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Hussites

The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they believed their creed to be truly Catholic ; in papal and conciliar documents they appear as Wycliffites, although Hus and even Jerome of Prague are also named as their leaders. They wisely objected to the appellation of Hussites, which implied separation from the Universal Church ; willing to venerate Hus as a holy martyr of the old religion, they refused to see in him the founder of a new one. Only about 1420, with the beginning of the Hussite Wars does the new name occur, first in the neighbouring lands; then it gradually imposes itself as connoting both the original followers of Hus and the subsequent smaller sects into which they divided. The distinctive tenet of the Hussites is the necessity, alike for priest and layman of Communion under both kinds, sub utraque specie whence the term Utraquists . Hus himself never preached Utraquism. During his presence at the Council of Constance , his successor in influence at the university of Prague Jacobellus von Mies, taking His stand on the Bible as the supreme rule of faith and practice in the Church, persuaded the people that partaking of the chalice was of absolute necessity for salvation, this being expressly taught by Christ: "Amen amen I say unto you: Except you eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you." ( John 6:54 )

Three parishes at once adopted the innovation. Former unauthorized sermons by Jacobellus, and trespasses on episcopal rights by the parish clergy ) had prepared the ground in these particular places. The introduction of the lay chalice was regarded by many well-intentioned men as the outward sign of a nascent schism. These withdrew from the movement, but the people at large eagerly joined it as if the chalice were a panacea for all the evils of the time. Their eagerness is partly accounted for by a kind of crusade in favour of frequent and even daily Communion, and by a huge mass of eucharistic literature in Bohemia during the fourteenth century. As far back as 1380 a priest in Prague (Altstadt) is said to have preached to his parishioners the necessity of Communion under both kinds. Jacobellus was excommunicated. and Andreas von Brod confuted his teaching in a treatise but he continued preaching and answered Andreas's tract by one of his own. Hus, then in Constance, was consulted. In a letter to the Knight von Chlum, he said: "it would be wise not to introduce such an innovation without the approbation of the Church." Soon, however, seeing how the council upheld the existing practice, he inveighed against it and maintained that Christ and the Apostle Paul should be obeyed by giving the chalice to the laity ; he also entreated the Bohemian nobles to protect the lay chalice against the council. These last words of Hus, written in sight of his funeral pyre, aroused Bohemia. In Prague the priests faithful to the Church were driven out of their parishes and replaced by Utraquists ; in the country the nobles likewise filled all the parishes in their gift with men of the new discipline.

The change caused many excesses. Bishop Johann of Leitomischl had all his possessions devastated by the neighbouring nobles because of his strenuous opposition to Hus at Constance. King Wenceslaus (Wenzel) did not interfere. He had a grudge against the Emperor Sigismund for the role he played at the council, and he regarded the execution of Hus as an infringement of his royal rights. Meanwhile the fathers assembled in council at Constance sent earnest letters to the civil and ecclesiastical authorities in Bohemia, insisting on complete extirpation of the dangerous heresy (July, 1415); and gave ample powers to the Bishop of Leitomischl as legate for the same purpose. The Bohemian and Moravian nobles took up the gauntlets. Four hundred and fifty-two of them appended their seals to a joint answer to the council, setting forth their conviction that the sentence on Hus was unjust and insulting to their country, that there were no heretics in Bohemia, that any assertion to the contrary was itself a heresy of the worst kind. This document bears date 2 September 1415. Three days later they formed an offensive and defensive league by which they bound themselves for six years to grant on their estates to all priests applying for it freedom to preach the word of God, and protection against episcopal prosecutions for heresy, and against excommunication except from the local bishops. The clergy, however, should obey a lawfully elected pope in all things not contrary to God and God's law. The authority of the council was thereby set at naught the Wycliffite principle that the laity should restrict and restrain the power of the clergy was fully applied.

The Catholics did not remain idle; episcopal ordinances of 5 September enjoined the publication in all churches of the prohibition of the lay chalice, a decree of 18 September inhibited vagrant, i.e. Utraquist, preachers; a league of Catholic lords was formed on 1 October; it consisted mostly of the southern and northern gentry accessible to German influence. King Wenceslaus was on their side in word, if not in deed. Before this favourable turn of events became known to it, the council in its ordinary proceedings against Wycliffism, took a step of the gravest consequences -- the laying of the interdict on Prague for sheltering Johann of Jesenic, already excommunicated in 1412. Armed crowds of citizens invaded every church and monastery where Divine service had been suspended in obedience to the interdict, drove out all priests and monks unwilling to submit to the popular will, robbed them of their possessions and put Utraquist clergy in their places. The whole country followed the example of the capital, the king and the magistrates looked on without concern. The council's legate, Bishop Johann of Leitomischl, was powerless to stem the evil tide. Probably on his denunciation, the four hundred and fifty-two signatories of the Utraquist covenant -- together with Archbishop Conrad of Prague and Wenceslaus, Bishop of Olmutz -- were summoned to appear before the council as suspected of heresy. Archbishop Conrad had been remiss in carrying out the conciliary measures; in the beginning of 1416 he had, in concert with the king, suspended the interdict on the far-off chance of thus conciliating the dissidents. The council was even then (1416) determined to use the secular arm against the King of Bohemia and his unruly land, but Sigismund, with whom lay the execution, refused his aid, hoping, as he said, to come to an understanding with King Wenceslaus.

The University of Prague was heavily Utraquist ; the council, therefore, towards the end of 1416, suspended all its privileges and forbade, under excommunication, all further academical proceedings. The lecturers, however, continued to lecture as before; but since the chancellor, Archbishop Conrad, refused his co-operation, no new degrees could be conferred. Notwithstanding the turbulent spirit of many masters the influence of the university as a whole was moderating. For example, on 25 January, 1417, when some fanatical country parsons had destroyed the images and profaned the relics of their churches, the university, in virtue of the teaching authority it claimed, sent to all the faithful an exhortation to abstain from innovations and to hold fast to old customs. The noblemen of the Hussite league ordered the clergy dependent on them to conform to their teaching. This act in the right direction was followed on 10 March, 1416, by another which gave Utraquism the sanction of the only teaching authority then recognized in the country. The rector, Johann von Reinstein (surnamed Cardinalis), declared, with the consent of all the Magistri , that Communion under both kinds is an ordination of Christ Himself and a practice of the ancient Church, against which no human ordinances of later date could prevail. The declaration had been given in answer to questions by members of the Hussite league, and it was acted upon, wherever they ruled, with such thoroughness that the Utraquist clergy was insufficient to fill the places of the ejected Catholic priests. The head of the league, Vincenz von Wartenberg, found a way out of the difficulty. He waylaid the Auxiliary Bishop of Prague, confined him in a stronghold, and forced him to ordain as many Utraquist candidates for the priesthood as were needed.

The archbishop henceforth withheld ordination and benefices from all who did not abjure Wycliffism and Utraquism. The Council of Constance meanwhile gave continued attention to Bohemian affairs. Martin V who, in 1411, as Cardinal Colonna, had terminated the trial of Jan Hus with the sentence of excommunication, now, as pope, confirmed all the council's enactments regarding him and his followers; he wrote to all whom it might concern to return to the Church or to lend their aid in suppressing the new heresies. Before the close of the council he addressed to King Wenceslaus a rule containing twenty-four articles, designed to bring back the religious status of the country to what it was before the Hussite upheaval. The task was heavy, and perhaps uncongenial to King Wenceslaus. Could he force all Wycliffites and Hussites to abjure or to die, reinstate all ejected priests in their benefices, maintain Catholic ascendency? He made no attempt. In June, 1418 he forbade the exercise of foreign jurisdiction over his subjects, a measure which put a stop to the work of the cardinal legate, Giovanni Domenici. The same year saw the arrival of foreign sectarians, Beghards -- called Pickarts -- attracted by Bohemia's fame for religious liberty, and of the Oxford Wycliffite Peter Payne, admitted to the faculty of arts at the university. The university, apprehensive of doctrinal excesses, assembled (September, 1418) the whole party, the Communitas fratrum , in order to come to an agreement on doubtful points. The assembly granted Communion to newborn infants but forbade all deviation from tradition except where it was evidently opposed to Scripture, as in the case of Utraquism.

In 1419 Utraquism received an accession of strength from the repressive measures against it. King Wenceslaus at last giving way to the pope, and the emperor threatening a "crusade" against Bohemia banished Johann of Jesenic from Prague and commanded that all ejected Catholic beneficiaries should be reinstated in their offices and revenues. The people, accustomed by this time to Utraquist ministrations, resented the change they fought for their churches and schools, blood was shed, but the king's ordinance was executed wherever his authority was strong enough to enforce it. The success was however, far from complete. The Utraquist clergy, followed by their numerous adherents, now assembled on the hills, to which they gave Scriptural names, such as Tabor, Horeb, and Mount Olivet . In July, 1419 "Mount Tabor" was the scene of an epoch-making assembly. Nicolaus of Husinec, banished by Wenceslaus as a dangerous agitator, had brought together 42,000 Utraquists ; they listened to Utraquist preachers, received the chalice, and spent the day in organizing resistance to any interference with their religion; they sent a message to the king that they, one and all, were ready to die for the chalice. In Prague itself matters had gone even further. Ziska of Troznow, like Nicolaus of Husinec, a former favourite of the king, had taken the lead of the malcontents and familiarized them with the thought of armed resistance.

Ziska belonged to the inferior nobility of southern Bohemia, he had distinguished himself both as an undaunted fighter and as an excellent leader of men. Johann, formerly a Premonstratensian monk of Selau now a zealot for Utraquism, on 30 July, 1419, carried the Blessed Sacrament in procession through the streets of Prague (Neustadt); the processionists, excited by a fiery sermon of their leader, first penetrated into St. Stephen's church which had been closed to them; then they assembled in front of the town hall, where Johann, still holding up the Blessed Sacrament , demanded from the magistrates the release of several Utraquists imprisoned for previous disturbances. The magistrates refused and prepared for resistance. Ziska ordered the storming of the town hall; all persons found therein were thrown out of the windows on to the spears and swords of the processionists, and hacked to pieces, whilst Johann called on God in His Sacrament to inflame their murderous fury. The mob there and then elected four captains, called all men to arms and fortified the Neustadt. King Wenceslaus swore death to all the rebels, but a stroke of apoplexy, caused by excitement, carried him off, 16 August, 1419. The next months were marked by deeds of violence against the faithful clergy, by wanton destruction of church furniture, and by the burning of monastic houses. Many citizens, especially Germans and the higher clergy, had to flee.

Wenceslaus's successor on the Bohemian throne was his brother Sigismund, German Emperor and King of Hungary. He had been the very soul of the Council of Constance ; but the Bohemians, holding him responsible for the death of their beloved Hus, disliked and distrusted him. Nor was Sigismund eager to assume the ruling of this troubled kingdom. He tarried in Hungary, leaving Bohemia to be governed by the queen-widow and Vincenz von Wartenberg , the chief of the Utraquist league. The popular masses led by the lesser nobility and fanatical priests, now began to multiply their meetings on "holy" mountains -- Tabors -- and to move towards Prague in armed bands. The queen regent, with the assent of the higher nobility, forbade them to meet or even to come near to Prague. In various encounters Ziska and Nicolaus of Husinec successfully resisted the royal troops (4-9 November, 1419), an armistice was, however concluded and Ziska withdrew to Pilsen. Sigismund now gave up his plans of a campaign against the Turks and resolved to restore his new kingdom to Roman unity. On his side were the Catholic nobles, the higher clergy, the Germans settled in the land, and all who had suffered persecution and losses at the hands of the sectarians; against him stood Ziska and Nicolaus of Husinec at the head of the peasantry. Sigismund took up the government in December, then went to Silesia to collect more troops. The Catholics regained courage. They were hard on the Utraquists wherever they were the stronger: in Kuttenberg, for instance, hundreds of captured Utraquists were thrown by the miners into the shafts of disused silver mines. The leaders of the people meanwhile, built the impregnable stronghold of Tabor whither the country people betook themselves with all their movable possessions, in order to await in the "community of the brethren" the things that were to come.

Here Utraquism entered upon a new development. The priests of Austi, starting from the principle that the Bible contained the whole teaching of Christ, abolished every traditional rite and liturgy. There were to be no more churches, altars, vestments, sacred vessels, chants, or ceremonies. The Lord's Prayer was the only liturgical prayer ; the communion table was a common table with common bread and common appointments, the celebrant wore his everyday clothes and was untonsured. Children were baptized with the first water at hand and without any further ceremony they received Communion in both kinds immediately after Baptism. Extreme unction and auricular confession were abolished; mortal sins were to be confessed in public. Purgatory and the worship of saints were suppressed, likewise all feasts and fasts. Such a creed accounts for the fury of destruction which possessed the Hussites. Ziska spent his time in drilling his peasants and artisans into an army capable to withstand the dreaded knights in armour of the king's army. Clever tactics, apt choice of the battlefield, and confidence in their chief and in their cause, made up for their defective armament. Straightened scythes, flails forks and iron-shod cudgels were their weapons. Their religious fanaticism was heightened by a young Moravian priest, Martin Houska, surnamed Loquis, who taught them to read in the Bible that the last days had come, that salvation was only to be found in the mountains -- their Tabors -- that after the great battle the millennium would reign on earth.

Sigismund's army had been strengthened by contingents from Hungary and other adjoining lands; everyone was ready for the fray. On 1 March, 1420, Pope Martin V issued a Bull inviting all Christians to unite in a crusade for the extermination of Wycliffites, Hussites, and other heretics. This Bull was read to the imperial diet assembled at Breslau on 17 March. Its effect was terror on the Catholic side, holy enthusiasm and closest union for deadly warfare on the side of the Taborites. Many Catholics fled; the Utraquist nobles renounced their allegiance and declared war on Sigismund "who had brought the slander of heresy on the land"; a secret embassy offered the Bohemian crown to King Wladislaw II of Poland. The energetic Ziska at once began operations in southern Bohemia. Royal towns, fortresses, and monasteries fell into his hands. These latter were plundered and destroyed. Königgrätz submitted, as did also some nobles disgusted with the excesses of the Taborites. While the king was waiting for the "crusaders" from Germany, he had seventeen Utraquists drowned in the Elbe at Leitmeritz and two burnt at Echlau. The rebels retaliated by setting fire to several monasteries near Prague and by burning the monks. The "crusading" army arrived in July; with the king's troops they were 100,000 strong. Before engaging in battle, the papal legate, Ferdinand of Lucca, examined the "Four Prague Articles", i.e. four points on the granting of which the rebels would submit.

These articles emanated from the university. In substance they are:

  • "The Word of God is to be freely examined by Christian priests throughout the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margravate of Moravia.
  • The venerable Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ is to be given in two kinds to adults as well as to children, as Jesus Christ has instituted.
  • The priests and monks, of whom many meddle with the affairs of the State, are to be deprived of the worldly goods which they possess in great quantities and which make them neglect their sacred office; and their goods shall be restored to us, in order that, in accordance with the doctrine of the Gospel, and the practice of the Apostles, the clergy shall be subject to us, and, living in poverty, serve as a pattern of humility to others.
  • All the public sins which are called mortal, and all other trespasses contrary to the law of God, are to be punished according to the laws of the country, by those in charge of them, in order to wipe from the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margravate of Moravia the bad reputation of tolerating disorders."
The legate concluded his examination by a demand of almost unconditional submission. The "Calixtines", now so called from the chalice which decorated their flags, weapons, and clothes, took up the unequal fight, on 14 July, 1420, they inflicted a signal defeat on the crusaders. Sigismund had recourse to new negotiation on the four articles. But seeing his best supporters wavering, he had himself crowned in the cathedral of Prague (28 July), and two days later he dissolved the crusading army. In order to pay his mercenaries he turned the treasures of several churches into money, and pledged their lands to the nobles, who never parted with them again.

The Utraquist magistrates imposed their whole will on the town and the university ; riots and deeds of violence occurred everywhere the wealthy monasteries were the first and greatest sufferers. Many of the best citizens proclaimed their horror at the destruction of the fairest buildings and their disgust with the Taborite forms of worship. In Prague, however, they were kept down by Johann of Selau, who had assumed a kind of dictatorship, in the country the Taborite leaders themselves thought it better to give another direction to the destructive mania of their followers. Ziska in the southern borderlands and the Prague army added victory to victory; the strong town of Wysehrad surrendered, 1 November, 1420, after a crushing defeat of Sigismund's troops. The rebels, now sure of their power, offered the Bohemian throne to King Wladislaw II of Poland. In March, 1421 King Wenceslaus returned to Hungary, leaving his country almost defenseless. By June of the same year the Hussites had established their dominion over the whole kingdom, with the exception of a few northern and western border districts. The inhabitants were asked to accept the Four Prague articles or to emigrate within a stated time, captains and sheriffs were appointed to rule the towns with royal powers. Thus Utraquism and home rule supplanted Catholicism and German rule. The nobility accepted the new order; Archbishop Conrad of Prague adapted the four articles (21 April, 1421), ordained Utraquist clergy, and invited the older clergy likewise to conform. The metropolitan chapter, however, who had fled to Zittau and Olmütz, remained faithful, and appointed the "iron" Johann of Leitomischl, later of Olmütz, administrator of the archdiocese. The Hussites never had a sterner enemy.

Among the Taborites, a new sect arose about this time. The priest Martin Loquis taught these rabid levellers of monasteries and murderers of priests that Christ was not really present in the Eucharist; consequently, that worshipping the sacrament was idolatry. Sacrilegious profanations became the order of the day. Proceedings were taken by the Utraquist authorities, advised by the university, against the innovators. Loquis and another were taken prisoners, dragged through the country, cruelly tortured and finally burnt in a barrel. His four hundred followers were expelled from Tabor. For some time they roamed through the country "as avenging angels ", robbing, burning, and killing. Ziska, in disgust, had twenty-four (some say fifty) of the worst put to death by fire. The remainder, reinforced by some fanatical Chiliasts, formed a sect of Adamites subject to no law and possessing their women in common. Ziska surrounded them on their island in the River Nezárka and exterminated them to the last man (October, 1421). The summer of 1421 was employed by the Hussites in consolidating their new power. Successful expeditions penetrated to the northwestern border, burned more monasteries, killed more monks, priests, and inoffensive citizens; but here also they suffered their first serious defeat at the hands of Catholic knights and the troops of Meissen (5 August, 1421). As early as April a second army of crusaders, twice as strong as the first, had been forming at Nuremberg, while Sigismund was expected to bring up his Hungarian army. The crusaders laid siege to Saaz.

On 2 October, the news spread that Ziska was coming to the rescue of the besieged. This perhaps false information sufficed to disperse the crusaders and their five leaders in all directions in disorderly flight. Not a blow was struck. Sigismund entered Moravia, which he reduced to submission, and met Ziska in battle at Kuttenberg. The stronger battalions were on the emperor's side, but Ziska fought his way through them and shortly afterwards, at Deutsch-Brod, almost annihilated them (8 January, 1422). This victory kept the Hussites' foreign foes in wholesome fear for many years; new crusades were indeed preached year after year, but not carried out. The field was left free for internal dissensions to undo what had so far been done. Prague began by shaking off the tyrannical dictatorship of Johann of Selau. With twelve of his partisans he was beheaded, 9 March, 1422. The mob avenged his death by ravaging the university, colleges, and libraries. Next, civil war broke out between, on the one hand the Taborites under Ziska a few southern towns and Saaz with Laun in the northwest, and on the other, Prague with the whole nobility and the other towns. Its cause was the proposal to unite all parties under the administration of Sigismund Korybut, a nephew of the Grand Duke Witold of Lithuania, who had accepted the Bohemian crown refused by the King of Poland, and appointed Korybut as governor. The first victory again was Ziska's (end of April, 1423). Some futile negotiations followed. From January to September 1424 the Taborites waged a most successful war, which led their victorious army up to the gates of the capital. Korybut and Prague now sent to Ziska the eloquent priest Rokyzana, who succeeded in bringing about a complete understanding between the parties. They then joined in an expedition against Moravia. Close to the Moravian frontier, at Pribislau, Ziska fell ill and died (14 October, 1424).

His death was followed by new groupings of the parties. The closer partisans of Ziska, who represented the moderates, now took the name of "Orphans." Their priests still said Mass in liturgical vestments and followed the old rite. The more extreme Taborites chose new chiefs, of whom the most prominent was Andrew Procopius, a married priest surnamed "the Great" or "the Shaven", to distinguish him from Little Procopius (Prokupek) who in time became the spiritual leader of the Orphans. Orphans and Taborites fought together against any common foe; when there was no common foe they fought or quarrelled with one another. Their united forces, under Procopius the Shaven, won the battle of Aussig on the Elbe (16 June, 1426), in which 15,000 Germans and many Saxon and Thuringian nobles lost their lives, but they were beaten in their turn by Albert of Austria, at Zwettel, 12 March, 1427. While these horrible wars were laying waste the country, the Magistri of Prague, pro tem . the supreme judges in matters of Faith, divided into two parties. Rokyzana, Jacobellus, and Peter Payne favoured a nearer approach to the Taborite innovations; others had gained the conviction that peace and union were only to be found in returning to the Roman allegiance. The chalice for the laity was the only point they wished to retain. Korybut, the governor, favoured the latter view. He engaged in secret negotiations with Pope Martin V, but the secret having leaked out Rokyzana, at the head of the populace of Prague seized him and confined him to a fortress (17 April 1427). The Hussites under Procopius the Shaven now raided Lusatia and Silesia. In July, 1427, a third army of crusaders, some 150,000 strong, entered Bohemia from the west. Procopius met and defeated them at Mies (4 August). Another army coming from Silesia had a similar fate.

Being complete masters of the situation at home, the Hussites set out for further raids abroad. Their own country was lying waste after so many years of war ; the people had become a huge horde of brigands bent on bloodshed and plunder. In the years 1428-1431 the combined Orphans, Taborites, and the townsmen of Prague invaded Hungary, laid waste Silesia as far as Breslau, plundered Lusatia, Meissen, Saxony, and advanced to Nuremberg, leaving in their track the remains of flourishing towns and villages, and devastated lands. Negotiations for an armistice came to naught. When the raiders returned in 1430 they had with them 3,000 wagons of booty, each drawn by from six to fourteen horses; a hundred towns and more than a thousand villages had been destroyed. In 1431 a fourth crusade, sent by the unbending Martin V, entered Bohemia. The crusaders numbered 90,000 foot and 40,000 horse; they were accompanied by the papal legate and commanded by the Electoral Prince Frederick of Brandenburg. They met a strong army of Hussites at Taus. The wild war-songs of the enemy filled the soldiers of the Cross with uncontrollable fear ; once more they fled in disorder, losing many men and 300 wagons of stores (14 August, 1431). After so many reverses the Catholics realized that peace was only to be attained by concessions to the Hussites. Advances were made by Emperor Sigismund and by the Council of Basle, which was then sitting. A meeting of the contending parties' delegates took place at Eger, where preliminaries for further discussion at Basle were agreed upon. Meanwhile the excommunicated Archbishop Conrad of Prague and the "iron" Bishop Johann of Olmutz died, and the Utraquist Rokyzana had an eye on the See of Prague: it was therefore his interest to make further peace negotiations with Rome. The Taborites, on the contrary, continued the war, heedless of the Eger arrangements. They raided Silesia and Brandenburg, advancing as far as Berlin, and fought Albert of Austria in Moravia and in his own Austrian dominions.

At length, 4 January, 1433, a deputation of fifteen members, provided with safe-conducts and accompanied by a numerous train, arrived at Basle. Discussion on the Four Articles of Prague lasted till April without any result. The deputies left Basle on 14 April, but with them went a deputation from the council to continue negotiations with the diet assembled at Prague. Here some progress was made, notwithstanding the opposition of Procopius and the extreme Taborites who were loath to lay down their arms and return to peaceful pursuits. The conferences dragged on till 26 November, 1433. The council, chiefly bent on safeguarding the dogma, consented to the following disciplinary articles, known as the Compactata of Basle:

  • In Bohemia and Moravia, communion under both kinds is to be given to all adults who desire it,
  • All mortal sins, especially public ones, shall be publicly punished by the lawful authorities;
  • The Word of God may be freely preached by approved preachers but without infringing papal authority;
  • Secular power shall not be exercised by the clergy bound by vows to the contrary; other clergy, and the Church itself may acquire and hold temporal goods, but merely as administrators and such.
In substance, the Compactata reproduced the Four Articles of Prague. They were accepted by the delegates, but further discussion on minor points led to a new rupture, and in the beginning of 1434 the delegates left Basle. A new party now arose: the friends of the Compactata. It soon gathered strength enough to order the Taborites who were besieging Pilsen and infesting the country to dissolve their armed bands. Instead of dispersing, they brought all their forces together at Lipau near Prague and offered battle. Here they suffered a crushing defeat from which they never recovered. Their two best leaders, Procopius the Shaven and Prokupek, were killed (30 May, 1434).

The tedious negotiations, in which religious, political, and personal interests had to be satisfied, went on with various vicissitudes until 5 July, 1436, when the Bohemian representatives at the Diet of Iglau, solemnly accepted the Compactata and promised obedience to the council. The representatives of the council, on their side, removed the ban from the Bohemians and acknowledged them as true sons of the Church. The diet accepted Sigismund as King of Bohemia : on 23 August he entered Prague, and took possession of his kingdom. Henceforth the Utraquists or Calixtines and the Subunists ( sub una specie ) had separate churches and lived together in comparative peace. Priests were ordained for the Utraquist rite. New difficulties were created by Rokyzana's failing to obtain the bishopric for which he had so long agitated and which he had been promised by Sigismund. His partisans went back to former aberrations, e.g. they re-established the feast of the "Holy Martyr Hus" on 6 July.

In 1448 Cardinal Carvajal came to Prague to settle the ever open question of Rokyzana's claims. Having demanded restitution of confiscated church property as the first step, he was threatened with murder and fled. In December of the same year Rokyzana returned to Prague as president of the Utraquist consistory. The governor, George Podiebrad, supported him in his disobedience to Rome and nullified all Roman attempts at a final settlement; he opposed St. John Capistran, who was then converting thousands of Utraquists in Moravia. As things were going from bad to worse, Pope Pius II, who had had long experience of the sectarians at Basle and as legate to Prague, refused to acknowledge the Utraquist rite, and declared the Compactata null and void, 31 March, 1462. Podiebrad retaliated by persecuting the Catholics in 1466 he was excommunicated by Paul II ; there followed other religious and civil wars. In 1485 King Wladislaw granted equal liberty and rights to both parties. Judging by its results this was a step in the right direction. By degrees the Utraquists conformed to the Roman rites so as to be hardly distinguishable from them, except through the chalice for the laity. In the sixteenth century they resisted Lutheran inroads even better than the Subunists. Their further history is told in the article BOHEMIAN BRETHREN.

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Habit is an effect of repeated acts and an aptitude to reproduce them, and may be defined as "a ...

Habor River

[Hebrew habhor ; Septuagint 'A Bwr : 2 Kings 17:6 , 'A Biwr : 2 Kings 18:11 ; X aBwr : ...

Haceldama

Haceldama is the name given by the people to the potter's field, purchased with the price of the ...

Hadewych, Blessed

(HADEWIG, HEDWIG). Prioress of the Premonstratensian convent of Mehre (Meer), near ...

Hadrian

Martyr, died about the year 306. The Christians of Constantinople venerated the grave of this ...

Hadrian, Publius Ælius

Emperor of the Romans; born 24 January, A. D. 76 at Rome ; died 10 July, 138. He married his ...

Hadrumetum

(ADRUMETUM, also ADRUMETUS). A titular see of Byzacena. Hadrumetum was a Phoenician colony ...

Haeften, Benedict van

(Haeftenus). Benedictine writer, provost of the Monastery of Afflighem, Belgium ; born at ...

Hagen, Gottfried

Gottfried Hagen, town clerk of Cologne, and author of the Cologne "Reimchronik" (rhymed ...

Haggai

Name and personal life Aggeus, the tenth among the minor prophets of the Old Testament, is ...

Haggith

This is the ordinary form of the name in the English Bible ; it corresponds better to the ...

Hagiography

The name given to that branch of learning which has the saints and their worship for its object. ...

Hague, The

(French LA HAYE; Dutch 's GRAVENHAGE, "the Count's Park"; Latin HAGA COMITIS) Capital and ...

Hahn-Hahn, Ida

Countess, convert and authoress, born 22 June, 1805; died 12 January, 1880. She was descended ...

Haid, Herenaus

Catechist, born in the Diocese of Ratisbon , 16 February, 1784; died 7 January, 1873. His ...

Hail Holy Queen

The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the ...

Hail Mary

The Hail Mary (sometimes called the "Angelical salutation", sometimes, from the first words in its ...

Haimhausen, Karl von

(Corrupt form of Aymausen .) German missionary; b. at Munich, of a noble Bavarian family, ...

Hair (in Christian Antiquity)

The subject of this article is so extensive that there can be no attempt to describe the types of ...

Hairshirt

(Latin cilicium ; French cilice ). A garment of rough cloth made from goats' hair and ...

Haiti

( Spanish Santo Domingo, Hispaniola .) An island of the Greater Antilles. I. STATISTICS ...

Haito

(HATTO). Bishop of Basle; b. in 763, of a noble family of Swabia; d. 17 March, 836, in the ...

Hakodate

Situated between 138º and 157º E. long., and between 37º and 52º N. lat., ...

Hakon the Good

King of Norway, 935 (936) to 960 (961), youngest child of King Harold Fair Hair and Thora ...

Halicarnassus

A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. It was a colony from Trœzen in ...

Halifax

(HALIFAXIENSIS) This see takes its name from the city of Halifax which has been the seat of ...

Hallahan, Margaret

Foundress of the Dominican Congregation of St. Catherine of Siena (third order); b. in London, ...

Haller, Karl Ludwig von

A professor of constitutional law, b. 1 August, 1768, at Berne, d. 21 May, 1854, at Solothurn, ...

Hallerstein, August

(Or Hallerstein). Jesuit missionary in China, born in Germany, died in China, probably about ...

Halloween

[ The vigil of this feast is popularly called "Hallowe'en" or "Halloween".] Solemnity ...

Halloy, Jean-Baptiste-Julien D'Omalius

Belgian geologist, b. at Liège, Belgium, 16 February, 1783; d. at Brussels, 15 January, ...

Halma, Nicholas

French mathematician; born at Sedan, 31 December, 1755; died at Paris, 4 June, 1828. He was ...

Ham, Hamites

I. CHAM ( A.V. Ham). Son of Noah and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ...

Hamar, Ancient See of

(HAMARCOPIA; HAMARENSIS). Hamar in Norway, embraced Hedemarken and Christians Amt, and was ...

Hamatha

(AMATHA). A titular see of Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Hamath was the capital of a ...

Hambley, Ven. John

English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...

Hamburg

A city supposed to be identical with the Marionis of Ptolemy, was founded by a colony of fishermen ...

Hamilton, John

Archbishop of St. Andrews; b. 1511; d. at Stirling, 1571; a natural son of James, first Earl of ...

Hamilton, Ontario, Diocese of

(Hamiltonensis). Located in Ontario, Canada ; a suffragan of Toronto. It comprises the counties ...

Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph, Baron von

A distinguished Austrian Orientalist ; b. at Graz, 9 June, 1774; d. at Vienna, 23 November, ...

Hammurabi

( Ha-am-mu-ra-bi ) The sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty; well known for over ...

Hamsted, Adrian

Founder of the sect of Adrianists; born at Dordrecht, 1524; died at Bruges, 1581. We know ...

Haneberg, Daniel Bonifacius von

A distinguished German prelate and Orientalist of the nineteenth century, b. At Tanne near ...

Hanover

The former Kingdom of Hanover has been a province of the Prussian monarchy since 20 September, ...

Hanse, Blessed Everald

Martyr ; b. in Northamptonshire; executed 31 July, 1581. He was educated at Cambridge, and was ...

Hansiz, Markus

Historian, b. at Volkermarkt, Carinthia, Austria, 25 April, 1683; d. at Vienna, 5 September, ...

Hanthaler, Chrysostomus

(JOHANNES ADAM.) A Cistercian, historical investigator and writer; b. at Marenbach, Austria, ...

Hanxleden, Johann Ernest

Jesuit missionary in the East Indies: b. at Ostercappeln, near Osnabrück, in Hanover, ...

Happiness

( French bonheur ; German Glück ; Latin felicitas ; Greek eutychia, eudaimonia ). ...

Haraldson, Saint Olaf

Martyr and King of Norway (1015-30), b. 995; d. 29 July, 1030. He was a son of King Harald ...

Harbor Grace

(Portus Gratiæ) Diocese in Newfoundland, erected in 1856. It comprises all the northern ...

Hardee, William J.

Soldier, convert, b. at Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. 1817, d. at Wytheville, Virginia, 6 Nov., ...

Hardey, Mary Aloysia

Of the Society of the Sacred Heart, who established all the convents of her order, up to the ...

Harding, St. Stephen

Confessor, the third Abbot of Cîteaux, was born at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, England, ...

Harding, Thomas

Controversialist; b. at Combe Martin, Devon, 1516 d. at Louvain, Sept., 1572. The registers of ...

Hardman, Mary Juliana

Known in religion as Sister Mary; b. 26 April, 1813; d. 24 March, 1884; was the daughter of John ...

Hardouin, Jean

Jesuit, and historian; b. at Quimper, Brittany, 23 Dec., 1646, son of a bookseller of that town; ...

Hardyng, John

An English chronicler; b. 1378; d. about 1460. He was of northern parentage and entered the ...

Hare Indians

A Déné tribe which shares with the Loucheux the distinction of being the ...

Harland, Henry

Novelist, b. of New England parentage, at St. Petersburg, 1 Mar., 1861; d. at San Remo, 20 Dec., ...

Harlay, Family of

An important family of parliamentarians and bishops, who deserve a place in religious ...

Harlez de Deulin, Charles-Joseph de

A Belgian Orientalist, domestic prelate, canon of the cathedral of Liège, member of the ...

Harmony

(Greek, harmonia ; Latin, harmonia ) A concord of sounds, several tones of different ...

Harney

(1) William Selby Harney Soldier, convert ; b. near Haysboro, Tennessee, U.S.A. 27 August, ...

Harold Bluetooth

(B LAATAND ) Born 911; died 1 November, 985 or 986. He was the son of King Gorm the Old of ...

Harold, Francis

Irish Franciscan and historical writer, d. at Rome, 18 March, 1685. He was for some time ...

Harpasa

A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. Nothing is known of the history of this ...

Harper, Thomas Morton

Priest, philosopher, theologian and preacher. Born in London 26 Sept., 1821, of Anglican ...

Harrington, Ven. William

English martyr ; b. 1566; d. 18 February, 1594. His father had entertained Campion at the ...

Harris, Joel Chandler

Folklorist, novelist, poet, journalist; born at Eatonton, Georgia, U.S.A. 1848; died at Atlanta, ...

Harrisburg

(Harrisburgensis.) Established 1868, comprises the Counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, Lancaster, ...

Harrison, James

Priest and martyr ; b. in the Diocese of Lichfield, England, date unknown; d. at York, 22 ...

Harrison, William

Third and last archpriest of England, b. in Derbyshire in 1553; d. 11 May, 1621. He was ...

Harrowing of Hell

This is the Old English and Middle English term for the triumphant descent of Christ into hell ...

Hart, William

Born at Wells, 1558; suffered at York, 15 March, 1583. Elected Trappes Scholar at Lincoln ...

Hartford

Diocese of Hartford, established by Gregory XVI, 18 Sept., 1843. When erected it embraced the ...

Hartley, Ven. William

Martyr ; b. at Wyn, in Derbyshire, England, of a yeoman family about 1557; d. 5 October, 1588. ...

Hartmann von Aue

A Middle High German epic poet and minnesinger; died between 1210 and 1220. Little is known ...

Hartmann, Georg

Mechanician and physicist ; b. at Eckoltsheim, Bavaria, 9 Feb. 1489; d. at Nuremberg, 9 ...

Hasak, Vincenz

Historian, b. at Neustadt, near Friedland, Bohemia, 18 July, 1812; d. 1 September, 1889, as ...

Haschka, Lorenz Leopold

A poet-author of the Austrian national anthem; b. at Vienna, 1 Sept. 1749, d. there 3 Aug., ...

Haspinger, Johann Simon

A Tyrolese priest and patriot ; b. at Gries, Tyrol, 28 October, 1776; d. in the imperial palace ...

Hassard, John Rose Greene

An editor, historian; b. in New York, U.S.A. 4 September, 1836; d. in that city, 18 April, 1888. ...

Hasslacher, Peter

Preacher; b. at Coblenz, 14 August, 1810; d. at Paris, 5 July, 1876. He was one of that band of ...

Hatred

Hatred in general is a vehement aversion entertained by one person for another, or for ...

Hatto

Archbishop of Mainz ; b. of a noble Swabian family, c. 850; d. 15 May, 913. He was educated at ...

Hatton, Edward Anthony

Dominican, apologist ; b. in 1701; d. at Stourton Lodge, near Leeds, Yorkshire, 23 October, ...

Hauara

A titular see of Palestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. Peutinger's map locates a place of ...

Haudriettes

A religious congregation founded in Paris early in the fourteenth century by Jeanne, wife of ...

Haughery, Margaret

Margaret Haughery, "the mother of the orphans ", as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, ...

Hauréau, Jean-Barthélemy

Historian and publicist; b. at Paris, 1812; d. there, 1896. He was educated at the Louis le Grand ...

Hautecombe

(Altacomba, Altæcombæum) A Cistercian monastery near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, ...

Hautefeuille, Jean de

French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...

Hautefeuille, Jean de

French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...

Hauteserre

(ALTESERRA). Antoine Dadin d'Hauteserre Born 1602, died 1682; a distinguished French historian ...

Hauzeur, Mathias

A Franciscan theologian, b. at Verviers, 1589; d. at Liège 12 November, 1676, for many ...

Havana

Diocese of Havana (San Cristóbal de la Habana) — Avanensis The city of Havana is ...

Havestadt, Bernhard

German Jesuit ; b. at Cologne, 27 February, 1714; died at Münster after 1778. He entered ...

Hawarden, Edward

(HARDEN). Theologian and controversialist, b. in Lancashire, England, 9 April, 1662; d. in ...

Hawes, Stephen

Poet; b. in Suffolk about 1474; d. about 1523. Very little is known of his life. He was educated ...

Hawker, Robert Stephen

Poet and antiquary; b. at Plymouth 3 December, 1803, d. there 15 August, 1875, son of Jacob ...

Hawkins, Sir Henry

Raised to the peerage as Lord Brampton, eminent English lawyer and Judge, b. at Hitchin, ...

Hay, Edmund and John

(1) Edmund Hay Jesuit, and envoy to Mary Queen of Scots, b. 1540?; d. at Rome, 4 Nov., 1591. he ...

Hay, George

Bishop and writer, b. at Edinburgh, 24 Aug., 1729; d. at Aquhorties, 18 Oct., 1811. His parents ...

Haydn, Franz Joseph

Born of staunch Catholic parents at Rohrau, Austria, 1 April, 1732; died at Gumpendorf, Vienna, ...

Haydn, Johann Michael

A younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn ; born at Rohrau, Austria, 14 September, 1737; died at ...

Haydock, George Leo

Priest and Biblical scholar; b. 11 April, 1774, at Cottam, near Wood Plumpton, Lancashire; d. 29 ...

Haydock, Venerable George

English martyr ; born 1556; executed at Tyburn, 12 February, 1583-84. He was the youngest son of ...

Haymo

( Or Haimo). A Benedictine bishop of the ninth century; d. 26 March, 853. The exact date ...

Haymo of Faversham

English Franciscan and schoolman, b. at Faversham, Kent; d. at Anagni, Itlay, in 1243, according ...

Haynald, Lajos

Cardinal, Archbishop of Kalocsa-Bács in Hungary ; b. at Szécsény, 3 ...

Hazart, Cornelius

Controversialist, orator, and writer, b. 28 October, 1617, at Oudenarde in the Netherlands ; ...

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He 165

Healy, George Peter Alexander

An American portrait and historical painter, b. at Boston, 15 July, 1808; d. at Chicago, 14 June ...

Hearse, Tenebrae

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the

The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...

Heart of Mary, Congregations of

I. Sisters of the Holy Heart of Mary Founded in 1842 at Nancy, by Mgr Menjaud, Bishop of ...

Heart of Mary, Devotion to the

As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...

Heath, Ven. Henry

English Franciscan and martyr, son of John Heath; christened at St. John's, Peterborough, 16 ...

Heaven

This subject will be treated under seven headings: I. Name and Place of Heaven; II. Existence of ...

Hebrew Bible

As compared with the Latin Vulgate , the Hebrew Bible includes the entire Old Testament with ...

Hebrew Language and Literature

Hebrew was the language spoken by the ancient Israelites, and in which were composed nearly all ...

Hebrews, Epistle to the

This will be considered under eight headings: (I) Argument; (II) Doctrinal Contents; (III) ...

Hebrides, New

Vicariate Apostolic in Oceania; comprises the New Hebrides, with Banks and Torres, islands ...

Hebron

( hbrwn, chebrón ) An ancient royal city of Chanaan, famous in biblical history, ...

Hecker, Isaac Thomas

Missionary, author, founder of the Paulists ; b. in New York, 18 December, 1819; d. there, 22 ...

Hedonism

( hedoné, pleasure). The name given to the group of ethical systems that hold, with ...

Hedwig, Saint

Duchess of Silesia, b. about 1174, at the castle of Andechs ; d. at Trebnitz, 12 or 15 ...

Heeney, Cornelius

Merchant and philanthropist; b. in King's County, Ireland, 1754; d. at Brooklyn, U.S.A. 3 May, ...

Heereman von Zuydwyk, Freiherr von

(Clemens Aug. Ant.). Catholic statesman and writer on art, b. 26 Aug., 1832, at Surenburg near ...

Heeswijk

A village in the diocese of Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), Holland, in which the dispersed ...

Hefele, Karl Joseph von

Bishop of Rottenburg, b. at Unterkochen, Würtemberg, 15 March, 1809; d. at Rottenburg, 5 ...

Hegelianism

(1) Life and Writings of Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born at Stüttgart in 1770; ...

Hegesippus, Saint

(Roman Martyrology, 7 April). A writer of the second century, known to us almost exclusively ...

Hegesippus, The Pseudo-

A fourth-century translator of the "Jewish War" of Flavius Josephus. The name is based on an ...

Hegius, Alexander

Humanist ; b. probably in 1433, at Heeck (Westphalia); d. 7 December, 1498, at Deventer ...

Heidelberg, University of

Heidelberg, a city of 41,000 inhabitants, is situated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, on the left ...

Heiligenkreuz

(SANCTA CRUX). An existing Cistercian monastery in the Wienerwald, eight miles north-west of ...

Heilsbronn

(FONS SALUTIS). Formerly a Cistercian monastery in the Diocese of Eichstätt in Middle ...

Heilsbronn, Monk of

This name indicates the unknown author of some small mystical treatises, written about the ...

Heim, François Joseph

French historical painter, b. near Belfort, 1787, d. in Paris, 1865. This clever painter ...

Heinrich der Glïchezäre

( Glïchezäre , i.e. the hypocrite, in the sense of one who adopts a strange name or ...

Heinrich von Ahaus

(Hendrik van Ahuis) Founder of the Brethren of the Common Life in Germany, b. in 1371, the ...

Heinrich von Laufenberg

A German poet of the fifteenth century, d. at Strasburg in 1460; he was a priest in Freiburg ...

Heinrich von Meissen

Usually called "Frauenlob" (Woman's praise), a Middle High German lyric poet; b. at Meissen ...

Heinrich von Melk

German satirist of the twelfth century; of knightly birth and probably a lay brother in the ...

Heinrich von Veldeke

A medieval German poet of knightly rank; b. near Maastricht in the Netherlands about the ...

Heinz, Joseph

Swiss painter ; b. at Basle, 11 June, 1564; d. near Prague, Bohemia, October, 1609. He appears ...

Heis, Eduard

German astronomer, b. at Cologne, 18 February, 1806; d. at Münster, Westphalia, 30 June, ...

Heisterbach

(Vallis S. Petri). A former Cistercian monastery in the Siebengebirge near the little town ...

Helen of Sköfde, Saint

Martyr in the first half of the twelfth century. Her feast is celebrated 31 July. Her life ...

Helena (Montana)

(Helenensis) Erected from the Vicariate of Montana, 7 March, 1884. It comprises the western ...

Helena, Saint

The mother of Constantine the Great , born about the middle of the third century, possibly in ...

Helenopolis

A titular see of Bithynia Prima, suffragan of Prusa. On the southern side of the Sinus Astacenus ...

Heli

Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

Heliae, Paul

(POVL HELGESEN) A Carmelite, opponent of the Reformation in Denmark, born at Warberg (in the ...

Heliand, The

( German Heiland , Saviour) The oldest complete work of German literature . Matthias Flacius ...

Heliogabalus

(E LAGABAL ) The name adopted by Varius Avitus Bassianus, Roman emperor (218-222), born of ...

Hell

This subject is treated under eight headings: (I) Name and Place of Hell; (II) Existence of ...

Hell, Maximilian

(Höll). Astronomer, b. at Schemnitz in Hungary, 15 May, 1720; d. at Vienna, 14 April, ...

Hello, Ernest

French philosopher and essayist, b. at Lorient, Brittany, 4 Nov., 1828; d. at Kéroman, ...

Helmold

A historian, born in the first half of the twelfth century; died about 1177. He was a native of, ...

Helmont, Jan Baptista van

Born at Brussels, 1577; died near Vilvorde, 30 December, 1644. This scientist, distinguished in ...

Helpers of the Holy Souls, Society of the

( Auxiliatrices des Ames du Purgatoire ) A religious order of women founded in Paris, ...

Helpidius, Flavius Rusticius

The name of several Latin writers. It appears in the manuscript of Pomponius Mela and Julius ...

Hemmerlin, Felix

(MALLEOLUS) properly HEMERLI A provost at Solothurn, in Switzerland, born at Zurich, in 1388 ...

Henderson, Issac Austin

Born at Brooklyn, 1850; died in Rome, March, 1909. His family was of Scotch and Irish ...

Hendrick, Thomas Augustine

First American and the twenty-second Bishop of Cebú, Philippine Islands, b. at Penn Yan, ...

Hengler, Lawrence

Catholic priest and the inventor of the horizontal pendulum, b. at Reichenhofen, ...

Hennepin, Louis

One of the most famous explorers in the wilds of North America during the seventeenth century, b. ...

Henoch

(Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

Henoch, Book of

The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

Henoticon

The story of the Henoticon forms a chapter in that of the Monophysite heresy in the fifth and ...

Henríquez, Crisóstomo

A Cistercian religious of the Spanish Congregation; b. at Madrid, 1594; d. 23 December, 1632, ...

Henríquez, Enrique

Noted Jesuit theologian, b. at Oporto, 1536; d. at Tivoli, 28 January, 1608. At the age of ...

Henri de Saint-Ignace

A Carmelite theologian, b. in 1630, at Ath in Hainaut, Belgium ; d. in 1719 or 1720, near ...

Henrion, Mathieu-Richard-Auguste

Baron, French magistrate, historian, and journalist; b. at Metz, 19 June, 1805; d. at Aix, ...

Henry Abbot

Layman, martyred at York, 4 July, 1597, pronounced Venerable in 1886. His acts are thus related ...

Henry II

King of England, born 1133; died 6 July, 1189; was in his earlier life commonly known as Henry ...

Henry II, Saint

German King and Holy Roman Emperor, son of Duke Henry II (the Quarrelsome) and of the Burgundian ...

Henry III

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Conrad II; b. 1017; d. at Bodfeld, in the Harz Mountains, 5 ...

Henry IV

King of France and Navarre, son of Jeanne d'Albret and Antoine de Bourbon, b. 14 December, 1553, ...

Henry IV

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry III and Agnes of Poitou, b. at Goslar, 11 November, ...

Henry of Friemar

(DE VRIMARIA) German theologian ; b. at Friemar, a small town near Gotha in Thuringia, about ...

Henry of Ghent

(HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, known as the DOCTOR SOLEMNIS) A notable scholastic philosopher and ...

Henry of Herford

(Or HERWORDEN; HERVORDIA) Friar and chronicler; date of birth unknown; died at Minden, 9 Oct., ...

Henry of Huntingdon

Historian; b. probably near Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, between 1080 and 1085; d. 1155. Little is ...

Henry of Kalkar

(Egher). Carthusian writer, b. at Kalkar in the Duchy of Cleves in 1328; d. at Cologne, 20 ...

Henry of Langenstein

(Henry of Hesse the Elder.) Theologian and mathematician; b. about 1325 at the villa of ...

Henry of Nördlingen

A Bavarian secular priest, of the fourteenth century, date of death unknown; the spiritual ...

Henry of Rebdorf

Alleged author of an imperial and papal chronicle of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is ...

Henry of Segusio, Blessed

Usually called Hostiensis , an Italian canonist of the thirteenth century, born at Susa (in ...

Henry Suso, Blessed

(Also called Amandus , a name adopted in his writings). German mystic, born at Constance on ...

Henry the Navigator, Prince

Born 4 March, 1394; died 13 November, 1460; he was the fourth son of John I, King of Portugal, by ...

Henry V

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV ; b. in 1081; d. at Utrecht, 23 May, 1125. He ...

Henry VI

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy ; b. in ...

Henry VIII

King of England, born 28 June, 1491; died 28 January, 1547. He was the second son and third ...

Henryson, Robert

Scottish poet, born probably 1420-1430; died about 1500. His birthplace, parentage, and place of ...

Henschen, Godfrey

(Or Henskens .) Jesuit, hagiographer ; b. at Venray (Limburg), 21 June, 1601; d. at ...

Hensel, Luise

Poetess and convert ; born at Linum, 30 March, 1798; died at Paderborn, 18 December, 1876. Her ...

Henten, John

Biblical exegete, born 1499 at Nalinnes Belgium ; died 10 Oct., 1566, at Louvain. When quite ...

Heortology

(From the Greek heorte , festival, and logos , knowledge, discourse) Heortology ...

Hephæstus

A titular see of Augustamnica Prima, mentioned by Hierocles (Synecd., 727, 9), by George of ...

Heptarchy

(A NGLO -S AXON H EPTARCHY ) By the term heptarchy is understood that complexus of ...

Heraclas

Bishop of Alexandria from 231 or 232; to 247 or 248. Of his earlier life Origen tells us, ...

Heraclea

A titular see of Thracia Prima. Heraclea is the name given about four centuries before the ...

Heraldry, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical heraldry naturally divides itself into various branches, principally: the arms of ...

Herbart and Herbartianism

The widespread and increasing influence of Herbart and his disciples in the work of education ...

Herbert of Bosham

A biographer of St. Thomas Becket , dates of birth and death unknown. He was probably born in ...

Herbert of Derwentwater, Saint

(Hereberht). Date of birth unknown; d. 20 March, 687; an anchorite of the seventh century, ...

Herbert of Lea, Lady Elizabeth

Authoress, and philanthropist, b. in 1822; d. in London 30 Oct., 1911. Lady Herbert was the ...

Herbst, Johann Georg

Born at Rottweil, in Würtemberg, 13 January, 1787; died 31 July, 1836. His college course, ...

Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo, Alejandro

Born at Lisbon, 28 March, 1810; died near Santarem, 13 Sept., 1877. Because of his liberal ...

Herder

The name of a German firm of publishers and booksellers. Bartholomäus Herder Founder of the ...

Herdtrich, Christian Wolfgang

(According to Franco, Christianus Henriques ; Chinese, Ngen ). An Austrian Jesuit ...

Heredity

The offspring tends to resemble, sometimes with extraordinary closeness, the parents ; this is ...

Hereford, Ancient Diocese of

(HEREFORDENSIS) Located in England. Though the name of Putta, the exiled Bishop of ...

Hereswitha, Saint

(HAERESVID, HERESWYDE). Daughter of Hereric and Beorhtswith and sister of St. Hilda of Whitby. ...

Heresy

I. Connotation and DefinitionII. Distinctions III. Degrees of heresy IV. Gravity of the sin of ...

Hergenröther, Joseph

Church historian and canonist, first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives, b. at ...

Heribert

(ARIBERT) Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045) An ambitious and warlike prince of the ...

Heribert, Saint

Archbishop of Cologne ; born at Worms, c. 970; died at Cologne, 16 March, 1021. His father was ...

Heriger of Lobbes

A medieval theologian and historian; born about 925; died 31 October, 1007. After studying at ...

Herincx, William

A theologian, born at Helmond, North Brabant, 1621; died 17 Aug., 1678. After receiving his ...

Hermann Contractus

(Herimanus Augiensis, Hermann von Reichenau ). Chronicler, mathematician, and poet; b. 18 ...

Hermann I

Landgrave of Thuringia (1190-1217), famous as a patron of medieval German poets. He was the ...

Hermann Joseph, Saint

Premonstratensian monk and mystic; b. at Cologne about 1150; d. at Hoven, 7 April, 1241. ...

Hermann of Altach

(Niederaltaich). A medieval historian; b. 1200 or 1201; d. 31 July, 1275. He received his ...

Hermann of Fritzlar

With this name are connected two works on mysticism written in German. The first, "Das ...

Hermann of Minden

Provincial of the German province of Dominicans ; b. at or near Minden on an unknown date ; d. ...

Hermann of Salza

Fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , descendant of the noble Thuringian house of Salza; ...

Hermanos Penitentes, Los

(The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

Hermas

(First or second century), author of the book called "The Shepherd" ( Poimen , Pastor), a work ...

Hermas, Saint

Martyr The Roman Martyrology sets down for 18 August (XV Kal. Septembris) the feast of the ...

Hermeneutics

Derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god Hermes, the reputed messenger and ...

Hermengild, Saint

Date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 585. Leovigild, the Arian King of the Visigoths (569-86), ...

Hermes, George

Philosopher and theologian, b. at Dreierwalde near Theine (Westphalia), 22 April, 1775; d. at ...

Hermes, Saint

Martyr, Bishop of Salano (Spalato) in Dalmatia. Very little is known about him; in Romans ...

Hermite, Charles

Born at Dieuze, Lorraine, 24 December, 1822; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1901; one of the greatest ...

Hermits

( Eremites , "inhabitants of a desert ", from the Greek eremos ), also called anchorites, ...

Hermits of St. Augustine

(Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons ). A ...

Hermon

[From the Hebrew meaning "sacred (mountain)"; Septuagint, Aermon ] A group of mountains ...

Hermopolis Magna

A titular see of Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoe, in Egypt. The native name was Khmounoun; ...

Hermopolis Parva

A titular see of Ægyptus Prima, suffragan of Alexandria. Its ancient name, Dimanhoru or ...

Herod

(Greek Herodes , from Heros .) Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. ...

Herodias

Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus -- son of Herod the Great and Mariamne -- was a descendant of ...

Heroic Act of Charity

A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences dated 18 December, 1885, and confirmed the ...

Heroic Virtue

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

Herp, Henry

(Or HARP, Latin CITHARŒDUS, or ERP as in the old manuscripts ) A fifteenth century ...

Herrad of Landsberg

(or LANDSPERG) A twelfth-century abbess, author of the "Hortus Deliciarum"; born about 1130, ...

Herregouts

There were three artists of the name of Herregouts, father, son, and grandson, of whom the chief ...

Herrera Barnuevo, Sebastiano de

A painter, architect, sculptor and etcher; born in Madrid, 1611 or 1619; died there, 1671; son ...

Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de

A Spanish historian; born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia, in 1559; died at Madrid, 27 ...

Herrera, Fernando de

A Spanish lyric poet; born 1537; died 1597. The head of a school of lyric poets who gathered ...

Herrera, Francisco

(1) Francisco Herrera (el Viejo, the Elder) A Spanish painter, etcher, medallist, and architect; ...

Herrgott, Marquard

A Benedictine historian and diplomat; born at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 9 October, 1694; died ...

Hersfeld

An ancient imperial abbey of the Benedictine Order, situated at the confluence of the Geisa and ...

Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo

Spanish Jesuit and famous philologist; b. at Horcajo, 1 May, 1735; d. at Rome, 24 August, 1809. ...

Hervetus, Gentian

French theologian and controversialist; b. at Olivet, near Orléans, in 1499; d. at ...

Hesebon

(A.V. HESHBON; Greek Esebon, Esbous ; Latin Esbus). A titular see of the province of ...

Hesse

(H ESSEN ). The name of a German tribe, and also a district in Germany extending along the ...

Hessels, Jean

A distinguished theologian of Louvain ; born 1522; died 1566. He had been teaching for eight ...

Hesychasm

(Greek hesychos , quiet). The story of the system of mysticism defended by the monks of ...

Hesychius of Alexandria

Grammarian and lexicographer; of uncertain date, but assigned by most authorities to the later ...

Hesychius of Jerusalem

Presbyter and exegete, probably of the fifth century. Nothing certain is known as to the dates ...

Hesychius of Sinai

A priest and monk of the Order of St. Basil in the Thorn-bush (Batos) monastery on Mt. ...

Hethites

(A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

Hettinger, Franz

A Catholic theologian ; born 13 January, 1819, at Aschaffenburg; died 26 January, 1890, at ...

Heude, Pierre

Missionary to China and zoologist; b. at Fougères in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine, ...

Hewett, John

(Alias WELDON). English martyr ; son of William Hewett of York; date of birth unknown; ...

Hewit, Augustine Francis

Priest and second Superior General of the Institute of St. Paul the Apostle ; b. at Fairfield, ...

Hexaemeron

Hexaemeron signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of ...

Hexapla

The name given to Origen's edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek, the most colossal ...

Hexateuch

A name commonly used by the critics to designate the first six books of the Old Testament, i.e. ...

Hexham and Newcastle

Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle (Hagulstadensis et Novocastrensis). Hexham, in ...

Heynlin of Stein, Johann

(A LAPIDE) A theologian, born about 1425; died at Basle, 12 March, 1496. He was apparently of ...

Heywood, Jasper and John

(1) Jasper Heywood A poet and translator; born 1535 in London ; died 1598 at Naples. As a boy ...

Hezekiah

Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

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Hibernians, Ancient Order of

This organization grew up gradually among the Catholics of Ireland owing to the dreadful ...

Hickey, Antony

A theologian, born in the Barony of Islands, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1586; died in Rome, 26 ...

Hidalgo, Miguel

Born on the ranch of San Vicente in the district of Guanajuato, 8 May, 1753; executed at ...

Hierapolis

Titular Archdiocese, metropolis of the Province of Euphrates, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. ...

Hierapolis

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. It is usually called by its ...

Hierarchy

(Greek Hierarchia ; from hieros , sacred; archein , rule, command). This word has been ...

Hierarchy of the Early Church

The word hierarchy is used here to denote the three grades of bishop, priest, and deacon ( ...

Hierocæsarea

A titular see of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. This town is mentioned by Ptolemy (VI, ii, 16). ...

Hieronymites

In the fourth century, certain Roman ladies, following St. Paula, embraced the religious life ...

Hierotheus

All attempts to establish as historical a personality corresponding to the Hierotheus who ...

Higden, Ranulf

(HYDON, HYGDEN, HIKEDEN.) Benedictine chronicler; died 1364. He was a west-country man, and ...

High Altar

(ALTARE SUMMUM or MAJUS.) The high altar is so called from the fact that it is the chief altar ...

High Priest, The

The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

Higher Criticism

Overview Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary ...

Hilarion, Saint

Founder of anchoritic life in Palestine; born at Tabatha, south of Gaza, Palestine, about 291; ...

Hilarius of Sexten

(In the world, CHRISTIAN GATTERER.) Moral theologian ; born 1839, in the valley of Sexten in ...

Hilarius, Pope Saint

[ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

Hilarus, Pope Saint

[ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

Hilary of Arles, Saint

Archbishop, b. about 401; d. 5 May, 449. The exact place of his birth is not known. All that may ...

Hilary of Poitiers, Saint

Bishop, born in that city at the beginning of the fourth century; died there 1 November, according ...

Hilda, Saint

Abbess, born 614; died 680. Practically speaking, all our knowledge of St. Hilda is derived from ...

Hildebert of Lavardin

Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours, and celebrated medieval poet; b. about 1056, at the ...

Hildegard, Saint

Born at Böckelheim on the Nahe, 1098; died on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, 1179; feast 17 ...

Hildesheim

Diocese of Hildesheim (Hildesheimensis). An exempt see, comprising the Prussian province of ...

Hilduin, Abbot of St-Denis

He died 22 November, 840. He was a scion of a prominent Frankish family, hut the time and place ...

Hill, Ven. Richard

English Martyr, executed at Durham, 27 May, 1590. Very little is known of him and his ...

Hillel

A famous Jewish rabbi who lived about 70 B.C.-A.D. 10. Our only source of information concerning ...

Hilton, Walter

Augustinian mystic, d. 24 March, 1396. Little is known of his life, save that he was the head of a ...

Himeria

A titular see in the province of Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. The "Notitia" of Anastasius, ...

Himerius

(called also EUMERIUS and COMERIUS) An Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, 385. He is the ...

Hincmar

An archbishop of Reims ; born in 806; died at Epernay on 21 December, 882. Descended from a ...

Hincmar

Bishop of Laon; died 879. In the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar, a nephew on the mother's ...

Hinderer, Roman

(Chinese TE). A German missionary in China, born at Reiningen, near Mülhausen, date ...

Hinduism

Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices ...

Hingston, Sir William Hales

Canadian physician and surgeon, b. at Hinchinbrook near Huntingdon, Quebec, June 29, 1829; d. at ...

Hippo Diarrhytus

(Or HIPPO ZARRHYTUS.) A titular see of Northern Africa, now called Bizerta, originally a ...

Hippo Regius

A titular see of Numidia, now a part of the residential see of Constantine. Hippo was a Tyrian ...

Hippolytus of Rome, Saint

Martyr, presbyter and antipope ; date of birth unknown; d. about 236. Until the publication ...

Hippolytus, Saints

Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

Hippos

Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

Hirena

A titular see of southern Tunis. Nothing is known of the city, the name of which may have been ...

Hirschau, Abbey of

A celebrated Benedictine monastery in Würtemberg, Diocese of Spires, about twenty-two ...

Hirscher, Johann Baptist von

Born 20 January, 1788, at Alt-Ergarten, Ravensburg; died 4 September, 1865. He studied at ...

Historical Criticism

Historical criticism is the art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of ...

History, Ecclesiastical

I. NATURE AND OFFICE Ecclesiastical history is the scientific investigation and the methodical ...

Hittites

(A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

Hittorp, Melchior

A theologian and liturgical writer, born about 1525, at Cologne ; died there in 1584. On the ...

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Hladnik, Franz von Paula

Botanist and schoolmaster, b. 29 March, 1773, at Idria, Carniola, Austria ; d. 25 November, ...

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Hobart

(HOBARTENSIS) Hobart comprises Tasmania, Bruni Island, and the Cape Barren, Flinders, King, ...

Hodgson, Sydney

A lawman and martyr ; date and place of birth unknown; d. at Tyburn, 10 Dec., 1591. He was a ...

Hofer, Andreas

A patriot and soldier, born at St. Leonhard in Passeyrthale, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1767; executed at ...

Hogan, John Baptist

Better known, on account of his long sojourn in France, as Abbé Hogan, born near Ennis in ...

Hohenbaum van der Meer, Moritz

A Benedictine historian; born at Spörl near Belgrade, 25 June, 1718; died at the monastery ...

Hohenburg

(ODILIENBERG; ALTITONA) A suppressed nunnery, situated on the Odilienberg, the most famous of ...

Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Alexander Leopold

A titular Bishop of Sardica, famous for his many supposedly miraculous cures, born 17 August, ...

Holbein, Hans

(The Elder Holbein) A German painter ; b. at Augsburg about 1460; d. at Isenheim, Alsace, in ...

Holden, Henry

An English priest ; born 1596; died March, 1662. Henry Holden was the second son of Richard ...

Holiness

(A.S. hal , perfect, or whole). Sanctitas in the Vulgate of the New Testament is the ...

Holland, Ven. Thomas

An English martyr, b. 1600 at Sutton, Lancashire; martyred at Tyburn, 12 December, 1642. He ...

Hollanders in the United States

The Hollanders played by no means an insignificant part in the early history of the United ...

Holmes, John

Catholic educator and priest ; born at Windsor, Vermont, in 1799; died at Lorette, near ...

Holocaust

As suggested by its Greek origin ( holos "whole", and kaustos "burnt") the word designates an ...

Holstenius, Lucas

(HOLSTE). German philologist, b. at Hamburg, 1596; d. at Rome, 2 February, 1661. He studied ...

Holtei, Karl von

German novelist, poet, and dramatist; b. at Breslau, 24 January, 1798; d. in that city, 12 ...

Holy Agony, Archconfraternity of

An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony ...

Holy Alliance

The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I ...

Holy Child Jesus, Society of the

The Society was founded in England in 1840 by Mrs. Cornelia Connelly, née Peacock, ...

Holy Childhood, Association of the

A children's association for the benefit of foreign missions. Twenty years after the foundation of ...

Holy Coat

(OF TRIER AND ARGENTEUIL). The possession of the seamless garment of Christ (Gr. chiton ...

Holy Communion

By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Ascetic writers ...

Holy Cross Abbey

The picturesque ruins of this monastery are situated on the right bank of the River Suir, about ...

Holy Cross, Congregation of

A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state by the simple vows of ...

Holy Cross, Sisters Marianites of

The congregation of the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross was founded in 1841, in the parish of ...

Holy Cross, Sisters of the

(Mother House, St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame, Indiana) As an offset to ...

Holy Faith, Sisters of the

Founded at Dublin, in 1857, by Margaret Aylward, under the direction of Rev. John Gowan, C.M., ...

Holy Family, Archconfraternity of the

This archconfraternity owes its origin to Henri Belletable, an officer in the Engineers' Corps, ...

Holy Family, Congregations of the

I. ASSOCIATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY Founded in 1820 by the Abbé Pierre Bienvenue Noailles (d. ...

Holy Ghost

I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

Holy Ghost, Orders of the

The Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome was the cradle of an order, which, beginning in the ...

Holy Ghost, Religious Congregations of the

I. THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY GHOST AND OF THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY This Congregation was ...

Holy Grail, The

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

Holy House of Loreto

(The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

Holy Humility of Mary, Sisters of the

Founded at Dommartin-sous-Amance, France, in 1855, by John Joseph Begel (b. 5 April, 1817; d. 23 ...

Holy Infancy, Brothers of the

Founded in 1853 by the Right Rev. John Timon, the first Bishop of Buffalo. The special aim of ...

Holy Innocents

The children mentioned in St. Matthew 2:16-18 : Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise ...

Holy Name of Jesus

We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...

Holy Name, Feast of the

This feast is celebrated on the second Sunday after Epiphany (double of the second class). ...

Holy Name, Litany of the

An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

Holy Name, Society of the

(Confraternity of the Most Holy Name of God and Jesus). An indulgenced confraternity in the ...

Holy Oils

(OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

Holy Oils, Vessels for

In Christian antiquity there existed an important category of vessels used as receptacles for ...

Holy Orders

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

Holy Saturday

In the primitive Church Holy Saturday was known as Great, or Grand, Saturday, Holy Saturday, the ...

Holy See

(From the Latin Sancta Sedes , Holy Chair). A term derived from the enthronement ...

Holy Sepulchre

Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death ...

Holy Sepulchre, Canonesses Regular of the

Concerning the foundation there is only a tradition connecting it with St. James the Apostle and ...

Holy Sepulchre, Fathers of the

(Guardians) The Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre are the six or seven Franciscan Fathers, who ...

Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the

Neither the name of a founder nor a date of foundation can be assigned to the so-called Order of ...

Holy Spirit

I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

Holy Stairs (Scala Sancta)

Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition ...

Holy Synod

In its full form M OST H OLY D IRECTING S YNOD , the name of the council by which the ...

Holy Thursday

The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

Holy Water

The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...

Holy Water Fonts

Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

Holy Week

Holy Week is the week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and ...

Holy Year of Jubilee

The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

Holyrood Abbey

Located in Edinburgh, Scotland ; founded in 1128 by King David I for the Canons Regular of ...

Holywell

A town in North Wales, situated on the declivity of a hill overlooking a picturesque valley, ...

Holywood, Christopher

( Latinized , A Sacrobosco.) Jesuit ; b. At Artane, Dublin, in 1559; d. 4 September, 1626. ...

Holywood, John

(John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...

Holzhauser, Bartholomew

Parish priest, ecclesiastical writer, and founder of a religious community; born 24 Aug., ...

Homes

This term, when used in an eleemosynary sense, covers all institutions that afford the general ...

Homicide

( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

Homiletics

Homiletics is the science that treats of the composition and delivery of a sermon or other ...

Homiliarium

A collection of homilies, or familiar explanations of the Gospels (see HOMILY). From a very ...

Homily

The word homily is derived from the Greek word homilia (from homilein ), which means to ...

Homoousion

(Gr. homoousion - from homos , same, and ousia , essence ; Latin consubstantialem , of ...

Honduras

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF BRITISH HONDURAS. The territory of the vicariate is co-extensive with ...

Hong-Kong

The island of Hong-Kong was ceded by the Chinese Government to Great Britain in January, 1841, ...

Honoratus a Sancta Maria

A Discalced Carmelite ; born at Limoges, 4 July, 1651 ; died at Lille, 1729. Blaise Vauxelles ...

Honoratus, Saint

Archbishop of Arles; b. about 350; d. 6 (or, according to certain authors, 14 or 15) January, ...

Honorius I, Pope

Pope (625-12 October, 638), a Campanian, consecrated 27 October (Duchesne) or 3 November ...

Honorius II, Pope

(Lamberto Scannabecchi) Born of humble parents at Fagnano near Imola at an unknown date ; ...

Honorius III, Pope

(Cencio Savelli) Born at Rome, date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 18 March, 1227. For a ...

Honorius IV, Pope

(Giacomo Savelli) Born at Rome about 1210; died at Rome, 3 April, 1287. He belonged to the ...

Honorius of Autun

(HONORIUS AUGUSTODUNENSIS) A theologian, philosopher, and encyclopedic writer who lived in ...

Honorius, Flavius

Roman Emperor, d. 25 August, 423. When his father, the Emperor Theodosius, divided up the ...

Honorius, Saint

Archbishop of Canterbury, fifth in succession from St. Augustine, elected 627; consecrated at ...

Honour

Honour may be defined as the deferential recognition by word or sign of another's worth or ...

Hontheim, Johannes Nicolaus von

(FEBRONIUS) An auxiliary Bishop of Trier ; born at Trier, 27 January, 1701; died at ...

Hood

A flexible, conical, brimless head-dress, covering the entire head, except the face. It is either ...

Hoogstraten, Jacob van

(also HOCHSTRATEN) A theologian and controversialist, born about 1460, in Hoogstraeten, ...

Hooke, Luke Joseph

Born at Dublin in 1716; died at St. Cloud, Paris, 16 April, 1796, son of Nathaniel Hooke the ...

Hope

Hope, in its widest acceptation, is described as the desire of something together with the ...

Hope-Scott, James Robert

(Originally H OPE ) Parliamentary barrister, Q.C.; b. 15 July, 1812, at Great Marlow, ...

Hopi Indians

(From Hopita, "peaceful ones" their own name; also frequently known as Moki, or Moqui, an alien ...

Hopkins, Gerard Manley

Jesuit and poet, born at Stratford, near London, 28 July, 1844; died at Dublin, 8 June, 1889. ...

Hormisdas, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown, elected to the Holy See, 514; d. at Rome, 6 August, 523. This able and ...

Horner, Nicholas

Layman and martyr, born at Grantley, Yorkshire, England, date of birth unknown; died at ...

Horns, Altar

On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns ...

Hornyold, John Joseph

A titular Bishop of Phiomelia, Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England ; born 19 ...

Hortulus Animæ

(L ITTLE G ARDEN OF THE S OUL ). A prayer book which both in its Latin and German ...

Hosanna

"And the multitudes that went before and that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of ...

Hosea

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

Hosius of Cordova

The foremost Western champion of orthodoxy in the early anti-Arian struggle; born about 256; ...

Hosius, Stanislaus

(HOE, HOSZ) Cardinal and Prince- Bishop of Ermland ; born of German parents at Cracow, 5 ...

Hospice

( Latin hospitium , a guest house). During the early centuries of Christianity the hospice ...

Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus

These sisters are established in religion under the Rule of St. Augustine, the institute being ...

Hospitality

The Council of Trent in its twenty-fifth session, cap. viii, De Ref., enjoins "all who hold any ...

Hospitallers

During the Middle Ages, among the hospitals established throughout the West ( Maisons-Dieu ...

Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

Hospitals

(Latin hospes , a guest; hence hospitalis , hospitable; hospitium , a guest-house or ...

Hospitius, Saint

(Sospis) Recluse, b. according to tradition in Egypt, towards the beginning of the sixth ...

Hossche, Sidron de

( Latin HOSSCHIUS) Sidron de Hossche, poet and priest ; born at Mercken, West Flanders, in ...

Host

Archaeological and Historical Aspects The bread destined to receive Eucharistic Consecration is ...

Host, Johann

One of the seven Dominicans, who distinguished themselves in the struggle against Luther in ...

Hottentots

The Hottentot is one of three tribes of South Africa which may be divided — Bantus, ...

Houbigant, Charles François

Born in Paris, 1686; died there 31 October, 1783. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in ...

Houdon, Jean-Antoine

Born at Versailles, 1741; died 16 July, 1828; the most distinguished sculptor of France ...

Houdry, Vincent

Preacher and writer on ascetics; b. 23 January, 1631, at Tours ; d. 21 March, 1729, at Paris. ...

Houghton, John, Blessed

Protomartyr of the persecution under Henry VIII, b. in Essex, 1487; d. at Tyburn, 4 May, 1535. ...

Houghton, William

(Variously called DE HOTUM, DE HOTHUM, DE HOZUM, BOTHUM, DE HONDEN, HEDDON, HEDDONEM, according as ...

Hours, Canonical

I. IDEA By canonical hour is understood all the fixed portion of the Divine Office which the ...

Hours, Liturgy of the

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

Hove, Peter van

Friar Minor, lector in theology and exegete ; b. at Rethy, in Campine (Belgium); d. at Antwerp, ...

Howard, Mary, of the Holy Cross

Poor Clare, born 28 December, 1653; died at Rouen, 21 Mary's 1735, daughter of Sir Robert Howard, ...

Howard, Philip Thomas

Dominican and cardinal, commonly called the "Cardinal of Norfolk"; born at Arundel House, ...

Howard, Philip, Venerable

Martyr, Earl of Arundel; born at Arundel House, London, 28 June 1557, died in the Tower of London, ...

Howard, Venerable William

Viscount Stafford, martyr ; born 30 November, 1614; beheaded Tower-Hill, 29 December, 1680. He ...

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Hroswitha

A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

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Huánuco

(Huanucensis) Suffragan of Lima in Peru. The department of Huánuco contains an ...

Huajuápam de León

(Huajuapatamensis) Diocese in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, erected by Bull of Leo XIII , ...

Huaraz

Diocese of Huaraz (Huaraziensis) Suffragan of Lima. It comprises the entire department of ...

Huber, Alphons

An historian; born 14 October, 1834, at Fügen, Zillerthal (Tyrol); died 23 November, 1898, at ...

Hubert Walter

Archbishop of Canterbury (1193-1205); died 13 July, 1205; son of Hervey (Herveus) Walter and ...

Hubert, Jean-François

The ninth Bishop of Quebec, born at Quebec, 23 February, 1739; died 17 October, 1799; son of ...

Hubert, Saint

Confessor, thirty-first Bishop of Maastricht, first Bishop of Liège, and Apostle of ...

Hubert, Saint, Military Orders of

I. The highest order of Bavaria, founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard V, Duke of Jülich, in ...

Huc, Evariste Régis

A French Lazarist missionary and traveller; born at Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne), 1 June, 1813; died ...

Hucbald of St-Amand

(HUGBALDUS, UBALDUS, UCHUBALDUS) A Benedictine monk ; born in 840; died in 930 or 932. The ...

Huddleston, John

Monk of the Order of St. Benedict; b. at Farington Hall, Lancashire, 15 April, 1608; exact date ...

Hudson, Blessed James

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

Hueber, Fortunatus

A Franciscan historian and theologian, born at Neustadt on the Danube; died 12 Feb., 1706, at ...

Huelgas de Burgos

The royal monastery of Las Huelgas de Burgos was founded by Alfonso VIII at the instance of ...

Huesca

(OSCENSIS) Huesca embraces parts of the province of Huesca in north-eastern Spain, seven ...

Huet, Pierre-Daniel

A distinguished savant and celebrated French bishop ; born 8 February, 1630, at Caen (Normandy), ...

Hug, Johann Leonhard

A German Catholic exegete, b. at Constance, 1 June, 1765; d. at Freiburg im Br., 11 March, ...

Hugh Capet

King of France, founder of the Capetian dynasty, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. ...

Hugh Faringdon, Blessed

( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

Hugh of Digne

Friar Minor andascetical writer; b. at Digne, south-east France, date uncertain; d. at ...

Hugh of Flavigny

Benedictine monk and historian; b. about 1064, probably at Verdun (Lorraine); d. before the ...

Hugh of Fleury

(Called also HUGO A SANTA MARIA, from the name of the church of his native village). ...

Hugh of Lincoln, Saint

Born about the year 1135 at the castle of Avalon, near Pontcharra, in Burgundy ; died at London, ...

Hugh of Remiremont

Surnamed CANDIDUS or BLANCUS. Cardinal, born of a noble family, probably in Lorraine, died soon ...

Hugh of St-Cher

(Latin D E S ANCTO C ARO ; D E S ANCTO T HEODORICO ). A Dominican cardinal of the ...

Hugh of St. Victor

Medieval philosopher, theologian, and mystical writer; b. 1096, at the manor of Hartingham in ...

Hugh of Strasburg

Theologian, flourished during the latter half of the thirteenth century. The dates of his birth ...

Hugh the Great, Saint

Abbot of Cluny, born at Semur (Brionnais in the Diocese of Autun, 1024; died at Cluny, 28 ...

Hugh, Saint

(Called LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN.) St. Hugh was the son of a poor woman of Lincoln ...

Hughes, John

Fourth bishop and first Archbishop of New York, born at Annaloghan, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, 24 ...

Hugo, Charles-Hyacinthe

Born 20 Sept., 1667, at St. Mihiel (Department of Meuse, France ); died 2 August, 1739. He ...

Huguccio

(HUGH OF PISA) Italian canonist, b. at Pisa, date unknown; d. in 1210. He studied at ...

Huguenots

A name by which the French Protestants are often designated. Its etymology is uncertain. ...

Hulst, Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'

A prelate, writer, orator; born at Paris, 10 Oct., 1841; died there, 6 Nov., 1896. After a ...

Human Acts

Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are ...

Humanism

Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the ...

Humbert of Romans

(DE ROMANIS). Fifth master general of the Dominican Order, b. at Romans in the Diocese of ...

Humeral Veil

This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

Humiliati

I. A penitential order dating back, according to some authorities, to the beginning of the ...

Humility

The word humility signifies lowliness or submissiveness an it is derived from the Latin ...

Humphrey Middlemore, Blessed

English Carthusian martyr, date of birth uncertain; d. at Tyburn, London, 19 June, 1535. His ...

Humphreys, Laurence

Layman and martyr, born in Hampshire, England, 1571; died at Winchester, 1591. Of Protestant ...

Hungarian Catholics in America

The Kingdom of Hungary (Magyarország) comprises within its borders several races or ...

Hungarian Literature

The language which has prevailed in Hungary for nearly a thousand years and is spoken at the ...

Hungary

GEOGRAPHY AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ...

Hunolt, Franz

The most popular German preacher of the early part of the eighteenth century, b. 31 March, 1691, ...

Hunt, Ven. Thurston

An English martyr (March, 1601), who belonged to the family seated at Carlton Hall, near ...

Hunter, Sylvester Joseph

English Jesuit priest and educator; b. at Bath, 13 Sept., 1829; d. at Stonyhurst, 20 June, 1896. ...

Hunting, Canons on

From early times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics. Thus, in the ...

Huntington, Jedediah Vincent

Clergyman, novelist; born 20 January, 1815, in New York City; died 10 March, 1862, at Pau, France. ...

Hunyady, János

(JOHN) Governor of Hungary, born about 1400; died 11 August, 1456; the heroic defender of the ...

Huron Indians

The main divisions of the subject are: I. THE HURONS BEFORE THEIR DISPERSION (1) Their Place in ...

Hurst, Richard

(Or HERST.) Layman and martyr, b. probably at Broughton, near Preston, Lancashire, England, ...

Hurtado, Caspar

A Spanish Jesuit and theologian, b. at Mondejar, New Castle, in 1575; d. at Alcalá, 5 ...

Hurter

(1) Friedrich Emmanuel Von Hurter Convert and historian, b. at Schaffhausen, 19 March, 1787; d. at ...

Hus, Jan

(Also spelled John ). Born at Husinetz in southern Bohemia, 1369; died at Constance 6 ...

Husenbeth, Frederick Charles

Born at Bristol, 30 May, 1796; died at Cossey, Norfolk, 31 October, 1872. The son of a Bristol ...

Hussey, Thomas

Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, b. at Ballybogan, Co. Meath, in 1746; d. at Tramore, Co. ...

Hussites

The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they ...

Hutton, Peter

Priest, b. at Holbeck, Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 29 June, 1811; d. at Ratcliffe, ...

Huysmans, Joris Karl

A French novelist; born in Paris, 5 February, 1848; died 12 May, 1907. He studied at the Lycee ...

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Hy 16

Hyacinth and Protus, Saints

Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

Hyacinth, Saint

Dominican, called the Apostle of the North, son of Eustachius Konski of the noble family of ...

Hyacintha Mariscotti, Saint

A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

Hydatius of Lemica

( Also IDATIUS; LEMICA is more correctly LIMICA.) A chronicler and bishop, born at the end ...

Hyderabad-Deccan, Diocese of

Hyderabad, also called Bhagnagar, and Fakhunda Bunyad, capital of the Nizam's dominions, was ...

Hyginus, Pope Saint

Reigned about 138-142; succeeded Pope Telesphorus, who, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., IV, ...

Hylozoism

(Greek hyle , matter + zoe , life ) The doctrine according to which all matter ...

Hymn

A derivative of the Latin hymnus , which comes from the Greek hymnos , derived from hydein ...

Hymnody and Hymnology

Hymnody, taken from the Greek ( hymnodia ), means exactly " hymn song", but as the hymn-singer ...

Hypæpa

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus; it was a small town on the southern slope of ...

Hypnotism

(Greek hypnos , sleep) By Hypnotism , or Hypnosis , we understand here the nervous ...

Hypocrisy

(Greek hypo , under, and krinesthai , to contend — hence adequately "to answer" on the ...

Hypostatic Union

A theological term used with reference to the Incarnation to express the revealed truth ...

Hypsistarians

Hypsistarians or worshippers of the Hypsistos , i.e. of the "Most High" God ; a distinct ...

Hyrtl, Joseph

Austrian anatomist, b. at Eisenstadt in Hungary, December 7, 1810; d. 17 July, 1894, on his ...

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