Joigny De Pamele). Belgian theologian, born at Bruges, Flanders, 13 May, 1536; ...

    Pamiers

    (APAMÆA) A Diocese comprising the Department of Ariège, and suffragan of ...

    Pammachius, Saint

    Roman senator, d. about 409. In youth he frequented the schools of rehetoric with St. Jerome. In ...

    Pamphilus of Cæsarea, Saint

    Martyred 309. Eusebius's life of Pamphilus is lost, but from his "Martyrs of Palestine" we ...

    Pamplona

    (PAMPILONENSIS) This Diocese comprises almost all of Navarre and part of Guipuzcoa. This ...

    Panama

    Located in Central America, occupies the Isthmus of Panama, or Darien, which extends east and west ...

    Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints

    The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

    Pandects

    (PANDECTÆ, or DIGESTA) This part of Justinian's compilation was his most important ...

    Pandulph

    A papal legate and Bishop of Norwich, died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1226. He is commonly but ...

    Panemotichus

    A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. Panemotichus coined money during the ...

    Pange Lingua Gloriosi

    The opening words of two hymns celebrating respectively the Passion and the Blessed Sacrament. ...

    Panigarola, Francesco

    A preacher and controversialist, Bishop of Asti, born at Milan, 6 Feb., 1548; died at Asti, 31 ...

    Pannartz, Arnold

    See also KONRAD SWEYNHEIM . Both printers; Pannartz died about 1476, Sweinheim in 1477. ...

    Pano Indians

    A former important mission tribe on the middle Ucayali River, Peru, being the principal of a group ...

    Panopolis

    A titular see, suffragan of Antinoe in Thebais Prima; the ancient Apu or Khimmin which the ...

    Panpsychism

    (Greek pan , all; psyche , soul ) Panpsychism is a philosophical theory which holds ...

    Pantænus

    Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180 ( Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, x), still ...

    Pantaleon, Saint

    Martyr, died about 305. According to legend he was the son of a rich pagan, Eustorgius of ...

    Pantheism

    (From Greek pan , all; theos , god). The view according to which God and the world are ...

    Panvinio, Onofrio

    Historian and archaeologist, born at Verona, 23 February, 1530; died at Palermo, 7 April, 1568. ...

    Panzani, Gregorio

    Bishop of Mileto, died early in 1662. He was a secular priest of Arezzo, having left the ...

    Paoli, Venerable Angelo

    Born at Argigliano, Tuscany, 1 Sept., 1642; died at Rome, 17 January, 1720. The son of Angelo ...

    Papacy, The

    This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of ...

    Papal Arbitration

    An institution almost coeval with the papacy itself. The principle of arbitration presupposes ...

    Papal Elections

    For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

    Papal Mint

    The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

    Papal Rescripts

    ( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

    Papal States

    ( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...

    Paphnutius

    I The most celebrated personage of this name was bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the ...

    Paphos

    A titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. There were two towns of this name, Old Paphos ...

    Papias, Saint

    Bishop of Hierapolis (close to Laodicea and Coloss Colossae aelig; in the valley of the ...

    Papiensis, Bernardus

    An Italian canonist of the thirteenth century; died 18 Sept., 1213. He was born at Pavia, ...

    Papini, Nicholas

    An historian, born at San Giovanni Valdarno, between Florence and Arezzo, about 1751; died at ...

    Parætonium

    Parætonium, a titular see of Lybia Secunda or Inferior (i.e. Marmarica), suffragan of ...

    Paré, Ambroise

    French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, department of Maine, 1517; died 20 ...

    Parœcopolis

    A titular see of Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (III, 13, ...

    Para du Phanjas, François

    Writer, b. at the castle of Phanja Champsaur, Basses-Alpes, 1724; d. at Paris, 1797. After his ...

    Parables

    The word parable (Hebrew mashal ; Syrian mathla , Greek parabole ) signifies in general ...

    Parabolani

    paraboloi, parabalanoi The members of a brotherhood who in the Early Church voluntarily ...

    Paracelsus, Theophrastus

    Celebrated physician and reformer of therapeutics, b. at the Sihlbrücke, near Einsiedeln, ...

    Paraclete

    Paraclete, Comforter (L. Consolator ; Greek parakletos ), an appellation of the Holy Ghost. ...

    Paradise, Terrestrial

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

    Paraguay

    One of the inland republics of South America, separated from Spain and constituted as an ...

    Parahyba

    (PARAHYBENESIS) Located in the State of Parahyba, Brazil, suffragan of Bahia, founded 27 ...

    Paralipomenon, Books of

    ( Paraleipomenon ; Libri Paralipomenon ). Two books of the Bible containing a summary of ...

    Parallelism

    The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Either ...

    Parallelism, Psycho-Physical

    A doctrine which states that the relation between mental processes, on the one hand, and ...

    Paralus

    A titular see, suffragan of Cabasa in Ægyptus Secunda. One of the seven mouths of the ...

    Paraná

    (PARANENSIS) Suffragan of Buenos Aires, in Argentina until recently, comprised two civil ...

    Parasceve

    (Gr. paraskevé ); seems to have supplanted the older term prosábbaton , used ...

    Paray-le-Monial

    A town of five thousand inhabitants in the Department of Sâone-Loire, Diocese of Autun , ...

    Pardies, Ignace-Gaston

    French scientist, b. at Pau, 5 Sept., 1636; d. of fever contracted whilst ministering to the ...

    Pardons of Brittany

    Pardon, from the Latin perdonare , — assimilated in form to donum , a gift, middle ...

    Paredes, Blessed Mary Anne de

    Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

    Pareja, Francisco

    Missionary, probably born at Auñon in the Diocese of Toledo, Spain, date unknown; died ...

    Parents

    ( Latin parere , to beget) I. DUTIES OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR CHILDREN In the old pagan ...

    Parenzo-Pola

    (PARENTINA-POLENSIS) The little town of Parenzo is picturesquely situated on a promontory ...

    Parini, Giuseppe

    Italian poet, born at Bosisio, 23 May, 1729; died at Milan, 15 Aug., 1799. Parini was early ...

    Paris

    ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS (PARIBIENSIS) See also UNIVERSITY OF PARIS . Paris comprises the ...

    Paris Commune, Martyrs of the

    The secular priests and the religious who were murdered in Paris, in May 1871, on account of ...

    Paris, Alexis-Paulin

    Philologist, born at Avenay, Marne, France, 25 March, 1800; died 13 Feb., 1881. Having finished ...

    Paris, Gaston-Bruno-Paulin

    A French philologist, son of Paulin, born at Avenay (Marne), 9 August, 1839; died at Cannes, 6 ...

    Paris, Matthew

    Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1200; d. 1259. There seems no reason to infer from the ...

    Paris, University of

    See also ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS . Origin and Early Organization Three schools were especially ...

    Parish

    (Latin par&ligcia, parochia , Greek paroikia , a group of neighbouring dwellings). I. ...

    Parium

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontus. The Acts of the martyr St. Onesiphorus ...

    Park, Abbey of the

    Located half a mile south of Louvain, Belgium, founded in 1129 by Duke Godfrey, surnamed ...

    Parkinson, Anthony

    An historian, born in England, 1667; died there 30 January, 1728. In 1692 he was appointed ...

    Parlais

    A titular see of Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. As a Roman colony it was called Julia Augusta ...

    Parlatore, Filippo

    Italian botanist, b. at Palermo, 8 Aug., 1816; d. at Florence, 9 Sept., 1877, a devout and ...

    Parma

    Located in central Italy. The city is situated on the river of the same name, an affluent of the ...

    Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin

    An agriculturist, born at Montdidier, 17 August, 1737; died in Paris, 13 Dec., 1813. Left an orphan ...

    Parmigiano, Il

    (THE PARMESAN) The current name of FRANCESCO MAZZUOLA, MAZZOLA, MAZZUOLI, or MAZZOLI, Italian ...

    Parnassus

    A titular see in Cappadocia Secunda, suffragan of Mocessus. Situated between Ancyra and ...

    Parochial Mass

    The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

    Parochial Missions, Catholic

    This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

    Parrenin, Dominique

    Born at Russey, near Besançon, 1 Sept., 1665; died at Pekin, 29 Sept., 1741. He entered ...

    Parsis

    (PARSEES). A small community in India, adherents of the Zoroastrian religion and originally ...

    Particular Judgment

    A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

    Partnership

    Partnership, an unincorporated association of two or more persons, known as partners, having for ...

    Paruta, Paolo

    Venetian historian and statesman, born at Venice, 14 May, 1540; died there, 6 Dec., 1598. Of a ...

    Pascal Baylon, Saint

    Born at Torre-Hermosa, in the Kingdom of Aragon, 24 May, 1540, on the Feast of Pentecost, called ...

    Pascal, Blaise

    Born at Clermont-Ferrand, 19 June 1623; died in Paris, 19 August 1662. He was the son of Etienne ...

    Pasch

    Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

    Paschal Candle

    The blessing of the "paschal candle ", which is a column of wax of exceptional size, usually ...

    Paschal I, Pope

    (817-824) The date of his birth is unknown; he died in April, May, or June, 824. He was the ...

    Paschal II, Pope

    (RAINERIUS). Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 ...

    Paschal III (Antipope)

    (GUIDO OF CREMA) The second antipope in the time of Alexander III. He was elected in 1164 ...

    Paschal Lamb

    A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

    Paschal Tide

    I. LITURGICAL ASPECT The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost are called by the older ...

    Paschasius Radbertus, Saint

    Theologian, b. at Soissons, 786; d. in the Monastery of Corbie, c. 860 (the date 865 is ...

    Paschasius, Saint

    A deacon of the Roman Church about 500; died after 511. Almost all that is known of Paschasius ...

    Passaglia, Carlo

    Born at Lucca, 9 May, 1812; died at Turin, 12 March, 1887. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

    Passau

    (PASSAVIENSIS) Located in Bavaria, suffragan of Munich-Freising, including within its ...

    Passerat, Joseph, Venerable

    Born 30 April, 1772, at Joinville, France ; died 30 October, 1858. The difficulties he had to ...

    Passignano, Domenico

    (known as IL CRESTI, or IL PASSIGNANO, Cresti being his family name) A Venetian painter, ...

    Passion Music

    Precisely when, in the development of the liturgy, the history of the Passion of Our Lord ...

    Passion of Christ, Commemoration of the

    A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima. Its object is the devout remembrance and honour ...

    Passion of Jesus Christ

    See also THE PASSION OF CHRIST IN THE GOSPELS . The sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated ...

    Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels

    See also DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF CHRIST . We have in the Gospels four separate accounts ...

    Passion Offices

    The recitation of these offices, called also Of the Instruments of the Passion, was first granted ...

    Passion Plays

    The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle ...

    Passion Sunday

    The fifth Sunday of Lent, a Sunday of the first class, not permitting the celebration of any ...

    Passionei, Domenico

    A cardinal, theologian, born at Fossombrone, 2 Dec., 1682; died 5 July, 1761. Educated in the ...

    Passionists

    The full title of the Passionist institute is: The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most ...

    Passions

    By passions we are to understand here motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend ...

    Passiontide

    The two weeks between Passion Sunday and Easter. The last week is Holy Week, while the first ...

    Passos

    (Or, more fully, Santos Passos ) The Portuguese name locally used to designate certain ...

    Passover

    Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

    Pasteur, Louis

    Chemist, founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics; born ...

    Pasto, Diocese of

    (PASTENSIS, PASTOPOLITANA). A Colombian see, suffragan of Popayan, from which it was separated ...

    Pastor

    This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls ( cura animarum ), that is, who is ...

    Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus)

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Pastoral Staff

    (Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...

    Pastoral Theology

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

    Pastoureaux, Crusade of the

    One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. ...

    Patagonia

    Patagonia is the name given to the southernmost extremity of South America. Its boundary on the ...

    Patara

    Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, formerly a large cornmercial town, opposite Rhodes. ...

    Paten

    The eucharistic vessel known as the paten is a small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon ...

    Patenson, Venerable William

    Venerable William Patenson, English martyr , born in Yorkshire or Durham ; died at Tyburn, 22 ...

    Pater Noster

    Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

    Pathology, Mental

    This subject will be considered under the following headings: I. Localization of Mental ...

    Patmore, Coventry

    One of the major poets of the nineteenth century, in spite of the small bulk of his verse, born at ...

    Patmos

    A small volcanic island in the Ægean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, to the south of Samos ...

    Patras

    A metropolitan see in Achaia. It was one of the twelve ancient cities of Achaia, built near ...

    Patriarch

    The word patriarch as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version, where ...

    Patriarch and Patriarchate

    Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. ...

    Patrician Brothers

    (Or BROTHERS OF SAINT PATRICK). This Brotherhood was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Daniel ...

    Patrick's Purgatory, Saint

    Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

    Patrick, Saint

    Apostle of Ireland, born at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, in Scotland, in the year 387; died at ...

    Patrizi, Francis Xavier

    Jesuit exegete, b. at Rome, 19 June, 1797; d. there 23 April, 1881. He was the eldest son and ...

    Patrology

    Patrology, the study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church, has more commonly been known ...

    Patron and Patronage

    I By the right of patronage ( ius patronatus ) is understood a determinate sum of rights ...

    Patron Saints

    A patron is one who has been assigned by a venerable tradition, or chosen by election, as a ...

    Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the

    It was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 6 May, 1679, for all the ...

    Patti, Diocese of

    (PACTENSIS) Patti, in the Province of Messina (Sicily), on the western shore of the gulf of ...

    Paul and John, Saints

    Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

    Paul I, Pope

    (757-67) Date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 28 June, 767. He was a brother of Stephen II. ...

    Paul II, Pope

    (PIETRO BARBO) Born at Venice, 1417; elected 30 August, 1464; died 26 July, 1471; son of ...

    Paul III, Pope

    (A LESSANDRO F ARNESE ). Born at Rome or Canino, 29 Feb., 1468; elected, 12 Oct., 1534; ...

    Paul IV, Pope

    (G IOVANNI P IETRO C ARAFFA ). Born near Benevento, 28 June, 1476; elected 23 May, ...

    Paul of Burgos

    (PAUL DE SANTA MARIA; Jewish name, SOLOMON HA-LEVI) A Spanish archbishop, lord chancellor and ...

    Paul of Middelburg

    A scientist and bishop, born in 1446 at Middelburg, the ancient capital of the province of ...

    Paul of Samosata

    Bishop of Antioch. Several synods, probably three, were held against him about 264-66. St. ...

    Paul of the Cross, Saint

    Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775. ...

    Paul the Deacon

    (Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

    Paul the Hermit, Saint

    There are three important versions of the Life of St. Paul: (1) the Latin version ( H ) of St. ...

    Paul the Simple, Saint

    The story of Paul, as Palladius heard it from men who had known St. Anthony, was as follows: ...

    Paul V, Pope

    (CAMILLO BORGHESE). Born at Rome, 17 Sept., 1550; elected 16 May, 1605; died 28 Jan., 1621. ...

    Paul, Saint

    I. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS A. Apocryphal Acts of St. Paul Professor Schmidt has published a ...

    Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint

    ( San Paolo fuori le mura ). An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the ...

    Paula, Saint

    Born in Rome, 347; died at Bethlehem, 404. She belonged to one of the first families of Rome. ...

    Pauli, Johannes

    Born about 1455; died after 1530 in the monastery at Thann in Alsace. What little is known of ...

    Paulicians

    A dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. The origin of the name ...

    Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo

    (PHILIP WESDIN). Missionary and Orientalist, b. at Hoff in Lower Austria, 25 Apr., 1748; d. ...

    Paulinus II, Saint

    Born at Premariacco, near Cividale, Italy, about 730-40; died 802. Born probably of a Roman ...

    Paulinus of Pella

    Christian poet of the fifth century; b. at Pella in Macedonia, but of a Bordelaise family. He ...

    Paulinus, Saint

    Archbishop of York, died at Rochester, 10 October, 644. He was a Roman monk in St. Andrew's ...

    Paulinus, Saint

    (Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus). Born at Bordeaux about 354; died 22 June, 431. He ...

    Paulist Fathers

    Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

    Paulists

    From the time that the abode and virtues of St. Paul the first hermit were revealed to St. ...

    Paulus Diaconus

    (Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

    Paulus Venetus

    Theologian of the Hermits of the Order of Saint Augustine, born according to the chroniclers of ...

    Pavia

    (PAPIA) Located in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It is situated in a fertile plain; the city is ...

    Pavia, University of

    Pavia was, even in Roman times, a literary centre (Ennodius); as the capital of the Lombard ...

    Pavillon, Nicolas

    Bishop of Alet, b. at Paris 1597; d. at Alet, 1677. He joined the community of St-Lazare, ...

    Pax

    (Osculatorium, Tabula Pacis, Lapis Pacis). A tablet to be kissed. The primitive usage in the ...

    Pax in the Liturgy

    Pax vobis (or vobiscum ), like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum ), ...

    Payeras, Mariano

    Born 10 Oct., 1769, at Inca, Island of Majorca; died 28 April, 1823. He received the habit of St. ...

    Payne, Blessed John

    Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

    × Close

    Pe 170

    Peña, Francisco

    (PEGNA) A canonist, born at Villaroya de los Pinares, near Saragossa, about 1540; died at ...

    Peñalver y Cardenas, Luis Ignatius

    Bishop of New Orleans, Archbishop of Guatemala, son of a wealthy and noble family ; born ...

    Peace Congresses

    I. EARLY HISTORY The genesis of the idea of a meeting of representatives of different nations ...

    Peace of the Church

    This is the designation usually applied to the condition of the Church after the publication at ...

    Peasants, War of the (1524-25)

    A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany, the causes of which are disputed as a ...

    Peba Indians

    (Or Peva ) The principal of a small group of cognate tribes, comprising the Peba proper, ...

    Pecham, John

    (PECCHAM) Archbishop of Canterbury, born about 1240; died 6 December, 1292. His birthplace ...

    Pecock, Reginald

    (PEACOCK) Bishop of Chichester, born in North Wales about 1395; died at Thorney Abbey about ...

    Pectoral

    ("Pectoral of judgment"). The original meaning of the Hebrew term has been lost, and little ...

    Pectorale

    ( Crux Pectoralis ). The name of the cross used by the pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, ...

    Pectorius of Autun

    The name with which the important document frequently known as the Inscription of Autun ...

    Pednelissus

    (Petnelissus). A titular see in Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. In ancient times ...

    Pedro de Cordova

    Born at Cordova, Andalusia, Spain, about 1460; died on the Island of Santo Domingo, 1525. He ...

    Pelagia

    The name of several saints. The old Syrian martyrology gives the feast of a St. Pelagia of ...

    Pelagius and Pelagianism

    Pelagianism received its name from Pelagius and designates a heresy of the fifth century, which ...

    Pelagius I, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; died 3 March, 561, was a Roman of noble family ; his father, John, seems ...

    Pelagius II, Pope

    The date of whose birth is unknown, seemingly a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, as his ...

    Pelargus, Ambrose

    Theologian, born at Nidda, Hesse, about 1488; died at Trier, 1557. Stork (Greek Pelargon , ...

    Pelisson-Fontanier, Paul

    French writer, born at Béziers in 1624 of Protestant parents ; died at Versailles, 7 ...

    Pella

    A titular see and suffragan of Scythopolis in Palaestina Secunda. According to Stephanus ...

    Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph

    Born in Paris, 22 March, 1788; died there, 19 July, 1842. His father, Bertrand Pelletier, a ...

    Pellico, Silvio

    Italian author and patriot, born at Saluzzio, Italy, 24 June, 1788; died at Turin 31 Jan., ...

    Pellissier, Guillaume

    (PELLICIER) Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, about 1490; died at the castle of Montferraud, ...

    Pelotas

    (PELOTASENSIS) Located in Brazil, suffragan to Porto Alegre. By a decree of Pius X, dated ...

    Pelouze, Théophile-Jules

    Scientist, b. at Valognes, La Manche, 26 Feb., 1807; d. in Paris, 31 May or 1 June, 1867. He began ...

    Peltrie, Madeleine de la

    née CHAUVIGNY A French noblewoman, and foundress, born at Caen, 1603; died at Quebec, ...

    Pelusium

    A titular metropolitan see of Augustamnica Prima in Egypt, mentioned in Ezech., xxx, 15 sq., ...

    Pembroke

    (PEMBROKIENSIS) A suffragan of Ottawa, in Canada. The town of Pembroke has a beautiful ...

    Penal Laws

    This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

    Penance (as a Virtue)

    Penance ( poenitentia ) designates (1) a virtue ; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a ...

    Penance, Sacrament of

    Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

    Pendleton, Henry

    Controversialist, born at Manchester ; died in London, September, 1557; educated at Brasenose ...

    Penelakut Indians

    A small tribe of Salishan stock, speaking a dialect of the Cowichan language and occupying a ...

    Penitentes, Los Hermanos

    (The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

    Penitential Canons

    Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins. ...

    Penitential Orders

    A general name for religious congregations whose members are bound to perform extraordinary works ...

    Penitents, Confraternities of

    Congregations, with statutes prescribing various penitential works, such as fasting, the use of ...

    Penne and Atri, Diocese of

    (Pennensis et Atriensis). Penne is a city in the Province of Teramo, in the Abruzzi, central ...

    Pennsylvania

    One of the thirteen original United States of America , lies between 39° 43' and 42° 15' ...

    Penobscot Indians

    The principal tribe of the famous Abnaki confederacy of Maine, and the only one still keeping its ...

    Pension, Ecclesiastical

    The right to a certain sum of money to be paid yearly out of the revenues of a church or ...

    Pentacomia

    A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Areopolis or Rabbah. It was never a residential see; ...

    Pentapolis

    The word, occurring in Wisdom, x, 6, designates the region where stood the five cities ( pente, ...

    Pentateuch

    Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

    Pentecost

    A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

    Pentecost (Jewish Feast)

    The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. The term, adopted from the ...

    Peoria

    (PEORIENSIS). Diocese comprising that part of Central Illinois south of the Counties of ...

    Peoria Indians

    A principal tribe of the confederated Illinois Indians (q.v.) having their chief residence, in the ...

    Pepin the Short

    Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King ...

    Peppergrass, Paul

    Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass", born in ...

    Perboyre, Blessed Jean-Gabriel

    Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

    Percy, Blessed Thomas

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

    Percy, John

    ( alias JOHN FISHER) Born at Holmeside, Durham, 27 Sep., 1569; died at London, 3 Dec., ...

    Peregrinus

    The canons of Priscillian, prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul in many (chiefly Spanish) ...

    Pereira, Benedict

    (PEREYRA, PERERA, PERERIUS) Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, born about 1535, at Ruzafa, ...

    Perez, Juan

    Died before 1513. At one time he held the office of contador or accountant to the Queen of ...

    Perfection, Christian and Religious

    A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect ...

    Pergamus

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus. This city was situated on the banks of the Selinus. It was ...

    Perge

    Titular metropolitan see in Pamphylia Secunda. Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was ...

    Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista

    Born at Naples, 3 Jan., 1710; d. 16 March, 1736, at Pozzuoli, near Naples. This young man of ...

    Pericui Indians

    A rude and savage tribe, of unknown linguistic affinity, formerly occupying the extreme southern ...

    Periodi

    (P ETRI ) The name under which the Pseudo-Clementine writings are quoted by Epiphanius, ...

    Periodical Literature, Catholic

    The invention of printing, besides exerting a great influence on literature in general and on ...

    Perjury

    (Latin per , through and jurare , to swear) Perjury is the crime of taking a false oath. ...

    Permaneder, Franz Michael

    Canonist, b. at Traunstein, Bavaria, 12 Aug., 1794; d. at Ratisbon, 10 Oct., 1862. He studied ...

    Pernter, Joseph Maria

    Scientist, b. at Neumark, Tyrol, 15 March, 1848; d. at Arco, 20 Dec., 1908. He entered the ...

    Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

    Perpetual Adoration

    A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Religious of

    (Belgium) A congregation with simple vows, founded at Brussels, 1857, by Anna de Meeus, ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Religious of the

    A contemplative religious congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer (d. 1546), at ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the

    (Quimper, France ). An institute of nuns devoted to perpetual adoration of the Blessed ...

    Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament

    (Sacramentines.) Anton Le Quien, b. in Paris, 23 Feb., 1601, the founder of the first order ...

    Perpetual Help, Our Lady of

    ( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

    Perpetual Help, Our Lady of, Sisters of

    A congregation founded in the parish of St. Damien, Bellechasse, P.Q., Canada, 28 August, 1892, ...

    Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of

    ( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

    Perpetuus, Saint

    Eighth Bishop of Tours, d. 1 January, or 8 December, 490, or 8 April, 491. He was a member of ...

    Perpignan, Diocese of

    (Perpinianum.) Comprises the Department of Pyrénées Orientales; created by the ...

    Perpignan, University of

    Peter IV of Aragon (1327-87), having conquered (1344) the town of Perpignan and reunited to his ...

    Perraud, Adolphe

    Cardinal and academician; b. at Lyons, France, 7 Feb., 1828; d. 18 Feb., 1906. He had a ...

    Perrault, Charles

    Writer, b. in Paris, 12 Jan., 1628; d. 16 May, 1703. His first literary attempts were a parody of ...

    Perrault, Claude

    Born at Paris, 1613; died there, 1688. He built the main eastern façade of the Louvre, ...

    Perreyve, Henri

    Born at Paris, 11 April, 1831; died there 18 June, 1865. His father was professor at the ...

    Perrone, Giovanni

    Jesuit theologian, b. at Chieri, Italy, 11 March, 1794; d. at Rome, 28 Aug., 1876. After studying ...

    Perry, Stephen Joseph

    Born in London, August, 1833; d. 27 Dec. 1889. He belonged to a well-known Catholic family. His ...

    Persecution

    GENERAL Persecution may be defined in general as the unlawful coercion of another's liberty or ...

    Persecutions, Coptic

    (ACCORDING TO GREEK AND LATIN SOURCES) During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria ...

    Perseverance, Final

    ( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

    Persia

    The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Both Medes ...

    Persian Rite

    Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...

    Persico, Ignatius

    A cardinal, born 30 Jan., 1823, at Naples, Italy ; died 7 Dec., 1896. He entered the Capuchin ...

    Person

    The Latin word persona was originally used to denote the mask worn by an actor. From this it ...

    Person, Ecclesiastical

    In its etymological sense this expression signifies every person who forms a part of the external ...

    Personality

    It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of ...

    Persons, Robert

    (Also, but less correctly, P ARSONS ) Jesuit, b., at Nether Stowey, Somerset, 24 June, 1546; ...

    Perth

    (PERTHENSIS) Located in Western Australia, suffragan to Adelaide; bounded on the north by ...

    Pertinax, Publius Helvius

    Roman Emperor (31 Dec., 192), b. at Alba Pompeia, in Luguria, 1 August, 126; d. at Rome 28 ...

    Peru

    A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, ...

    Perugia

    (PERUSINA) Located in Umbria, Central Italy. The city is situated on a hill on the right of ...

    Perugia, University of

    One of the "free" universities of Italy, was erected into a studium generale on 8 Sept., 1308, ...

    Perugino

    (PIETRO VANNUCCI) An Italian painter, founder of the Umbrian school, born at Città ...

    Peruzzi, Baldassare

    An architect and painter, born at Siena, 7 March, 1481; died at Rome, 6 Jan., 1537. He derived ...

    Pesaro

    (PESAURENSIS) Located in central Italy. The city is situated at the mouth of the river ...

    Pescennius Niger

    Emperor of Rome (193-194). He was a native of central Italy, and during the reigns of Marcus ...

    Pesch, Tilman

    A Jesuit philosopher, b. at Cologne, 1 Feb., 1836; d. at Valkenberg, Holland, 18 Oct., 1899. He ...

    Pescia

    (PISCIENSIS) Diocese in Tuscany, Italy, on the Rivers Pescia Maggiore and Pescia Minore, ...

    Pessimism

    I. A TEMPER OF MIND In popular language the term pessimist is applied to persons who ...

    Pessinus

    ( Pessinous .) A titular see of Galatia Secunda. Pessinonte, on the southern slope of Mt. ...

    Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism

    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, one of the greatest pioneers of modern education, born at Zurich, ...

    Peter Baptist, Saint, and Twenty-Five Companions

    Died at Nagasaki, 5 Feb., 1597. In 1593 while negotiations were pending between the Emperor of ...

    Peter Canisius, Blessed

    (Kannees, Kanys, probably also De Hondt). Born at Nimwegen in the Netherlands, 8 May, 1521; ...

    Peter Cantor

    Theologian, b. probably at Gisberoi near Beauvais, France ; d. at Long Pont Abbey, 22 Sept., ...

    Peter Cellensis

    (PETER DE LA CELLE). Bishop of Chartres, b. of noble parentage in Champagne; d. at Chartres, ...

    Peter Chrysologus, Saint

    Born at Imola, 406; died there, 450. His biography, first written by Agnellus (Liber pontificalis ...

    Peter Claver, Saint

    The son of a Catalonian farmer, was born at Verdu, in 1581; he died 8 September, 1654. He ...

    Peter Comestor

    Theological writer, b. at Troyes, date unknown; d. at Paris about 1178. He was first attached ...

    Peter Damian, Saint

    (Or Damiani). Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, b. at Ravenna "five years ...

    Peter de Blois

    A statesman and theologian, born at Blois about 1130; died about 1203. He appears to have ...

    Peter de Honestis

    Born at Ravenna about 1049; died, 29 March, 1119. Among his ancestors was the great St. Romuald, ...

    Peter de Regalado, Saint

    (REGALATUS) A Friar Minor and reformer, born at Valladolid, 1390; died at Aguilera, 30 ...

    Peter de Vinea

    (DE VINEIS, DELLA VIGNA) Born at Capua about 1190; died 1249. Peter's legal learning and the ...

    Peter Faber, Saint

    Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

    Peter Fourier, Saint

    Known as LE BON PÈRE DE MATTAINCOURT, born at Mirecourt, Lorraine, 30 Nov., 1565 died at ...

    Peter Fullo

    Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

    Peter Gonzalez, Saint

    Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

    Peter Igneus, Blessed

    (Peter Aldobrandini.) An Italian monk of the Benedictine congregation of the ...

    Peter Lombard

    Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

    Peter Mongus

    ( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

    Peter Nolasco, Saint

    Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

    Peter of Alcántara, Saint

    Born at Alcántara, Spain, 1499; died 18 Oct., 1562. His father, Peter Garavita, was the ...

    Peter of Alexandria, Saint

    Became Bishop of Alexandria in 300; martyred Nov., 311. According to Philip of Sidetes he ...

    Peter of Aquila

    (SCOTELLUS). Friar Minor , theologian and bishop, b. at Aquila in the Abruzzi, Italy, towards ...

    Peter of Arbues, Saint

    (Correctly, PETER ARBUES). Born in 1441 (or 1442); died 17 Sept., 1485. His father, a ...

    Peter of Auvergne

    A philosopher and theologian ; died after 1310. He was a canon of Paris ; some biographers ...

    Peter of Bergamo

    (ALMADURA) A theologian, date of birth unknown; died at Placentia, in 1482. He entered the ...

    Peter of Montboissier, Blessed

    (Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

    Peter of Poitiers

    A French scholastic theologian, born at Poitiers or in its neighbourhood about 1130; died in ...

    Peter of Sebaste, Saint

    Bishop, b. about 340; d. 391. He belonged to the richly blest family of Basil and Emmelia of ...

    Peter of Verona, Saint

    Born at Verona, 1206; died near Milan, 6 April, 1252. His parents were adherents of the ...

    Peter Snow, Venerable

    English martyr, suffered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or near Ripon and arrived at the ...

    Peter the Hermit

    Born at Amiens about 1050; d. at the monastery of Neufmoutier (Liège), in 1115. His ...

    Peter Urseolus, Saint

    (Orseolo) Born at Rivo alto, Province of Udina, 928; at Cuxa, 10 January, 987 (997 is less ...

    Peter, Basilica of Saint

    TOPOGRAPHY The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the ...

    Peter, Chair of

    Under this head will be treated: I. The annual Feast of the Chair of Peter ( Cathedra Petri ) at ...

    Peter, Saint

    The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads: I. Until the ...

    Peter, Saint, Epistles of

    These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. Recipients, ...

    Peter, Sarah

    Philanthropist, b. at Chillicothe, Ohio, U.S.A. 10 May, 1800; d. at Cincinnati, 6 Feb., 1877. Her ...

    Peter, Tomb of Saint

    The history of the relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul is one which is involved in ...

    Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint

    The print version of the C ATHOLIC E NCYCLOPEDIA contains two articles on this saint. We ...

    Peterborough

    (PETERBOROUGHENSIS) Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada, comprises the Counties of ...

    Peterspence

    Peterspence, otherwise known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Romescot", is the name traditionally given to ...

    Peterssen, Gerlac

    (GERLACUS PETRI) Born at Deventer, 1377 or 1378; died 18 Nov., 1411. He entered the ...

    Petinessus

    (PITNISUS) A titular see in Galatia Secunda (Salutaris). This city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

    Petit-Didier, Matthieu

    A Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Saint-Nicolas-du-Port in ...

    Petitions to the Holy See

    I. MODE OF PETITIONING Faculties, indults, dispensations, and other favours, the granting of ...

    Petra

    Titular metropolitan see of Palæstina Tertia. Under the name of Sela (the rock) this ...

    Petrarch, Francesco

    Italian poet and humanist, b. at Arezzo, 20 July, 1304; d. at Arquá, 19 July, 1374. His ...

    Petre, Family of

    The Petres are one of those staunch and constant families, which have played a great part in the ...

    Petrobrusians

    Heretics of the twelfth century so named from their founder Peter of Bruys. Our information ...

    Petronilla, Saint

    Virgin, probably martyred at Rome at the end of the first century. Almost all the sixth- and ...

    Petronius, Saint

    Bishop of Bologna, date of birth unknown; died before 450. The only certain historical ...

    Petropolis

    (Petropolitanensis). Diocese in the Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, erected 11 Feb., ...

    Petrus Alfonsus

    A converted Jew and controversialist, born at Huesca, in the former Kingdom of Aragon, 1062; ...

    Petrus Bernardinus

    Florentine heretic ; born at Florence about 1475; died 1502. His parents were common folk, and ...

    Petrus de Natalibus

    Bishop; author of a collection of lives of the saints; date of birth unknown; d. between 1400 and ...

    Petrus Diaconus

    The name of several men of note in ecclesiastical history and literature. (1) One of the ...

    Petun Nation

    One of the three great divisions of the Huron Indians, the other two being the Hurons proper, and ...

    Peuerbach, George von

    (Also Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius) Austrian astronomer, b. at Peuerbach near Linz, 30 May, ...

    Peutinger, Conrad

    An antiquarian and humanist, born at Augsburg, 14 Oct., 1465; died 28 Dec., 1547. As a young ...

    Peyto, William

    (P ETO, P ETOW ). Cardinal ; d. 1558 or 1559. Though his parentage was long unknown, it is ...

    Pez

    (1) BERNHARD An historian, born 22 February, 1683, at Ybbs near Melk ; died 27 March, 1735, at ...

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    Pf 5

    Pfanner, Franz

    An abbot, born at Langen, Vorarlberg, Austria, 1825; died at Emmaus, South Africa, 24 May, ...

    Pfefferkorn, Johannes

    A baptized Jew, b. probably at Nuremberg, 1469; d. at Cologne, between 1521 and 1524. In 1505, ...

    Pfister, Adolf

    An educationist, born at Hechingen in Hohenzollern, 26 Sept., 1810; died at Ober-Dischingen in ...

    Pflug, Julius Von

    The last Catholic Bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, born at Eythra, near Leipzig, 1499; died at Zeits, ...

    Pforta

    A former Cistercian monastery (1137-1540), near Naumburg on the Saale in the Prussian province ...

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    Ph 44

    Phœnicia

    Phœnicia is a narrow strip of land, about one hundred and fifty miles long and thirty miles ...

    Phacusa

    A titular see and suffragan of Pelusium, in Augustamnica Prima. Ptolemy (IV, v, 24) makes it ...

    Pharao

    (Prah, Par‘o, or, after a vowel, Phar‘o ; Greek Pharaó ; Latin Pharao). ...

    Pharbætus

    Titular see and suffragan of Leontopolis, in Augustamnica Secunda. This name is merely the ...

    Pharisees

    A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into ...

    Pharsalus

    Titular see and suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. The city is mentioned for the first time after ...

    Phaselis

    Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. The city was a Doric colony on the Pamphylian Gulf. ...

    Phasga

    (A.V. Pisgah ). Whether the word in Hebrew is a proper or a common noun is not clear; ...

    Phenomenalism

    Phenomenalism ( phainomenon ) literally means any system of thought that has to do with ...

    Philadelphia (Lydia)

    A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardes. The city was founded by Philadelphus, King of ...

    Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

    (PHILADELPHIENSIS) A diocese established in 1808; made an archdiocese, 12 Feb., 1875, ...

    Philanthropinism

    The system of education educed from the ideas of Rousseau and of the German "Enlightenment", ...

    Philastrius, Saint

    Bishop of Brescia, died before 397. He was one of the bishops present at a synod held in ...

    Philemon

    A citizen of Coloss Colossæ, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the ...

    Philip II

    King of Spain, only son of the Emperor Charles V, and Isabella of Portugal, b. at Valladolid, 21 ...

    Philip II (Augustus)

    King of France, born 22 or 25 August, 1165; died at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Louis VII ...

    Philip IV

    Surnamed Le Bel (the Fair) King of France, b. at Fontainebleau, 1268; d. there, 29 Nov., 1314; ...

    Philip of Jesus, Saint

    Born in Mexico, date unknown; died at Nagasaki early in February, 1597. Though unusually ...

    Philip of the Blessed Trinity

    (ESPRIT JULIEN). Discalced Carmelite, theologian, born at Malaucene, near Avignon, 1603; died ...

    Philip Romolo Neri, Saint

    THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...

    Philip the Apostle, Saint

    Like the brothers, Peter and Andrew, Philip was a native of Bethsaida on Lake Genesareth ( John ...

    Philip the Arabian

    (Philippus) Emperor of Rome (244-249), the son of an Arab sheik, born in Bosra. He rose ...

    Philippi

    (Greek Phílippoi , Latin Philippi ). Philippi was a Macedonian town, on the ...

    Philippi

    A titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. As early as the sixth century B. C. we learn of a ...

    Philippians, Epistle to the

    I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER ( See also PHILIPPI ). The Philippians, ...

    Philippine Islands

    Situation and Area The Philippine Islands lie between 116° 40' and 126° and 34' E. long., ...

    Philippopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Secunda. The city was founded by Philip of Macedon in 342 ...

    Philippopolis

    Titular see in Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Its bishop, Hormisdas, was present at the Council ...

    Philips, Peter

    (Also known as PETRUS PHILIPPUS, PIETRO PHILLIPO.) Born in England about 1560; date and place ...

    Philistines

    ( Septuagint phylistieim in the Pentateuch and Josue, elsewhere allophyloi , ...

    Phillip, Robert

    Priest, d. at Paris, 4 Jan., 1647. He was descended from the Scottish family of Phillip of ...

    Phillips, George

    A canonist, born at Königsberg, 6 Sept., 1804; died at Vienna, 6 September, 1872, was the son ...

    Philo Judæus

    Born about 25 B.C. . His family, of a sacerdotal line, was one of the most powerful of the ...

    Philomelium

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. According to ancient writers Philomelium was ...

    Philomena, Saint

    On 25 May, 1802, during the quest for the graves of Roman martyrs in the Catacomb of Priscilla, ...

    Philosophy

    I. Definition of Philosophy . II. Division of Philosophy . III. The Principal Systematic ...

    Philoxenus

    (AKHSENAYA) OF MABBOGH. Born at Tahal, in the Persian province of Beth-Garmai in the second ...

    Phocæa

    A titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The town of Phocæa was founded in the ...

    Photinus

    A heretic of the fourth century, a Galatian and deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra ...

    Photius of Constantinople

    Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b. at ...

    Phylacteries

    ( Phulachterion — safeguard, amulet, or charm). The word occurs only once in the New ...

    Physics, History of

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. A Glance at Ancient Physics; II. ...

    Physiocrats

    ( physis , nature, kratein , rule) A school of writers on political and economic ...

    Physiologus

    An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous ...

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    Pi 89

    Piacenza

    DIOCESE OF PIACENZA (PLACENTINENSIS) Piacenza is a diocese in Emilia, central Italy. The city ...

    Pianô Carpine, Giovanni da

    Born at Pian di Carpine (now called della Magione), near Perugia, Umbria, 1182; died probably in ...

    Pianciani, Giambattista

    Scientist, b. at Spoleto, 27 Oct., 1784; d. at Rome, 23 March, 1862. He entered the Society of ...

    Piatto Cardinalizio

    An allowance granted by the pope to cardinals residing in curia or otherwise employed by ...

    Piatus of Mons

    (Secular name, JEAN-JOSEPH LOISEAUX), b. 5 Aug., 1815; d. in the Monastery of Ste. Claire, ...

    Piauhy

    (DE PIAUHY, PIAHUNENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the State of ...

    Piazza Armerina

    (PLATIENSIS) Located in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily. The city of Piazza Armerina is ...

    Piazzi, Giuseppe

    Astronomer, b. at Ponte in Valtellina, 16 July, 1746; d. at Naples, 22 July, 1826. He took the ...

    Pibush, John

    English martyr, born at Thirsk, Yorkshire; died at St Thomas's Waterings, Camberwell, 18 February, ...

    Picard, Jean

    Astronomer, b. at La Flêche, 21 July, 1620; d. at Paris, 12 Oct., 1682. He was a priest ...

    Piccolomini, Alessandro

    Littérateur, philosopher, astronomer, b. 13 June, 1508; d. 12 March, 1578. He passed his ...

    Piccolomini-Ammannati, Jacopo

    A cardinal, born in the Villa Basilica near Lucca, 1422; died at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 10 ...

    Pichler

    A renowned Austrian family of gem-cutters who lived and died in Italy. ANTONIO (JOHANN ...

    Pichler, Vitus

    Distinguished canonist and controversial writer, b. at Grosberghofen, 24 May, 1670; d. at Munich, ...

    Pickering, Ven. Thomas

    Lay brother and martyr, a member of an old Westmoreland family, b. c. 1621; executed at Tyburn, ...

    Piconio, Bernadine a

    (HENRI BERNARDINE DE PICQUIGNY) Born at Picquigny, Picardy, 1633; died in Paris, 8 December, ...

    Picquet, François

    A celebrated Sulpician missionary in Canada, b. at Bourg, Bresse, France, 4 Dec., 1708; d. at ...

    Picture Bibles

    In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement ...

    Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Domine

    The sixth quatrain of Adoro Te Devote , sometimes used as a separate hymn at Benediction of ...

    Pie, Louis-Edouard-Désiré

    Cardinal, born at Pontgouin, Diocese of Chartres, 1815; died at Angoulême, 1880. He studied ...

    Pieck, Saint Nicholas

    (Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

    Piedmont

    ( Italian Piemonte ). A part compartimento of northern Italy, bounded on the north by ...

    Piel, Peter

    A pioneer in the movement for reform of church music, b. at Kessewick, near Bonn, 12 Aug., 1835; ...

    Pierius

    A priest and probably head master of the catechetical school at Alexandria conjointly with ...

    Pierre de Castelnau, Blessed

    Born in the Diocese of Montpellier , Languedoc, now Department of Hérault, France ; died ...

    Pierre de Maricourt

    Surnamed PETER THE PILGRIM ( Petrus Peregrinus ) A physician of the Middle Ages. Under the ...

    Pierron, Jean

    A missionary, born at Dun-sur-Meuse, France, 28 Sept., 1631; date and place of death unknown. He ...

    Pierson, Philippe

    Born at Ath, Hainaut (Belgium), 4 January, 1642; died at Lorette, Quebec, 1688. At the age of ...

    Pietism

    Pietism is a movement within the ranks of Protestantism, originating in the reaction against the ...

    Pighius, Albert

    A theologian, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Kampen, Overyssel, Holland, about 1490; ...

    Pignatelli, Venerable Giuseppe Maria

    Born 27 December, 1737, in Saragossa, Spain ; died 11 November, 1811. His family was of ...

    Pike, William

    Martyr, born in Dorsetshire; died at Dorchester, dec., 1591. He was a joiner, and lived at West ...

    Pilar, Nuestra Señora del

    "Our Lady of the Pillar", a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a ...

    Pilate, Pontius

    After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

    Pilchard, Venerable Thomas

    ( Or PILCHER). Martyr, born at Battle, Sussex, 1557; died at Dorchester, 21 March 1586-7. ...

    Pileolus

    ( zucca , head). The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is ...

    Pilgrimage of Grace

    The name given to the religious rising in the north of England, 1536. The cause of this great ...

    Pilgrimages

    (Middle English, pilgrime, Old French, pelegrin, derived from Latin peregrinum, supposed ...

    Piligrim

    Bishop of Passau, date of birth unknown; died 20 May, 991. He was educated at the ...

    Pillar of Cloud/Fire

    (P ILLAR OF F IRE ). A cloud which accompanied the Israelites during their wandering. It ...

    Pima Indians

    An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and its affluent, the ...

    Pinar del Rio

    (Pinetensis ad Flumen) Located in Cuba, erected by the Brief "Actum præclare" of Leo ...

    Pinara

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Pinara was one of the chief cities of the Lycian ...

    Pindemonte, Ippolito

    An Italian poet of noble birth, born at Verona, 13 Nov., 1753; died there, 18 Nov., 1828. He ...

    Pineda, John de

    Born in Seville, 1558; died there, 27 Jan., 1637. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1572, ...

    Pinerolo

    (PINEROLIENSIS) Located in the province of Turin, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, suffragan of ...

    Pingré, Alexandre Guy

    Born in Paris 11 September, 1711; died 1 May, 1796. He was educated in Senlis at the college ...

    Pinna da Encarnaçao, Mattheus

    A writer and theologian, born at Rio de Janeiro, 23 Aug., 1687; died there, 18 Dec., 1764. On 3 ...

    Pinto, Fernão Mendes

    A Portuguese traveller, born at Montemor-o-Velho near Coimbra, c. 1509; died at Almada near ...

    Pinturicchio

    (BERNARDINO DI BETTO, surnamed PINTURICCHIO) Born at Verona, about 1454; died at Siena, 11 ...

    Pinzón, Martín Alonso

    Spanish navigator and companion of Columbus on his first voyage to the New World, b. at Palos ...

    Piombo, Sebastiano del

    More correctly known as S EBASTIANO L UCIANI . Venetian portrait painter, b. at Venice, ...

    Pionius, Saint

    Martyred at Smyrna, 12 March, 250. Pionius, with Sabina and Asclepiades, was arrested on 23 ...

    Pious Fund of the Californias, The

    (Fondo Piadoso de las Californias) The Pious Fund of the Californias had its origin, in 1697, ...

    Pious Society of Missions, The

    Founded by Ven. Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835. The members of the society are generally called ...

    Piranesi, Giambattista

    An Italian etcher and engraver, b. at Venice, 1720; d. in Rome, 9 Nov., 1778. His uncle ...

    Pirhing, Ernricus

    Born at Sigarthin, near Passau, 1606; died between 1678 and 1681. At the age of twenty-two he ...

    Pirkheimer

    Charitas Pirkheimer Abbess of the Convent of St. Clara, of the Poor Clares, in Nuremberg, and ...

    Piro Indians

    A tribe of considerable importance, ranging by water for a distance of three hundred miles along ...

    Pisa

    ARCHDIOCESE OF PISA (PISÆ) Archdiocese in Tuscany, central Italy. The city is situated ...

    Pisa, Council of

    Preliminaries. The great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of ...

    Pisa, University of

    In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law ; prominent ...

    Pisano, Andrea

    Or ANDREA DA PISA (the name by which Andrea da Pontadera is known). An Italian sculptor and ...

    Pisano, Niccola

    Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

    Piscataway Indians

    A tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock formerly occupying the peninsula of lower Maryland ...

    Piscina

    (Latin from piscis, a fish, fish-pond, pool or basin, called also sacrarium, thalassicon, or ...

    Pise, Charles Constantine

    Priest, poet, and prose writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, 22 Nov., 1801; d. at Brooklyn, New ...

    Pisidia

    A country in the southwestern part of Asia Minor, between the high Phrygian tableland and the ...

    Pistoia and Prato

    (PISTORIENSIS ET PRATENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence. The city of Pistoia is ...

    Pistoia, Synod of

    Held 18 to 28 September, 1786, by Scipio de’ Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. It marks ...

    Pistorius, Johann

    A controversialist and historian, born at Nidda in Hesse, 14 February, 1546; died at Freiburg, 18 ...

    Pithou, Pierre

    A writer, born at Troyes, 1 Nov. 1539; died at Nogent-sur-Seine, 1 Nov., 1596. His father, a ...

    Pitoni, Joseph

    A musician, born at Rieti, Perugia, Italy, 18 March, 1657; died at Rome, 1 Feb., 1743, and ...

    Pitra, Jean-Baptiste-François

    Cardinal, famous archeologist and theologian, b. 1 August, 1812, at Champforgeuil in the ...

    Pitts, John

    Born at Alton, Hampshire, 1560; died at Liverdun, Lorraine, 17 Oct., 1616. He was educated at ...

    Pittsburgh

    DIOCESE OF PITTSBURG/PITTSBURGH (PITTSBURGENSIS). Suffragan of Philadelphia, in the United ...

    Pityus

    A titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. Pityus was a large and ...

    Pius I, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; pope from about 140 to about 154. According to the earliest list of the ...

    Pius II, Pope

    (Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini). Born at Corsignano, near Siena, 18 Oct., 1405; elected 19 ...

    Pius III, Pope

    (Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini). B. at Siena, 29 May, 1439; elected 22 Sept., 1503; d. in ...

    Pius IV, Pope

    (Giovanni Angelo Medici). B. 31 March, 1499, at Milan ; elected 26 December, 1559; d. in ...

    Pius IX, Pope

    (G IOVANNI M ARIA M ASTAI -F ERRETTI ). Pope from 1846-78; born at Sinigaglia, 13 May, ...

    Pius V, Pope Saint

    (MICHELE GHISLERI). Born at Bosco, near Alexandria, Lombardy, 17 Jan., 1504 elected 7 Jan., ...

    Pius VI, Pope

    (G IOVANNI A NGELICO B RASCHI ). Born at Cesena, 27 December, 1717; elected 15 ...

    Pius VII, Pope

    (B ARNABA C HIARAMONTI ). Born at Cesena in the Pontifical States, 14 August, 1740; ...

    Pius VIII, Pope

    (Francesco Xaverio Castiglione). B. at Cingoli, 20 Nov., 1761; elected 31 March, 1829; d. 1 ...

    Pius X, Pope Saint

    (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto). Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His ...

    Piusverein

    The name given to Catholic associations in various countries of Europe. I. THE PIUS ...

    Pizarro, Francisco

    Born in Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain, probably in 1471; died at Lima, Peru, 26 June, 1541. He ...

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    Pl 27

    Placidus, Saint

    St. Placidus, disciple of St. Benedict, the son of the patrician Tertullus, was brought as a ...

    Plagues of Egypt

    Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharao's obstinacy and force him to let ...

    Plain Chant

    By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of ...

    Plantaganet, Henry Beaufort

    Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, born c. 1377; died at Westminster, 11 April, 1447. He was the ...

    Plantin, Christophe

    Book-binder and publisher of Antwerp, b. 1514, at or near Tours ( France ); d. 1 July, 1589, at ...

    Plants in the Bible

    When Moses spoke to the people about the Land of Promise, he described it as a "land of hills ...

    Plasencia

    (PLACENTINA) Plasencia comprises the civil provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and ...

    Plateau, Joseph-Antoine

    Belgian physicist, b. at Brussels, 14 Oct., 1801; d. at Ghent, 15 Sept., 1883. His father, a ...

    Platina, Bartolomeo

    Originally named S ACCHI, b. at Piadena, near Mantua, in 1421; d. at Rome, 1481. He first ...

    Plato and Platonism

    I. LIFE OF PLATO Plato ( Platon , "the broad shouldered") was born at Athens in 428 or 427 ...

    Play, Pierre-Guillaume-Frédéric Le

    A French economist, born at La Rivière (Calvados), 11 April, 1806; died at Paris, 5 ...

    Plegmund

    Archbishop of Canterbury, died 2 August, 914. He was a Mercian, and spent his early life near ...

    Plenarium

    A book of formulae and texts. Plenarium or Plenarius ( Liber ) is any book that contains ...

    Plenary Council

    A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. The word itself, derived from ...

    Plessis, Joseph-Octave

    Bishop of Quebec, born at Montreal, 3 March, 1763; died at Quebec, 4 Dec., 1822. He studied ...

    Plethon, Georgius Gemistus

    Born in Constantinople about 1355, died in the Peloponnesus, 1450. Out of veneration for Plato ...

    Plock

    (PLOCENSIS) Located in Russian Poland, suffragan of Warsaw, includes the district of Plock ...

    Plowden, Charles

    Born at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 1743; died at Jougne, Doubs, France, 13 June, 1821. He was ...

    Plowden, Edmund

    Born 1517-8; died in London, 6 Feb., 1584-5. Son of Humphrey Plowden of Plowden Hall, Shropshire, ...

    Plowden, Francis

    Son of William Plowden of Plowden Hall, b. at Shropshire, 8 June, 1749; d. at Paris, 4 Jan., ...

    Plowden, Robert

    Elder brother of Charles, born 27 January, 1740; died at Wappenbury, 27 June, 1823. He entered ...

    Plowden, Thomas

    ( Alias Salisbury). Born in Oxfordshire, England, 1594; died in London, 13 Feb., 1664; ...

    Plowden, Thomas Percy

    Born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, England, 1672; died at Watten, 21 Sept., 1745; joined the Society ...

    Plumier, Charles

    (botanical abbreviation, Plum .) A French botanist, born at Marseilles, 20 April, 1646; ...

    Plunket, Blessed Oliver

    [ Editor's Note: St. Oliver Plunkett was canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 10, 1975.] ...

    Pluscarden Priory

    Founded in 1230 by Alexander III , King of Scotland, six miles from Elgin, Morayshire, for ...

    Plymouth

    (PLYMUTHENSIS, PLYMUTHÆ) Plymouth consists of the County of Dorset, which formed a ...

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    Pn 1

    Pneumatomachi (Macedonians)

    (Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

    × Close

    Po 120

    Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament

    Since the Bible is divinely inspired, and thus becomes the "written word" of God, many devout ...

    Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco

    An Italian humanist and historian; born at Terranuova, near Arezzo, in 1380; died at Florence, ...

    Poggio Mirteto

    DIOCESE OF POGGIO MIRTETO (MANDELENSIS) Diocese in the province of Perugia, central Italy. The ...

    Pogla

    ( ta Pogla ) Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda. Pogla is mentioned only by Ptolemy, V, 5, ...

    Poitiers

    D IOCESE OF P OITIERS (P ICTAVENSIS ) The Diocese of Poitiers includes the Departments of ...

    Poland

    I. GEOGRAPHY The western part of the Sarmatian Plain together with the northern slopes of the ...

    Polding, John Bede

    Archbishop of Sydney, born at Liverpool, 18 Oct., 1794; died at Sydney, 16 March, 1877. In 1805 ...

    Pole, Blessed Margaret

    Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

    Pole, Reginald

    Cardinal, b. at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England, in March, 1500; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

    Polemonium

    Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. At the mouth of the Sidenus, ...

    Poleni, Giovanni

    Marquess, physicist, and antiquarian; b. at Venice, 23 Aug., 1683; d. at Padua, 14 Nov., 1761; ...

    Poles in the United States

    Causes of Immigration There is good foundation for the tradition that a Pole, John of Kolno (a ...

    Policastro

    DIOCESE OF POLICASTRO (POLICASTRENSIS) Diocese in the province of Salerno, Southern Italy. The ...

    Polignac, Melchior de

    Cardinal, diplomatist, and writer, b. of an ancient family of Auvergne, at Le Puy, France, 11 ...

    Polish Literature

    The subject will be divided, for convenience of treatment, into historical periods. First ...

    Politi, Lancelot

    (In religion AMBROSIUS CATHARINUS) Born at Siena, 1483; died at Naples, 1553. At sixteen he ...

    Politian

    (ANGIOLO DE 'AMBROSINI DA MONTE PULCIANO) An Italian Humanist, born at Monte Pulciano in 1454; ...

    Political Economy, Science of

    S CIENCE OF P OLITICAL E CONOMY (E CONOMICS ). I. DEFINITIONS Political economy (Greek, ...

    Pollajuolo, Antonio and Piero Benci

    Antonio and Piero Benci Pollajuolo derived their surname, according to Florentine custom, from ...

    Polo, Marco

    Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

    Polybotus

    A titular see in Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. This town is mentioned only in the ...

    Polycarp, Saint

    Martyr (A.D. 69-155). Our chief sources of information concerning St. Polycarp are: (1) the ...

    Polycarpus

    The title of a canonical collection in eight books composed in Italy by Cardinal Gregorius. It is ...

    Polyglot Bibles

    The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcalá (in Latin ...

    Polystylum

    A titular see of Macedonia Secunda, suffragan of Philippi. When Philippi was made a ...

    Polytheism

    The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. See the various articles on national ...

    Pomaria

    A titular see in Mauretania Cæsarea. It is north of Tlemcen (capital of an arrondissement ...

    Pombal, Marquis de

    S EBASTIâO J OSÉ DE C ARVALHO E M ELLO The son of a country gentleman of ...

    Pomerania

    A Prussian province on the Baltic Sea situated on both banks of the River Oder, divided into ...

    Pompeiopolis

    A titular see in Paphlagonia. The ancient name of the town is unknown; it may have been ...

    Pomponazzi, Pietro

    (POMPONATIUS, also known as PERETTO on account of his small stature) A philosopher and ...

    Ponce de León, Juan

    Explorer, born at San Servas in the province of Campos, 1460; died in Cuba, 1521. He was ...

    Ponce, John

    A philosopher and theologian, born at Cork, 1603, died at Paris, 1670. At an early age he went ...

    Poncet, Joseph Anthony de la Rivière

    Missionary; b. at Paris, 17 May, 1610; d. at Martinique, 18 June, 1675. He entered the Jesuit ...

    Pondicherry

    (PONDICHERIANA OR PUDICHERIANA) Located in India, it is bounded on the east by the Bay of ...

    Pontefract Priory

    Located in Yorkshire, England, a Cluniac monastery dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, founded ...

    Pontian, Pope Saint

    Dates of birth and death unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 145) gives Rome ...

    Pontifical Colleges

    In earlier times there existed in Europe outside of the city of Rome a large number of ...

    Pontifical Decorations

    Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other ...

    Pontifical Mass

    Pontifical Mass is the solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the ...

    Pontificale

    ( Pontificale Romanum ). A liturgical book which contains the rites for the performance ...

    Pontificalia

    (PONTIFICALS). The collective name given for convenience sake to those insignia of the ...

    Pontigny, Abbey of

    Second daughter of Cîteaux, was situated on the banks of the Serain, present Diocese of ...

    Pontius Carbonell

    Born at Barcelona, c. ú died c. 1320. Pontius and Carbonell are names frequently met with ...

    Pontius Pilate

    After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

    Pontus

    In ancient times, Pontus was the name of the north-eastern province of Asia Minor , a long ...

    Pools in Scripture

    In the English Bibles, the word "pool" stands for three Hebrew words: (1) 'agam means properly ...

    Poona

    (PUNENSIS) Diocese in India, comprises that portion of the Bombay Presidency which lies on ...

    Poor Brothers of St. Francis Seraphicus

    A congregation of lay brothers of the Third Order of St. Francis, instituted for charitable ...

    Poor Catholics

    ( Pauperes Catholici ) A religious mendicant order, organized in 1208, to reunite the ...

    Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the

    A congregation founded at Aachen in 1844 for the support and education of poor, orphan, and ...

    Poor Clares

    (POOR LADIES, SISTERS OF ST. CLARE) The Second Order of St. Francis. The subject will be treated ...

    Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ

    A community founded by Catherine Kasper, a native of Dernbach, Germany. She was born 26 May, 1820, ...

    Poor Handmaids of the Mother of God

    A religious congregation founded in 1808 by Mother Mary Magdalen Taylor in conjunction with ...

    Poor Laws

    Poor Laws are those legal enactments which have been made at various periods of the world's ...

    Poor, Care of, by the Church

    I. OBJECTS, HISTORY, AND ORGANIZATION A. The care of the poor is a branch of charity. In the ...

    Poor, Little Sisters of the

    An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded at St Servan, Brittany, 1839, through the ...

    Poor, Sisters of the, of St. Francis

    A Congregation, founded by the Venerable Mother Frances Schervier at Aachen in the year 1845, ...

    Popayán

    (POPAYANENSIS) Popayán lies approximately between 1º 20' and 3º 2' north ...

    Pope, Alexander

    Poet, son of Alexander Pope and his second wife, Edith Turner, b. in London, England, 22 May, ...

    Pope, The

    ( Ecclesiastical Latin papa from Greek papas , a variant of pappas father, in classical ...

    Popes, Chronological Lists of the

    See also POPE, LIST OF POPES, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. The historical lists ...

    Popes, Election of the

    For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

    Popes, List of

    See also POPE, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76) ...

    Poppo, Saint

    Abbot, born 977; died at Marchiennes, 25 January, 1048. He belonged to a noble family of ...

    Popular Devotions

    Devotion, in the language of ascetical writers, denotes a certain ardour of affection in the ...

    Population, Theories of

    Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

    Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture)

    A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

    Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio

    Italian painter, b. at Pordenone, 1483; d. at Ferrara, January, 1539. He is occasionally referred ...

    Pordenone, Ordric of

    A Franciscan missionary of a Czech family named Mattiussi, born at Villanova near Pordenone, ...

    Pormort, Ven. Thomas

    English martyr, b. at Hull about 1559; d. at St. Paul's Churchyard, 20 Feb., 1592. He was probably ...

    Porphyreon

    Titular see, suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima. It is described in the "Notitia Episcopatuum" ...

    Porphyrius, Saint

    Bishop of Gaza in Palestine, b. at Thessalonica about 347; d. at Gaza, 26 February, 420. ...

    Porrecta, Serafino

    Family name Capponi, called a Porrecta from the place of birth, theologian, b. 1536; d. at Bologna, ...

    Port Augusta

    (PORTAUGUSTANA) This diocese is a suffragan of Adelaide, South Australia, created in ...

    Port Louis

    (PORTUS LUDOVICI) This diocese comprises the islands of Mauritius, Rodriguez, Chagos, and ...

    Port of Spain

    (PORTUS HISPANIÆ) An archiepiscopal and metropolitan see, including the Islands of ...

    Port Victoria

    (PORTUS VICTORIÆ SEYCHELLARUM.) Port Victoria comprises the Seychelles Islands in the ...

    Port-au-Prince

    (PORTUS PRINCIPIS) This archdiocese comprises the western part of the Republic of Haiti. Its ...

    Port-Royal

    A celebrated Benedictine abbey which profoundly influenced the religious and literary life of ...

    Porta, Carlo

    Poet, b. at Milan in 1775; d. there 5 January, 1821; educated by the Jesuits at Monza and ...

    Porta, Giacomo della

    Architect and sculptor, b. at Porlizza on Lake Lugano 1541; d. 1604. He was a pupil of ...

    Portable Altar

    A portable altar consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to ...

    Portalegre

    Suffragan diocese of Lisbon, Portugal, established by Pope Julius III in 1550. Its first ...

    Porter

    (Also called DOORKEEPER. From ostiarius , Latin ostium , a door.) Porter denoted among ...

    Porter, George

    Archbishop of Bombay, b. 1825 at Exeter, England ; d. at Bombay, 28 September, 1889. Of ...

    Portiuncula

    (PORZIONCULA or PORZIUNCOLA). A town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from ...

    Portland

    Diocese in the State of Maine ; suffragan of Boston ; established by Pius IX, 8 Dec., 1854. ...

    Porto Alegre

    (PORTALEGRENSIS) Located in Eastern Brazil. Porto Alegre, the capital and chief port of the ...

    Porto Alegre

    (PORTALEGREN) Porto Alegre comprises the southern part of the State of Minas Geraes, and part ...

    Porto and Santa-Rufina

    (PORTUENSIS ET SANCTÆ RUFINÆ) This diocese was formed from the union of two ...

    Porto Rico

    (PUERTO RICO) The smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles, rectangular in shape, ...

    Portoviejo

    (PORTUS VETERIS). A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Quito, Republic of Ecuador. It was ...

    Portraits of the Apostles

    The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of ...

    Portsmouth

    (PORTUS MAGNUS, or PORTEMUTHENSIS) This diocese was created by a Brief of Leo XIII , ...

    Portugal

    I. GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Portugal is situated on the west of the Iberian ...

    Portuguese East Africa

    Portuguese East Africa consists of the Province of Mozambique. Portuguese activity on that ...

    Portuguese Literature

    The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the lingua rustica spoken in the countries ...

    Portuguese West Africa

    The name usually given to the Province of Angola. It has a coast line of 1015 miles from the ...

    Positivism

    Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. As ...

    Possenti, Blessed Gabriel

    Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

    Possession, Demonical

    ( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, EXORCIST.) Man is in various ways subject to the ...

    Possevinus, Antonius

    Theologian and papal envoy, b. at Mantua in 1533 or 1534; d. at Ferrara, 26 Feb., 1611. At ...

    Possidius, Saint

    Bishop of Calama in Numidia, author of a short life of St. Augustine and of an indiculus or ...

    Postcommunion

    The Communion act finishes the essential Eucharistic service. Justin Martyr (I Apol., lxv-lxvi) ...

    Postgate, Nicholas

    English martyr, b. at Kirkdale House, Egton, Yorkshire, in 1596 or 1597; d. at York, 7 August, ...

    Postulant

    Postulancy is a preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. ...

    Postulation

    ( Latin postulare, to request) A postulation is a petition presented to a competent ...

    Potawatomi Indians

    An important tribe of Algonquin linguistic stock, closely related dialectically to the Ojibwa ...

    Pothier, Robert Joseph

    A celebrated French lawyer, b. at Orléans, 9 January, 1699; d. there, 2 March, 1772. His ...

    Pouget, Jean-François-Albert du

    Marquis de Nadaillac, b. in 1817; d. at Rougemont, Cloyes, 1 October, 1904; the scion of an old ...

    Pounde, Thomas

    Lay brother, b. at Beaumond (or Belmony), Farlington, Hampshire, 29 May, 1538; d. there, 26 Feb., ...

    Poussin, Nicolas

    French painter, b. at Les Andelys near Rouen in 1594; d. at Rome, 19 November, 1666. His early ...

    Poverty

    I. THE MORAL DOCTRINE OF POVERTY Jesus Christ did not condemn the possession of worldly goods, or ...

    Poverty and Pauperism

    See also CARE OF THE POOR BY THE CHURCH In a legal and technical sense, pauperism denotes the ...

    Powel, Philip

    ( alias M ORGAN, alias P ROSSER ) Martyr, b. at Tralon, Brecknockshire, 2 Feb., 1594; d. ...

    Powell, Blessed Edward

    With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

    Poynter, William

    Born 20 May, 1762, at Petersfield, Hants; died 26 Nov., 1827, in London. He was educated at the ...

    Pozzo, Andreas

    (P UTEUS ) Italian painter and architect of the Baroque period, b. at Trent, 1642; d. at ...

    Pozzuoli

    (PUTEOLANA) The city of Pozzuoli in the province of Naples, southern Italy, on the gulf of ...

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    Pr 155

    Prémare, Joseph Henri Marie de

    Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare, missionary and sinologist, born at Cherbourg, 17 July, 1666; ...

    Prémontré, Abbey of

    Located about twelve miles west of Laon, Department of Aisne, France ; founded by St. Norbert. ...

    Prüm

    A former Benedictine abbey in Lorraine, now in the Diocese of Trier, founded by a Frankish ...

    Prades, Jean-Martin de

    A theologian, born about 1720 at Castelsarrasin ( Diocese of Montauban ), died in 1782 at ...

    Prado, Jerome de

    Exegete, b. at Baeza in Spain, 1547; d. at Rome, 13 Jan., 1595. He entered the Society of ...

    Praelatus Nullius

    (i.e. Dioceseos) A prelate who exercises quasi-episcopal jurisdiction in a territory not ...

    Pragmatic Sanction

    ( pragmatica sanctio , lex , jussio , also pragmatica or pragmaticum ) Pragmatic ...

    Pragmatism

    Pragmatism, as a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical ...

    Prague

    (PRAGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bohemia. From about the middle of the sixth century Slavonic ...

    Prague, University of

    The University of Prague was founded by Charles IV with the consent of the Estates on the model ...

    Praxeas

    An early anti- Montanist, is known to us only by Tertullian's book "Adversus Praxean". His name ...

    Praxedes and Pudentiana

    Martyrs of an unknown era. The seventh-century itineraries to the graves of the Roman martyrs ...

    Pray Brethren

    The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

    Pray, George

    Abbot, canon, librarian of the University library of Buda, and important Hungarian historian, b. ...

    Prayer

    (Greek euchesthai , Latin precari , French prier , to plead, to beg, to ask earnestly). ...

    Prayer of Christ, Feast of the

    This feast occurs on the Tuesday after Septuagesima (double major). Its object is to ...

    Prayer of Quiet

    The Prayer of Quiet is regarded by all writers on mystical theology as one of the degrees of ...

    Prayer, Lord's

    Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

    Prayer-Books

    By "prayer-books" usage generally understands a collection of forms of prayer intended for ...

    Prayers for the Dead

    This subject will be treated under the following three heads: I. General Statement and Proof of ...

    Preacher Apostolic

    A dignitary of the pontifical household. As a regular function, under special Regulations, this ...

    Preachers, Order of

    As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we ...

    Preadamites

    The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Strictly speaking, the expression ought to be ...

    Prebend

    The right of a member of a chapter to his share in the revenues of the cathedral ; also the ...

    Precaria

    ( Preces , prayers ). A precaria is a contract granting to a petitioner the use and ...

    Precedence

    ( Latin præcedere , to go before another). Precedence signifies the right to enjoy ...

    Precentor

    (Latin Præcentor , from præ , before- cantor singer). A word describing ...

    Precept

    ( Precept: From the Latin præceptum from præcipere , to command). Precept , ...

    Precious Blood

    The blood of our Divine Saviour. Jesus, at the Last Supper, ascribes to it the same life-giving ...

    Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the Most

    Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

    Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most

    An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions ...

    Precious Blood, Congregations of the

    I. BERNADINES OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence, founded by ...

    Precious Blood, Feast of the Most

    For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

    Precipiano, Humbert-Guillaume de, Count

    Born at Besançon, 1626; died at Brussels, 7 June, 1711. Having studied the classics at ...

    Preconization

    (Latin præconizare , to publish, from præco , herald, public crier) This word ...

    Predestinarianism

    Predestinarianism is a heresy not unfrequently met with in the course of the centuries which ...

    Predestination

    Predestination ( Latin prœ , destinare ), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine ...

    Preface

    ( Latin Præfatio ). The first part of the Eucharistic prayers ( Anaphora or Canon) in ...

    Prefect Apostolic

    ( Latin prœfectus, one put over or in charge of something) During the last few ...

    Prefecture Apostolic (Supplemental List)

    (SUPPLEMENTAL LIST) An account is here given of the prefectures Apostolic that have been ...

    Prelate

    Real Prelate, the incumbent of a prelature, i.e., of an ecclesiastical office with special and ...

    Premonstratensian Canons

    (C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

    Presbyterianism

    Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies ...

    Presbytery

    The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy was known in antiquity by various names, ...

    Prescription

    (Latin prœ , before, and scribere , to write, in later legal Latin involving the idea ...

    Prescription in Civil Jurisprudence

    Prescription "in some form and under some name" is said to have existed as a part of the municipal ...

    Presence of God

    Doctrinal All solid devotion and devotional practices must be founded upon the truths of ...

    Presence, Real

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Presentation Brothers

    In the early part of the nineteenth century when the Penal Laws were relaxed, and the ban which ...

    Presentation of Mary, Congregation of the

    This congregation, devoted to the education of young girls, was founded in 1796 at Theuyts, ...

    Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

    The Protoevangel of James, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, and ...

    Presentation, Feast of the

    Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin (Greek Hypapante ), Feast of the Presentation of ...

    Presentation, Order of the

    An Order founded at Cork, Ireland, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle (see below). In 1775 she entered with ...

    Presentation, Religious Congregations of the

    (1) Daughters of the Presentation , founded in 1627 by Nicolas Sanguin (b. 1580; d. 1653), ...

    Presentation, Right of

    Out of gratitude for the foundation or endowment of churches and benefices, the Church grants ...

    Prester John

    Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. FIRST STAGE The mythical journey to Rome of a ...

    Preston, Thomas

    ( Alias R OGER W IDDRINGTON ). Benedictine, d. in the Clink prison, 5 April, 1640. He ...

    Preston, Thomas Scott

    The Vicar-General of New York, prothonotary Apostolic, chancellor, distinguished convert, ...

    Presumption

    (Latin praesumere , "to take before", "to take for granted"). Presumption is here ...

    Presumption

    (IN CANON LAW) A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn ...

    Pretorium

    This name is derived from the Latin prætorium, in later Greek tò ...

    Pride

    Pride is the excessive love of one's own excellence. It is ordinarily accounted one of the seven ...

    Priene

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The foundation of the town of Priene dates ...

    Priest

    This word (etymologically "elder", from presbyteros , presbyter ) has taken the meaning of ...

    Priest, Assistant

    The assistant priest ( presbyter assistens , anciently called capellanus ) is the first and ...

    Priest, High

    The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

    Priesthood

    The word priest (Germ. Priester ; Fr. prêtre ; Ital. prete ) is derived from the ...

    Priestly Perseverance, Association of

    A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese. ...

    Priests' Communion League

    An association of priests established at Rome on 20 July, 1906, in the Church of San ...

    Priests' Eucharistic League

    I. Object The Priests' Eucharistic League (Confraternitas sacerdotalis adorationis Sanctissimi ...

    Priests, Confraternities of

    Three confraternities of priests -- the Apostolic Union, the Priests' Eucharistic League, ...

    Primacy

    (Latin primatus, primus , first). The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as ...

    Primadicci, James

    (Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

    Primate

    (Lat. primas, from primus, "first"). In the Western Church a primate is a bishop ...

    Prime

    I. THE NAME The name Prime ( prima hora ) belongs with those of Terce, Sext, None, to the ...

    Primer, The

    The common English name for a book of devotions which from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century ...

    Primicerius

    (Etymologically primus in cera , sc. in tabula cerata , the first in a list of a class of ...

    Primus and Felician, Saints

    Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

    Prince Albert, Diocese of

    A suffragan see of St. Boniface, Manitoba, in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Originally ...

    Prior

    A monastic superior. In the Rule of St. Benedict the term prior occurs several times, but ...

    Prioress

    (Priorissa, Praeposita). A superioress in a monastic community for women. The term prioress ...

    Priory

    A monastery whose superior is a prior. The Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Carthusians, ...

    Prisca, Saint

    She was a martyr of the Roman Church, whose dates are unknown. The name Prisca or Priscilla ...

    Priscianus

    Latin grammarian, born at Caesarea (Mauretania) , taught at Constantinople under Anastatius I ...

    Priscilla and Aquila

    ( Or Prisca.) Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome (Aquila was a native of Pontus ) in the ...

    Priscillianism

    This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic - ...

    Prisons

    I. IN ANCIENT TIMES Many jurisconsults and Scriptural interpreters include imprisonment among ...

    Prisons, Ecclesiastical

    It is plain from many decrees in the "Corpus Juris Canonici" that the Church has claimed and ...

    Privilege

    ( Latin, privilegium , like priva lex ) Privilege is a permanent concession made by a ...

    Privileged Altar

    An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic ...

    Privileges, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical privileges are exceptions to the Law made in favour of the clergy or in favour ...

    Proba, Faltonia

    A Christian poetess of the fourth century. The name Faltonia is doubtful and is apparently due ...

    Probabilism

    Probabilism is the moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the ...

    Probus, Marcus Aurelius

    Roman Emperor, 276-82, raised to the throne by the army in Syria to succeed Tacitus. Of humble ...

    Probus, Tarachus, and Andronicus, Saints

    Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

    Processional Cross

    A processional cross is simply a crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and ...

    Processional, Roman

    Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

    Processions

    Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every ...

    Processus and Martinian, Saints

    The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

    Proclus, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople. Saint Proclus died in 446 or 447. Proclus came to the fore in the ...

    Proconnesus

    (PRŒCONNESUS) A titular see in Hellespont. Proconnesus was the name of an island ...

    Procopius of Caesarea

    Byzantine historian, b. in the latter years of the fifth century at Caesarea in Palestine , d. ...

    Procter, Adelaide Anne

    Poetess and philanthropist, b. in London, England, 30 October, 1825; d. in London, 2 February, ...

    Procurator

    A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. There are ...

    Profession, Religious

    HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

    Promise, Divine

    The term promise in Holy Writ both in its nominal and verbal form embraces not only promises ...

    Promotor Fidei

    (P ROMOTER OF THE F AITH ). An official of the Roman Congregation of Rites. The office ...

    Promulgation

    ( Latin promulgare, to make known, to post in public). I. PROMULGATION IN GENERAL This is the ...

    Proof

    Proof is the establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. ...

    Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of

    The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide , whose official title is "sacra congregatio ...

    Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the

    This society is an international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of ...

    Property

    I. NOTION OF PROPERTY The proprietor or owner of a thing, in the current acceptation of the word, ...

    Property, Ecclesiastical

    Abstract Right of Ownership That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal ...

    Property, Ecclesiastical, in the United States

    The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed (tit. IX, cap. i, n. 264): "We must hold, ...

    Prophecy

    As the term is used in mystical theology , it applies both to the prophecies of canonical ...

    Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess

    I. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT A. Introduction Yahweh had forbidden Israel all kinds of oracles in ...

    Proprium

    The Proprium de tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum form in the present liturgy the two ...

    Proschko, Franz Isidor

    A well-known Austrian author, born at Hohenfurt, Bohemia, 2 April, 1816; died at Vienna, 6 ...

    Prose or Sequence

    I. DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Sequence ( Sequentia )–or, more accurately as ...

    Proselyte

    ( proselytos , stranger or newcomer; Vulgate, advena ). The English term "proselyte" ...

    Proske, Karl

    Born at Grobing in Upper Silesia, 11 Feb., 1794; died 20 Dec., 1861. He took his degree as Doctor ...

    Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro

    The first sure date in the life of Prosper is that of his letter to St. Augustine written ...

    Protasius and Gervasius, Saints

    Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

    Protector, Altar

    A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the ...

    Protectorate of Missions

    The right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an infidel country with regard to ...

    Protectories

    The institutions for the shelter and training of the young, designed to afford neglected or ...

    Protestant Episcopal Church

    The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

    Protestantism

    The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.: I. Origin of the Name. II. ...

    Prothonotary Apostolic

    A member of the highest college of prelates in the Roman Curia, and also of the honorary ...

    Protocol

    The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries, e.g., mention of the reign, ...

    Protopope

    A priest of higher rank in the Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, corresponding in ...

    Protus and Hyacinth, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

    Prout, Father

    The name by which the Rev. Francis Sylvester Mahony (O'Mahony), author of "The Bells of ...

    Provancher, Léon Abel

    Naturalist, b. 10 March, 1820, in the parish of Béconcourt, Nicolet county, Province of ...

    Proverbs, Book of

    One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the ...

    Providence, Congregations of (I)

    Founded at Paris, by Madame Polaillon (Marie de Lumague), a devout widow. In 1643 Madame ...

    Providence, Congregations of (II)

    (St. Mary-of-the-Woods) Among the teaching religious orders that originated in France at ...

    Providence, Congregations of (III)

    SISTERS OF CHARITY The Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, known also as Sisters of ...

    Providence, Congregations of (IV)

    Founded at Turin in 1834 by the Marchesa Julia Falletti de Barolo for the care of children and ...

    Providence, Congregations of (V)

    SISTERS OF THE INSTITUTE OF CHARITY An offshoot from the Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, ...

    Providence, Diocese of

    (PROVIDENTIENSIS) Co-extensive with the State of Rhode Island . When erected (17 Feb., 1872) ...

    Providence, Divine

    ( Latin, Providentia ; Greek, pronoia ). Providence in general, or foresight, is a ...

    Province, Ecclesiastical

    The name given to an ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an ...

    Provincial

    An officer acting under the superior general of a religious order, and exercising a general ...

    Provincial Council

    A deliberative assembly of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province, summoned and presided ...

    Provision, Canonical

    Canonical Provision is a term signifying regular induction into a benefice, comprising three ...

    Provisors, Statute of

    The English statute usually so designated is the 25th of Edward III, St. 4 (1350-1), otherwise ...

    Provost

    (Latin, prœpositus; French, prévôt; German, Probst ) Anciently (St. ...

    Prudence

    (Latin prudentia , contracted from providentia , seeing ahead). One of the four ...

    Prudentius

    (GALINDO) A Bishop of Troyes, born in Spain ; died at Troyes on 6 April, 861; celebrated ...

    Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens

    A Christian poet, born in the Tarraconensis, Northern Spain, 348; died probably in Spain, ...

    Prusias ad Hypium

    Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in the Honoriad. Memnon, the historian, says that Prusias ...

    Prussia

    The Kingdom of Prussia at the present time covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 ...

    Przemysl

    (PREMISLIENSIS) Latin see in Galicia, suffragan of Lemberg. After conquering Halicz and ...

    Przemysl, Sambor, and Sanok

    (PREMISLIENSIS, SAMBORIENSIS, ET SANOCHIENSIS) A Græco-Ruthenian Uniat diocese of ...

    × Close

    Ps 7

    Psalms

    The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" ( Kethubhim or Hagiographa ...

    Psalms, Alphabetic

    Alphabetic psalms are so called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, ...

    Psalterium

    The Psalterium, or Book of the Psalms, only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed ...

    Psaume, Nicholas

    (also PSAULME, PREAUME, Latin PSALMÆUS) Bishop of Verdun, born at Chaumont-sur-Aire in ...

    Psellus, Michael

    ( Michael ho Psellos ), Byzantine statesman, scholar, and author, born apparently at ...

    Psychology

    (Greek psyche, logos ; Latin psychologia; French psychologie; German Seelenkunde ) In ...

    Psychotherapy

    (from the Greek psyche , "mind", and therapeuo , "I cure") Psychotherapy is that ...

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    Pt 3

    Ptolemais

    Ptolemais, a titular see in Egypt, metropolis of Thebais Secunda. Ptolemais owes its name to ...

    Ptolemais

    (SAINT-JEAN D'ACRE) Ptolemais, a titular metropolis in Phoenicia Prima, or Maritima. The ...

    Ptolemy the Gnostic

    A heretic of the second century and personal disciple of Valentinus. He was probably still ...

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    Pu 31

    Public Authority

    Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

    Public Honesty (Decency)

    A diriment matrimonial impediment consisting in a relationship, which arises from a valid ...

    Publican

    Publican , in the Gospels, is derived from the publicanus of the Vulgate, and signifies a ...

    Pueblo Indians

    NAME From the Spanish word meaning "village" or "town". A term used collectively to designate ...

    Puget, Pierre

    A painter, sculptor, architect, and naval constructor, born at Marseilles, 31 Oct., 1622; died ...

    Pugh, George Ellis

    A jurist and statesman, born at Cincinnati, Ohio., 28 November, 1822; died there, 19 July, 1876. ...

    Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore

    Architect and archeologist, born in London, 1 March, 1812; died at Ramsgate, 14 September, 1852; ...

    Puiseux, Victor-Alexandre

    French mathematician and astronomer, b. 16 April, 1820, at Argenteuil (Seine-et-Oise); d. 9 ...

    Pulaski, Casimir

    Patriot and soldier, b. at Winiary, Poland, 4 March, 1748; d. on the Wasp, in the harbour of ...

    Pulati

    (The Diocese of Pulati: Pulatensis or Polatinensis ). The ancient Pulati in Albania no ...

    Pulcheria, Saint

    Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire, eldest daughter of the Emperor Arcadius, b. 19 Jan., 399; d. ...

    Pulci, Luigi

    An Italian poet, born at Florence, 15 Aug., 1432; died at Padua in 1484. The Pulci gave many ...

    Pullen, Robert

    (POLENIUS, PULLAN, PULLEIN, PULLENUS, PULLY, LA POULE) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Died 1147 (?). ...

    Pullus, Robert

    (PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

    Pulpit

    ( Latin pulpitum , a stage or scaffold) An elevated stand to preach on. To elucidate the ...

    Punishment, Capital

    The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The ...

    Puno

    DIOCESE OF PUNO (PUNIENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima in Peru. Its jurisdiction ...

    Purcell, John Baptist

    Archbishop of Cincinnati, born at Mallow, Ireland, 26 Feb., 1800; died at the convent of the ...

    Purgative Way

    The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

    Purgatorial Societies

    Pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to ...

    Purgatory

    The subject is treated under these heads: I. Catholic Doctrine II. Errors III. Proofs IV. Duration ...

    Purgatory, St. Patrick's

    Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

    Purim

    (P HURIM ). The origin of the name is disputed: some derive it from the Persian pure ...

    Puritans

    One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is ...

    Pusey and Puseyism

    Edward Bouverie Pusey, born at Pusey House, Berkshire, 22 Aug., 1800; died at Ascot Priory, ...

    Pustet

    The name of a family of well-known Catholic publishers. The original home of the Pustets was ...

    Putative Marriage

    Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

    Puteanus, Erycius

    (ERRIJCK DE PUT) Born at Venloo, in Dutch Limbourg, 4 Nov., 1574; died at Louvain, 17 Sept., ...

    Putzer, Joseph

    Theologian and canonist, b. at Rodaneck, Tyrol, 4 March, 1836; d. at Ilchester, Md., 15 May, ...

    Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre

    French painter, b. at Lyons, 14 Dec., 1824; d. at Paris, 24 Oct., 1898. Through his father ...

    Puyallup Indians

    An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly holding the territory along the river of ...

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    Py 4

    Pyrker, Johann Ladislaus von Oberwart

    (FELSÖ-EÖR) He was born at Langh near Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, 2 Nov., 1772; died ...

    Pyrrhonism

    Pyrrhonism is a system of scepticism, the founder of which was Pyrrho, a Greek philosopher, ...

    Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism

    Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician and founder of the Pythagorean school, ...

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