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The Netherlands

( German Niederlande ; French Pays Bas ).

The Netherlands, or Low Countries, as organized by Charles V, under whom the Burgundian era ended, comprised practically the territory now included in Holland and Belgium, thenceforth known as the Spanish Netherlands. For the previous history of this country see B URGUNDY and C HARLES V . Shorn of the northern provinces by the secession of Holland as the Commonwealth of the United Provinces (1579), the Spanish Netherlands, on their cession to Austria (1713-14) were reduced to the provinces now embraced in Belgium, subsequently called the Austrian Netherlands.

The Spanish Netherlands

When Philip II by the abdication of his father, Charles V, became sovereign of the Low Countries and took up the government of the Seventeen Provinces, he found them at the zenith of their prosperity, as is evident from the description given in 1567 by Luigi Guicciardini in his "Descrittione di tutti i Pacsi Bassi" (Totius Bolgiidescriptio, Amsterdam, 1613).

Few countries were so well governed; none was richer. Antwerp had taken the place of Bruges as commercial metropolis ; every day saw a fleet of 500 sea-going craft enter or leave its port. Of Ghent (Gand), his native town, Charles V used to say jocosely: Je mettrais Paris dans mon Gand [I could put Paris in my glove ( gant )]. Luxury, however, corrupted the earlier good morals of the people, and humanism gradually undermined the faith of some in the upper classes. Protestantism too had already effected an entrance, Lutheranism through Antwerp and Calvinism from the French border. The Anabaptists also had adherents. In addition the more powerful of the nobility now hoped to play a more influential part in the government than they had done under Charles V, and were already planning for the realization of this ambition. The situation presented many difficulties, and unfortunately Philip II was not the man to cope with them. He had little in common with his Low-Country subjects. Their language was not his; and he was a stranger to their customs. From the day he quitted the Netherlands in 1559, he never set foot in them again, but governed from far-off Spain. He was despotic, severe, crafty, and desirous of keeping in his own hands all the reins of government, in minor details as well as in matters of more importance, thereby causing many unfortunate delays in affairs that demanded rapid transaction. He was on the whole a most unsuitable ruler in spite of his sincere desire to fulfil the duties of his royal office and the time and pains he consecrated to them.

It must be said in justice that from a religious point of view, he brought about one of the most important events in the history of the Netherlands when he caused the establishment of fourteen new dioceses. The want had long been recognized and the sovereigns, particularly Philip the Good and Charles V, had often thought of this measure. In all the seventeen provinces there were but four dioceses : Utrecht in the north; Tournai, Arras, and Cambrai in the West; and all of them were subject to foreign metropolitans, Utrecht to Cologne and the others to Reims. Moreover the greater part of the country was under the direct jurisdiction of foreign bishops : those of Liège, Trier, Metz, Verdun, etc. Hence arose great difficulties and endless conflicts. The Bull of Pope Paul IV (12 May, 1559) put an end to this situation by raising Utrecht and Cambrai to archiepiscopal rank, and by creating fourteen new sees, one of them, Mechlin, an archbishopric. The others were Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges, Ypres, St-Omer, Namur, Bois-le-Duc (Hertogenbosch), Roermond, Haarlem, Deventer, Leeuwarden, Groningen, and Middelburg. This act, excellent from a religious point of view, gaye rise to many complaints. To endow the new sees it was found necessary to incorporate with them the richest abbeys in the country, and in certain provinces these carried the right of voting in the States-General. And this right being for the future exercised through the bishops, the result was that the king who nominated them gained a considerable influence in the Parliament, which had hitherto always acted as a check on the royal power. To aggravate matters, the Protestant faction spread a rumour that the erection of the new bishoprics was but a step towards introducing the Spanish Inquisition into the Netherlands. Lastly the abbeys began to complain of their lost autonomy-the place of the abbot being now occupied by the bishop.

The opposition of the nobles was led by two men, remarkable in different ways. On one hand was the Count of Egmont, the victor at St-Quentin and Gravelines, a brave man, frank and honest, a lover of popularity but weak in character and lacking in political shrewdness. On the other hand stood William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, surnamed "the Silent ", a politician and diplomat of the first rank, filled with ambition which he well knew how to conceal, having no religious scruples, being Catholic, Lutheran, or Calvinist as it suited him, a man who had made the downfall of Spanish rule the one aim of his life. Grouped around these two chiefs were a number of nobles irritated with the Government, many of them deeply involved financially or morally corrupt like the too well-known Brederode. They kept up the agitation and demanded fresh concessions day by day. They insisted upon the recall of the Spanish soldiers, and the king yielded (1561). They demanded more moderate language in the public placard against heresy, and even sent the Count of Egmont to Spain to obtain it (1565); and Egmont, having been flattered and feted at the Spanish Court, came back convinced that his mission had been successful. Soon, however, royal letters dated from the Forest of Segovia, 17 and 20 October, 1565, brought the king's formal refusal to abate one jot in the repression of heresy.

The irreconcilable attitude of the king created a situation of increasing difficulty for the government of Margaret of Parma. Heresy was spreading every day, and it was no longer confined to the cities but was obtaining a foothold in the smaller towns and even in country places. Protestant preachers, for the most part renegade monks or priests, like the famous Dathenus, assembled the people at "sermons" in which they were exhorted to open war on the Catholic religion. Calvinism, a sect better organized than Lutheranism, became the popular heresy in the Low Countries. It had supporters in every grade of society ; and although its members continued to be a small minority, their daring and clever propaganda made them a most dangerous force in presence of the inaction and sluggishness of the Catholics. Stirred up by these Calvinist preachers, Catholic and Protestant nobles formed an alliance which was called Le Compromis des Nobles , with the object of obtaining the suppression of the Inquisition. A body of them numbering several hundred came to present a petition to that effect to the regent (5 April, 1566). It is related that as she showed signs of alarm at this demonstration Count de Berlaymont, member of the Council of State and a loyal supporter of the Government, said to her: "Rassurez-vous, Madame, ce ne sont que des gueux" (Courage, Madam, they are only beggars). The confederates at once took up the word as a party name, and thus this famous name made its entry into history.

Up to that time the Gueux meant to remain faithful to the king, jusqu'à la besace (to beggary), as one of their mottoes had it. They seemed to have been made up of Catholics and Protestants, indiscriminately, who were partisans of religious tolerance ; and Vive les Gueux was originally the rally-cry of a sort of national party. This, however, was a delusion soon apparent. The Calvinist leaders held the movement in their hands, and did not hesitate when sure of their own strength to disclose its real fanatical opposition to the Catholic Church. Roused and excited by the impassioned appeals of the preachers, the rowdy element of the people perpetrated unheard-of excesses. In the latter part of August, 1566, bands of iconoclasts scoured the country, wrecking and pillaging churches, and in a few days they had plundered four hundred, among them the magnificent cathedral of Antwerp. These crimes opened the eyes of many who up to that time had been too lenient with the sectarians. Public opinion condemned the iconoclastic outrages and sided with the Government, which thus suddenly found its position greatly strengthened. Once more, unfortunately, Philip II was not equal to the occasion. Instead of skilfully profiting by this turn of events to win back those who were shocked by the violence of the heretics, he looked on all his subjects in the Netherlands as equally guilty, and he swore by his father's soul that he would make an example of them. Against the advice of the regent, despite faithful Granvelle, in spite of the pope, who exhorted him to clemency, he dispatched the Duke of Alva to the Low Countries on a punitive expedition (1567). Straightway William of Orange and the more compromised nobles went into exile. Recklessly and trusting to his past services, the Count of Egmont had refused to follow them, His mistake cost him dear, for Alva caused him and Count de Hornes to be arrested and brought before a sort of court martial which he called the Conseil des Troubles , but known more more popularly as the Conseil du Sang (Blood Tribunal). The accused men, being members of the Golden Fleece, could be punished only by their order; but in spite of this privilege they were judged, condemned, and executed (1568).

When the two counts were arrested, Margaret of Parma resigned her office, and the Duke of Alva was appointed her successor; with him began a System of merciless repression. Blood flowed freely, and all the traditional rights of the people were discarded; the Spaniards Juan Vargas, chief-justice of the Council of Troubles, replied to complaint of the University of Louvain that its privileges had been violated: non curamus privilegios vestros . (We are not concerned with your privileges.) Besides this, heavy taxes, 10 per cent on the sales of chattels, 5 per cent on the sale of real estate, and l per cent on all property, completed the popular discontent, and turned even a number of good Catholics against the Government. The Protestants, encouraged by these events, began military operations by land and sea, and the gueux des bois (Land-Beggars) and the gueux de mer (Water-Beggars) started a guerilla warfare and a campaign of pillage which were soon followed by the more serions attack of the Prince of Orange and his brother, Louis of Nassau. But the Duke of Alva frustrated all their efforts, and when he had repulsed Louis at Jemmingen, and prevented William from crossing the Geete, he caused a statue of himself to be set up at Antwerp representing him crushing under foot the hydra of anarchy. Then just as he thought he had mastered the rebellion, news was brought that on l April, 1572, the Water-Beggars had taken the port of Briel. Henceforth in the very heart of the Low Countries they had a point for rally or retreat, and their progress was rapid. In quick succession they captured many towns in Holland and Zealand. These Water-Beggars, under their leader, William de la Marck, Lord of Lummen, were for the most part ruffians devoid of ail human feeling. When they took the town of Gorkum they put to death in a most barbarous manner nineteen priests and monks who refused to abjure their Catholic Faith. The Church venerates these brave victims on 9 July, under the title of the Martyrs of Gorkum. About the same time Louis of Nassau took Mons in Hainault, and William of Orange made a second descent on the country with an army of hirelings that committed frightful excesses. But he failed before the superior forces of the Duke of Alva, Mons was recaptured and William once more driven out. Alva then turned his arms against the provinces of the north; Zütphcn, Naarden, and Haarlem fell successively into his hands and were treated most shamefully, but contrary to his hopes the rest of the rebel country did not submit.

At last Philip II realized that the duke's mission had failed. Yielding to the entreaty of his most faithful subjects-the bishops and the University of Louvain -- he recalled Alva and appointed as his successor Don Luis of Requesens. During his brief regency (1573-75) Don Luis did not succeed in restoring royal authority in the revolted districts, although he showed greater humanity and an inclination to conciliate the disaffected. Nor was he more successful in capturing the town of Leyden which withstood one of the most heroic sieges in history. His death left the country in a state of anarchy.

The Council of State took over the reins of government pending the arrival of the new regent. Don John of Austria, brother of Philip II. It was a favourable moment for the ambitious schemes of William of Orange. Thanks to the intrigues of his agents, the members of the Council of State were arrested and did not regain their freedom till those most attached to the king's interests had been removed and others appointed in their places. This packed council was but a tool of the Prince of Orange, and its first act was to convene the States-General to deal with the affairs of the country, without any reference to the king. On the motion of the Prince of Orange the delegates met at Ghent the representatives of the rebel provinces of Holland and Zealand, where the authority of the prince was still unquestioned, and together they debated a scheme for securing tolerance for all forms of worship until such time as the States-General should have finally decided the matter, also for obtaining the removal of the Spanish troops. During the course of these deliberations an event happened which filled the whole country with fear and horror. The Spanish soldiers, who for a long time had received no pay, mutinied, seized the city of Antwerp, and pillaged it ruthlessly, seven thousand persons perishing during these disorders, which are usually referred to as the Spanish Fury. The provinces no longer hesitated, and their delegates signed the famous Pacification of Ghent on 8 November, 1576.

Thus triumphed the crafty and artful diplomacy of the Prince of Orange. He had succeeded in causing the loyal provinces to vote toleration of worship, while the provinces of Holland and Zealand of which he was master, formally refused to allow within their limits the practice of the Catholic religion. No doubt it was stipulated that this refusal was only provisional, and that the States-General of the seventeen provinces would finally settle the question; but meanwhile Protestantism gained an immense advantage in the Catholic provinces without giving anything in return. Furthermore the prince had taken the precaution to have it stipulated that he should remain admiral and regent of Holland and Zealand, and all these measures were passed in the name of the king whose authority they completely defied.

Such was the situation when the new regent arrived. On the advice of his best friends he ratified by his "Edit perpétuel de Marche en Famenne" (1577) the main clauses of the Pacification of Ghent, which rallied to him a majority of the people. Then he set about establishing his authority, no easy task in face of the unwearying effort of the Prince of Orange to prevent it. When, in order to obtain a reliable stronghold, he seized the citadel of Namur, the States-General, prompted by William of Orange, declared him an enemy of the State and called in as regent Archduke Matthias of Austria, to whom William succeeded in being made lieutenant-general. Don John defeated the army of the States-General at Gembloux, and William made a fresh appeal to foreign Protestants. From all the neighbouring countries adventurers flocked in to fight the Catholic Government. The Calvinists took some of the large cities, Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, and held them in a state of terror. In the last named town two of the leaders, Hembyze and Ryhove, gave themselves up to every excess, persecuted the Catholics, and endeavoured to set up a sort of Protestant republic as Calvin had done at Geneva. To crown all these misfortunes, the young regent was carried off by illness in 1578, and all seemed lost for the Catholic religion and the royal authority.

But the eyes of the Catholics were at last opened. Seeing that under pretext of freeing them from Spanish tyranny they were being enslaved under Protestantism, they turned from William's party and sought once more their lawful king, in spite of the just complaints they had against his government. This reactionary movement was most marked in the Walloon provinces: Artois, Hainault, and French Flanders in the van; Namur and Luxemburg joining them later. It began as a league among the nobles of these provinces, who styled themselves the Malcontents, and who broke with the States-General to recognize anew the authority of Philip II. It was they who prevented the realization of the great scheme of William of Orange to federate the seventeen provinces in a league of which he was to be the head, and which would ultimately cast off all allegiance to the king. When he saw his great ambition foiled, William contented himself with uniting the northern provinces in the Union of Utrecht (1579), under the name of the United Provinces, and with proclaiming the deposition of Philip II at least within these provinces. To the Malcontents, therefore, is due the credit of saving the royal authority and the Catholic religion in the Belgian provinces.

The new regent, Alessandro Farnese, son of the former regent, Margaret of Parma, grasped the situation admirably. He entered into negotiations with the Malcontents, and reconciled them with the king's government by redressing their grievances ; then with their support he set about recovering by force of arms the towns that had fallen into the hands of the Protestants. One after the other they were recaptured, some, like Tournai and Antwerp, only after memorable sieges, till at last Ostend alone of all Belgium remained in Protestant hands. And now the popular regent was preparing for a campaign against the northern provinces, demoralized by the assassination of William of Orange in 1584, when once more Philip II's ill-advised policy ruined everything. Instead of allowing Farnese to continue his military success in the Netherlands, Philip used him as an instrument of wild projects against France and England. At one moment obliged to take part in maritime preparations against England, and at another to cross the frontier in support of the League against Henry IV, Farnese had to leave his task unfinished, and he died in 1592 of a wound received in one of his French expeditions. His death was the greater misfortune for Belgium because Maurice of Nassau, son of William of Orange, and one of the greatest war-captains of the age, was just then coming to the front.

Philip finally saw that a new policy must be tried. He bethought him of separating the Catholic Netherlands from Spain, and of giving the sovereignty to his daughter Isabella and her husband the Archduke Albert of Austria ; in the event of their being childiess the country was to revert to Spain (1598). This was one of the most important events in the history of Belgium, which thus became once more an independent nation, acquired a national dynasty, and might now hope for the return of former prosperity; that this hope was frustrated was the result of events which defeated the plans of statecraft and the wishes of the new sovereigns.

During the short space of their united reign (1598-1621) Albert and Isabella lavished benefits on the country. Ostend was recaptured from Holland after a three-years' siege which claimed the attention of all Europe, and a truce of twelve years (1609-21) made with the United Provinces was employed to the greatest advantage. The damage done by the religious wars was repaired; more than three hundred churches and religious houses were founded or restored; local customs were codified by the Perpetual Edict of 1611, which has been called the most splendid monument of Belgian law ; public education was fostered in every way, and the new sovereigns brought about the founding of many colleges by the protection they extended to the religious teaching orders. More over they showed themselves generous patrons of science, literature, and art, and protected the interests of commerce and agriculture. Blameless in their private life and deeply pious, they gave an example of virtue on the throne not always to be found there. Unfortunately they died childless, Albert in 1621, Isabella in 1633, and their death put an end to the reviving prosperity of Belgium. Once more the country was drawn into endless wars by Spain, principally against France, and became the battle-field of numerous international conflicts. It was repeatedly despoiled of some of its provinces by Louis XIV, and cruelly plundered by all armies, friendly and hostile, that marched across its plains. The seventeenth century was the most calamitous of its history. Such then was the condition of Belgium until the peace of Utrecht (1713), which followed by that of Rastatt, put an end to the long and bloody wars of the Spanish Succession which gave Spain to the Bourbons and handed over the Catholic Low Countries to the Hapsburgs of Austria.

It would be a mistake to suppose that all these calamities, domestic and foreign, had left Belgium entirely unfruitful from the point of view of civilization, Nothing could be more false ; though it is a charge often made even in Belgium by writers whose prejudices would fain discover in Catholicism a retarding force for Belgium's progress. The University of Louvain with its forty-two colleges, where Erasmus, Bellarmine, and Justus Lipsius had taught, had always been the centre of orthodoxy, and did not cease even during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to manifest great activity, chiefly in the domains of theology and law, which were expounded there by a large number of eminent scholars. Side by side with Louvain stood the University of Douai founded in 1562 by Philip II as a breakwater against heresy, and it also sent forth many famous men. Among the new bishops were men whose fame for learning was only equalled by their well-known piety. It is no doubt true that the controversies of the day have left. their mark on the religious life of that period. Thus, Michael Baius, a professor at Louvain, was condemned by Rome for his theories on free will, predestination, and justification, but he retracted in all humility. His teaching came up again in a more pronounced form in a pupil of one of his pupils, Cornlius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres, and it is well known how the "Augustinus", a posthumous work of this prelate, which appeared in 1640, gave rise to what is called Jansenism. Another manifestation of the intellectual and scientific activity of Belgium was the beginning of the celebrated collection known as the "Acta Sanctorum" by the Belgian Jesuits. Héribert Rosweyde drew up the plans for the undertaking and Father Jan van Bolland began to carry them out, leaving the continuation to his successors, the Bolhindists. Amongst these Henschen and Papebroch in the seventeenth century contributed brilliantly to the work which has not yet reached its conclusion.

If, apart altogether from the religious aspect, we would complete the picture of Belgium's culture in the seventeenth century, we have but to recall that art reached its apogee in the Flemish School, of which Rubens was the head, and Van Dyck, Teniers, and Jordæns the greatest masters after him. It would thus be easy to prove that the Catholic Low Countries, though caught as in a vise between powerful neighbours and ever in the throes of war, did not give way to despair, but in the days of direst calamity drew from their own bosom works of art and beauty which have served to adorn even our present day civilization.

The Austrian Netherlands

The Treaty of Utrecht opened an era of comparative peace and prosperity for the Catholic Netherlands, but did not bring contentment. The Austrian régime under which the country was now to exist was that of an absolute monarchy, which by continued encroachments on the traditional privileges of the people, drove them at length to rebellion. It was not merely its absolutism, it was the anti-religious atmosphere of the Government which really aroused the people. The actuating principle of the Government in its dealings with the Catholic Church was that the civil power was supreme and could make rules for the Church, even in purely religions matters. This policy, which is known as Josephinism, from Joseph II, its most thoroughgoing exponent, had prevailed at the Austrian Court from the beginning. It found a theorist of great authority in the famous canonist Van Espen (1646-1728), a professor at the University of Louvain , who justified beforehand all attacks on the liberty of the Church. The opposition between the tendencies of the Government, which threatened alike the national liberties and the rights of the Church, and the aspirations of the Belgian people, devoted alike to religion and liberty, gave rise during the Austrian occupation of the country to endless misunderstandings and unrest. Th situation was not, however, uniformly the same. It varied under different reigns, each of which had its own peculiar characteristics.

Under the reign of Charles VI (1713-1740) Belgium quickly learned that she had gained nothing by the changing of her rulers. One of the clauses of the Peace of Utrecht obliged Austria to sign a treaty with the United Provinces, called the Treaty de la Barrière (the Frontier Treaty) entitling the United Provinces to garrison a number of Belgian towns on the French frontier as a protection against attacks from that quarter. This was a humiliation for the Belgians, and it was aggravated by the fact that these garrison troops, who were all Protestants and enjoyed the free exercise of their religion, had many religious quarrels with the Catholic people. Moreover, the United Provinces, controlling the estuary of the Scheldt, had closed the sea against the port of Antwerp since 1585; so that this port which had at one time been the foremost commercial city of the north was now depleted of its trade. This was a fresh injustice to the Catholic Low Countries. To all this must be added the oppressive and ill-advised policy of the Marquess de Prié, deputy for the absent governor-general, Prince Eugene of Savoy. Prié, like another Alva, treated the country with the utmost severity. When the labour guilds of Brussels protested vigorously against the government taxes and tried to assert their ancient privileges, Prié caused the aged Franois Anneessens, syndic or chairman of one of these guilds, to be arrested and put to death (1719). Th citizens of Brussels have never forgotten to venerate the memory of their fellow-townsman as a martyr for public liberty. The Government compensated the nation by founding the East and West Indian Trading Company of Ostend in 1722. This company, which was enthusiastically hailed by the public, was of immense benefit in the beginning, and promised an era of commercial prosperity. Unfortunately the jealousy of England and of the United Provinces sealed its fate. To win the consent of these two powers to his Pragmatic Sanction, by which he hoped to secure the undisputed succession of his daughter Maria Theresa, the emperor agreed to suppress the Ostend company and once more to close the sea against Belgian trade. His cowardly concessions were of no avail, and at his death in 1740 his daughter was obliged to undertake a long and costly war to maintain her inheritance and Belgium, invaded and conquered by France in 1745, was not restored to the empress till the Peace of Aachen in 1748.

Under the reign of Maria Theresa (1740-80) the Government was in a position to occupy itself peacefully with the organization of the Belgian provinces. On the whole it fostered the material interests of the country, but the principles underlying its religious policy revealed themselves in measures more and more hostile to the Church. The empress herself was of the opinion that the Church ought to be subject to the State even in religious matters. "The authority of the priesthood ", she wrote, "is by no means arbitrary and independent in matters of dogma, worship, and ecclesiastical discipline ". The statesmen in her service, imbued as they were with the Voltairean spirit, were zealous in applying those principles. The more famous among them were the Prince of Kaunitz, the Count of Cobenzl, and Mac Neny. On the slightest pretext they constantly stirred up petty and at times ridiculous conflicts with the ecclesiastical authorities, such as forbidding assemblies of the bishops ; trying to insist on the relaxing of the Lenten Fast ; claiming censorship over breviaries and missals, and going so far as to mutilate copies of them containing the Office of St. Gregory VII; calling in question the jurisdiction of the Church in matrimonial affairs; hindering and interfering in every conceivable way with the work of the religious orders, even busying themselves with the dress worn by the clerics ; in a word pursuing a most irritating and malicious policy wherever the Church was concerned. If in spite of all this the name of Maria Theresa is of kindly memory in Belgium, it is because her subjects knew the sincerity of her piety, and her undoubted good-will. They were grateful for this, and believing that for the most part she was unaware of most of the actions of her representatives, they did not place the blame at her door. Moreover the Governor-General of the Austrian Low Countries, Prince Charles of Lorraine, brother-in-law of the empress, was a man of infinite tact, who knew how to moderate what was unpopular in the action of the Government, and even cause it to be forgotten. It was personal esteem for these two royal personages which caused the policy of the Government to be tolerated as long as they lived.

But there came a great change as soon as Joseph II mounted the throne (1780). He was the son of Maria Theresa, a pupil of the philosophers, and, inspired by their teachings, was ever ready to defy and disregard the Church. As was not unusual in his day he held the opinion that the State was the source of all authority, and the source of all civilizing progress. He set himself without delay to apply his policy of "enlightened despotism". Forgetful of his coronation oath to observe the constitutions of the several Belgian provinces he began a career of reform which ended by overturning the existing state of affairs. His first act was to publish in 1781 an edict of toleration, by which Protestants were freed from all civil disabilities, a just measure in itself, and one that might well be praiseworthy, if it were not that, in the light of his subsequent actions it betrayed the dominant idea of his whole reign, namely, hostility to the Catholic Church. The Church, he thought, ought to be a creature of the State, subject to the control and supervision of the civil power. He undertook to realize this ideal by substituting for the Catholic Church governed by the pope a national Church subject to the State, along the lines laid down by Febronius, who had met with many supporters even within the ranks of the clergy. The measures he adopted to enslave the Church were endless. He forbade religious orders to correspond with superiors outside the country; he forbade the bishops to ask Rome for dispensations in matrimonial cases. He tried to gain control of the education of the clergy by erecting a central seminary to which he endeavoured to force the bishops to send their future priests. He interfered with the professors and the teaching of the University of Louvain because he considered them too orthodox. He suppressed as useless all convents of contemplative orders and all pious confraternities, and replaced them by one of his own invention which he grandiloquently called "The Confraternity of the Active Love of our Nieghbour". He prohibited all pilgrimages and the exposition of relics. He limited the number of processions and ordered that all parish festivals ( kermesses ) be kept on the same day. He interfered with the garb of religious and in liturgical questions, and even went so far as to forbid the making of coffins, so as to economize the wood supply. The dead, he thought, ought to be buried in sackcloth. At last his interference in and wanton meddling with ecclesiastical matters won for him the well-deserved sneer of Frederick II , King of Prussia, who called him "My brother, the sacristan ".

All these measures had been carried into effect without meeting other opposition than the calm respectful protest of the clergy. But it was quite otherwise when Joseph II was so imprudent as to interfere with civil institutions and, in violation of the most solemn oaths, to lay hands on the liberties of the people. Then the country was thoroughly aroused, there were demonstrations in the public streets, and protests reached the Government from all parts (1787); but Joseph II was stiff-necked, and would not listen to reason. Convinced that force would overcome all opposition, he hurried Count d'Alton with an army into the Low Countries, with orders to restore authority by bloodshed if necessary. Then as a protest against the violence of d'Alton, the provincial states, availing themselves of the rights granted them by the Constitution, refused to vote subsidies for the expenses of the Government, and d'Alton was so ill-advised as to declare the proceedings null and the Constitution abolished. This was a signal for revolution, the only resource left to Belgian liberty. Two committees directed the movement along widely differing lines. The one, under the leadership of a lawyer named Van der Noot, had its headquarters at Breda in the United Provinces, the other under another lawyer, Vonck, at Hasselt in the neighbourhood of Liège. That under Van der Noot, a man of great popularity, looked to the foreign powers for help; the other relied on the Belgians to help themselves, and began recruiting a volunteer army. The one was conservative, almost reactionary, and aimed merely at restoring the status quo ; the other was eager for reforms such as France was asking, but was faithful to the religion of its fathers and took as its motto Pro aris et focis . In their union lay their strength. The volunteer army defeated the Austrians at Turnhout (1789) and forced them step by step to evacuate the country. The bitterness of this defeat killed Joseph II.

The States-General of the country were convened at Brussels and voted that Belgium should be an independent federated republic under the name of the United States of Belgium . Unfortunately the heads of the new Government were novices in statecraft, and differences arose between the Van der Noot party and the followers of Vonck. So that in the following year Leopold II, who had succeeded his father, Joseph II, had the country once more under his authority. He was, however, wise enough to restore it all the privileges it enjoyed prior to the senseless reforms of Joseph II. The Belgians were therefore to all intents once more a free people, and they rejoiced in their freedom until the day when the French invaded their country under the pretext of emancipating them.

For the later history of this territory see B ELGIUM

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(Latin tabernaculum , tent). Tabernacle in Biblical parlance usually designates the ...

Tabernacle Lamp

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Tabernacle Societies

The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches ...

Tabernacle Society

Notre Dame Convent, Philadelphia; a society of persons affiliated with the Association of ...

Tabernacles, Feast of

One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...

Tabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Tacana Indians

The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...

Tacapæ

Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...

Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...

Taché, Etienne-Pascal

Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...

Tadama

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...

Taensa Indians

A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...

Tahiti

Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...

Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...

Tait Indians

( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...

Takkali

(More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...

Talbot, James

Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...

Talbot, John

English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...

Talbot, Peter

Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...

Talbot, Thomas Joseph

Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...

Tallagaht, Monastery of

The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...

Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...

Tallis, Thomas

English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...

Talmud

1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...

Talon, Jean

First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...

Talon, Nicolas

French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...

Talon, Pierre

A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...

Tamanac Indians

A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...

Tamassus

A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...

Tamaulipas

(CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...

Tamburini, Michelangelo

Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...

Tamburini, Thomas

Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...

Tametsi

("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

(Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

Tanagra

A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...

Tancred

Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

Taney, Roger Brooke

(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

Tanguay, Cyprien

Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...

Tanis

A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...

Tanner, Adam

Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...

Tanner, Conrad

Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...

Tanner, Edmund

Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...

Tanner, Matthias

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

Tanucci, Bernardo

Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

Taoism

(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

Taos Pueblo

An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...

Taparelli, Aloysius

(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

Tapestry

A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...

Tapis, Esteban

Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...

Tarabotti, Helena

Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...

Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Taranto

DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...

Tarapacá

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...

Tarasius, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...

Tarazona

DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

Tarbes

DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...

Tarentaise

(TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...

Targum

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...

Tarisel, Pierre

Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...

Tarkin, Saint

(Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...

Tarnow

DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...

Tarquini, Camillus

Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...

Tarragona

ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...

Tarsicius, Saint

Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...

Tarsus

A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...

Tartaglia, Nicolò

(T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...

Tartini, Giuseppe

Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...

Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...

Tassé, Joseph

Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...

Tassach, Saint

Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...

Tassin, René-Prosper

French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...

Tasso, Torquato

Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...

Tassoni, Alessandro

Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...

Tatian

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...

Tatwin, Saint

(TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...

Taubaté

(DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...

Tauler, John

German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...

Taunton, Ethelred

Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...

Taverner, John

Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...

Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...

Tavium

A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...

Taxa Innocentiana

A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...

Taxster, John de

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

Taylor, Frances Margaret

(MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...

Taylor, Ven. Hugh

English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...

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Te 69

Te Deum, The

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

Tebaldeo, Antonio

Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...

Tegernsee

Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...

Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

Teilo, Saint

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Teleology

(From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...

Telepathy

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

Telesio, Bernardino

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

Telesphorus, Pope Saint

(Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...

Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

Tellier, Michel Le

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

Tempel, Wilhelm

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

Temple, Sisters of the

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

Ten Commandments, The

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

Tenebræ

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

Teniers, David

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

Tenney, William Jewett

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...

Tenure, Ecclesiastical

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

Teresa of Avila, Saint

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

Terill, Anthony

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

Ternan, Saint

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

Terrasson, André

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

Terrestrial Paradise

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

Test-Oath, Missouri

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

Testament, New

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

Testament, Old

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

Tetzel, Johann

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

Textual Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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Th 147

Thænæ

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

Thébaud, Augustus

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

Théophane Vénard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Thabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

Thais, Saint

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

Thalberg, Sigismond

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

Thalhofer, Valentin

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

Thanksgiving before and after Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

Thayer, John

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

Theatre, The

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

Thecla, Saint

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

Thecla, Saints

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

Theiner, Augustin

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

Theobald, Saint

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

Theodard, Saint

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

Theodore I, Pope

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

Theodore II, Pope

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

Theodore of Amasea, Saint

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

Theodore of Studium, Saint

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

Theology, Ascetical

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

Theology, History of Dogmatic

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

Theology, Moral

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

Theology, Mystical

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

Theophanes, Saint

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

Theotocopuli, Domenico

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Thera (Santorin)

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

Thierry of Freburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

Thimelby, Richard

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

Thomas á Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

Thomas à Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

Thomas Abel, Blessed

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

Thomas Alfield, Venerable

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

Thomas Aquinas, Saint

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

Thomas Becket, Saint

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

Thomas Christians, Saint

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

Thomas Ford, Blessed

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

Thomas Garnet, Saint

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Thomas More, Saint

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

Thomas of Cantimpré

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

Thomas of Villanova, Saint

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

Thomas Percy, Blessed

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

Thomas the Apostle, Saint

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Thomas, Charles L.A.

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

Thomassin, Louis

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

Thompson, Blessed James

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

Thompson, Francis

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

Thorlaksson, Arni

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

Thorns, Crown of

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

Thou, Nicolas de

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

Three Rivers

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

Thulis, Venerable John

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

Thurmayr, Johannes

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

Thyräus, Hermann

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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Ti 45

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

Tiberias, Sea of

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

Tieffentaller, Joseph

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

Tigris, Saint

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

Tincker, Mary Agnes

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

Tinin

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

Tintoretto, Il

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

Tissot, James

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

Tithes, Lay

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

Titopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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Tl 2

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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To 56

Toaldo, Giuseppe

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

Tokio

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

Toledo, Francisco

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

Tolentino and Macerata

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

Toleration, History of

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

Toleration, Religious

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

Tolomei, John Baptist

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

Tomb, Altar

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

Tongerloo, Abbey of

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

Tongiorgi, Salvator

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

Tongues, Gift of

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

Tootell, Hugh

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

Torbido, Francesco

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

Torquemada, Tomás de

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

Torres, Francisco

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

Torricelli, Evangelista

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

Torrubia, José

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

Toscanella and Viterbo

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

Tostado, Alonso

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

Tosti, Luigi

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

Touchet, George Anselm

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

Tournély, Honoré

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

Touron, Antoine

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

Toustain, Charles-François

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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Tr 77

Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

Transubstantiation

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

Treason, Accusations of

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

Tredway, Lettice Mary

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

Tregian, Francis

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

Trent, Council of

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

Tresham, Sir Thomas

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

Tribe, Jewish

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

Tricarico, Diocese of

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

Tricassin, Charles Joseph

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

Trichinopoly, Diocese of

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

Trinitarians, Order of

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

Trinity, The Blessed

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

Trissino, Giangiorgio

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

Trithemius, John

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

Trivet, Nicholas

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

Trokelowe, John de

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

Trondhjem, Ancient See of

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

Tropology, Scriptural

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

Troy, John Thomas

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

Trudo, Saint

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

Trudpert, Saint

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

True Cross, The

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

Trueba, Antonio de

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

Trullo, Council in

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

Trumpets, Feast of

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Trumwin, Saint

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

Truth Societies, Catholic

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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Ts 2

Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

Tschupick, John Nepomuk

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

Tuam, School of

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

Tucumán

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

Tulasne, Louis-René

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

Tunstall, Cuthbert

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

Tunsted, Simon

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

Turin, Shroud of

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

Turin, University of

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

Turnebus, Adrian

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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Tw 2

Twenge, Saint John

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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Ty 7

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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