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Boston

Archdiocese ; comprises Essex, Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Plymouth counties in the State of Massachusetts, U.S.A., the towns of Mattapoisett, Marion, and Wareham excepted, embracing an area of 2,465 square miles.

The see was erected 8 April, 1808, and created an archbishopric in 1875. When the first Bishop of Boston was consecrated his jurisdiction extended over all New England and a mere handful of Catholics. There are now eight dioceses in the same territory with about 2,100,000 Catholics of whom 850,000 are within the limits of the Archdiocese of Boston where the first bishop found a scant hundred. The growth of the Church has been due mainly to the immigrants attracted by the advantages offered by the great and varied manufacturing interests of New England. The Irish came first, after them the French Canadians, the Italians, the Poles, the Portuguese, and representatives of nearly all the peoples of the globe.

EARLY HISTORY

Early Irish emigration to America took place in three distinct periods, from 1621 to 1653, from 1653 to 1718, and from 1718 to 1775. But the mistake must not be made, as it often is, that these immigrants were all Catholics. Many of them were not, and those who were had few inducements to settle in the Puritan colony where their Faith was held in detestation. Some who were sold to the Barbados in the time of Cromwell were afterwards found in the Massachusetts settlements. One of these, Ann Glover, and her daughter had lived in Boston before she fell a victim, in 1688, to Cotton Mather's witchcraft mania. In his "Magnalia" he calls her "a scandalous old Irishwoman, very poor, a Roman Catholic and obstinate in idolatry ". Robert Calef, a Boston merchant who knew her, says "Goody Glover was a despised, crazy, poor old woman, an Irish Catholic who was tried for afflicting the Goodwin children. Her behaviour at her trial was like that of one distracted. They did her cruel. The proof against her was wholly deficient. The jury brought her guilty. She was hung. She died a Catholic." (More Wonders of the Invisible World, London, 1700.) Other immigrants came as bond slaves or "redemptioners" and were not so steadfast in the Faith as Goody Glover. Their environment precluded any open manifestation of their religion or the training of their children in its precepts As an instance of many such may be cited the famous Governors Sullivan of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Their grandfather was one of the "Wild Geese" who fled with Sarsfield from Limerick to France. His son married Margaret Brown, a fellow "redemptioner", and with their six children all drifted into Protestantism. One of their sons General John Sullivan, of Revolutionary fame, writing on 5 September, 1774, of the "Quebec Act" that gave religious freedom to the Catholics of Canada under British rule, denounced these co-religionists of his grandfather as "determined to extirpate the race of Protestants from America to make way for their own cursed religion".

Traces of the Church in New England begin with the arrival of the Jesuit missioner, Peter Biard among the Abenaki Indians of Maine in June, 1611. Others, notably Father Gabriel Druilletes (15 August, 1643), followed. About the same date, the ship of La Tour, the French commander of Canada, which visited Boston harbor had "two friars " on board but they did not land. In September, 1646, another French ship, commanded by D'Aulnay, also having two priests on board, was in port. The priests visited the governor, who entertained them at his residence. Four years later Father Druilletes visited Boston to confer with General Gibbons as to the details of a trading pact and alliance with the Canadian French against the Iroquois. The governor entertained him for two weeks at his home, which was on what is now Washington Street, near Adams Square (Memorial Hist. of Boston, II, p. xiv), and it is surmised that he said Mass in private there during that time. John Eliot, John Endicott and other noted men of the time were among those he met there and who united in urging him to prolong his visit though their efforts were unsuccessful. The "Andros Papers" (quoted in Memorial Hist. of Boston) declare that in 1689 there was not a single "Papist" in all New England. They began to drift in soon, however, for in the Boston "Weekly Rehearsal" of 20 March, 1732, is this statement: "We hear that Mass has been performed in town this winter by an Irish priest among some Catholics of his own nation of whom it is not doubted we have a considerable number among us." During the war with France one hundred French Catholics were arrested in Boston in 1746 "to prevent any danger the town may be in" but the sheriff much to the disgust of their captors refused to hold them. In 1756 the exiled Acadians of whom nearly 2000 had landed in Massachusetts were denied the services of a priest because, as Governor Hutchinson declared, "the people would upon no terms have consented to the public exercise of religious worship by Roman Catholicpriests " The Boston "Town Records" (1772, pp. 95-96) while admitting that toleration in religion was what all good and candid minds in all ages have ever practiced" excluded "Roman Catholicks" because their belief was "subversive of society ".

With the Revolution, however, came the dawn of a better era, the upsetting of religious as well as political barriers, and the beginning of the slow but sure growth of the Church which has resulted in the wonderful change of the present. A favorite New England diversion was an annual procession, on 5 November, of the Pope and the Devil in celebration of the famous "Gunpowder Plot". In Boston it was usually attended by riot and violence. In 1775 Washington, while at Boston, issued an order in which he could not "help expressing his surprise that there should be officers and soldiers in this army so void of Common sense" as to thus insult the religious feelings of the Canadians with whom friendship and an alliance was then being sought. The stay of the French fleet in New England waters and the settling of some of the allies there after the war had ended laid the foundations of the first Catholic parish in the heart of New England. There appeared in Boston, in 1788, a French priest who called himself Claudius Florent Bouchard de la Poterie, "Priest Doctor of Divinity, Clerk, and Apostolic Missionary". He had faculties from the prefect Apostolic , Dr. Carroll, and announced his advent in a pompous "pastoral letter". He secured the old French Huguenot church at what is now No. 18 School Street and opened there on All Saints' Day, 1788, under the patronage of the Holy Cross, the first Catholic church in New England. The report of the celebration of the first Mass on that date can be read in the Boston "Independent Chronicle", 6 November, 1788. To the aid of this church subscriptions were received from Canada, and the Archbishop of Paris, in answer to an appeal from the little French colony in Boston, sent a needed outfit of vestments and vessels for the altar. He also notified them that the Abbé de la Poterie was an unworthy priest (Campbell in U. S. Cath. Magazine, VIII, 102). His conduct in Boston proved this, and the prefect Apostolic, finding he had been imposed on, sent the Rev. William O'Brien, O. P., of New York to Boston to depose de la Poterie. A violent pamphlet printed in Philadelphia (1789) followed. It was dedicated "To the new Laurent Ricci in America the Rev. Fr. John Carroll, Superior of the Jesuits in the United States also to the friar-monk-inquisitor William O'Brien", and represented de la Poterie as a victim to their wiles.

After his suspension de la Poterie went to Canada and was succeeded in Boston by the Rev. Louis Rousselet, who was in turn suspended and went to Guadeloupe, where he was killed in a revolution. In 1790 the Catholic colony numbered less than two hundred, and the Rev. John Thayer , a convert, was sent to take charge of the church which he found "dilapidated and deserted " after his predecessor's departure. Thayer had been a Congregationalist minister, and chaplain to Governor Hancock. At the close of the Revolution, being in his twenty-sixth year, he went abroad, and became a convert in Rome 25 May, 1783. He determined to become a priest in order to labor for the conversion of New England to the Catholic Faith and was ordained at St. Sulpice in Paris, in 1787. He returned to Boston 4 January, 1790. The first of a genuine New England family to enter the priesthood, he retained much of his inherited Puritanical oppressiveness, and, as Bishop Carroll said of him, he lacked "amiable and conciliatory manners" and was not a success as an administrator. Rousselet, who did not leave Boston immediately, set up a rival church and divided the little congregation, the French element siding with him and the Irish with Thayer. In the spring of 1791 Bishop Carroll had to visit the parish to restore unity. He was received with courtesy by all citizens and was made the guest of honor at the annual dinner of the most important social and military organization there, the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. Governor John Hancock attended Mass as a mark of respect for him. "It is wonderful", the bishop wrote, "to tell what great civilities have been done to me in this town, where a few years ago a Popish priest was thought to be the greatest monster in the creation. . . . If all the Catholics here were united their number would be about one hundred and twenty" (U.S. Cath. Magazine, Baltimore, VIII, 149).

Father Thayer having failed as a pastor he was relieved by the Rev. Francis A. Matignon, one of the many French priests exiled by the Revolution, and to whom the Church in the United States owes so much. Born in Paris, in 1753, he was ordained priest in 1773 and taught theology in the College of Navarre. Having arrived in Boston, 20 August, 1792, he soon healed all the local dissensions and by his zeal, eloquence, piety, and winning courtesy made an immediate success of his pastorship. In 1796 he invited his old friend and associate, the Rev. John Louis de Cheverus, then an exile in England, to Boston to help him, and to his great joy the call was heeded. The Abbé de Cheverus arrived on the third of October of that year. He remained in Boston with Father Matignon until July, 1797, when he went at Bishop Carroll's request to visit the Indian missions in Maine. On his way, he looked after the scattered Catholics between Boston and the Penobscot. According to a report then made to Bishop Carroll of the Easter Communions of 1798 there were 210 Catholics in Boston, 15 in Plymouth ; 21 in Newburyport, and 3 in Salem. Outside Boston the only important Catholic colony was at Damariscotta Lincoln County, Maine, where Roger and Patrick Hanly, two Irishmen, had settled some time before, and their descendants and friends made up the community. The leading merchants and shipbuilders of Newcastle, James Kavanagh (father of Edward Kavanagh, later Governor of Maine, the hero of Longfellow's novel "Kavanagh", and the first Catholic governor of a New England State) and Matthew Cottrill, built a chapel and later, in 1808, a brick structure, St. Patrick's church, for the use of their fellow Catholics. This was the only church in New England outside Boston. Having put these missions in order Father Cheverus returned to Boston and with Father Matignon exhibited heroic courage and charity during the yellow fever epidemic of 1798. By this time the old church in School Street was no longer fit for Divine service and another site on Franklin Street near Devonshire Street, was secured for $2,500. Speaking at the centennial observance (29 September, 1903) of the dedication of this church, Archbishop Williams said: "We bought that land from the Boston Theatre. Remember the site of the old cathedral was in the most beautiful part of the town at the end of Franklin Square and the theatre owned both sides of the lower part of the street. The theatre people agreed to sell us that lot at one-half what they could get for it when we bought it. And remember in that street in those days were some of the principal families of the city. I remember the Bradleys, the Wigglesworths, the Amorys, and others who lived each side of the street, showing what a choice spot it was and one of the select streets of the city." The Spanish consul-general, Don Juan Stoughton, father of the Don Tomas Stoughton, who had so much to do with the building of St. Peter's, the first church in New York, lived opposite the site selected. At a meeting held 31 March, 1799, he and John Magner, Patrick Campbell, Michael Burns, Owen Callahan, John Duggan, and Edmund Connor were named the committee to take charge of the new project. From the congregation they collected $16,000. Members of the leading Protestant families headed by President John Adams added $11,000 to this, and from Catholics in other places and other sources $5 500 more was received. The famous architect Charles Bulfinch, also a Protestant, who designed the capitol at Washington and the State House in Boston, supplied the plans without charge for a brick building 80 feet long and 60 wide of Ionic style, severely simple but impressive. Ground was broken for it on St. Patrick's Day 1800 and it was ready for dedication 29 September, 1803, having cost $20,000. Prominent among this first congregation, besides those already mentioned, were James Kavanagh, John Ward, David Fitzgerald, Stephen Roberts, John Driscoll, William Daly, Daniel English, Thomas Murphy, John Hanly, Abraham Fitton, Mary Lob, and representatives of the Duport, Dusseaucoir, Dumesnil, Lepouse, and Julien families Bishop Carroll went on from Baltimore to perform the ceremony of dedication. This visit of the bishop occasioned the greatest local satisfaction, and the two priests continued their zealous ministrations with such success that in 1805 their flock had increased to about 500. Soon Bishop Carroll saw the necessity of having a bishop in Boston and desired to nominate Father Matignon for the see, but the latter refused to allow his name to be considered. "The good accomplished here", he wrote, "is almost exclusively the work of Mr. Cheverus ; he it is who fills the pulpit who is most frequent in the confessional." Bishop Carroll therefore sent the name of the Rev. John Louis Cheverus to Rome declaring him to be "in the prime of life, with health to undergo any necessary exertion, universally esteemed for his unwearied zeal and his remarkable facility and eloquence in announcing the word of God, virtuous, and with a charm of manner that recalled Catholics to their duties and disarmed Protestants of their prejudices". Bishop Cheverus was appointed 8 April, 1808, but owing to the difficulties of communication the Bull did not reach him for nearly two years afterwards, when he was consecrated the first Bishop of Boston, in Baltimore, 1 November, 1810. He then went back to Boston to continue his simple, modest way of life. His old friend, Father Matignon, enjoyed honor and the esteem of all to the end of his long and useful career which came on the 18th of September, 1818.

BISHOPS

(1) John Louis de Cheverus

His many years of hard work at length began to tell on Bishop Cheverus and his physicians advised a return to his native land to escape repeated attacks of asthma. In 1823 King Louis XVIII of France nominated him to the vacant See of Montauban, and to the regret of all in the United States he embarked for Europe, 1 October 1823. He remained in charge at Montauban until 30 July, 1826, when he was promoted to the Archbishopric of Bordeaux . On 1 February he was created cardinal. He died at Bordeaux, 19 July 1836, in his sixty-ninth year. (See CHEVEROUS, JOHN LOUIS DE.) During the administration of Bishop Cheverus the Ursuline nuns were introduced into the Diocese of Boston through the zeal of the Rev. John Thayer, who, when on a visit to Limerick, Ireland, where he died in 1815, enlisted the sympathy of Mary and Catharine, daughters of James Ryan of that city, in the project of founding a convent in Boston. They emigrated to Boston in 1817 and by direction of the bishop went to the Ursuline Convent at Three Rivers, Canada. They made their profession, 4 October, 1819. They returned to Boston, and a convent was secured for them on Federal Street near the cathedral. Here they remained until 17 July, 1826, when their new convent, Mount Benedict, Charlestown, was opened. This was the institution sacked and burned by an anti-Catholic mob on the 11th of August, 1834. Assisting in the work at the old School Street and Franklin Street Churches at various times were the Rev. James Romagne, a West Indian priest, who also looked after the Indian missions in Maine, the Rev. J.S. Tisseraud, Fathers Matthew O'Brien and F.X. Brosius, an Alsatian, who opened a school near Harvard University and was the only teacher of German then in Boston, also the Revs. Gabriel Richard, John Grassi, S.J., Philip Lariscy, the Augustinian, and Paul McQuade. In twenty years the bishop had no regular assistant. In 1817 he ordained his first ecclesiastical student, Denis Ryan, a native of Kilkenny, Ireland. In 1820 he ordained the second of his pupils Patrick Byrne, also from Kilkenny. In December, 1822, Virgil Barber (see BARBER FAMILY) was raised to the priesthood, and to the school he opened at Claremont. New Hampshire, were sent as further recruits for the work of the diocese James Fitton , William Wiley, who later became successful and long-lived pastors, and William Tyler, first Bishop of Hartford. Churches were built in Salem, South Boston, and other places. A cemetery was purchased near Dorehester Heights, South Boston, and a memorial erected there to Father Matignon. The chapel was dedicated to St. Augustine in compliment to Father Larisey who collected most of the funds for the purchase of the ground. There were a number of converts through the zeal and instruction of Bishop Cheverus, notable among them being Thomas Walley, who had a private chapel at his residence in Brookline; Dr. Henry B.C. Greene, who was elected to the State legislature in 1841 and served for four terms, being the first Catholic office-holder in the State; Stephen Cleveland Blythe, the Rev. Calvin White, William Wiley, afterwards a priest, Mrs. John C. Sefton, Samuel Bishop, Captain Bela Chase, Nicholas Hazelborn, the Barber family, and General Ethan Allen's daughter Frances, who was the first nun from New England.

(2) Benedict Joseph Fenwick

Second bishop, appointed 10 May, 1825. He was born 3 September, 1782, near Leonardstown, Maryland, Cuthbert Fenwick, the founder of the family in America, being one of the original Catholic settlers of Lord Baltimore's colony in Maryland. He was sent with his brother Enoch to Georgetown College in 1793, and in 1805 entered the Sulpician Seminary at Baltimore to study for the priesthood. When the Society of Jesus was restored in the United States in 1806 he and his brother were among the first scholastics received. He was ordained priest 12 March, 1808. In the succeeding years he was pastor in New York, director of its first Catholic Collegiate school, administrator and vicar-general of the diocese, missionary in South Carolina, and twice president of Georgetown College. He was then named Bishop of Boston, was consecrated in Baltimore on 1 November, 1825, and took possession of his see, 3 December. There were then only two priests in the diocese, the Revs. P. Byrne in Boston and D. Ryan at New Castle, Maine ; and besides the cathedral only three churches. The bishop at once started a seminary in his own house and, having prepared Fathers Fitton, Wiley, Smith, Tyler, and Thomas J. O'Flaherty, ordained them. Other students were sent to study at Rome, Paris, Baltimore, and Montreal. The Rev. John Mahony was sent to take charge at Salem ; C. D. Ffrench, a Dominican, to Maine in 1826, and Robert D. Woodley to look after the scattered congregations in Rhode Island and Connecticut. In 1828 Bishop Fenwick enlarged the cathedral and began a school in the basement, which was taught by his theological students, assisted by Patrick Haney, a mulatto from the West Indies. The erection of new churches, the providing of more priests for the increasing number of Catholics, the promotion of Catholic education, and the regulation of the general discipline of the Church took up the remaining years of his life, which ended on the eleventh of August, 1846. In 1844 he was given a coadjutor, the Right Rev. John Bernard Fitzpatrick. Bishop Fenwick began, on 8 September, 1829, for the defense of the Faith, the publication of "The Jesuit, or Catholic Sentinel", one of the first Catholic papers printed in the United States. In 1843 he founded the College of the Holy Cross at Worcester and entrusted it to the Jesuits. In 1829 he attended the First Provincial Council of Baltimore. At his death Boston had about fifty churches with attendant priests, a college, an orphan asylum, and numerous schools, and a portion of its original territory the States of Connecticut and Rhode Island had been erected into the new Diocese of Hartford (28 November, 1843) Three Sisters of Charity from Emmitsburg, Maryland, opened the first orphan asylum in 1831. The first diocesan synod was held n 1842 and was attended by thirty priests. The clergy of this period were all men of broad, solid culture and knowledge. Among others not named above may be mentioned the Rev. Jeremiah O'Callaghan, a native of Cork, Ireland, whose strict views on the doctrine of usury brought him into conflict with the bishop of that place. He later became a tutor in the family of William Cobbett and came to New York in 1830 The mission of Burlington, Vermont, was given to his care, and there in 1834 he published a book under the title "Usury, Funds and Banking". Dr. Thomas J. O'Flaherty, a physician from Kerry, Ireland, was ordained priest in 1829. He edited "The Jesuit" for the bishop and made a translation of Joseph de Maistre's "Spanish Inquisition ". The Rev. C. E. Brasseur de Bourbourg was for a time in the diocese and two years after the bishop's death went to Mexico where he devoted much time to decyphering the native picture writings. In 1845 it was estimated there were 53,000 Catholics in the State, an increase of more than 20,000 in ten years. (See FENWICK BENEDICT, JOSEPH.)

(3) John Bernard Fitzpatrick

Third bishop, was consecrated titular Bishop of Callipolis and coadjutor of Boston, 24 March, 1844. He was born in Boston, 1 November, 1812, his parents having emigrated from Ireland in 1805. His early education was received in the local grammar and Latin schools and in 1829 he went to the Sulpician college at Montreal. After eight years spent there as student and professor he entered the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Paris, to complete his ecclesiastical course and was ordained priest there 13 June, 1840. He then returned to Boston and after a year as assistant at the cathedral was made pastor of the church at East Cambridge. In 1844 he was appointed coadjutor to Bishop Fenwick. He took part in the Sixth Provincial Council of Baltimore in 1846 and attended the subsequent provincial councils and the first plenary council (1853), which further reduced the original limits of his jurisdiction by creating the dioceses of Burlington and Portland. During 1854 he paid his official visit to Rome after having suffered, together with his people the utmost indignities and persecution at the hands of bigots. In July of that year the churches at Dorchester, at Bath, and at Manchester, New Hampshire , were destroyed by mobs. In October, at Ellsworth, Maine, the Rev. John Bapst, S.J., was taken by a band of masked men, stripped, smeared with tar and feathers, and forced out of the place. The legislature of Massachusetts also appointed a special committee to investigate convents, and the members forced their way into several institutions. From the pope Bishop Fitzpatrick received conso- lation and encouragement and the message to his people to "persevere under afflictions". The anti-Catholic sentiment in the community continued. On 14 March, 1859, a Catholic boy named Thomas J. Wall was whipped for refusing to read the Protestant Bible and recite Protestant prayers in one of the Boston public schools. Thereupon so strong a protest was made by the bishop against the injustice done to the Catholics of the community by the system and regulations then in operation that for the first time in the history of the city a priest and several Catholic laymen were named on the school committee. For many years the bishop was an invalid and a great sufferer, but he kept up his activities to the end and before his death on 13 February, 1866, saw the prosperity of the diocese increased nearly threefold. In 1860 Bishop Fitzpatrick, intending to build a new cathedral, sold the old church in Franklin Street For $115,000, the neighborhood having changed into a business centre. Among his prominent converts may be noted Josue Moody, afterwards Bishop of Erie, Fathers George J. Goodwin, H. Tucker, J. Coolidge Shaw, S.J., Edward H. Welch, S.J., Orestes A. Brownson, the philosopher, Buckley Hastings, General Joseph W. Revere (Paul Revere's grandson), and other members of old New England families. Chaplains in the regiments who volunteered in the Civil War were Fathers Thomas Scully, Charles L. Egan, Nicholas O'Brien, and Lawrence S. McMahon (afterwards Bishop of Hartford ). Editors and writers were Fathers Joseph M. Finotti, John P. Roddan, and John Boyce.

(4) John Joseph Williams

Fourth bishop, consecrated 11 March, 1866; created first archbishop 12 February, 1875. He was born in Boston of Irish parents 27 April, 1822, and died in Boston, 30 August, 1907. His boyhood and early manhood were spent under the spiritual direction of Bishop Fenwicl He attended the cathedral school and thence passed to the Sulpician college in Montreal and their seminary at Paris, where he was ordained priest in 1845. He was the special friend of Bishop Fitzpatrick who made him his vicar-general at an early age and rector of St. James's church, where in 1842 he established the first Conferenoe of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul in New England. Two other rectors of this church became bishops : the Rev James A. Healy, appointed Bishop of Portland in 1875, and M. A. Harkins Bishop of Providence in 1887. Shortly before his death Bishop Fitzpatrick sought to have Father Williams made his coadjutor, but he did not live to see him consecrated. Boston was made an archdiocese in 1875,.and Bishop Williams was promoted to be its metropolitan. He received as an auxilliary the Right Rev. John Brady, consecreted Titular Bishop of Alabanda, 5 August 1891, and a coadjutor with the right of succession in the Right Rev. William H. O'Connell of Portland, who was promoted to be Titular Archbishop of Tomi and coadjutor of Boston, 8 February, 1906. Archbishop Williams also saw organized, within the limits of the Diocese of Boston as it was when he was born, the Dioceses of Springfield, 1870; xxyyyk.htm">Providence, 1872; Manchester, 1884; and Fall River, 1905, and among those immediately under his jurisdiction representatives of nearly every country and language of Europe. Prominent among the memorials of his long episcopate and priesthood were the new Cathedral of the Holy Cross, dedicated 8 December, 1875, and St. John's Ecclesiastical Seminary at Brighton, erected in 1884, which is in charge of the Sulpicians. Boston College was opened by the Jesuits in 1863. In the same year the Carney Hospital was established through the generosity of Andrew Carney, who with his family has given it $75,000. The House of the Angel Guardian for boys, founded in 1849 by the Rev. G. F. Haskins, in 1876 was entrusted to the care of the Brothers of Charity from Montreal. St. Mary's Infant Asylum was opened in 1872; the Home for the Aged by the Little Sisters of the Poor, in 1870; the House of the Good Shepherd in 1867, and the Daly Industrial School was made possible by the gift in 1899 of $50,000 from the Rev. Patrick J. Daly. The Home for Destitute children was opened in 1864; the Working Boys Home in 1883, and the Home for Girls in 1884. St. Elizabeth's Hospital dates from 1868, the Free Home for Consumptives from 1891 the Holy Ghost Hospital for Incurables from 1893 The Sisters of St. Joseph made their first foundation in the diocese in 1873; the Franciscan Sisters, in 1884; the Religious of the Sacred Heart, in 1880; and the Carmelites from Baltimore, in 1890. The Redemptorists began a mission in the late sixties, and built their first church in the Roxbury District in 1871. In 1883 the Marist Fathers began their local work, and the Augustinians established themselves in Lawrence in 1861. French immigration from Canada, which had been going on since 1815, began to attract special attention about 1870. In 1868 the first distinctively French parish was organized in Lowell. Italian and Portuguese congregations date from 1872, the former in Boston and the latter in Gloucester. One congregation in Gloucester has a respectable section made up of Gaelic speaking Scotch from Cape Breton and Antigonish. There is one German Congregation in Boston, and one in Lawrence; that in Boston, the church of Holy Trinity , dates from 1836 and has the distinction of starting in 1844 one of the first parish schools in New England. There are also Polish, Lithuanian, and Syrian congregations in Boston. Archbishop Williams was a quiet, conservative prelate, known best as an administrator. He was one of the bishops who attended the Vatican Council and helped largely to establish the American College at Rome.

(5) William Henry O'Connell

Second archbishop, was born 8 December, 1859, at Lowell, Massachusetts, and received his early education in its local schools and at St. Charles's College, Ellicott City, Maryland. He then graduated in 1881 at the Jesuit College in Boston and was sent to the American College, Rome, to make his studies for the priesthood. He was ordained there 8 January 1884, and returned to Boston in 1886. The following years he was stationed as an assistant at Medford, and at Boston until 1895 when he was appointed rector of the American College, Rome. He held this office five years, and was then appointed Bishop of Portland, Maine, being consecrated 19 May, 1901. In the fall of 1905 the pope sent him as a special envoy to Japan in the interests of the Church. He was decorated by the Mikado and on his return to Rome was warmly commended for the success of his efforts by the pope, who on 26 January, 1906, named him titular Archbishop of Tomi, and coadjutor of Boston. On the death of Archbishop Williams, he immediately took possession of the See of Boston.

The Right Rev. John Brady, auxiliary bishop , was born at Crosserlough, County Cavan, Ireland, 11 April, 1842. He made his first studies in the local diocesan schools and then completed his theological course at the Missionary College of All Hallows, where he was ordained priest for the Diocese of Boston, 4 December, 1864. He served as a curate in Boston and at Newburyport until 1868, when he was made pastor at Amesbury. He continued in this charge until he was nominated Titular Bishop of Alabanda and Auxiliary Bishop of Boston for which see he was consecrated 5 August, 1891.

SOCIAL PROGRESS

"The foundation of a Catholic Church in Boston could only be surpassed by devoting a chamber in the Vatican to a Protestant Chapel " said William Tudor, writing in his "Letters on the Eastern States" (Boston, 1819). The records show that the notable constructive Catholic social period of the diocese did not begin until after the Civil War. Though the Catholics formed a quarter of the population of Boston in 1844 and two-fifths in 1853, not a single one of that faith ever held an elective or appointive public office in the city of Boston. There were only three Catholic teachers in the public schools until 1860. The first Catholic Member of the Common Council, John H. Barry, was elected in 1857, the first alderman, Christopher A. Connor, in 1870, and the first Member of Congress, Patrick A. Collins, in 1882. The changed conditions are shown by the fact that for ten of the past twenty-three years Boston has been ruled by Catholic Mayors, and public memorials have been set up amid general approval to the soldier, Colonel Thomas Cass; the poet journalist, John Boyle O'Reilly ; and the statesman, Patrick Andrew Collins. In justice it must be said that much of the progress thus made was owing to Patrick Donahoe, who after the failure of "The Jesuit" continued in "The Pilot" (begun 2 January, 1836) the illustrations of Catholic truth and the defense of Catholic rights. From his publication house issued for more than half a century a steady output of Catholic literature that aided materially the education of his fellow Catholics and won for the Faith a general popular appreciation. Other periodicals and publications in the archdiocese are the weeklies "The Republic" and the "Sacred Heart Review" (Boston), "The Catholic Citizen" (Chelsea); "The Sunday Register" (Lawrence); the monthlies "Donahoe's Magazine" (Boston); "The Index" (Haverhill), the French weeklies "Le Defenseur", "La Justice" (Holyoke); "L'Etoile", daily and weekly (Lowell).

STATISTICS

Records of the Archdiocese of Boston for 1907 give these figures: 1 archbishop, 1 bishop, 598 priests (488 secular and 110 regular), 194 churches with resident priests, 54 missions with churches, 1 theological seminary with 86 students, 3 colleges for boys, 8 academies for girls, 76 parishes with schools and an attendance of 48,192 children; 6 orphan asylums with 650 inmates; 24 charitable institutions ; the total number of children in Catholic institutions 48,740; 1 infant asylum, 538 inmates; industrial and reform schools 4, inmates 915; homes 7, inmates 826; brothers 140; religious women 1567; seminary for diocesan clergy 1, students 86; estimated Catholic population 850,000.

The following religious orders and congregations have foundations in the archdiocese : Communities of Men , Augustinians, 16; Franciscans (O.M.C.), 5; Jesuits, 32; Marists, 15; Oblates, 22; Congregation of St. Charles Borromeo, 4; Redemptorists, 16; Brothers of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, 25; Brothers of the Christian Schools, 11; Little Brothers of Mary, 19, Xaverian Brothers, 58. Communities of Women , Sisters of St. Ann, Sisters of the Assumption, Sisters of Charity (Madison, New Jersey ), Sisters of Charity (Grey Nuns, Montreal ), Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Sisters of Charity (Emmitsburg), Sisters of Charity (Halifax, N. S.), Sisters of the Holy Union of the Sacred Hearts, Sisters of St. Dominic (Jersey City, N. J.), Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis, Sisters of St. Dominic (Springfield, Kentucky ), Sisters of St. Francis (Allegany, N. Y.), Sisters of St. Francis (Rome), Sisters of the Good Shepherd, Sisters Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary , Grey Nuns of the Cross (Ottawa Ontario ), Religious of the Sacred Heart, Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart (Rome), Sisters of St. Joseph , Sisters of Mary, Sisters of Mercy (Manchester, New Hampshire ), Sisters of Notre Dame, of Namur, since 1849, School Sisters of Notre Dame (Baltimore, Maryland ), Little Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, Sisters of the Holy Union of the Sacred Hearts, Filles de Jesus, Franciscan Poor Clarenuns, Sisters of the Holy Childhood.

More Volume: B 968

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Bæticus, Gregory

Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...

Bæumer, Suitbert

Historian of the Breviary and one of the most scholarly patrologists of the nineteenth ...

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Bébian, Roch-Amboise-Auguste

Born 4 August, 1789 at Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe ; died there 24 February, 1839. His ...

Bédard, Pierre

French-Canadian lawyer and member of the Assembly of Lower Canada, b. at Charlesbourg near ...

Bénard, Laurent

Chief founder of the Maurist Congregation of the Benedictine Order , b. at Nevers, 1573; d. ...

Bérault-Bercastel, Antoine Henri de

A writer of church history, b. 22 November, 1720, at Briey, Lorraine ; d. about 1794 at Noyon, ...

Bérenger, Pierre

(Peter of Poitiers, Petrus Scholasticus). A French writer who flourished about the middle of the ...

Bérulle, Pierre de

Cardinal, and founder of the French congregation of the Oratory, born in the province of ...

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Böcken, Placidus

(B ÖCKHN ). A German Benedictine, canonist, and Vice-Chancellor of the University of ...

Börglum, Ancient See of

(BURGLANUM, BURGLANENSIS.) The ancient See of Börglum, in Denmark, embraced the ancient ...

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Ba 253

Bañez, Domingo

(Originally and more properly VAÑEZ and sometimes, but erroneously, IBAÑEZ). A ...

Baader, Franz Xaver von

German philosopher, born at Munich, 1765; died at the same place, 23 May, 1841. I. The ...

Baal, Baalim

( Hebrew Bá'ál; plural, Be`alîm.) A word which belongs to the oldest ...

Baalbek

The Heliopolis of the Greek and Latin writers, a Syrian town located now in present-day Lebanon ...

Babel

Babel occurs in the Vulgate only in Genesis 11:9 ; the form Babylonia is found in Baruch ...

Babel, Tower of

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

Babenstuber, Ludwig

A German philosopher and theologian ; vice-chancellor of the University of Salzburg ; born ...

Babinet, Jacques

French physicist, born at Lusignan, Vienne, 5 March, 1794; died at Paris, 21 October, 1872. He ...

Babylas, Saint

Bishop and Martyr. He was the successor of Zebinus as Bishop of Antioch in the reign of the ...

Babylon (Title)

The curial title of a Latin archbishopric, also of a Chaldean patriarchate and of a Syrian ...

Babylonia

In treating of the history, character, and influence of this ancient empire, it is difficult not ...

Baccanceld

(BAPCHILD, near Sittingbourne, Kent), Synod Of (694). This meeting was rather a witenagemot , ...

Bacchus and Sergius

Martyrs, d. in the Diocletian persecution in Coele-Syria about 303. Their martyrdom is well ...

Bacchylus

Bishop of Corinth, whom Eusebius mentions among the prominent second-century churchmen (H. ...

Bachelor of Arts

A degree marking the completion of the traditional curriculum of the college. In the medieval ...

Bachelot, Alexis John Augustine

Prefect Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands, b. at Grand Beauchet, commune of St. Cyr (Orne), ...

Bachiarius

An early fifth-century writer, known only through two treatises which warrant the conjecture that ...

Bachmann, Paul

(Amincola). Catholic theological controversialist, born at Chemnitz, Saxony, about 1466. His ...

Backer, Augustin de

Bibliographer, born at Antwerp, Belgium , 18 July, 1809; died at Liège, 1 December, 1873. ...

Backx, Peter Hubert Evermode

Born 10 December, 1805, at Tilburg, Holland ; died 28 October, 1868. Ordained priest 17 March, ...

Bacon, David William

First bishop of Portland, Maine, U.S.A. born in New York, 5 November, 1813. He made his ...

Bacon, John

(Johannes Anglicus, Johannes De Baconthorpe). An English Carmelite and theologian, born ...

Bacon, Nathaniel

Better know under the assumed name of Southwell, a Jesuit priest and bibliographer, b. in the ...

Bacon, Roger

Philosopher, surnamed D OCTOR M IRABILIS , b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at ...

Baconian System of Philosophy, The

This system takes its name from its founder, Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Albans, ...

Badajoz

(Pacensis.) The Latin name Pax , or Civitas Pacensis , was given to this district ...

Baden

The Grand Duchy of Baden is situated in the southwestern part of the German Empire, bounded by ...

Badia, Tommaso

Cardinal, author, papal legate, born at Modena, 1483; died at Rome, 6 September, 1547. He ...

Badin, Stephen Theodore

The first Catholic priest ordained within the limits of the original thirteen States of the ...

Badius, Raphael

A Florentine Dominican of the seventeenth century. He was deeply versed in Tuscan and ...

Baegert, John Jacob

Missionary and ethnographer, born at Schlettstadt in Alsace, 23 December, 1717; died at ...

Baert, François

Bollandist, born at Ypres, 25 August, 1651; died at Antwerp, 27 October, 1719. He entered the ...

Bagamoyo

Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated by a pontifical Decree of 11 May, 1906, ...

Bagdad

This city was founded on the Tigris by the second Abbaside Caliph Abou Giafar al Mansur (762 or ...

Bageis

A titular see of Lydia in Asia Minor. This name is found on coins, but becomes Bagis in the ...

Baglioni, Giovanni, Cavaliere

Known as the "Deaf Man of the Barozzo", a painter of distinction, b. in Rome, 1571; d. there ...

Bagnorea

(Anciently NOVEMPAGI, BALNEUM REGIUM). A diocese situated in the district of Viterbo, ...

Bagot, Jean

Theologian, born at Rennes, in France, 9 July, 1591, died at Paris, 23 August, 1664. He entered ...

Bagshaw, Christopher

Convert, priest, prisoner for the Faith, and a prominent figure in the controversies between ...

Bahama Islands, The

(Or L UCAYOS ) The most northerly group of the West Indies, are a chain of coral islands ...

Bailey, Thomas

Controversialist, died c. 1657. He was son of Bishop Bailey of Bangor and was educated as an ...

Baillargeon, Charles François

A French-Canadian bishop, b. 26 April, 1798, at Ile-aux-Grues, P. Q.; d. 13 October, 1870. He ...

Baillet, Adrien

French author, b. 1649 at Neuville en Hez, near Beauvais, France ; d. at Paris, 1706. His ...

Bailloquet, Pierre

Missionary among the Indians of Canada, b. 1612, at Saintes, France ; d. in the Ottawa missions, ...

Baily, Thomas

A Catholic clergyman, b. in Yorkshire, England ; d. at Douai, France, 7 October, 1591. He was a ...

Bainbridge, Christopher

Archbishop of York, and Cardinal, b. at Hilton, near Appleby, in Westmoreland, probably 1464; ...

Baines, Peter Augustine

Titular Bishop of Siga, one of the most striking figures among English Catholics at the period ...

Baines, Ralph

Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, England, b. at Knowsthorp, Yorks, date of birth uncertain; ...

Baini, Abbate Giuseppe

Born in Rome, 21 October, 1775; died there 21 May, 1844. Baini made his first musical studies ...

Baithen of Iona, Saint

An Irish monk, specially selected by St. Columba as one of the band of missionaries who set sail ...

Baius, Michel

(Or M ICHEL DE B AY ) Theologian and author of a system known as Baianism, was b. at ...

Bakócz, Thomas

Cardinal and statesman, b. about 1442, in the village of Erdoed, county Szatmár, ...

Baker, David Augustine

A well-known Benedictine mystic and an ascetic writer, born at Abergavenny, England, 9 ...

Baker, Diocese of

Comprises Wasco, Klamath, Lake, Sherman, Gilliam, Wheeler, Morrow, Grant, Union, Crook, Umatilla, ...

Baker, Francis Asbury

Priest of the Congregation of St. Paul the Apostle, born Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 30 March, ...

Baker, Venerable Charles

( Recté , according to his own entry in the English College David Henry Lewis). An ...

Balaam

The derivation of the name is uncertain. Dr. Neubauer would connect it with the god Ammo or Ammi, ...

Balanaea

A titular see of Syria. The city of this name, a colony of Aradus (Strabo, XVI, 753), is placed ...

Balbina, Saint

Memorials of a St. Balbina are to be found at Rome in three different spots which are connected ...

Balbinus, Boleslaus

A Jesuit historian of Bohemia, born 4 December 1621, at Königgrätz, of an ancient ...

Balboa, Vasco Nuñez de

Discoverer of the Pacific Ocean from the west coast of Central America, born in Spain, 1475, ...

Balbuena, Bernardo de

A Spanish poet, born in Val de Peñas, 1568; died in Porto Rico , 1627. At an early age ...

Balbus, Hieronymus

(Accellini). Humanist, poet, diplomatist, and Bishop of Gurk in Carinthia, b. about 1450 at ...

Baldachium of the Altar

A dome-like canopy in wood, stone, or metal, erected over the high altar of larger churches, ...

Balde, Jacob

A German poet, b. 4 January, 1604, in the Imperial free town of Ensisheim in Upper Alsace; d. at ...

Balderic

(Or Baudry). Bishop of Dol, in France, chronicler, b. about 1050; d. 7 January, 1130. After a ...

Balderic (Baudry)

A monk of Liège, a writer and teacher of the twelfth century, b. date unknown, at ...

Baldi, Bernardino

An Italian poet and savant, b. at Urbino, 5 June, 1553; d. at the same place, 10 October, ...

Baldinucci, Blessed Anthony

Born 19 June, 1665, at Florence, died 6 November, 1717. He entered the Society of Jesus 21 ...

Baldovinetti, Alesso

A notable Florentine painter, b. in Florence, 14 October, 1427; d. there, 29 August, 1499. His ...

Baldred, Saint

(1) a Celtic Bishop of Strathclyde, b. about 643; d. at Aldhame, Haddingtonshire, about 607. He ...

Baldung, Hans

Known as Grien or Grun, from his fondness for brilliant green, both in his own costume and in his ...

Baldwin

Archbishop of Trier and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, born 1285; died 1354; he belonged to ...

Baldwin of Canterbury

Thirty-ninth Archbishop, a native of Exeter, date of birth unknown; d. 19 Nov., 1190. He was ...

Baldwin, Francis

(Also Baudoin). A celebrated jurist, b. 1 January, 1520 at Arras, then part of the German ...

Balearic Isles

A group in the western part of the Mediterranean belonging to Spain and consisting of four larger ...

Bales, Christopher, Venerable

(Or Bayles, alias Evers) Priest and martyr, b. at Coniscliffe near Darlington, County ...

Ball, Mother Frances Mary Teresa

Born in Dublin 9 January, 1794; died 19 May, 1861; foundress of the Irish Branch of the ...

Ballarat

One of the three suffragan dioceses of the ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, Australia. It ...

Ballerini, Antonio

Born at Medicina, near Bologna, 10 October, 1805; died in Rome, 27 November, 1881. He entered the ...

Ballerini, Girolamo and Pietro

Celebrated theologians and canonists, the sons of a distinguished surgeon of Verona. A rare ...

Balme, Henry

(Or Balma; also called Hugh) A Franciscan theologian, born at Genera, date uncertain; d. 23 ...

Balmes, Jaime Luciano

Philosopher and publicist, b. at Vich, Spain, 28 August, 1810; d. there, 9 July, 1848. His ...

Balsam

Balsam is an oily, resinous, and odorous substance, which flows spontaneously or by incision from ...

Balsamon, Theodore

A canonist of the Greek Church, born in the second half of the twelfth century at Constantinople; ...

Baltasar

(Or, as found in the Septuagint Baltasár .) Baltasar is the Greek and Latin name for ...

Baltimore, Archdiocese of

The senior see of the United States of America , established as a diocese 6 April, 1789; as an ...

Baltimore, Plenary Councils of

While the ecclesiastical province of Baltimore comprised the whole territory of the American ...

Baltimore, Provincial Councils of

These councils have a unique importance for the Church in the United States inasmuch as the ...

Baltus, Jean François

Theologian, born at Metz, 8 June, 1667; died at Reims, 9 March, 1743. He entered the Society of ...

Balue, Jean

A French cardinal, b. probably c. 1421, in Poitou; d. 5 October, 1491, at Ripatransone (March ...

Baluze, Etienne

French scholar and historian, b. at Tulle, 24 December, 1630; d. in Paris, 28 July, 1718. His ...

Bamber, Ven. Edward

( Alias Reading). Priest and martyr, b. at the Moor, Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire; executed ...

Bamberg

The Archdiocese of Bamberg, in the kingdom of Bavaria, embraces almost the whole of the ...

Banaias

(Authorized Version Benaiah; Kenrick, Banaiah; Hebrew bnyhw, also bnyh, "Jehovah hath built ...

Bancel, Louis

Born at Valence, 1628; died at Avignon, 1685. When very young he entered the Dominican Order at ...

Bandello, Matteo

Born at Castelnuovo di Scrivia in Piedmont, Italy, in 1480; died Bishop of Agen, France, in ...

Banduri, Anselmo

Archaeologist and numismatologist, b. 1671 at Ragusa, off the coast of Dalmatia ; d. at Paris, ...

Bangor

(Bangorium, Bangoriensis) Diocese ; anciently known as Bangor Vawr, situated in Carnarvonshire ...

Bangor Abbey

The name of two famous monastic establishments in Ireland and England. (1) The Irish Abbey ...

Bangor, Antiphonary of

An ancient Latin manuscript, supposed to have been originally written at Bangor ( Ireland ). ...

Banim, John & Michael

John Banim Poet, dramatist, novelist, b. 3 April, 1798, at Kilkenny, Ireland ; d. 31 August, ...

Banjaluka

The Diocese of Banjaluka in Western Bosnia includes some of the most beautiful portions of the ...

Bankruptcy, Civil Aspect of

( See also MORAL ASPECT OF BANKRUPTCY .) Bankruptcy ( La banqueroute; earlier English ...

Bankruptcy, Moral Aspect of

( See also CIVIL ASPECT OF BANKRUPTCY .) Bankruptcy must be considered not only from the ...

Banns of Marriage

(Latin bannum , pl. bann-a,-i from an Old English verb, bannan , to summon). In ...

Bapst, John

Jesuit missionary and educator, b. at La Roche, Fribourg, Switzerland, 17 December, 1815; d. at ...

Baptism

One of the Seven Sacraments of the Christian Church ; frequently called the "first sacrament ...

Baptismal Font

A basin or vase, serving as a receptacle for baptismal water in which the candidate for baptism ...

Baptismal Vows

The name popularly given to the renunciations required of an adult candidate for baptism just ...

Baptista Mantuanus, Blessed

(Or SPAGNOLI). Carmelite and Renaissance poet, born at Mantua, 17 April, 1447, where he also ...

Baptista Varani, Blessed

(Varano). An ascetical writer, b. at Camerino, in the Camerino, belonged to an illustrious ...

Baptistery

The separate building in which the Sacrament of Baptism was once solemnly administered, or that ...

Baptistines

I. Hermits of St. John the Baptist. II. Missionaries of St. John the Baptist. III. Sisterhood of ...

Baptists

(Greek, baptizein , to baptize ). A Protestant denomination which exists chiefly in ...

Bar Hebræus

( Abu'l Faraj ). A Jacobite Syrian bishop, philosopher, poet, grammarian, physician, ...

Bar-Kepha, Moses

One of the most celebrated Jacobite bishops and writers of the ninth century, born at Balad, ...

Barac

( Hebrew Baraq , lightning) The deliverer of the Israelites from the power of the ...

Baradæus, Jacob

A Syrian Monophysite bishop, born in Tella, towards the end of the fifth or the beginning of the ...

Baraga, Frederic

First Bishop of Marquette, Michigan, U.S.A., b. 29 June, 1797, at Malavas, in the parish of ...

Barat, Madeleine-Sophie

Foundress of the Society of the Sacred Heart , born at Joigny, Burgundy, 12 December, 1779; died ...

Barat, Nicolas

A French Orientalist, born at Bourges during the first quarter of the seventeenth century; died ...

Barba, Alvaro Alonzo

A secular priest of whom Nicolas Antonio (Bibliotheca hispana nova, 1786) says "Baeticus ex ...

Barbalissos

A titular see of Mesopotamia. It was a city in Provincia Augusta Euphratensis , where the ...

Barbara, Saint

Virgin and Martyr. There is no reference to St. Barbara contained in the authentic early ...

Barbarigo, Giovanni Francesco

Italian Cardinal, nephew of Blessed Gregorio Barbarigo (1625-97), born in 1658 at Venice ; died ...

Barbastro

(Barbastrum and Civitas Barbastrensis) Suffragan diocese of the Spanish province of Huesca. ...

Barbelin, Felix-Joseph

Styled the "apostle of Philadelphia", b. at Luneville, Province of Alsace, France, 30 May, ...

Barber Family, The

Daniel Barber Daniel Barber, soldier of the Revolution, Episcopalian minister and convert, b. ...

Barbieri, Giovanni

Giovanni Barbieri, called from his squinting, "Il Guercino"; a famous painter of religious ...

Barbosa, Agostino

A noted canonist, b. at Guimaraens, Portugal, in 1589; consecrated in Rome, 22 March, 1649, ...

Barbosa-Machado, Ignacio

A Portuguese historian, born at Lisbon in 1686; died in 1734. He pursued his studies at the ...

Barbour, John

Scottish ecclesiastic and author of "The Bruce", a historical poem in the early Scottish or ...

Barbus, Paulus

Italian philosopher and theologian, b. at Soncino, Lombardy, and hence known also by the name ...

Barca

A titular see of Cyrenaica in Northern Africa. According to most archaeologists it was ...

Barcelona

(Barcino). See also UNIVERSITY OF BARCELONA. One of the suffragan dioceses of the ...

Barcelona, University of

See also BARCELONA. This was an outgrowth of the ecclesiastical schools founded in the ...

Barcena, Alonzo de

(Also Barzana). A native of Bacza in Andalusia, Spain, b. 1528; d. at Cuzco, Peru, 15 ...

Barclay, John

Author of the political novel "Argenis" and other Latin works in prose and verse, was b. 28 ...

Barclay, William

Scottish Jurist, b. 1546; d. at Angers, France, 3 July, 1608. He was of a good Aberdeenshire ...

Barco Centenera, Martin del

Born 1535, at Logroño, in the Diocese of Plasencia of Estremadura (Spain); died c. 1602. ...

Barcos, Martin de

French theologian of the Jansenist School, b. at Bayonne, 1600; d. at St. Cyran, 1678. He was a ...

Bard, Henry

(Baron Bromley and Viscount Bellamont) An English soldier and diplomat, b. 1604; d. 1660. He ...

Bardesanes and Bardesanites

( Bar-Daisan ) Syrian Gnostic or, more correctly, a Syrian poet, astrologist, and ...

Bari

An archdiocese situated in the province of the same name, in Apulia, Southern Italy. The city of ...

Barjesus

(Gr. Bariesous ). A false prophet found in the company of the Proconsul Sergius Paulus by ...

Barkworth, Ven. Mark

( Alias LAMBERT.) Priest and martyr, born about 1572 in Lincolnshire; executed at Tyburn 27 ...

Barlaam and Josaphat

The principal characters of a legend of Christian antiquity, which was a favourite subject of ...

Barletta, Gabriel

(Sometimes called Barlete, De Barolo, Barolus) Preacher, b., according to some, in the ...

Barlings, Abbey of

Located about six miles E.N.E. of Lincoln, England, founded in 1154 in honour of Our Lady by ...

Barlow, Ven. Edward Ambrose

( Alias R ADCLIFFE and B RERETON .) Priest and martyr, b. at Barlow Hall, 1585; d. 10 ...

Barlow, William Rudesind

Third son of Sir Alexander Barlow of Barlow Hall, near Manchester, England, and Mary Brereton ...

Barnabas of Terni

( Interamna ) Friar Minor and missionary, d. 1474 (or 1477). He belonged to the noble family ...

Barnabas, Saint

Barnabas (originally Joseph), styled an Apostle in Holy Scripture , and, like St. Paul, ranked ...

Barnabas, The Epistle of

Authorities for the Text and Editions There is a triple tradition of the Greek text of this ...

Barnabites

The popular name of a religious order which is canonically known by the title, given to it by ...

Baroccio, Federigo

Called Fiore d'Urbino, a distinguished painter and engraver, born at Urbino, 1528; died at the ...

Barocco Style

( French baroque ). A debased application to architecture of Renaissance features. The term ...

Baron, Bonaventura

A distinguished Irish Franciscan theologian, philosopher, and writer of Latin prose and verse, ...

Baron, Vincent

A Dominican theologian and preacher, b. at Martres, in the department of the Haute-Garonne, ...

Baronius, Venerable Cesare

Cardinal and ecclesiastical historian, born at Sora in the Kingdom of Naples, 30 August, 1538; ...

Barquisimeto

(De Barquisimeto) Diocese in Venezuela, South America. The city is the capital of the State ...

Barradas, Sebastião

A Portuguese exegete and preacher, born at Lisbon in 1543; died at Coimbra in 1615. In 1558 he ...

Barral, Louis-Mathias, Count de

Archbishop of Tours, France, born 26 April, 1746, at Grenoble ; died 7 June, 1816, at Paris. ...

Barrande, Joachim

French palæ ontologist, b. at Sangues (Haute-Loire), 11 August, 1799; d. at Frohsdorff, ...

Barrasa, Jacinto

( Or Barraza). Born at Lima, Peru, early in the seventeenth century; died there, 22 Nov., ...

Barre, Antoine-Lefebvre, Sieur de la

Tenth French Governor-General of Canada, b. at Paris in 1622; d. in 1690. De la Barre was made ...

Barreira, Balthasar

A Portuguese Jesuit missionary, born at Lisbon, 1531; died 1612, on the mission of Angola, ...

Barrientos, Lopez de

A Spanish Dominican bishop, patriot, and diplomat, b. at Medina del Campo, Kingdom of Leon ...

Barron, Edward

A missionary, born at Waterford, Ireland, 1801; died at Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. 12 Sept., ...

Barros, João de

Historian, b. in Portugal, 1496; d. 20 October, 1570. Of his early youth little is known. In ...

Barrow, John

Priest, descended from a family of stanch Catholic yeomen, b. 13 May, 1735, at ...

Barrow, William, Venerable

( Alias Waring, alias Harcourt). An English Jesuit martyr, born in Lancashire, in 1609, ...

Barruel, Augustin

Controversialist and publicist, born at Villeneuve de Berg (Ardeche); 2 October, 1741; died at ...

Barry, John

Captain in the United States navy, b. at Tacumshane, County Wexford, Ireland, in 1745; d. at ...

Barry, John

Second Bishop of Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A.; b. 1799 in the parish of Oylegate, Co. Wexford, ...

Barry, Patrick

Horticulturist, b. near Belfast, Ireland, May, 1816; d. at Rochester, New York, U.S.A., 23 June, ...

Barry, Paul de

Born at Leucate in 1587; died at Avignon, 28 July, 1661. He was a member of the Society of ...

Barthélemy, Jean-Jacques

A celebrated French numismatologist and writer, b. at Cassis (Provence), 1716; d. in Paris, ...

Barthel, Johann Caspar

A German canonist, b. 10 June, 1697, at Kitzingen, Bavaria ; d. 8 April, 1771. He was the son of ...

Bartholi, Francesco della Rossa

Friar Minor and chronicler, died c. 1372. Little is known of his life save what may be gathered ...

Bartholomaeus Anglicus

Franciscan encyclopedist of the thirteenth century. An Englishman by birth he had been professor ...

Bartholomew

"APOSTLE OF ARMENIA." Also called Bartholomaeus Parvus (the Little), born at Bologna, year not ...

Bartholomew of Braga, Venerable

Born at Verdela, near Lisbon, May, 1514; died at Viana, 16 July, 1590. Bartholomew Fernandez, ...

Bartholomew of Braganca

Born about 1200; died 1 July, 1271. He made his studies at Padua, receiving there the habit of the ...

Bartholomew of Brescia

An Italian canonist, b. probably in the second half of the twelfth century at Brescia ; d. ...

Bartholomew of Edessa

Syrian apologist and polemical writers. The place of his birth is not known, it was probably ...

Bartholomew of Lucca

(Or de Fiadonibus, sometimes abbreviated Ptolomeo or Tolomeo) Historian, b. about 1227 at Lucca ...

Bartholomew of Pisa

Friar Minor and chronicler. The fact that there were two Friars Minor named Bartholomew living ...

Bartholomew of San Concordio

(Also of Pisa ) Canonist, and man of letters, b. at San Concordia, near Pisa about ...

Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Saint

This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the ...

Bartholomew, Saint

One of the Twelve Apostles, mentioned sixth in the three Gospel lists ( Matthew 10:3 ; Mark ...

Bartholomites

The name given to Armenian monks who sought refuge in Italy after the invasion of their country ...

Bartoli, Daniello

An historian and littérateur , born at Ferrara, 12 February, 1608; died in Rome, 12 ...

Bartolocci, Giulio

A Cistercian monk and learned Hebrew scholar, b. at Celleno in the old kingdom of Naples, 1 ...

Bartolommeo, Fra

An Italian painter and a member of the Dominican Order, b. in 1475 in the territory belonging ...

Bartolozzi, Francesco

An engraver, etcher, and painter, b. at Florence, 1727; d. at Lisbon, 1815. His father was a ...

Barton, Elizabeth

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...

Baruch

( Hebrew Barûkh , blessed, Benedict; Septuagint Barouch ). The disciple of ...

Barzynski, Vincent

Born at Sulislawice, Sandomir, Russian Poland, 1838; d. at Chicago, 2 May, 1899. The son of ...

Bas-relief

A sculpture executed upon and attached to a flat surface. The usual impression produced by an ...

Basil of Amasea

(Basileus or Basilius) Bishop and Martyr. In St. Jerome's Latin version of the Chronicle of ...

Basil of Seleucia

Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, date of birth uncertain; d., probably, between 458 and 460; ...

Basil the Great, Saint

Bishop of Caesarea, and one of the most distinguished Doctors of the Church. Born probably 329; ...

Basil, Liturgy of Saint

Several Oriental liturgies, or at least several anaphoras, have been attributed to the great ...

Basil, Rule of Saint

I. Under the name of Basilians are included all the religious who follow the Rule of St. Basil. ...

Basilians

(Priests of the Community of St. Basil) During the French Revolution, Mgr. D'Aviau, the last ...

Basilica

( Stoa basilike , or basileios ). The term basilica can indicate either the ...

Basilides

The earliest of the Alexandrian Gnostics ; he was a native of Alexandria and flourished under ...

Basilides

Martyrs bearing the name of Basilides are mentioned in the old martyrologies on three different ...

Basilinopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor. Originally a small village in Bithynia Prima, it obtained the rank ...

Basilissa

Various female martyrs, attributed to different localities yet bearing the common name of ...

Basins, Ecclesiastical Use of

Basins were extensively used in the Jewish Ritual and were in early use in Christian churches ...

Basle, Council of

Convoked by Pope Martin V in 1431, closed at Lausanne in 1449. The position of the pope as the ...

Basle-Lugano

Basle-Lugano is the largest Catholic diocese of Switzerland. It is composed of the two Dioceses ...

Bassein

A town situated twenty-nine miles north of Bombay in British India, and now of much historic ...

Bassett, Joshua

Convert and controversialist, Master of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, England, under James II, ...

Bassi, Matthew of

Founder and first Superior-General of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, the principal branch ...

Bassianus

Bishop of Ephesus (444-448). As a priest of Ephesus the charities of Bassianus so won the ...

Bastiat, Claude-Frédéric

A French economist, b. at Mugron, a small city in the Department of Landes, 29 June, 1801; d. at ...

Baston, Guillaume-André-Réné

A French theologian, b. at Rouen, 29 November, 1741; d. at Saint-Laurent, 26 September, 1825. He ...

Basutoland

(Prefecture Apostolic of Basutoland) Basutoland, a mountainous district of South Africa, is ...

Batavia

(Vicariate Apostolic of Batavia) When the Portuguese took possession of the island of Java, of ...

Bath Abbey

The first religious house in Bath was a monastery of nuns founded by King Osric, A.D. 676. This ...

Bath and Wells

B ADONIENSIS ET W ELLENSIS (Bath, Aquae Solis, Bathonia, Bathensis, Bathoniensis ; Wells, ...

Bathe, William

Writer on music and education, b. at Dublin, Ireland, 2 April, 1564; d. at Madrid, 17 June, ...

Bathilde, Saint

(Or BATILDE). Wife of Clovis II, King of France, time and place of birth unknown; d. ...

Bathurst

Diocese situated in New South Wales, Australia, in the ecclesiastical Province of Sydney, ...

Battaglini, Marco

A historian of the councils, b. at Rimini, Italy, 25 March, 1645; d. at Cesena, 19 September, ...

Batteux, Charles

Abbé and writer on philosophy and æsthetics, b. near Vouziers, France, 6 May, ...

Battista, Giovanni Giuda Giona

(His original name was Jehuda Jona Ben-Isaac). Born of Jewish parents at Safed in Galilee, ...

Battle Abbey

Founded by William the Conqueror on the site of the Battle of Senlae or Hastings (1066), nearly ...

Bauberger, Wilhelm

German physician, novelist, and poet, b. at Thannhausen in Swabian Bavaria, 3 March, 1809; d. at ...

Baudeau, Nicolas

Regular Canon and economist, b. at Amboise, France, 25 April, 1730; d. in 1792. He became a ...

Baudouin, Michel

Italian missionary, born in Quebec, Canada, 8 March, 1692, entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Baumgartner, Alexander

Poet and writer on the history of literature, b. at St. Gall, Switzerland, 27 June, 1841; d. at ...

Baumgartner, Gallus Jacob

A Swiss statesman, b. 18 October, 1797, at Altstätten, Switzerland ; d. 12 July, 1869, at ...

Baunard, Louis

Educator, b. at Bellgarde (Loiret), France, in 1828. He was one of the clergy of ...

Bauny, Etienne

Theologian, b. in 1564 at Mouzon, Ardennes, France ; d. 3 December, 1649, at Saint Pol de ...

Bausset, Louis-François de

A French cardinal, writers, and statesman, b. in 1748 at Pondichery, where his father held an ...

Bautain, Louis-Eugène-Marie

Philosopher and theologian, b. at Paris, 17 February, 1796; d. there, 15 October, 1867. After a ...

Bautista, Fray Juan

Born at Mexico, 1555; date of death unknown, but probably between 1606 and 1615. He joined the ...

Bavaria, The Kingdom of

I. POLITICAL CONSTITUTION, AREA, POPULATION The present Kingdom of Bavaria -- named after the ...

Bawden, William

(Or Baldwin). An English Jesuit, born at Cornwall, 1563; died at St.-Omer, 28 September, ...

Bayer, Adèle

( née Parmentier) Eldest daughter of Andrew Parmentier, b. in Belgium, 4 July, 1814, ...

Bayeu y Subias, Francisco

Born at Saragossa, 9 March, 1734; died Madrid, 4 August, 1795, a distinguished religious and ...

Bayeux

DIOCESE OF BAYEUX (B AJOCÆ ). Coextensive with the Department of Calvados; suffragan to ...

Bayley, James Roosevelt

First Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A.; eighth Archbishop of Baltimore, Maryland ; b. ...

Baylon, Saint Pascal

Born at Torre-Hermosa, in the Kingdom of Aragon, 24 May, 1540, on the Feast of Pentecost, called ...

Bayma, Joseph

Jesuit mathematician and scientist, b. in Piedmont, Italy, 9 November, 1816; d. at Santa Clara, ...

Bayonne

(Lapurdum) The Diocese of Bayonne comprises the Department of Basses-Pyrenees. Reorganized in ...

Baysio, Guido de

(Baisio) An Italian canonist, b. about the middle of the thirteenth century of a noble ...

Bazin, John Stephen

Third Bishop of Vincennes (now the Diocese of Indianapolis ), b. at Duerne, near Lyons, ...

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Be 246

Beads, Use of, at Prayers

Beads variously strung together, according to the kind, order, and number of prayers in certain ...

Beards

Among the Jews, as among most Oriental peoples, the beard was especially cherished as a symbol of ...

Beardsley, Aubrey

English artist, born at Brighton, 1872; died at Mentone, France, 16 March, 1898. It has been ...

Beatific Vision

The immediate knowledge of God which the angelic spirits and the souls of the just enjoy in ...

Beatification and Canonization

HISTORY According to some writers the origin of beatification and canonization in the Catholic ...

Beatitudes, Mount of

This name is given to the place where Our Saviour delivered the "Sermon on the Mount", beginning ...

Beatitudes, The Eight

The solemn blessings ( beatitudines, benedictiones ) which mark the opening of the Sermon on ...

Beaton, David

(Or Bethune) Cardinal, Archbishop of St. Andrews, b. 1494; d. 29 May, 1546. He was of an ...

Beaton, James

(Or Bethune) A Scottish Archbishop ; b. c. 1473; d. at St. Andrews, 1539, was the sixth and ...

Beaton, James

(Or Bethune) Archbishop of Glasgow, b. 1517; d. 24 April, 1603; the son of James Beaton of ...

Beatrix

(Or B EATRICE ). The name Beatrix has been borne by a certain number of holy persons, but no ...

Beaufort, Lady Margaret

Countess of Richmond and Derby, b. 1443; d. 1509, daughter and heiress of John Beaufort, first ...

Beaulieu Abbey

( Abbatia quae vocitatur Bellus Locus ) Beaulieu Abbey was a Cistercian house in ...

Beaune, Renaud de

A French Bishop, b. in 1527, at Tours ; d. 1606 in Paris. Before entering the ecclesiastical ...

Beauregard, Jean-Nicolas

Celebrated French pulpit orator, born at Metz in Lorraine, 4 December, 1733; died at the ...

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant

Soldier, b. near New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. 28 May, 1818; d. there 20 February, 1893. He ...

Beauvais

(Bellovacum) A suffragan diocese of the archiepiscopal See of Reims. The Dioceses of ...

Beauvais, Gilles-François-de

Jesuit writer and preacher, born at Mans, France, 7 July, 1693; died probably at Paris about ...

Beauvais, Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Marie de

A French bishop, b. at Cherbourg, 17 October, 1731; d. at Paris, 4 April, 1790. The sermons he ...

Bec, Abbey of

The Benedictine Abbey of Bec, or Le Bec, in Normandy, was founded in the earlier part of the ...

Becan, Martin

(Verbreck, van der Breck). Controversialist, born at Hilvarenbeck, Brabant, Holland, 6 ...

Beccaria, Giovanni Battista

A physicist, born at Mondovì, 3 October, 1716; died at Turin, 27 May, 1781. At the age ...

Beccus, John

Patriarch of Constantinople in the second half of the thirteenth century, one of the few Greek ...

Beche, Blessed John

( Alias THOMAS MARSHALL). English Benedictine abbot and martyr ; date of birth unknown; ...

Beckedorff, George Philipp Ludolf von

Born at Hanover, 14 April, 1778; died at Grünhof, 27 February, 1858. He first studied ...

Becker, Thomas Andrew

Sixth Bishop of Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. b. at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 20 December, 1832; ...

Becket, Saint Thomas

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

Beckx, Pierre-Jean

Twenty-second General of the Society of Jesus , born at Sichem, Belgium, 8 February, 1795; died ...

Becquerel, Antoine-César

French physicist, b. at Chatillon-sur-Loing (Loiret), 7 March, 1788; d. at Paris, 18 January, ...

Bede

(Or B EAD , whence Bedehouse, Bedesman, Bederoll). The old English word bede (Anglo-Saxon ...

Bede, The Venerable

Historian and Doctor of the Church , born 672 or 673; died 735. In the last chapter of his great ...

Bedford, Gunning S.

Medical writer and teacher, b. at Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. of a distinguished family in ...

Bedford, Henry

Writer, educator, b. in London 1 October, 1816; d. in Dublin, Ireland, 21 May, 1903. With the ...

Bedingfeld, Frances

( alias Long) Superioress of the English Institute of Mary , b. 1616 of a gentle family ...

Bedingfeld, Henry, Sir

Knight; b. 1509; d. 1583. He was the grandson of Sir Edmund Bedingfeld who had served in the Wars ...

Bedini, Cajetan

Italian Cardinal and diplomat; born at Sinigaglia, Italy, 15 May, 1806; died at Viterbo, 6 ...

Bedlam

(An English abbreviation of BETHLEHEM). A London hospital originally intended for the poor ...

Beelen, Ian Theodor

Exegete and Orientalist, b. at Amsterdam, 12 January 1807; d. at Louvain, 31 March 1884. After a ...

Beelphegor

( Or BAALPEOR.) Beelphegor was the baal of Mt. Phogor, or Peor, a mountain of Moab. ...

Beelzebub

1. Old Testament Beelzebub, or Baalzebûb, the Philistine god of Accaron (Ekron), ...

Beesley, George, Venerable

(Also spelled Bisley). Martyr, born at The Hill in Goosnargh parish, Lancaster, England, of an ...

Beethoven, Ludwig van

Born at Bonn, probably on 16 December, 1770; died at Vienna, 26 March, 1827. The date of his ...

Begnudelli-Basso, Francesco Antonio

A canonist who lived at the end of the seventeenth century; died at Freising, 9 October, 1713. ...

Beguines & Beghards

The etymology of the names Beghard and Beguine can only be conjectured. Most likely they are ...

Behaim, Albert von

(Known also as Albertus Bohemus) Born c. 1180, probably at Boheiming, in the Diocese of Passau ...

Behaim, Martin

(Martinus de Bohemia ) A German cartographer and navigator, b. at Nuremberg in 1459; d. at ...

Beirut

In Phoenicia, a titular Latin see, and the residential see of several prelates of Oriental ...

Beja

Diocese in Portugal, suffragan of Evora. It was created 10 June, 1770, and numbers 175,000 ...

Belasyse, John

B ARON B ELASYSE Born about 1614; died 1689, a loyal Catholic English nobleman, second son ...

Belchiam, Venerable Thomas

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

Belem do Pará, Archdiocese of

In South America, formerly (after 4 March, 1719) a suffragan diocese of Bahia (San Salvador), ...

Belfry

The upper part of the tower or steeple of a church, for the reception of the bells ; or a ...

Belgium

I. THE NAPOLEONIC ERA The victory of Fleurus, gained by the French army over the Austrian forces, ...

Belgrade and Smederevo

Titular (united) sees of Servia. The history of these sees is as confused as their present plight ...

Belgrado, Giacopo

Italian Jesuit and natural philosopher, born at Udine, 16 November, 1704; died in the same ...

Belial

Found frequently as a personal name in the Vulgate and various English translations of the ...

Belief

( be and lyian , to hold dear). That state of the mind by which it assents to ...

Belin, Albert (Jean)

French prelate and writer, b. in Besançon early in the seventeenth century; d. 29 April, ...

Bell, Altar

A small bell placed on the credence or in some other convenient place on the epistle side ...

Bell, Angelus

The triple Hail Mary recited in the evening, which is the origin of our modern Angelus, was ...

Bell, Arthur, Venerable

( alias F RANCIS ) Friar Minor and English martyr, b. at Temple-Broughton near Worcester, 13 ...

Bell, James

Priest and martyr, b. at Warrington in Lancashire, England, probably about 1520; d. 20 April, ...

Bellamy, Jerome

Jerome Bellamy of Uxenden Hall, near London, England, d. 1586, a member of an old Catholic family ...

Bellarini, John

Barnabite theologian, b. at Castelnuovo, Italy, in 1552; d. at Milan, 27 August, 1630. He was ...

Bellarmine, St. Robert

(Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at ...

Bellasius, Edward

Serjeant-at-Law, b. 14 October, 1800; d. 24 January, 1873; was one of the most able and respected ...

Bellecius, Aloysius

Jesuit ascetic author, born at Freiburg im Breisgau, 15 February, 1704; died at Augsburg, 27 ...

Bellenden, John

(Ballenden, or Ballantyne) A Scotch poet, b. at Haddington or Berwick in the latter part of ...

Belleville

The Diocese of Belleville comprises that part of southern Illinois, U.S.A. which lies south of ...

Belley

Diocese of Belley (Bellicium) Coextensive with the civil department of Ain and a suffragan of ...

Bellings, Sir Richard

(Or Belling) Irish historian, b. near Dublin early in the seventeenth century; d. in 1677. He ...

Bellini

Giacomo (Jacopo) Bellini Father of Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, b. about 1400; d. 1471. ...

Belloy, Jean-Baptiste de

Cardinal - Archbishop of Paris, b. 9 October, 1709, at Morangles in the Diocese of Beauvais ; ...

Bells

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Origin; II. Benediction; III. Uses; IV. ...

Belluno-Feltre

(Diocese of Belluno-Feltre). Belluno, which was anciently called Bellunum, the metropolis of ...

Belmont, François Vachon de

Fifth superior of the Sulpicians at Montreal, b. at Grenoble, France, 1645; d. 1732. He went ...

Belshazzar

(Or, as found in the Septuagint Baltasár .) Baltasar is the Greek and Latin name for ...

Belson, Venerable Thomas

Martyr, b. at Brill in Oxfordshire, England, dated uncertain; d. 5 July 1589. He was at the ...

Belsunce de Castelmoron, Henri François Xavier de

Bishop of Marseilles, b. 1671 at the Château de la Force, in Périgord; d. 1755 at ...

Belzoni, Giambattista

An Egyptian explorer, b. at Padua, Italy, in 1778; d. Gato, Africa, 3 Dec., 1823. His father ...

Bembo, Pietro

A famous Italian scholar and Cardinal, b. of a noble family at Venice, 20 May, 1470; d. at ...

Benadir

Prefecture Apostolic in Africa ; lies between 8° and 12° N. lat., and between 42° ...

Benavides, Fray Alonzo

(Benavidez) Archbishop of Goa in the Portuguese Indies. Although a prelate of high rank, the ...

Bench, Communion

An adaptation of the sanctuary guard or altar-rail. Standing in front of this barrier, in a ...

Benda

A titular see of Albania. Its history is closely connected with that of the Sees of Narenta and ...

Benedict Biscop, Saint

An English monastic founder, born of a noble Anglo-Saxon family, c. 628; died 12 January 690. ...

Benedict I, Pope

Of the first Pontiff who bore the name of Benedict practically nothing is known. The date of his ...

Benedict II, Saint, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died 8 May, 685; was a Roman, and the son of John. Sent when young to the ...

Benedict III, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 17 April, 858. The election of the learned and ascetic Roman, Benedict, ...

Benedict IV, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died in the summer of 903. The Popes Benedict from the fourth to the ...

Benedict IX, Pope

The nephew of his two immediate predecessors, Benedict IX was a man of very different character ...

Benedict Joseph Labre, Saint

Born 26 March, 1748 at Amettes in the Diocese of Boulogne, France ; died in Rome 16 April, 1783. ...

Benedict Levita

Benedict Levita (of Mainz ), or Benedict the Deacon, is the name given to himself by the author ...

Benedict of Aniane, Saint

Born about 745-750; died at Cornelimünster, 11 February, 821. Benedict, originally known as ...

Benedict of Nursia, Saint

Founder of western monasticism, born at Nursia, c. 480; died at Monte Cassino , 543. The only ...

Benedict of Peterborough

Abbot and writer, place and date of birth unknown; d. 1193. He was educated at Oxford, and was ...

Benedict of San Philadelphio, Saint

(Or B ENEDICT THE M OOR ) Born at San Philadelphio or San Fradello, a village of the ...

Benedict V, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died 4 July, 965. Benedict V was elected pope (May, 964) in very ...

Benedict VI, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. August, 974 (see Ricobaldi of Ferrara, Compil. Chron., in Rer. Ital. SS. ...

Benedict VII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. c. October, 983. Acting under the influence of Sicco (see BENEDICT VI ...

Benedict VIII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 9 April, 1024. The first of the Tusculan popes, being the son of ...

Benedict X

The bearer of this name was an antipope in the days of Nicholas II, 1056-61.

Benedict XI, Pope

(Nicholas Boccasini) Born at Treviso, Italy, 1240; died at Perugia, 7 July, 1304. He entered ...

Benedict XII, Pope

(J ACQUES F OURNIER ) Third of the Avignon popes, b. at Saverdun in the province of ...

Benedict XIII, Pope

(PIETRO FRANCESCO ORSINI) Born 2 February, 1649; died 23 February, 1730. Being a son of ...

Benedict XIV, Pope

(P ROSPERO L ORENZO L AMBERTINI .) Son of Marcello Lambertini and Lucretia Bulgarini, b. ...

Benedict, Medal of

A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict. One ...

Benedict, Rule of Saint

This work holds the first place among monastic legislative codes, and was by far the most ...

Benedictbeurn, Abbey of

Situated in the Bavarian Alps, about thirty miles south of Munich. It was formerly in the ...

Benedicti, Jean

A Franciscan theologian of the sixteenth century belonging to the Observantine Province of ...

Benedictine Order

The Benedictine Order comprises monks living under the Rule of St. Benedict, and commonly known ...

Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament

One of the most generally popular of Catholic services is Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, ...

Benedictional

( Benedictionale ). A book containing a collection of benedictions or blessings in use in ...

Benedictus Polonus

A medieval Friar Minor missionary and traveller (c. 1245) companion of Giovanni da Piancarpino, ...

Benedictus, The

The Benedictus, given in Luke 1:68-79, is one of the three great canticles in the opening ...

Benefice

( Latin Beneficium , a benefit) Popularly the term benefice is often understood to denote ...

Benefit of Clergy

The exemption from the jurisdiction of the secular courts, which in England, in the Middle ...

Benettis, Jeremiah

Friar Minor Capuchin and historical writer, d. in 1774. He belonged to the Province of Piedmont ...

Benevento, Archdiocese of

(BENEVENTANA). Benevento, the ancient Beneventum, the principal city of the province of the ...

Bengtsson, Jöns Oxenstjerna

(JOANNES BENEDICTI). Archbishop of Upsala, Sweden, b. 1417; d. in 1467. He was a member of ...

Bengy, Anatole de

A martyr of the French Commune, b. at Bourges, 19 September, 1824; d. in Paris, 26 May, 1871. ...

Benignus of Dijon, Saint

Martyr honoured as the patron saint and first herald of Christianity of Dijon (Divio) an old ...

Benignus, Saint

Date of birth unknown; d. 467, son of Sesenen, an Irish chieftain in that part of Ireland which ...

Benin

(Vicariate Apostolic of the Coast of Benin. Also called Oræ Benini). Includes an ...

Benjamin

( Hebrew binjamin , "son of the right hand"). (1) The youngest son of Jacob born of ...

Benkert, Franz Georg

German theologian and historical writer, b. 25 September, 1790, at Nordheim, near the mountain ...

Benno II

Bishop of Osnabrück, b. at Luningen in Swabia; d. 27 July, 1088, in the Benedictine ...

Benoît, Michel

Born at Autun (or Dijon ), France, 8 October, 1715; died at Peking, 23 October, 1774, a ...

Benthamism

Jeremy Bentham an English jurist and reformer, born at Houndsditch, London, 15 February, 1748; ...

Bentivoglio, Family of

Originally from the castle of that name in the neighbourhood of Bologna, Italy. They claimed ...

Bentley, John Francis

English architect, b. at Doncaster, Yorkshire, in 1839; d. in London, February, 1902. From early ...

Bentney, William

( Alias Bennet). An English Jesuit priest born in Cheshire, 1609; died 30 October, 1692. He ...

Benziger, Joseph Charles

Founder of the Catholic publishing house that bears his name, b. at Einsiedeln, Switzerland, ...

Benzoni, Girolamo

Born at Milan about 1519. He went to America in 1541 and successively visited the Antilles and ...

Berach, Saint

Of Termonbarry, d. 595; a disciple of St. Kevin and a celebrated Irish saint, whose memory is ...

Berard of Carbio, Saint

(Or BERALDUS). Friar Minor and martyr ; d. 16 January, 1220. Of the noble family of ...

Berardi, Carbo Sebastiano

Canonist, b. at Oneglia, Italy, 26 August, 1719; d. 1768. Having studied theology at Savona ...

Bercharius, Saint

(BERERUS). Abbot of Hautvillers in Champagne, b. 636; d. 28 March, 696. Descended from a ...

Bercheure, Pierre

(BERCHOIRE, BERSUIRE). A learned French Benedictine, b. 1290 at St. Pierre du Chemin ...

Berchmans, Saint John

Born at Diest in Brabant, 13 March, 1599; died at Rome, 13 August, 1621. His parents watched ...

Berchtold, Blessed

(BERTHOLD). Abbot of the Benedictine Monastery of Engelberg in Switzerland ; date of ...

Berdini of Sarteano, Blessed Albert

Franciscan Friar and missionary, born at Sarteano, in Tuscany, 1385; died at Milan, 15 August, ...

Berengarius of Tours

Born at Tours about 999; died on the island of St. Cosme, near that city, in 1088. Having ...

Berenice

A titular see of Egypt which was situated at the end of Major Syrtis where Bengazi stands ...

Bergamo

(Diocese of Bergamo). The city, called by the ancients Bergonum, is capital of the province of ...

Bergen, Ancient See of

(BERGA, BERGENSIS.) The diocese included the Provinces of Nordre and Sondre Bergenhus, and ...

Bergier, Nicolas-Sylvestre

French theologian, b. 31 December, 1715 at Darney in Lorraine ; d. at Versailles, 9 April, 1790. ...

Berin, Saint

Confessor, first Bishop of Dorchester (in what is now the County of Oxford, not Dorchester, ...

Berington, Charles

Titular Bishop of Hiero-Caesarea, b. at Stock, Essex, England, 1748; d. 8 June, 1798. His life ...

Berington, Joseph

One of the best known Catholic writers of his day, b. at Winsley, in Herefordshire, 16 January, ...

Berisford, Humphrey

Confessor (c. 1588) of whom the only extant account occurs in the manuscript marked "F", ...

Berissa

(Berisa or Verissa) A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus, in Asia Minor which Kiepert and ...

Beristain y Martin de Souza, José Mariano

Mexican bibliographer, b. in Puebla, Mexico, 22 May, 1756; d. at Mexico, 23 March, 1817. He went ...

Berlage, Anton

Dogmatic theologian, b. 21 December, 1805, at Münster, Westphalia ; d. there, 6 December, ...

Berland, Pierre

Archbishop of Bordeaux, b. 1375 in Médoc; d. 1457 at Bordeaux. Being of humble ...

Berlanga, Fray Tomás de

Bishop of Panama, b. at Berlanga in Spain, date uncertain; d. there 8 August, 1551. He was ...

Berlin

Capital of the German Empire and of the Kingdom of Prussia, and residence of the German ...

Berlioz, Hector

French composer, b. at La Côte Saint-André, near Grenoble, 11 December, 1803; d. at ...

Bernal, Agostino

Spanish theologian, born at Magallon in Aragon in 1587; died at Saragossa, 13 September, 1642. ...

Bernard Guidonis

Inquisitor of Toulouse against the Albigenses and Bishop of Lodève, b. at ...

Bernard of Besse

Friar Minor and chronicler, a native of Aquitaine, date of birth uncertain; he belonged to the ...

Bernard of Bologna

( Also Bernardine; Flovitano Toselli). Friar Minor Capuchin and Scotist theologian, born at ...

Bernard of Botone

Generally called Parmensis from his birthplace, Parma in Italy, a noted canonist of the ...

Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint

Born in 1090, at Fontaines, near Dijon, France ; died at Clairvaux, 21 August, 1153. His ...

Bernard of Cluny

Bernard of Cluny (or of Morlaix), a Benedictine monk of the first half of the twelfth century, ...

Bernard of Compostella

(1) Bernard of Compostella (Antiquus) A canonist of the early thirteenth century, a native of ...

Bernard of Luxemburg

Dominican theologian, controversialist, and Inquisitor of the Archdioceses of Cologne, Mainz, ...

Bernard of Menthon, Saint

Born in 923, probably in the castle Menthon near Annecy, in Savoy ; died at Novara, 1008. He ...

Bernard of Pavia

A noted canonist, provost of the cathedral chapter of Pavia, and, in 1190, promoted to the ...

Bernard Tolomeo, Saint

Founder of the congregation of the Blessed Virgin of Monte Oliveto, born at Siena in Tuscany ...

Bernard, Alexis-Xyste

Bishop of St. Hyacinth, P.Q., Canada. b. at Beloeil, P.Q., 29 December, 1847. He made his ...

Bernard, Claude

A French ecclesiastic known as "the poor priest " ( le pauvre prêtre ), b. at Dijon 23 ...

Bernard, Claude

French physiologist, b. 12 July, 1813 at Saint Julien near Villefranche, France ; d. at Paris, ...

Bernard, Saint

(BARNARD.) Archbishop of Vienne, France. Born in 778; died at Vienne, 23 January, 842. His ...

Bernardine of Feltre, Blessed

Friar Minor and missionary, b. at Feltre, Italy, in 1439 and d. at Pavia, 28 September, 1494. He ...

Bernardine of Fossa, Blessed

Of the Order of Friars Minor, historian and ascetical writer, b. at Fossa, in the Diocese of ...

Bernardine of Siena, Saint

Friar Minor, missionary, and reformer, often called the "Apostle ofItaly ", b. of the noblefamily ...

Bernardines, The

Title of certain sisters of the order of Cîteaux who at the end of the sixteenth and in ...

Berne

The fourth city of Switzerland in population, capital of a canton of the same name which is the ...

Berni, Francesco

An Italian comic poet, b. at Lamporecchio (Florence) 1497 or 1498; d. at Florence, 26 May, ...

Bernier, Etienne-Alexandre

French Bishop, b. at Daon (Mayenne), 31 October, 1762; d. at Paris, 1 October, 1806. He was a ...

Bernini, Domenico

Son of the famous artist Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini , lived in the early part of the eighteenth ...

Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo

One of the most vigorous and fertile of Italian architects and sculptors, b. at Naples in 1598; ...

Bernini, Giuseppe Maria

A Capuchin missionary and Orientalist, b. near Carignan in Piedmont ; d. in Hindustan in 1753. ...

Bernis, François-Joachim-Pierre de

A French cardinal and statesman, b. 1715 at Saint-Marcel-d'Ardèche; d. at Rome, 1794. ...

Berno

(Apostle of the Obotrites), in the latter half of the twelfth century. The Obotrites were one of ...

Berno (Abbot of Reichenau)

Famous as orator, poet, philosopher, and musician, born (date unknown) at Prüm near Trier ...

Bernold of Constance

Historian and theologian, b. in Swabia about 1054; d. at Schaffhausen, 16 September, 1100. He ...

Bernward, Saint

Thirteenth Bishop of Hildesheim, Germany, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. 20 ...

Beroea

(Later, Berrhoea, Beroie, and Beroe ). A titular see of Macedonia, at the foot of Mount ...

Berosus

( Berosós or Berossós ) The name of a native historian of Babylonia and a ...

Beroth

(B EEROTH ) A city in Chanaan, one of the confederation of cities under the headship of ...

Berrettini, Pietro

(Called Pietro da Cortona) A distinguished Italian painter, architect, and writer, b. at ...

Berruguete, Alonso

For his mastery of the arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture, sometimes called the ...

Berruyer, Isaac-Joseph

Born at Roueb, 7 November, 1681; died at Paris, 18 February, 1758. He entered the Society of Jesus ...

Berryer, Pierre-Antoine

French advocate, orator, and statesman, son of Pierre-Nicolas Berryer, an advocate, b. at Paris, ...

Bersabee

( Bar sb‘ or Beersheba ) A town on the southern extremity of Palestine, one of the ...

Bertha

Of the various holy women bearing the name of Bertha, five are more particularly worthy of ...

Berthier, Guillaume-François

A Jesuit professor and writer, born at Issoudun, 1704; died at Bourges, 1782. He taught ...

Berthold

Bishop, Apostle of the Livonians, killed 24 July, 1198, in a crusade against the pagan ...

Berthold of Chiemsee

A German bishop and theological writer, b. 1465 at Salzburg, Austria ; d. 19 July, 1543, at ...

Berthold of Henneberg

Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, b. 1441; d. 21 December, 1504. Having completed his education ...

Berthold of Ratisbon

A Franciscan of the monastery of that city and the most powerful preacher of repentance in the ...

Berthold of Reichenau

A Benedictine monk and chronicler of the celebrated Abbey of Reichenau on the Lake of ...

Berti, Giovanni Lorenzo

An Italian theologian, b. 28 May, 1696, at Sarravezza, Tuscany ; d. 26 March, 1766, at Pisa. His ...

Bertin, Saint

Abbot of St. Omer, b. near Constance about 615; d. about 709. At an early age he entered the ...

Bertinoro

Bertinoro, anciently called Forum Truentinorum, and, at the time of the Gothic war, Petra ...

Bertonio, Ludovico

An Italian missionary, born 1552 at Rocca Contrada near Ancona ; died at Lima, Peru, 3 ...

Bertrand, Louis, Saint

Born at Valencia, Spain, 1 Jan., 1526; died 9 Oct., 1581. His patents were Juan Bertrand and ...

Bertrand, Pierre

(1) A French Cardinal, theologian, and canonist, b. 1280 at Annonay in Vivarais; d. 1348 or 1349 ...

Bertulf, Saint

Abbot of Bobbio, date of birth unknown; d. 639 or 640. He was the son of a pagan nobleman in ...

Bervanger, Martin de

A French priest, founder of charitable institutions ; b. at Sarrelouis, 15 May, 1795; d. at ...

Besançon

Archdiocese coextensive with the departments of Doubs, Haute-Saône, and the district of ...

Besange, Jerome Lamy, O.S.B

Born at Linz, 1726; died 1781. For twenty-four years he taught Scripture at Salzburg. He ...

Beschefer, Theodore

Jesuit missionary in Canada, born at Châlons-sur-marne, 25 May, 1630; died at Reims, 4 ...

Beschi, Costanzo Giuseppe

Born at Castiglione in the Venetian Republic, 1680; died at Manapar c. 1746. He entered the ...

Beseleel

(Beçál'el, in the shadow of God). I. The son of Uri and grandson of Hur of the ...

Besoigne, Jérôme

A Jansenist writer, b. at Paris, 1686; d. 1763. Ordained in 1715, he received the doctorate of ...

Besoldus, Christopher

A German jurist and publicist, b. of Protestant parents in 1577 at Tübingen, ...

Bessarion, Johannes

(Or B ASILIUS ). Cardinal ; b. at Trebizond, 1389, or according to others, 1395, but most ...

Bessel, Johann Franz

(In religion Gottfried ) Benedictine, abbot, and historian, b. 5 September, 1672, at ...

Beste, Henry Digby

Miscellaneous author, b. at Lincoln, England, 21 October, 1768; d. at Brighton, 28 May, 1836. He ...

Bestiaries

Medieval books on animals, in which the real or fabulous characteristics of actually existent or ...

Betanzos, Fray Domingo

A Dominican missionary, d. at Valladolid, Sept., 1549. One of the most illustrious Dominicans ...

Betanzos, Fray Pedro de

A Franciscan missionary, b. at Betanzos in Galicia; d. at Chomez, Nicaragua, 1570. He was one ...

Betanzos, Juan de

Unfortunately very little is known as yet of this official, who has left such valuable works on ...

Bethany

( Bethania ). A village of Palestine, fifteen furlongs, or one mile and three-quarters, east ...

Bethany Beyond the Jordan

( Bethania peran tou Iordanou ). In the text of St. John's Gospel, i, 28, the author locates ...

Betharan

A city of the Amorrhites in the valley-plain east of the Jordan, about twelve miles from ...

Bethdagon

Name of two cities in Palestine. (1) A city ( Joshua 15:41 ) of the tribe of Juda "in the plains", ...

Bethel

( Hebrew word meaning "house of God "). An ancient Cansanitish town, twelve miles north of ...

Bethlehem

A titular see of Palestine. The early name of the city was Ephrata; afterwards Bethlehem, "House ...

Bethlehem

The old Hebrew name bêth lehem , meaning "house of bread", has survived till the present ...

Bethlehem

An architectural term used in the Ethiopic Church for the oven or bakehouse for baking the ...

Bethlehemites

MILITARY ORDERS There were two military orders dedicated to Our Lady of Bethlehem and known ...

Bethsaida

Bethsaida is: a city, or perhaps two cities, on the shore of the Lake of Genesareth, the ...

Bethsan

( Hebrew Beth Shean , or Beth Shan , "place of rest"). A city within Issachar, but assigned to ...

Bethulia

(Greek Betuloua ). The city whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms ...

Betrothal

( Latin sponsalia ). The giving of one's troth — that is, one's true faith or promise. ...

Bettiah

Prefecture Apostolic in northern India, includes as part of its jurisdiction the entire native ...

Betting

A bet may be defined as the backing of an affirmation or forecast by offering to forfeit, in ...

Beugnot, Auguste-Arthur, Count

French historian and statesman, b. at Bar-sur-Aube, 25 March, 1797; d. at Paris, 15 March, 1865. ...

Beuno, Saint

Abbot of Clynnog, d. 660(?), was, according to the "Bucced Beuno", born in Powis-land and, after ...

Beverley Minster

A collegiate church at Beverley, capital of the East Riding of Yorkshire, served by a chapter ...

Beyerlinck, Lawrence

Belgian theologian and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Antwerp, April, 1578; d. at the same place, ...

Bezae, Codex

(CODEX CANTABRIGIENSIS), one of the five most important Greek New Testament manuscripts, and the ...

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Bi 63

Bianchi, Giovanni Antonio

Friar Minor andtheologian, b. at Lucca, 2 October, 1686; d. at Rome, 18 January, 1768. At the age ...

Bianchini, Francesco

A student of the natural sciences, and an historian, b. at Verona, Northern Italy, 13 December, ...

Bianchini, Giuseppe

(Giuseppe Blanchini). Italian Oratorian, Biblical, historical, and liturgical scholar, b. ...

Bianconi, Charles

Merchant and philanthropist, b. 26 September, 1785, in the duchy of Milan ; d. near Clonmel, ...

Biard, Pierre

Jesuit missionary, born at Grenoble, France, 1576; died at Avignon, 17 November, 1622. In 1608 ...

Bibbiena

(Bernardo Dovizi) An Italian Cardinal and comedy-writer, known best by the name of the town ...

Bibiana, Saint

The earliest mention in an authentic historical authority of St. Bibiana (Vibiana), a Roman ...

Bible Societies

Protestant Bible Societies, established for the purpose of publishing and propagating the Bible ...

Bible, Authenticity of the

The authenticity or authority of Holy Writ is twofold on account of its twofold authorship. ...

Bible, Coptic Versions of the

DIALECTS The Coptic language is now recognized in four principal dialects, Bohairic (formerly ...

Bible, Editions of the

In the present article we understand by editions of the Bible the printed reproductions of its ...

Bible, Inspiration of the

The subject will be treated in this article under the four heads: I. Belief in Inspired books; ...

Bible, Manuscripts of the

Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version ...

Bible, The

A collection of writings which the Church of God has solemnly recognized as inspired. The ...

Bible, Versions of the

Synopsis GREEK : Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions. VERSIONS FROM THE ...

Bibles, Picture

In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement ...

Bibles, Rhymed

The rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms. The oldest ...

Biblia Pauperum

(BIBLE OF THE POOR). A collection of pictures representing scenes from Our Lord's life with ...

Biblical Accommodation

We shall consider (1) what is meant by biblical accommodation; (2) its use in Sacred Scripture; ...

Biblical Antiquities

This department of archæology has been variously defined and classified. Some scholars have ...

Biblical Commission, The

A committee of cardinals at Rome who, with the assistance of consultors, have to secure the ...

Biblical Introduction

A technical name which is usually applied to two distinct, but intimately connected, things. ...

Bickell, Gustav

Orientalist, b. at Cassel, 7 July, 1838; d. at Vienna, 15 Jan., 1906. His father, Johann Wilhelm ...

Bickerdike, Robert, Venerable

Martyr, a Yorkshire layman, b. at Low Hall, near Knaresborough (date unknown), but residing at ...

Bicknor, Alexander

Archbishop of Dublin, date of birth unknown; d. 1349. As his surname suggests he came from a ...

Bidermann, James

A poet and theologian of great learning and sanctity, b. at Ebingen, Germany, in 1578; d. at ...

Biel, Gabriel

Called "the last of the Scholastics ", b. at Speyer, Germany, c. 1425; d. at Tübingen, ...

Biella

The city of Biella, the see of the diocese of that name, is an important industrial centre ...

Bielski, Marcin

(Or Wolski) A Polish chronicler, b. of noble parentage on the patrimonial estate of Biala ...

Bienville, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de

French Governor of Louisiana and founder of New Orleans, b. in Montreal, Canada, 24 February, ...

Bigamy (in Canon Law)

According to the strict meaning, the word should signify the marrying of a second after the death ...

Bigamy (in Civil Law)

( French bigamie , from Latin bis , twice, and Greek gamos , marriage) Bigamy, in civil ...

Bigne, Marguerin de la

(Binius, Bignaeus) French theologian and patrologist, b. about 1546 at ...

Billart, Saint Julie

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

Billick, Eberhard

( Also Steinberger, Latin Latomus, Lapicida ). German theologian, opponent of the ...

Billy, Jacques de

(Billi) A French patristic scholar, theologian, jurist, linguist, and a Benedictine abbot, ...

Bilocation

(Latin bis , twice, and locatio , place.) I. The question whether the same finite being ...

Bination

The offering up of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass twice on the same day by the same celebrant. ...

Biner, Joseph

Canonist, historian, and theologian, b. at Gluringen, Switzerland, 1697; d. at Torrenburg, ...

Binet, Etienne

Jesuit author, born at Dijon, France, 1569; died at Paris, 1639. He entered the Society of ...

Binet, Jacques-Philippe-Marie

French mathematician and astronomer, b. at Rennes, in Brittany, 2 February, 1786; d. in Paris, ...

Binius, Severin

Historian and critic, b. in 1573 in the village of Randerath, Western Germany ; d. 14 February, ...

Binterim, Anton Joseph

Born at Düsseldorf, 19 September, 1779; died at Bilk, 17 May, 1855, a theologian of repute ...

Biogenesis and Abiogenesis

According to their Greek derivation these two terms refer to the origin of life. Biogenesis is ...

Biology

(From bios , life and logos , reason, account, reasoning) Biology may be defined as the ...

Biondo, Flavio

A distinguished Italian arch æologist and historian, b. at Forli in 1388; d. at Rome in ...

Biot, Jean-Baptiste

A physicist and mathematician, born at Paris, France, 21 April, 1774; died. there, 3 ...

Birds (in Symbolism)

Many kinds of birds are used in Christian symbolism. The first to be so employed was the Dove ...

Biretta

A square cap with three ridges or peaks on its upper surface, worn by clerics of all grades from ...

Birinus, Saint

Confessor, first Bishop of Dorchester (in what is now the County of Oxford, not Dorchester, ...

Birkowski, Fabian

Polish preacher, b. at Lemberg, 1566; d. at Cracow, 1636. He completed his studies at the ...

Birmingham

(BIRMINGHAMIA, BIRMINGHAMIENSIS) One of the thirteen dioceses erected by the Apostolic ...

Birnbaum, Heinrich

(Also known as DE PIRO, the latinized form of this German name) A pious and learned ...

Birth, The Defect of

(ILLEGITIMACY) A canonical impediment to ordination. When used in this connection, the word ...

Birtha

A titular see of Osrhaene, probably identical with Birejik (Zegma) on the left bank of the ...

Bisarchio, Diocese of

Situated in Sardinia, in the province of Sassari, district of Nuoro, and suffragan to the ...

Biscop, Saint Benedict

An English monastic founder, born of a noble Anglo-Saxon family, c. 628; died 12 January 690. ...

Bishop

(Anglo-Saxon Biscop, Busceop , German Bischof ; from the Greek episkopos , an overseer, ...

Bishop's Crook

(Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...

Bishop, Auxiliary

A bishop deputed to a diocesan who, capable of governing and administering his diocese, is ...

Bishop, William

The first superior in England in episcopal orders since the old hierarchy died out in the ...

Bismarck, Diocese of

(BISMARCKIENSIS). In North Dakota, this diocese was erected on 31 December, 1909, and is ...

Bisomus

A tomb large enough to contain two bodies. The ordinary tombs ( loci ) in the galleries of ...

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Bl 34

Black Fast, The

This form of fasting, the most rigorous in the history of church legislation, was marked by ...

Blackburne, Robert

An English Catholic who suffered imprisonment in the closing years of the seventeenth, and ...

Blackfoot Indians

An important tribe of the Northern Plains, constituting the westernmost extension of the great ...

Blackwood, Adam

Author, b. at Dunfermline, Scotland, 1539; d. 1613. He was a great-nephew of Robert Reid, Bishop ...

Blaise, Saint

Bishop and martyr. The ninth-century martyrologies of Europe in their lists, which are ...

Blanc, Anthony

Fifth Bishop, and first Archbishop, of New Orleans, La., U.S.A. b. at Sury, near Lyons, ...

Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste

(Duchesne). A French Jesuit and educator, born 12 October, 1731, at Tourteron in the ...

Blanchet, Augustin Magloire

Brother of François Norbert Blanchet , first Bishop of Walla Walla-Nesqually, State of ...

Blanchet, Franç Norbert

Missionary and first Archbishop of Oregon City, U.S.A. son of Pierre Blanchet, a Canadian ...

Blandina, Saint

Virgin and martyr. She belongs to the band of martyrs of Lyons who, after some of their ...

Blane, Saint

( Or BLAAN). Bishop and Confessor in Scotland, b. on the island of Bute, date unknown; d. ...

Blasphemy

Blasphemy (Greek blaptein , "to injure", and pheme , "reputation") signifies etymologically ...

Blastares, Matthew

A monk of the Order of St. Basil, living in the fourteenth century, who applied himself to the ...

Blathmac, Saint

A distinguished Irish monk, b. in Ireland about 750. He suffered martyrdom in Iona, about ...

Blemmida, Nicephorus

(B LEMMYDES ) A learned monk and writer of the Green Church, b. about 1198, at ...

Blenkinsop

Peter Blenkinsop Catholic publisher, b. in Ireland ; married a sister of Archbishop Oliver Kelly ...

Blessed Sacrament, Congregation of the

An enclosed congregation and a reform of the Dominican Order devoted to the perpetual adoration ...

Blessed Sacrament, Exposition of the

Exposition is a manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing It, with proper solemnity, to ...

Blessed Sacrament, Reservation of the

The practice of preserving after the celebration of the Liturgy a portion of the consecrated ...

Blessed Sacrament, Sisters of the

One of the most recent congregations of religious women in the Catholic Church and one of ...

Blessed Sacrament, The

Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the ...

Blessed Sacrament, Visits to the

By this devotional practice, which is of comparatively modern development, the presence of ...

Blessed Virgin Mary, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

Blessed, The

There are at present two ways in which the Church allows public worship to be paid those who ...

Blessing

In its widest acceptation this word has a variety of meanings in the sacred writings: It has ...

Blessing, Apostolic

The solemn blessing ( urbi et orbi ) which, before 1870, the Holy Father himself gave from the ...

Blind, Education of the

Although the education of the blind as a class dates back no further than the year 1784, ...

Blois

DIOCESE OF BLOIS (BLESENSIS). Coextensive with the civil department of Loir-et-Cher and a ...

Blomevenna, Peter

(PETER A LEYDIS) Carthusian, b. at Leyden, in Holland in 1466; d. 30 September, 1536. Owing to ...

Blood Indians

A group of North American aborigines forming part of the Blackfeet Tribe, which, with the ...

Blosius, François-Louis

(Also called de Blois ). A Benedictine abbot and spiritual writer, born at Donstienne, ...

Bluetooth, Harold

(B LAATAND ) Born 911; died 1 November, 985 or 986. He was the son of King Gorm the Old of ...

Blyssen, Heinrich

Born at Cologne or Bonn, Germany in 1526; died at Graz, 24 April, 1586. He entered the Society ...

Blyth, Francis

English Carmelite, reviser of the Douay Bible, born c. 1705; d. in London, 11 December 1772. ...

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Bo 148

Bobadilla, Nicolaus

Born at Valencia, Spain, 1511; died at Loretto, Italy, 23 September, 1590. After having taught ...

Bobbio, Abbey and Diocese of

The diocese ( Ebovium , or Bobium ; Dioecesis Eboviensis , or Bobiensis ), which is ...

Bobola, Saint Andrew

Martyr, born of an old and illustrious Polish family, in the Palatinate of Sandomir, 1590; ...

Boccaccino

Boccaccio Boccaccino An eminent Italian painter, b. at Cremona, 1460, and d. probably in 1525 ...

Boccaccio, Giovanni

Italian novelist, b. in Paris, 1313; d. in Certaldo, 21 December, 1375. His father, a merchant ...

Bocking, Edward

(or B OKKYNG ). English Benedictine, b. of East Anglian parentage, end of fifteenth century; ...

Bodey, Ven. John

Martyr, b. at Wells, Somerset: 1549; d. at Andover, Wilts., 2 November, 1583. He studied at ...

Bodin, Jean

Born at Angers, 1520, probably of Jewish origin: died at Laon, 1596. He studied and taught ...

Bodone

A titular see of Albania. The name is a dialectic form of Dodone, in Epirus, near Janina at the ...

Boece, Hector

(Also BOYCE and BOETHIUS) Chronicler and one of the founders of the University of Aberdeen, b. ...

Boeri, Petrus

(BOHIER) A french benedictine canonist and bishop, b. during the first quarter of the ...

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus

Roman statesman and philosopher, often styled "the last of the Romans", regarded by tradition as ...

Bogotá

ARCHDIOCESE OF SANTA FÉ DE BOGOTÁ (BOGOTENSIS) The city of Bogotá, capital ...

Bohemia

(Germ. Böhmen , or formerly Böheim ; Latin Bohemia or Bojohemum ), a cisleithan ...

Bohemian Brethren

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...

Bohemians of the United States

A traveler who has seen the natural beauties of Bohemia, its vast resources, and the thrift of ...

Boiano

Diocese in the province of Benevento, Italy, suffragan to the Archbishopric of Benevento. The ...

Boiardo, Matteo Maria

An Italian poet, b. about 1434, at, or near, Scandiano (Reggio-Emilia); d. at Reggio, 20 ...

Boileau-Despréaux, Nicholas

French poet, b. at Paris, 1 November, 1636; d. there, 13 March, 1711. He was educated at the ...

Bois-le-Duc

The Diocese of Bois-le-Duc ( Buscoducensis ) lies within the Dutch province of Brabant, and ...

Boise

Diocese of Boise ( Xylopolitana ) Created by Leo XIII, 25 August, 1893, embraces the ...

Boisgelin, Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de

French prelate and cardinal, b. of an ancient family at Rennes in Brittany, 27 February, ...

Boisil, Saint

Superior of Melrose Abbey , d. 664. Almost all that is known of St. Boisil is learnt from Bede ...

Bokenham, Osbern

(Bokenam) English Augustinian friar and poet, b. 1393 (the year in which the most famous of ...

Bolanden, Conrad von

(Joseph Bischoff) A German novelist, son of a rich merchant, b. 9 August, 1828, at ...

Bolgeni, Giovanni Vincenzo

Theologian and controversialist, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 22 January, 1733; d. at Rome, 3 May, ...

Bolivia

A South American republic which lies between longitudes west of Greenwich 57 deg. 30' and 74 deg., ...

Bollandists, The

An association of ecclesiastical scholars engaged in editing the Acta Sanctorum. This work is a ...

Bollig, Johann

Distinguished Orientalist, born near Düren in Rhenish Prussia 23 August, 1821; died at ...

Bologna

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOLOGNA HISTORY Bologna is the principal city in the province of the same name, ...

Bologna, Giovanni da

Flemish Renaissance sculptor, b. at Douai, in Flanders, about 1524; d. at Florence in 1608. ...

Bologna, University of

A tradition of the thirteenth century attributed the foundation of this university to Theodosius ...

Bolsec, Jérôme-Hermès

A theologian and physician, b. probably at Paris, date unknown; d. at Lyons c. 1584. He ...

Bolton, Edmund

Historian, antiquary, and poet, born c. 1575; died c. 1633. The genuine loyalty in the Catholic ...

Bolzano, Bernhard

Austrian mathematician and philosopher, b. at Prague, 5 October, 1781; d. 18 December, 1848. As ...

Bombay

(BOMBAYENSIS) The Archdiocese of Bombay comprises the Island of Bombay with several outlying ...

Bommel, Cornelius Richard Anton van

Bishop of Liège, born at Leyden, in Holland on 5 April, 1790; died 7 April 1852. He was ...

Bon Secours, Institutes of

I. INSTITUTE OF BON SECOURS (DE PARIS) The first of the congregations of nursing sisters, gardes ...

Bona Mors Confraternity, The

(Bona Mors = "Happy Death"). The Bona Mors Confraternity was founded 2 October, 1648, in the ...

Bona, Giovanni

A distinguished cardinal and author, b. of an old French family at Mondovì, in ...

Bonagratia of Bergamo

(Or PERGAMO) Friar Minor , theologian, and canonist, date of birth unknown; d. at Munich, ...

Bonal, François de

Bishop of Clermont, b. 1734 at the castle of Bonal, near Agen ; d. at Munich, 1800. He had ...

Bonal, Raymond

French theologian and founder of the Congregation of the Priests of St. Mary (Bonalists), b. ...

Bonald, Louis-Gabriel-Ambroise, Vicompte de

French statesman, writer, and philosopher, b. at Monna, near Millau, in Rouergue (Aveyron) 2 ...

Bonald, Louis-Jacques-Maurice de

Cardinal, b. at Millau, in Rouergue (now Aveyron), 30 October, 1787, d. at Lyons, 25 Feb., 1870. ...

Bonaparte, Charles-Lucien-Jules-Laurent

Prince of Canino and Musignano, ornithologist, b. in Paris, 24 May, 1803; d. in the same city 29 ...

Bonaventure, College of Saint

At Quaracchi, near Florence, Italy, famous as the centre of literary activity in the Order of ...

Bonaventure, Saint

Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, Minister General of the Friars Minor, born at ...

Boncompagni, Balthasar

Italian mathematician, b. at Rome, 10 May, 1821; d. 13 April, 1894. He was a member of the ...

Bonet, Juan Pablo

A Spanish priest and one of the first to give attention to the education of the deaf and dumb ...

Bonet, Nicholas

Friar Minor, theologian, and missionary,date of birth uncertain; d. 1360. Probably a Frenchman by ...

Bonfrère, Jacques

Biblical scholar, born at Dinant, Belgium, 12 April, 1573; died at Tournai, 9 May, 1642. He ...

Boni Homines

(Or BONSHOMMES). This name was popularly given to at least three religious orders in the ...

Boniface Association

(B ONIFATIUSVEREIN ). The Boniface Association, one of the most successful Catholic ...

Boniface I, Pope Saint

Elected 28 December, 418; d. at Rome, 4 September, 422. Little is known of his life antecedent to ...

Boniface II, Pope

Elected 17 September, 530; died October, 532. In calling him the son of Sigisbald, the "Liber ...

Boniface III, Pope

Pope Boniface III, of Roman extraction and the son of John Cataadioce, was elected to succeed ...

Boniface IV, Pope Saint

Son of John, a physician, a Marsian from the province and town of Valeria; he succeeded Boniface ...

Boniface IX, Pope

Elected at Rome, 2 November, 1389, as successor of the Roman Pope, Urban VI ; d. there, 1 ...

Boniface of Savoy

Forty-sixth Archbishop of Canterbury and son of Thomas, Count of Savoy, date of birth ...

Boniface V, Pope

A Neapolitan who succeeded Deusdedit after a vacancy of more than a year; consecrated 23 ...

Boniface VI, Pope

A Roman, elected in 896 by the Roman faction in a popular tumult, to succeed Formosus. He ...

Boniface VII, Antipope

(Previously B ONIFACE F RANCO ) A Roman and son of Ferrucius; was intruded into the ...

Boniface VIII, Pope

(B ENEDETTO G AETANO ) Born at Anagni about 1235; died at Rome, 11 October, 1303. He ...

Boniface, Saint

(WINFRID, WYNFRITH). Apostle of Germany, date of birth unknown; martyred 5 June, 755 (754); ...

Bonizo of Sutri

(Or BONITHO). Bishop of Sutri in Central Italy, in the eleventh century, an adherent of ...

Bonn, University of

(RHEINSCHE FRIEDRICH-WILHELMS-UNIVERSITÄT). An academy was founded at Bonn in 1777 by Max ...

Bonnard, Ven. Jean Louis

A French missionary and martyr, b. 1 March, 1824 at Saint-Christôt-en-Jarret ( Diocese of ...

Bonne-Espérance, The Abbey of

Situated near Binche, province of Hainault, Diocese of Tournai, Belgium. It owes its foundation ...

Bonnechose, Henri-Marie-Gaston Boisnormand de

Cardinal and senator, b. at Paris, 1800; d. 1883. Entering the magistracy, he became ...

Bonner, Edmund

Bishop of London, b. about 1500; d. 1569. He was the son of Edmund Bonner, a sawyer of Potter's ...

Bonnetty, Augustin

A French writer, b. at Entrevaux (dept. of Basses-Alpes) 9 May, 1798, d. at Paris, 26 March, ...

Bonosus

Bishop of Sardica, a heretic in the latter part of the fourth century. Against the common ...

Bonvicino, Alessandro

(Called Il Moretto, or Moretto da Brescia). One of the finest North Italian painters of the ...

Book of Common Prayer

I. HISTORY On 21 January, 1549, the first Act of Uniformity was passed imposing upon the whole ...

Book of Kells

An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian ...

Book of Martyrs, Foxe's

John Foxe was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, England, in 1516, and was educated at Magdalen ...

Books, Index of Prohibited

The Index of Prohibited Books, or simply "Index", is used in a restricted sense to signify the ...

Boré, Eugène

Orientalist, b. at Angers, 15 Aug., 1809; d. at Paris, 3 May, 1878. From the college of Angers ...

Bordeaux

(BURDIGALA). Archdiocese ; comprises the entire department of the Gironde and was established ...

Bordeaux, University of

The University of Bordeaux was founded during the English domination, under King Henry VI , in ...

Bordone, Cavaliere Paris

An eminent painter of the Venetian school, b. at Treviso, 1500 d. at Venice, 1570. A member of ...

Borgess, Caspar Henry

Third Bishop of Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. b. at Kloppenburg, Hanover, Germany, 1 August, ...

Borgia, Stefano

Cardinal, born at Velletri, 3 December, 1731; died at Lyons, 1804; Italian theologian, ...

Borgo San-Donnino

Diocese in the province of Parma, Italy. The city takes its name from St. Domninus, who fled to ...

Borgo San-Sepolcro

Diocese situated in the province of Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy. The city is believed by some to ...

Borgognone, Ambrogio

(Real name AMBROGIO STEFANI DA FOSSANO). A distinguished Italian painter and architect, b. ...

Borie, Pierre-Rose-Ursule-Dumoulin

Bishop-elect of Acanthus, Vicar Apostolic of Western Tongking and Martyr ; b. 20 February, ...

Borneo

I. DUTCH BORNEO The former Vicariate of Bavaria was composed of Sumatra, Java, and the other ...

Borras, Francisco Nicolás

A distinguished Spanish painter, born at Cocentaina, 1530; died at Gandia, 1610. Going to ...

Borromeo, Andrea

An Italian missionary, born on the first half of the seventeenth century, at or near Milan ; ...

Borromeo, Federico

Cardinal and Archbishop of Milan, cousin and successor of St. Charles Borromeo, born at Milan ...

Borromeo, Saint Charles

St. Charles Borromeo -- Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal-Priest of the Title of St. Prassede, ...

Borromeo, Society of Saint Charles

(Borro-Mäusverein). A German Catholic association for the encouragement and diffusion ...

Borromini, Francesco

Architect and sculptor ; born 25 September, 1599, at Bissone; died ( by his own hand ) 1 ...

Borrus, Christopher

(Borri, Burrus) Missionary, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Milan in 1583; died at ...

Bosa, Diocese of

In the province of Cagliari, The city numbers about 35,000 inhabitants. St. Gregory the Great, ...

Bosch, Peter van der

Bollandist, born at Brussels, 19 October, 1686; died 14 November, 1736. After studying the ...

Bosco, Saint Giovanni (John)

( Or St. John Bosco; Don Bosco.) Founder of the Salesian Society. Born of poor parents in ...

Boscovich, Ruggiero Giuseppe

A Dalmatian Jesuit and well-known mathematician, astronomer, and natural philosopher, b. at ...

Bosio, Antonio

Known as "The Columbus of the Catacombs ", b. in the island of Malta about the year 1576; d. ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina form the north-western corner of the Balkan Peninsula. Taking the two ...

Boso

First Bishop of Merseburg, in the present Prussian Province of Saxony, and Apostle of the ...

Boso (Breakspear)

Third English Cardinal, date of birth uncertain, d. at Rome, about 1181. He was a Benedictine ...

Bossu, Jacques le

French theologian and Doctor of the Sorbonne, born at Paris 1546; died at Rome 1626. He ...

Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne

A celebrated French bishop and pulpit orator, born at Dijon, 27 September, 1627, died at ...

Boste, Saint John

(Or JOHN BOAST.) Priest and martyr, b. of good Catholic family at Dufton, in Westmoreland, ...

Boston

Archdiocese ; comprises Essex, Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Plymouth counties in the State ...

Bostra

Titular see of Syria. Bostra, "The fortress", is neither Bosor of Reuben and Moab ( ...

Bothrys

A titular see situated in Phoenicia. Bothrys is the Greek name of a city founded by Ithobaal, ...

Botticelli, Sandro

A famous Florentine painter. Born at Florence about 1447; died in the same city, 1510. ...

Botulph, Saint

(Or BOTOLPH.) Abbot, date of birth unknown; died c. 680. St. Botulph, the saint whose name ...

Boturini Benaducci, Lorenzo

A native of Milan in Lombardy who went to Mexico in 1736 by permission of the Spanish ...

Boucher, Pierre

Born at Lagny, a village near Mortagne in the Perche, France, 1622, died at Boucherville, 1717. ...

Bougaud, Louis-Victor-Emile

Bishop of Laval in France, b. at Dijon, 28 February 1823, d. at Laval 7 November, 1888. He ...

Bougeant, Guillaume-Hyacinthe

Born at Quimper in Brittany, in 1690; died at Paris, 1743. He entered the Society of Jesus ...

Bouhours, Dominique

French Jesuit author, born at Paris, 15 May, 1632; died 27 May, 1702. Entering the Society of ...

Bouillart, Jacques

A Benedictine monk of the Congregation of St.-Maur, b. in the Diocese of Chartres, 1669; ...

Bouillon, Cardinal de

(Emmanuel Thédore de la Tour d'Auvergne) French prelate and diplomat, b. 24 August, 1643, ...

Bouix, Marie Dominique

One of the best known and most distinguished of modern French canonists, b. 15 May, 1808, at ...

Boulainvilliers, Henri, Count of

Born at Saint-Saire (Seine-Inférieure) France, 11 October, 1658; died at Paris, 23 ...

Boulanger, André de

(PETIT-PÈRE ANDRÉ). A French monk and preacher, b. at Paris in 1578; d. 27 ...

Boulay, César-Egasse du

(BULÆUS). A French historian, b. in the beginning of the seventeenth century at ...

Boulogne, Etienne-Antoine

French bishop, b. at Avignon, 26 December 1747; d. at Troyes, 13 March, 1825. He was the son of ...

Bouquet, Martin

A learned Benedictine of the Congregation of St.-Maur, b. at Amiens, France, 6 August, 1685; ...

Bouquillon, Thomas

Born at Warneton, Belgium, 16 May, 1840; died at Brussels, 5 November, 1902; a Belgian ...

Bourassé, Jean-Jacques

Archæologist and historian, b. at Ste.-Maure (Indre-et-Loire), France, 22 December, 1813; ...

Bourchier, Thomas

Born 1406; died 1486, Cardinal, was the third son of William Bourchier, Earl of Eu, and of Lady ...

Bourdaloue, Louis

Born at Bourges, 20 August, 1632; died at Paris, 13 May, 1704. He is often described as the ...

Bourdeilles, Hélie de

Archbishop of Tours and Cardinal, b., probably, towards 1423, at the castle of Bourdeilles ...

Bourdon, Jean

Born at Rouen, France, 1612; died at Quebec, 1668. In 1634 he went to Canada and became the ...

Bourgade, François

A French missionary and philosopher, b. 7 July, 1806, at Gaujan, department of Gers; d. 21 May, ...

Bourges

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOURGES (BITURICÆ). Coextensive with the departments of Cher and Indre. ...

Bourget, Ignace

First Bishop of Montreal, P.Q., Canada, and titular Archbishop of Martianopolis, b. at Point ...

Bourgoing, François

Third Superior general of the Congregation of the Oratory in France and one of the early ...

Bourke, Ulick Joseph

Irish scholar and writer, b. 29 Dec., 1829, at Castlebar, Co. Mayo ; d. there, 22 Nov., 1887; ...

Bourne, Gilbert

Last Catholic Bishop of Bath and Wells , England, son of Philip Bourne of Worcestershire, ...

Bouvens, Charles de

French pulpit orator, b. at Bourg in 1750; d. in 1830. At an early age he embraced the ...

Bouvet, Joachim

Jesuit missionary, born at Le Mans, France (date unknown), died at Peking, China, 28 June, 1732. ...

Bouvier, Jean-Baptiste

Bishop of Le Mans, theologian, b. At St. Charles-la-Forêt, Mayenne, 16 January, 1783; d. ...

Bouvier, Jeanne-Marie, de La Motte-Guyon

A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...

Bova

DIOCESE OF BOVA. Situated in the civil province of Reggio, in Calabria, Italy, suffragan to ...

Bovino

Diocese in the province of Foggia, Italy, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Benevento. The city, ...

Bowyer, Sir George

Baronet, an eminent English writer on jurisprudence, as well as a prominent defender of the Holy ...

Boy-Bishop

The custom of electing a boy-bishop on the feast of St. Nicholas dates from very early ...

Boyce, John

Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass", born in ...

Boycotting

The name of boycotting was first aplied to a practice which had its origin in Ireland during the ...

Boyle Abbey

A celebrated Cistercian house situated on the River Boyle, nine miles northwest of Elphin, in ...

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Br 135

Brébeuf, Jean de

Jesuit missionary, born at Condé-sur-Vire in Normandy, 25 March, 1593; died in Canada, ...

Bréhal, Jean

A French Dominican theologian of the convent of Evreux ; died c. 1479. He was made Doctor of ...

Brück, Heinrich

Ecclesiastical historian and bishop, born at Bingen, 25 October, 1831; died 4 November, 1903. He ...

Brünn

Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Olmutz, embracing the south-western part of Moravia, an ...

Bracken, Thomas

Poet, journalist, politician, b. in Ireland 21 December, 1843; d. at Dunedin, New Zealand , 16 ...

Bracton, Henry de

Also called HENRY OF BRACTON. A famous English juridical writer, the Blackstone of the ...

Bradley, Denis Mary

First Bishop of Manchester, New Hampshire , U.S.A. b. 25 February, 1846, at Castle-island, ...

Bradshaigh, Edward

An English Carmelite friar known in religion as Elias à Jesu; b. in Lancashire, ...

Bradshaw, Henry

English Benedictine and poet, b. in the City of Chester, England, date unknown; d. 1513. From ...

Brady, William Maziere

Ecclesiastical writer, b. in Dublin, 8 January, 1825; d. in Rome, 19 March, 1894. He was nephew ...

Braga, Archdiocese of

(Bracara Augusta, Civitas Bracarensis). Braga is situated in a flat fertile tract of land ...

Braga, Councils of

Many councils were held in Braga, some of them important. The authenticity of the so-called ...

Bragança-Miranda, Diocese of

(Brigantiensis.) This diocese is situated in the northeastern part of the Kingdom of ...

Brahminism

By Brahminism is meant the complex religion and social system which grew out of the ...

Braille, Louis

French educator and inventor, born 4 January 1809, at Coupvray, Seine-et-Marne, France ; died 6 ...

Bralion, Nicolas de

French Oratorian and ecclesiastical writer, born at Chars-en-Vexin, France, c. 1600; died at ...

Bramante, Donato

(Also called D 'A GNOLO after his father Angelo) Italian architect and painter, b. about ...

Brancaccio

An ancient and illustrious Neapolitan family, from which the "Brancas" of France were descended. ...

Brancati di Lauria, Francesco Lorenzo

Cardinal, Minor conventual, and theologian, b. at Lauria in the then Kingdom of Naples, 10 ...

Brancati, Francesco

Born in Sicily in 1607; he entered the Society of Jesus in 1624 and went to the Chinese ...

Branch Sunday

One of the medieval English names for Palm Sunday. The difficulty of procuring palms for that ...

Brandenburg

Formerly an electoral principality (the Mark of Brandenburg), and a diocese in the heart of the ...

Branly, Edouard

French physicist and inventor of the coherer employed in wireless telegraphy, born at Amiens, 23 ...

Brantôme, Seigneur de Bourdeille, Pierre de

One of the most famous of French writers of memoirs, b. in 1539, or a little later; d. 15 July, ...

Brant, Sebastian

A German humanist and poet, born at Stasburg in 1457 or 1458; died at the same place, 1521. He ...

Brasses, Memorial

Just when memorial brasses first came into use is not known; the earliest existing dated ...

Brasseur de Bourbourg, Charles Etienne, Abbé

Born at Bourbourg (Département du Nord), France, 1814; died at Nice in January, 1874. He ...

Brassicanus, Johann Alexander

A German humanist, born probably at Cannstatt, 1500; died at Vienna, 25 November, 1539. He was ...

Brassicanus, Johann Ludwig

Younger brother of Johann Alexander (b. at Tübingen, 1509; d. at Vienna, 3 June, 1549) went ...

Braulio, Saint

Bishop of Saragossa, date of birth unknown, d. at Saragossa c. 651. In 631 he succeeded his ...

Braun, Placidus

A Bavarian historian, b. at Peiting near Schongau in Upper Bavaria, 11 February, 1756; d. at ...

Braunschweig

A duchy situated in the mountainous central part of Northern Germany, comprising the region of the ...

Bravo, Francisco

As far as known, author of the first book on medicine printed in America. His "Opera Medicinalia ...

Brazil

(T HE U NITED S TATES OF B RAZIL ) A vast republic of central South America covering an ...

Bread, Liturgical Use of

In the Christian liturgy bread is used principally as one of the elements of the Eucharistic ...

Breadboxes, Altar

These are made of wood, tin, britannia, silver, or other metal. In order that the breads may not ...

Breads, Altar

Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. It ...

Breast, Striking of the

Striking of the breast as a liturgical act is prescribed in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass ...

Breda

(BREDANA) Diocese situated in the Dutch province of Brabant and suffragan of Utrecht. The ...

Brehon Laws, The

Brehon law is the usual term for Irish native law, as administered in Ireland down to almost ...

Bremen

Formerly the seat of an archdiocese situated in the north-western part of the present German ...

Brenach, Saint

An Irish missionary in Wales, a contemporary of St. Patrick, and among the earliest of the ...

Brenan, Michael John

An ecclesiastical historian, born in Kilkenny, Ireland, in 1780; died at Dublin, February, ...

Brendan, Saint

St. Brendan of Ardfert and Clonfert, known also as Brendan the Voyager, was born in Ciarraighe ...

Brentano, Klemens Maria

A German poet, one of the most prominent members of the Romantic School. He was born at ...

Brescia

The Diocese of Brescia takes its name from the principal city in the province of the same name in ...

Breslau

Prince-Bishopric seated at Breslau, on the River Oder in the Prussian Province of Silesia. ...

Bressani, Francesco Giuseppe

An Indian missionary, born in Rome, 6 May, 1612; died at Florence, 9 September, 1672. He entered ...

Brest, Union of

Brest -- in Russian, Brest-Litovski; in Polish, Brzesc; in the old chronicles, called Brestii, or ...

Brethren of the Lord, The

A group of persons closely connected with the Saviour appears repeatedly in the New ...

Breton, Raymond

A noted French missionary among the Caribbean Indians, b. at Baune, 3 September, 1609; d. at Caen, ...

Bretton, Venerable John

(Or Bretton). A layman and martyr, of all ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in ...

Breviary

This subject may be divided, for convenience of treatment, as follows: I. DEFINITION; II. ...

Breviary, Aberdeen

This breviary may be described as the Sarum Office in a Scottish form. The use of the ancient ...

Breviary, Reform of the Roman

By the Apostolic Constitution "Divino Afflatu" of Pius X (1 November, 1911), a change was made ...

Brewer, Heinrich

A German historian, born at Puffendorf in Germany, 6 September, 1640; died at the same place ...

Briçonnet

(1) Guillaume Briçonnet A French cardinal, b. at Tours, date of birth unknown; d. at ...

Briand, Joseph Olivier

Seventh Bishop of Quebec, b. in 1715 at Plérin, Brittany; d. 25 June, 1794. He studied ...

Briant, Saint Alexander

English Jesuit and martyr, born in Somersetshire of a yeoman family about 1556; executed at ...

Bribery

The payment or the promise of money or other lucrative consideration to induce another, while ...

Bridaine, Jacques

Preacher, b. at Chusclan, France, 21 March, 1701; d. at Roquemaure, 22 December, 1767. Having ...

Bridge-Building Brotherhood, The

During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, we hear of the existence of various religious ...

Bridget of Sweden, Saint

(Also Birgitta). The most celebrated saint of the Northern kingdoms, born about 1303; died 23 ...

Bridgett, Thomas Edward

Priest and author, b. at Derby, England, 20 January, 1829, of Protestant parents ; d. at St. ...

Bridgewater Treatises

These publications derive their origin and their title from the Rev. Francis Henry Egerton, eighth ...

Bridgewater, John

Known also as AQUAPONTANUS, historian of the Catholic Confessors under Queen Elizabeth, b. in ...

Briefs and Bulls

A bulla was originally a circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its resemblance in ...

Brieuc, Saint

(Briocus, Brioc, or Bru). A Celtic saint of Brittany who received his education in Ireland ...

Brigid of Ireland, Saint

(Incorrectly known as BRIDGET). Born in 451 or 452 of princely ancestors at Faughart, near ...

Brigidines, Institute of the

(SISTERS OF ST. BRIGID.) The Institute of the Brigidines was established by Most Rev. Dr. ...

Brigittines

The Brigittine Order (also, ORDER OF ST. SAVIOUR) was founded in 1346 by St. Brigit, or Bridget, ...

Brignon, John

Born at St. Malo in 1629; died at Paris, 12 June, 1712. He was a member of the Society of Jesus ...

Bril, Paulus

A brilliant Flemish painter and engraver, born at Antwerp, 1556; died in Rome, 7 October, 1626. ...

Brillmacher, Peter Michael

Born at Cologne in 1542, died at Mainz, 25 August, 1595. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1558, ...

Brindholm, Ven. Edmund

(Or B RYNDEHOLME .) Martyr and parish priest of Our Lady's Church at Calais, accused of ...

Brindisi

Brindisi—called by the Romans Brundusium or Brundisium , by the Greeks Brentesion ...

Brinkley, Stephen

Confessor of the Faith, imprisoned and tortured as manager of a secret press for the ...

Brisacier, Jacques-Charles de

Orator and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Bourges in 1641, d. at Paris, 23 March, 1736. At the ...

Brisacier, Jean de

Controversialist, b. at Blois, France, 9 June, 1592; entered the Society of Jesus in 1619, d. at ...

Brisbane

Comprises that part of the State of Queensland, Australia, which lies south of the 24th parallel ...

Brischar, Johann Nepomucene

Church historian, born at Horb in Würtemberg in 1819, studied theology at the University ...

Bristol, Ancient Diocese of

(BRISTOLIA, BRISTOLIENSIS). This English diocese, which takes its very origin from measures ...

Bristow, Richard

Born at Worcester, 1538, died at Harrow-on-the-Hill, 1581. He went to the University of Oxford ...

British Columbia

British Columbia is the westernmost province of the Dominion of Canada. Territorially, it is also ...

Britius, Francis

An orientalist, and a monk of Rennes in Brittany; date of birth and death unknown. He entered ...

Brittain, Thomas Lewis

Born near Chester, England, 1744; died at Hartpury Court, 1827. His parents were Protestants, ...

Britto, Blessed John de

Martyr ; born in Lisbon, 1 March, 1647, and was brought up in court; martyred in India 11 ...

Britton, Venerable John

(Or Bretton). A layman and martyr, of all ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in ...

Brixen

A Prince-Bishopric of Austria, suffragan of Salzburg, embracing the greater part of Northern ...

Brogan, Saint

Flourished in the sixth or seventh century. Several persons in repute for holiness seem to have ...

Broglie, Auguste-Théodore-Paul de

Abbé, professor of apologetics at the Institut Catholique at Paris, and writer on ...

Broglie, Jacques-Victor-Albert, Duc de

French statesman and historian, b. at Paris, 13 June, 1821; d. there 19 January, 1901. After a ...

Broglie, Maurice-Jean de

Born in Paris, 5 September, 1766; d. there, 20 June, 1821. He was the son of the Field-Marshal, ...

Brogny, Jean-Allarmet de

(Or JEAN-ALOUZIER). A French Cardinal, b. in 1342 at Brogny, in Savoy ; d. at Rome, 1426. ...

Bromyard, John

Theologian, d. about 1390. He takes his name from his birthplace in Herefordshire, England. He ...

Brondel, John Baptist

First Bishop of Helena, Montana, U.S.A. b. at Bruges, Belgium, 23 February, 1842; d. at ...

Brookby, Anthony

( Or Brorbey). Friar Minor and English martyr, died 19 July 1537. Brookby was lecturer in ...

Brookes, James

Last Catholic Bishop of Gloucester, England, b. May, 1512, in Hampshire, d. 1560. Proceeding to ...

Brooklyn

Comprises the counties of Kings, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk, or all of Long Island, in the State ...

Brosse, Jean-Baptiste de la

A Jesuit missionary, born 1724 at Magnac, Angoumois, France ; died 1782. He studied classics ...

Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God

St. John of God, the founder of this religious institution, was born 8 March, 1495, at Montemor ...

Broughton, Richard

( alias Rouse) Born about 1558 at Great Stukeley, Huntingdonshire; died according to ...

Brouwer, Christoph

(Browerius). Historian, born 12 March, 1559, at Arnheim, Holland ; died in 1617, at Trier, ...

Brown, William

A naval officer of the Republic of Argentina, b. 1777, in the County Mayo, Ireland ; d. 3 May, ...

Browne, Charles Farrar

(ARTEMUS WARD). Humorist, b. at Waterford, Oxford County, Maine, U.S.A. 26 April, 1834; d. ...

Brownson, Orestes Augustus

Philosopher, essayist, reviewer, b. at Stockbridge, Vermont, U.S.A., 16 September, 1803; d. at ...

Brownson, Sarah

Daughter of Orestes A. Brownson, b. at Chelsea, Massachusetts, 7 June, 1839; married William ...

Brownsville

Vicariate Apostolic, erected 1874. Previous to this date the entire State of Texas was under ...

Bru, Saint

(Briocus, Brioc, or Bru). A Celtic saint of Brittany who received his education in Ireland ...

Bruel, Joachim

(Brulius). A theologian and historian, born early in the seventeenth century at Vorst, a ...

Brueys, David-Augustin de

A French theologian and dramatic author, born at Aix in 1640; died 25 November, 1723, at ...

Brugère, Louis-Frédéric

Professor of apologetics and church history, born at Orléans, 8 October 1823; died at ...

Bruges

The chief town of the Province of West Flanders in the Kingdom of Belgium. Pope Nicholas I in ...

Brugière, Pierre

A French priest, Jansenist, and Juror, born at Thiers, 3 October, 1730; died at Paris, 7 ...

Brugman, John

A renowned Franciscan preacher of the fifteenth century, b. at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, ...

Brumidi, Constantino

An Italian-American historical painter, celebrated for his fresco work in the Capitol at ...

Brumoy, Pierre

Born at Rouen in Normandy, 1688; entered the Society of Jesus in 1704; died in Paris, 1742. ...

Brunellesco, Filippo

(Or Brunelleschi) An architect and sculptor, born at Florence, 1377; died there 16 April, ...

Brunetière, Ferdinand

A French critic and professor, born at Toulon, 19 July, 1849; died at Paris, 9 December, 1906. ...

Brunforte, Ugolino

Friar Minor and chronicler, born c. 1262; died c. 1348. His father Rinaldo, Lord of Sarnano in the ...

Bruni, Leonardo

An eminent Italian humanist, b. of poor and humble parents at Arezzo, the birthplace of ...

Brunner, Francis de Sales

The founder of the Swiss-American congregation of the Benedictines, b. 10 January, 1795, at ...

Brunner, Sebastian

A versatile and voluminous writer, b. in Vienna, 10 December, 1814; d. there, 27 November, 1893. ...

Bruno of Querfurt, Saint

(Also called BRUN and BONIFACE). Second Apostle of the Prussians and martyr, born about ...

Bruno the Saxon

(SAXONICUS.) A German chronicler of the eleventh Century and author of the "Historia de Bello ...

Bruno, Giordano

Italian philosopher, b. at Nola in Campania, in the Kingdom of Naples, in 1548; d. at Rome, ...

Bruno, Saint

Bishop of Segni, in Italy, born at Solero, Piedmont, about 1048; died 1123. He received his ...

Bruno, Saint

Confessor, ecclesiastical writer, and founder of the Carthusian Order. He was born at Cologne ...

Brunswick

A duchy situated in the mountainous central part of Northern Germany, comprising the region of the ...

Brus, Anton

Archbishop of Prague, b. at. Muglitz in Moravia, 13 February, 1518; d. 28 August, 1580. After ...

Brusa

A titular see of Bithynia in Asia Minor. According to Strabo, XII, iv, the city was founded by ...

Brussels

(From Bruk Sel , marsh-castle; Flemish Brussel , German Brussel , French Bruxelles ). ...

Bruté de Rémur, Simon William Gabriel

First Bishop of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A. (now Indianapolis ), b. at Rennes, France, 20 March ...

Bruyas, Jacques

Born at Lyons, France, 13 July, 1635; died at Sault St. Louis, Canada, 15 June 1712. He ...

Bryant, John Delavau

Physician, poet, author, and editor, b. in Philadelphia, U.S.A. 1811; d. 1877. He was the son of ...

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Bu 67

Bubastis

A titular see of Lower Egypt, on the right bank of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, near the ...

Bucelin, Gabriel

(Buzlin). A Benedictine historical writer, born at Diessenhofen in Thurgau, 29 December, ...

Bucer, Martin

(Also called BUTZER.) One of the leaders in the South German Reformation movement, b. 11 ...

Bucharest

(B UCHAREST ; B UCARESTIENSIS ; Rumanian, B UCHARESCI "City of enjoyment") Comprises the ...

Buck, Victor De

Bollandist, born at Oudenarde, Flanders, 21 April, 1817; died 28 June, 1876. His family was one ...

Buckfast Abbey

The date of the foundation of the monastery of Our Lady of Buckfast, two miles from ...

Buckley, Sir Patrick Alphonsus

A soldier, lawyer, stateman, judge, born near Castletownsend, County Cork, Ireland, in 1841; died ...

Buckley, Venerable John

( Alias John Jones; alias John Griffith; in religion, Godfrey Maurice). Priest and martyr, ...

Budé, Guillaume

(Budaeus). A French Hellenist, born at Paris, 1467; died there 22 August, 1540. He studied at ...

Buddhism

The religious, monastic system, founded c. 500 B.C. on the basis of pantheistic Brahminism. The ...

Budweis

(Czech, BUDEJOVICE; Latin BUDOVICIUM; BOHEMO-BUDVICENSIS). A diocese situated in Southern ...

Buenos Aires

The federal capital of the Argentine Republic , and the second city of the Latin races in the ...

Buffalo

Diocese established 23 April, 1847, now comprises the counties of Erie, Niagara, Genesee, ...

Buffier, Claude

A philosopher, and author, born in Poland, of French parents, 25 May, 1661; died in Paris, 17 ...

Buglio, Louis

A celebrated missionary in China, mathematician, and theologian, born at Mineo, Sicily, 26 ...

Buil, Bernardo

(Also Boil or Boyal.) A Friar Minor. The fact that there were two religious of the name of ...

Buildings, Ecclesiastical

This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever ...

Bukarest

(B UCHAREST ; B UCARESTIENSIS ; Rumanian, B UCHARESCI "City of enjoyment") Comprises the ...

Bulgaria

A European kingdom in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, bounded by the Black Sea, ...

Bull-Fight, The Spanish

Overview Neither the English term nor the German ( Stiergefecht ) used to designate this ...

Bulla Aurea

(Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...

Bullaker, Ven. Thomas

( Also John Baptist). A Friar Minor and English martyr, born at Chichester about the ...

Bullarium

Bullarium is a term commonly applied to a collection of bulls and other analogous papal ...

Bullion, Angélique

Born in Paris, at commencement of the seventeenth century, her parents being Guichard Favre and ...

Bulls and Briefs

A bulla was originally a circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its resemblance in ...

Bulstrode, Sir Richard

A soldier, diplomatist, and author, born 1610; died 1711, was the second son of Edward Bulstrode ...

Bunderius, Joannes

(VAN DEN BUNDERE). A Flemish theologian and controversialist, born of distinguished parents ...

Buonarroti, Michelangelo

Italian sculptor, painter, and architect, b. at Caprese in the valley of the upper Arno, 6 March, ...

Burchard of Basle

(Also of HASENBURG or ASUEL, from his ancestral castle in Western Berne, Switzerland ). ...

Burchard of Würzurg, Saint

First bishop of Würzurg, b. in England of Anglo-Saxon parents, date unknown; d. in ...

Burchard of Worms

Bishop of that see, b. of noble parents in Hesse, Germany, after the middle of the tenth ...

Burckmair, Hans

(Or Burgkmair). A painter of the Swabian school, b. at Augsburg in 1473; d. in 1531. He was ...

Burgis, Edward Ambrose

A Dominican historian and theologian, b. in England c. 1673; d. in Brussels, 27 April, 1747. ...

Burgoa, Francisco

Born at Oaxaca about 1600; d. at Teopozotlan in 1681. He entered the Dominican Order 2 August, ...

Burgos

(B URGENSIS ) The Archdiocese of Burgos (from burgi, burgorum , signifying a ...

Burgundy

(Latin Burgundia , German Burgund , French Bourgogne ). In medieval times ...

Burial, Christian

The interment of a deceased person with ecclesiastical rites in consecrated ground. The Jews ...

Buridan, Jean

French scholastic philosopher of the fourteenth century, b. at Béthune, in the district of ...

Burigny, Jean Lévesque de

Historian, b. at Reims, 1692; d. at Paris, 1785. In 1713, with his brothers, Champeaux and ...

Burkard, Franz

The name of two celebrated German jurists. One died suddenly at Rain, 9 December 1539. He began to ...

Burke, Edmund

First Vicar Apostolic of Nova Scotia, b. in the parish of Maryborough, County Kildare, Ireland, ...

Burke, Thomas

(THOMAS DE BURGO) Bishop of Ossory, b. at Dublin, Ireland, about 1709; d. at Kilkenny, 25 ...

Burke, Thomas Nicholas

A celebrated Dominican orator, b. 8 September, 1830, in Galway ; d. 2 July, 1882, at ...

Burleigh, Walter

(Also: Walter Burley; Burlæus). Friar Minor and medieval philosopher, b. in 1275 and d. in ...

Burlington

(Burlingtonensis). Diocese established 14 July, 1853; comprises the whole State of Vermont , ...

Burma

Before its annexation by the British Burma consisted of the kingdoms of Ava and Pegu. In 1548 St. ...

Burnett, Peter Hardeman

First American Governor of California, U.S.A. b. in Nashville, Tennessee, 15 Nov., 1807, of ...

Burns, James

Publisher and author, b. near Montrose, Forfarshire, Scotland, 1808; d. in London, 11 April, ...

Burse

( Bursa , "hide", "skin"; whence "bag" or "purse"). A receptacle in which, for reasons of ...

Bursfeld, The Abbey of

In the Middle Ages on of the most celebrated Benedictine monasteries in Germany was the ...

Bury St. Edmund's, The Abbey of

The first religious foundation there was established by Sigebert, King of the East Angles, who ...

Busée, Pierre

(Busæus or Buys). A Jesuit theologian, born at Nimwegen in 1540; died at Vienna in ...

Bus, Venerable César de

A priest and founder of two religious congregations, b. 3 February, 1544, at Cavaillon, Comtat ...

Busembaum, Hermann

Moral theologian, born at Notteln, Westphalia, 1600; died at Münster, 31 January, 1668. He ...

Busiris

A titular see taking its title from one of the many Egyptian cities of the same name. This ...

Buskins

(Caligæ). Ceremonial stockings of silk, sometimes interwoven with gold threads, and even ...

Buss, Franz Joseph, Ritter von

Jurist, b. 23 March, 1803 at Zell in Baden ; d. 31 January, 1878, at Freiburg im Breisgau. He ...

Bustamante, Carlos María

Mexican statesman and historian, b. at Oaxaca, Mexico, 4 November, 1774; d. in Mexico, 29 ...

Buston, Thomas Stephen

(or Busten) A Jesuit missionary and author, born 1549, in the Diocese of Salisbury , ...

Bute, John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, Third Marquess of

Born at Mountstuart, Bute, 12 September, 1847; d. at Dumfries House, Ayrshire, 9 October, 1900, ...

Buteux, Jacques

French missionary in Canada. Born at Abbeville, in Picardy, 11 April, 1600; slain by the ...

Butler, Alban

Historian, b. 10 October, 1710, at Appletree, Northamptonshire, England ; d. at St-Omer, ...

Butler, Charles

One of the most prominent figures among the English Catholics of his day, b. in London, 1750, d. ...

Butler, Mary Joseph

First Irish Abbess of the Irish Benedictine Abbey of Our Lady of Grace, at Ypres, Flanders, ...

Butler, Sir William Francis

Born at Suirville, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 31 October, 1838; died 7 June, 1910, was the son of ...

Buttress

A pilaster, pier, or body of masonry projecting beyond the main face of the wall and intended to ...

Buxton, Ven. Chrisopher

Priest and martyr, b. in Derbyshire; d. at Canterbury, 1 October, 1588. He was a scholar of ...

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Byblos

A titular see of Phoenicia. Byblos is the Greek name of Gebal "The Mountain", one of the oldest ...

Bye-Altar

An altar that is subordinate to the central or high altar. The term is generally applied to ...

Byllis

A titular see of Epirus Nova (Albania), whose title is often added to that of Apollonia among ...

Byrd, William

English composer, born in London in 1542 or 1543; died 4 July, 1623. He was the son of a ...

Byrne, Andrew

Bishop of Little Rock, Arkansas, U.S.A. b. at Navan, Co. Meath, Ireland, 5 December, 1802; ...

Byrne, Richard

Brevet brigadier general, United States Army, b. in Co. Cavan, Ireland, 1832; d. at Washington, ...

Byrne, William

Missionary and educator, born in County Wicklow, Ireland, in 1780; died at Bardstown, Kentucky, ...

Byzantine Architecture

A mixed style, i.e. a style composed of Graeco-Roman and Oriental elements which, in earlier ...

Byzantine Art

The art of the Eastern Roman Empire and of its capital Byzantium, or Constantinople. The term ...

Byzantine Empire, The

The ancient Roman Empire having been divided into two parts, an Eastern and a Western, the Eastern ...

Byzantine Literature

To grasp correctly the essential characteristics of Byzantine literature, it is necessary first ...

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