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Free Will

  • RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY
  • HISTORY
    • Free Will in Ancient Philosophy
    • Free Will and the Christian Religion
      • Catholic Doctrine
      • Thomist and Molinist Theories
      • Free will and the Protestant Reformers
    • Free Will in Modern Philosophy
  • THE ARGUMENT
    • Proof
    • Objections
  • NATURE AND RANGE OF MORAL LIBERTY
  • CONSEQUENCES

The question of free will, moral liberty, or the liberum arbitrium of the Schoolmen, ranks amongst the three or four most important philosophical problems of all time. It ramifies into ethics, theology, metaphysics, and psychology. The view adopted in response to it will determine a man's position in regard to the most momentous issues that present themselves to the human mind. On the one hand, does man possess genuine moral freedom, power of real choice, true ability to determine the course of his thoughts and volitions, to decide which motives shall prevail within his mind, to modify and mould his own character ? Or, on the other, are man's thoughts and volitions, his character and external actions, all merely the inevitable outcome of his circumstances? Are they all inexorably predetermined in every detail along rigid lines by events of the past, over which he himself has had no sort of control? This is the real import of the free-will problem.

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY

(1) Ethically, the issue vitally affects the meaning of most of our fundamental moral terms and ideas. Responsibility, merit, duty, remorse, justice, and the like, will have a totally different significance for one who believes that all man's acts are in the last resort completely determined by agencies beyond his power, from that which these terms bear for the man who believes that each human being possessed of reason can by his own free will determine his deliberate volitions and so exercise a real command over his thoughts, his deeds, and the formation of his character.

(2) Theology studies the questions of the existence, nature and attributes of God, and His relations with man. The reconciliation of God's fore-knowledge and universal providential government of the world with the contingency of human action, as well as the harmonizing of the efficacy of supernatural grace with the free natural power of the creature, has been amongst the most arduous labours of the theological student from the days of St. Augustine down to the present time.

(3) Causality, change, movement, the beginning of existence, are notions which lie at the very heart of metaphysics. The conception of the human will as a free cause involves them all.

(4) Again, the analysis of voluntary action and the investigation of its peculiar features are the special functions of Psychology. Indeed, the nature of the process of volition and of all forms of appetitive or conative activity is a topic that has absorbed a constantly increasing space in psychological literature during the past fifty years.

(5) Finally, the rapid growth of sundry branches of modern science, such as physics, biology, sociology, and the systematization of moral statistics, has made the doctrine of free will a topic of the most keen interest in many departments of more positive knowledge.

HISTORY

Free Will in Ancient Philosophy

The question of free will does not seem to have presented itself very clearly to the early Greek philosophers. Some historians have held that the Pythagoreans must have allotted a certain degree of moral freedom to man, from their recognition of man's responsibility for sin with consequent retribution experienced in the course of the transmigration of souls. The Eleatics adhered to a pantheistic monism, in which they emphasized the immutability of one eternal unchangeable principle so as to leave no room for freedom. Democritus also taught that all events occur by necessity, and the Greek atomists generally, like their modern representatives, advocated a mechanical theory of the universe, which excluded all contingency. With Socrates, the moral aspect of all philosophical problems became prominent, yet his identification of all virtue with knowledge and his intense personal conviction that it is impossible deliberately to do what one clearly perceives to be wrong, led him to hold that the good, being identical with the true, imposes itself irresistibly on the will as on the intellect, when distinctly apprehended. Every man necessarily wills his greatest good, and his actions are merely means to this end. He who commits evil does so out of ignorance as to the right means to the true good. Plato held in the main the same view. Virtue is the determination of the will by the knowledge of the good; it is true freedom. The wicked man is ignorant and a slave. Sometimes, however, Plato seems to suppose that the soul possessed genuine free choice in a previous life, which there decided its future destiny. Aristotle disagrees with both Plato and Socrates, at least in part. He appeals to experience. Men can act against the knowledge of the true good; vice is voluntary. Man is responsible for his actions as the parent of them. Moreover his particular actions, as means to his end, are contingent, a matter of deliberation and subject to choice. The future is not all predictable. Some events depend on chance. Aristotle was not troubled by the difficulty of prevision on the part of his God. Still his physical theory of the universe, the action he allots to the noûs poietkós , and the irresistible influence exerted by the Prime Mover make the conception of genuine moral freedom in his system very obscure and difficult. The Stoics adopted a form of materialistic Pantheism. God and the world are one. All the world's movements are governed by rigid law. Unvaried causality unity of design, fatalistic government, prophecy and foreknowledge--all these factors exclude chance and the possibility of free will. Epicurus, oddly in contrast here with his modern hedonistic followers, advocates free will and modifies the strict determinism of the atomists, whose physics he accepts, by ascribing to the atoms a clinamen , a faculty of random deviation in their movements. His openly professed object, however, in this point as in the rest of his philosophy, is to release men from the fears caused by belief in irresistible fate.

Free Will and the Christian Religion

The problem of free will assumed quite a new character with the advent of the Christian religion. The doctrine that God has created man, has commanded him to obey the moral law, and has promised to reward or punish him for observance or violation of this law, made the reality of moral liberty an issue of transcendent importance. Unless man is really free, he cannot be justly held responsible for his actions, any more than for the date of his birth or the colour of his eyes. All alike are inexorably predetermined for him. Again, the difficulty of the question was augmented still further by the Christian dogma of the fall of man and his redemption by grace. St. Paul, especially in his Epistle to the Romans, is the great source of the Catholic theology of grace.

Catholic Doctrine

Among the early Fathers of the Church , St. Augustine stands pre-eminent in his handling of this subject. He clearly teaches the freedom of the will against the Manichæeans, but insists against the Semipelageians on the necessity of grace, as a foundation of merit. He also emphasizes very strongly the absolute rule of God over men's wills by His omnipotence and omniscience--through the infinite store, as it were, of motives which He has had at His disposal from all eternity, and by the foreknowledge of those to which the will of each human being would freely consent. St. Augustine's teaching formed the basis of much of the later theology of the Church on these questions, though other writers have sought to soften the more rigorous portions of his doctrine. This they did especially in opposition to heretical authors, who exaggerated these features in the works of the great African Doctor and attempted to deduce from his principles a form of rigid predeterminism little differing from fatalism. The teaching of St. Augustine is developed by St. Thomas Aquinas both in theology and philosophy. Will is rational appetite. Man necessarily desires beatitude, but he can freely choose between different forms of it. Free will is simply this elective power. Infinite Good is not visible to the intellect in this life. There are always some drawbacks and deficiencies in every good presented to us. None of them exhausts our intellectual capacity of conceiving the good. Consequently, in deliberate volition, not one of them completely satiates or irresistibly entices the will. In this capability of the intellect for conceiving the universal lies the root of our freedom. But God possesses an infallible knowledge of man's future actions. How is this prevision possible, if man's future acts are not necessary ? God does not exist in time. The future and the past are alike ever present to the eternal mind as a man gazing down from a lofty mountain takes in at one momentary glance all the objects which can be apprehended only through a lengthy series of successive experiences by travellers along the winding road beneath, in somewhat similar fashion the intuitive vision of God apprehends simultaneously what is future to us with all it contains. Further, God's omnipotent providence exercises a complete and perfect control over all events that happen, or will happen, in the universe. How is this secured without infringement of man's freedom? Here is the problem which two distinguished schools in the Church --both claiming to represent the teaching, or at any rate the logical development of the teaching of St. Thomas--attempt to solve in different ways. The heresies of Luther and Calvin brought the issue to a finer point than it had reached in the time of Aquinas, consequently he had not formally dealt with it in its ultimate shape, and each of the two schools can cite texts from the works of the Angelic Doctor in which he appears to incline towards their particular view.

Thomist and Molinist Theories

The Dominican or Thomist solution, as it is called, teaches in brief that God premoves each man in all his acts to the line of conduct which he subsequently adopts. It holds that this premotive decree inclines man's will with absolute certainty to the side decreed, but that God adapts this premotion to the nature of the being thus premoved. It argues that as God possesses infinite power He can infallibly premove man --who is by nature a free cause--to choose a particular course freely, whilst He premoves the lower animals in harmony with their natures to adopt particular courses by necessity. Further, this premotive decree being inevitable though adapted to suit the free nature of man, provides a medium in which God foresees with certainty the future free choice of the human being. The premotive decree is thus prior in order of thought to the Divine cognition of man's future actions. Theologians and philosophers of the Jesuit School, frequently styled Molinists, though they do not accept the whole of Molina's teaching and generally prefer Francisco Suárez's exposition of the theory, deem the above solution unsatisfactory. It would, they readily admit, provide sufficiently for the infallibility of the Divine foreknowledge and also for God's providential control of the world's history; but, in their view, it fails to give at the same time an adequately intelligible account of the freedom of the human will. According to them, the relation of the Divine action to man's will should be conceived rather as of a concurrent than of a premotive character ; and they maintain that God's knowledge of what a free being would choose, if the necessary conditions were supplied, must be deemed logically prior to any decree of concurrence or premotion in respect to that act of choice. Briefly, they make a threefold distinction in God's knowledge of the universe based on the nature of the objects known--the Divine knowledge being in itself of course absolutely simple. Objects or events viewed merely as possible, God is said to apprehend by simple intelligence (simplex intelligentia). Events which will happen He knows by vision (scientia visionis). Intermediate between these are conditionally future events--things which would occur were certain conditions fulfilled. God's knowledge of this class of contingencies they term scientia media. For instance Christ affirmed that, if certain miracles had been wrought in Tyre and Sidon, the inhabitants would have been converted. The condition was not realized, yet the statement of Christ must have been true. About all such conditional contingencies propositions may be framed which are either true or false --and Infinite Intelligence must know all truth. The conditions in many cases will not be realized, so God must know them apart from any decrees determining their realization. He knows them therefore, this school holds, in seipsis , in themselves as conditionally future events. This knowledge is the scientia media , "middle knowledge ", intermediate between vision of the actual future and simple understanding of the merely possible. Acting now in the light of this scientia media with respect to human volitions, God freely decides according to His own wisdom whether He shall supply the requisite conditions, including His co-operation in the action, or abstain from so doing, and thus render possible or prevent the realization of the event. In other words, the infinite intelligence of God sees clearly what would happen in any conceivable circumstances. He thus knows what the free will of any creature would choose, if supplied with the power of volition or choice and placed in any given circumstances. He now decrees to supply the needed conditions, including His corcursus , or to abstain from so doing. He thus holds complete dominion and control over our future free actions, as well as over those of a necessary character. The Molinist then claims to safeguard better man's freedom by substituting for the decree of an inflexible premotion one of concurrence dependent on God's prior knowledge of what the free being would choose. If given the power to exert the choice. He argues that he exempts God more clearly from all responsibility for man's sins. The claim seems to the present writer well founded; at the same time it is only fair to record on the other side that the Thomist urges with considerable force that God's prescience is not so understandable in this, as in his theory. He maintains, too, that God's exercise of His absolute dominion over all man's acts and man's entire dependence on God's goodwill are more impressively and more worthily exhibited in the premotion hypothesis. The reader will find an exhaustive treatment of the question in any of the Scholastic textbooks on the subject.

Free will and the Protestant Reformers

A leading feature in the teaching of the Reformers of the sixteenth century, especially in the case of Luther and Calvin, was the denial of free will. Picking out from the Scriptures, and particularly from St. Paul, the texts which emphasized the importance and efficacy of grace, the all-ruling providence of God, His decrees of election or predestination, and the feebleness of man, they drew the conclusion that the human will, instead of being master of its own acts, is rigidly predetermined in all its choices throughout life. As a consequence, man is predestined before his birth to eternal punishment or reward in such fashion that he never can have had any real free-power over his own fate. In his controversy with Erasmus, who defended free will, Luther frankly stated that free will is a fiction, a name which covers no reality, for it is not in man's power to think well or ill, since all events occur by necessity. In reply to Erasmus's "De Libero Arbitrio", he published his own work, "De Servo Arbitrio", glorying in emphasizing man's helplessness and slavery. The predestination of all future human acts by God is so interpreted as to shut out any possibility of freedom. An inflexible internal necessity turns man's will whithersoever God preordains. With Calvin, God's preordination is, if possible, even more fatal to free will. Man can perform no sort of good act unless necessitated to it by God's grace which it is impossible for him to resist. It is absurd to speak of the human will "co-operating" with God's grace, for this would imply that man could resist the grace of God. The will of God is the very necessity of things. It is objected that in this case God sometimes imposes impossible commands. Both Calvin and Luther reply that the commands of God show us not what we can do but what we ought to do. In condemnation of these views, the Council of Trent declared that the free will of man, moved and excited by God, can by its consent co-operate with God, Who excites and invites its action; and that it can thereby dispose and prepare itself to obtain the grace of justification. The will can resist grace if it chooses. It is not like a lifeless thing, which remains purely passive. Weakened and diminished by Adam's fall, free will is yet not destroyed in the race (Sess. VI, cap. i and v).

Free Will in Modern Philosophy

Although from Descartes onward, philosophy became more and more separated from theology, still the theological significance of this particular question has always been felt to be of the highest moment. Descartes himself at times clearly maintains the freedom of the will (Meditations, III and IV). At times, however, he attenuates this view and leans towards a species of providential determinism, which is, indeed, the logical consequence of the doctrines of occasionalism and the inefficacy of secondary causes latent in his system.

Malebranche developed this feature of Descartes's teaching. Soul and body cannot really act on each other. The changes in the one are directly caused by God on the occasion of the corresponding change in the other. So-called secondary causes are not really efficacious. Only the First Cause truly acts. If this view be consistently thought out, the soul, since it possesses no genuine causality, cannot be justly said to be free in its volitions. Still, as a Catholic theologian, Malebranche could not accept this fatalistic determinism. Accordingly he defended freedom as essential to religion and morality. Human liberty being denied, God should be deemed cruel and unjust, whilst duty and responsibility for man cease to exist. We must therefore be free. Spinoza was more logical. Starting from certain principles of Descartes, he deduced in mathematical fashion an iron-bound pantheistic fatalism which left no room for contingency in the universe and still less for free will. In Leibniz, the prominence given to the principle of sufficient reason, the doctrine that man must choose that which the intellect judges as the better, and the optimistic theory that God Himself has inevitably chosen the present as being the best of all possible worlds, these views, when logically reasoned out, leave very little reality to free will, though Leibniz set himself in marked opposition to the monistic geometrical necessarianism of Spinoza.

In England the mechanical materialism of Hobbes was incompatible with moral liberty, and he accepted with cynical frankness all the logical consequences of his theory. Our actions either follow the first appetite that arises in the mind, or there is a series of alternate appetites and fears, which we call deliberation. The last appetite or fear, that which triumphs, we call will. The only intelligible freedom is the power to do what one desires. Here Hobbes is practically at one with Locke. God is the author of all causes and effects, but is not the author of sin, because an action ceases to be sin if God wills it to happen. Still God is the cause of sin. Praise and blame, rewards and punishments cannot be called useless, because they strengthen motives, which are the causes of action. This, however, does not meet the objection to the justice of such blame or praise, if the person has not the power to abstain from or perform the actions thus punished or rewarded. Hume reinforced the determinist attack on free will by his suggested psychological analysis of the notion or feeling of "necessity". The controversy, according to him, has been due to misconception of the meaning of words and the error that the alternative to free will is necessity. This necessity, he says, is erroneously ascribed to some kind of internal nexus supposed to bind all causes to their effects, whereas there is really nothing more in causality than constant succession. The imagined necessity is merely a product of custom or association of ideas. Not feeling in our acts of choice this necessity, which we attribute to the causation of material agents, we mistakenly imagine that our volitions have no causes and so are free, whereas they are as strictly determined by the feelings or motives which have gone before, as any material effects are determined by their material antecedents. In all our reasonings respecting other persons, we infer their future conduct from their wonted action under particular motives with the same sort of certainty as in the case of physical causation.

The same line of argument was adopted by the Associationist School down to Bain and J. S. Mill. For the necessity of Hobbes or Spinoza is substituted by their descendants what Professor James calls a "soft determinism ", affirming solely the invariable succession of volition upon motive. J. S. Mill merely developed with greater clearness and fuller detail the principles of Hume. In particular, he attacked the notion of "constraint" suggested in the words necessity and necessarianism, whereas only sequence is affirmed. Given a perfect knowledge of character and motives, we could infallibly predict action. The alleged consciousness of freedom is disputed. We merely feel that we choose, not that we could choose the opposite. Moreover the notion of free will is unintelligible. The truth is that for the Sensationalist School, who believe the mind to be merely a series of mental states, free will is an absurdity. On the other side, Reid, and Stewart, and Hamilton, of the Scotch School, with Mansel, Martineau, W.J. Ward, and other Spiritualist thinkers of Great Britain, energetically defended free will against the disciples of Hume. They maintained that a more careful analysis of volition justified the argument from consciousness, that the universal conviction of mankind on such a fact may not be set aside as an illusion, that morality cannot be founded on an act of self-deception; that all languages contain terms involving the notion of free will and all laws assume its existence, and that the attempt to render necessarianism less objectionable by calling it determinism does not diminish the fatalism involved in it.

The truth that phenomenalism logically involves determinism is strikingly illustrated in Kant's treatment of the question. His well-known division of all reality into phenomena and noumena is his key to this problem also. The world as it appears to us, the world of phenomena, including our own actions and mental states, can only be conceived under the form of time and subject to the category of causality, and therefore everything in the world of experience happens altogether according to the laws of nature ; that is, all our actions are rigidly determined. But, on the other hand, freedom is a necessary postulate of morality: "Thou canst, because thou oughtest." The solution of the antinomy is that the determinism concerns only the empirical or phenomenal world. There is no ground for denying liberty to the Ding an sich. We may believe in transcendental freedom, that we are noumenally free. Since, moreover, the belief that I am free and that I am a free cause, is the foundation stone of religion and morality, I must believe in this postulate. Kant thus gets over the antinomy by confining freedom to the world of noumena, which lie outside the form of time and the category of causality, whilst he affirms necessity of the sensible world, bound by the chain of causality. Apart from the general objection to Kant's system , a grave difficulty here lies in the fact that all man's conduct--his whole moral life as it is revealed in actual experience either to others or himself--pertains in this view to the phenomenal world and so is rigidly determined.

Though much acute philosophical and psychological analysis has been brought to bear on the problem during the last century, it cannot be said that any great additional light has been shed over it. In Germany, Schopenhauer made will the noumenal basis of the world and adopted a pessimistic theory of the universe, denying free will to be justified by either ethics or psychology. On the other hand, Lotze, in many respects perhaps the acutest thinker in Germany since Kant, was an energetic defender of moral liberty. Among recent psychologists in America Professors James and Ladd are both advocates of freedom, though laying more stress for positive proof on the ethical than on the psychological evidence.

THE ARGUMENT

As the main features of the doctrine of free will have been sketched in the history of the problem, a very brief account of the argument for moral freedom will now suffice. Will viewed as a free power is defined by defenders of free will as the capacity of self-determination. By self is here understood not a single present mental state (James), nor a series of mental states (Hume and Mill), but an abiding rational being which is the subject and cause of these states. We should distinguish between:

  • spontaneous acts, those proceeding from an internal principle (e.g. the growth of plants and impulsive movements of animals);
  • voluntary acts in a wide sense, those proceeding from an internal principle with apprehension of an end (e.g. all conscious desires); and, finally
  • those voluntary in the strict sense, that is, deliberate or free acts.
  • In such, there is a self-conscious advertence to our own causality or an awareness that we are choosing the act, or acquiescing in the desire of it. Spontaneous acts and desires are opposed to coaction or external compulsion, but they are not thereby morally free acts. They may still be the necessary outcome of the nature of the agent as, e.g. the actions of lower animals, of the insane, of young children, and many impulsive acts of mature life. The essential feature in free volition is the element of choice--the vis electiva , as St. Thomas calls it. There is a concomitant interrogative awareness in the form of the query "shall I acquiesce or shall I resist? Shall I do it or something else?", and the consequent acceptance or refusal, ratification or rejection, though either may be of varying degrees of completeness. It is this act of consent or approval, which converts a mere involuntary impulse or desire into a free volition and makes me accountable for it. A train of thought or volition deliberately initiated or acquiesced in, but afterward continued merely spontaneously without reflective advertence to our elective adoption of it, remains free in causa , and I am therefore responsible for it, though actually the process has passed into the department of merely spontaneous or automatic activity. A large part of the operation of carrying out a resolution, once the decision is made, is commonly of this kind. The question of free will may now be stated thus. "Given all the conditions requisite for eliciting an act of will except the act itself, does the act necessarily follow?" Or, "Are all my volitions the inevitable outcome of my character and the motives acting on me at the time ?" Fatalists, necessarians, determinists say "Yes". Libertarians, indeterminists or anti-determinists say "No. The mind or soul in deliberate actions is a free cause. Given all the conditions requisite for action, it can either act or abstain from action. It can, and sometimes does, exercise its own causality against the weight of character and present motives. Proof

    The evidence usually adduced at the present day is of two kinds, ethical and psychological--though even the ethical argument is itself psychological.

    (1) Ethical Argument

    It is argued that necessarianism or determinism in any form is in conflict with the chief moral notions and convictions of mankind at large. The actual universality of such moral ideas is indisputable. Duty, moral obligation, responsibility, merit, justice signify notions universally present in the consciousness of normally developed men. Further, these notions, as universally understood, imply that man is really master of some of his acts, that he is, at least at times, capable of self-determination, that all his volitions are not the inevitable outcome of his circumstances. When I say that I ought not to have performed some forbidden act, that it was my duty to obey the law, I imply that I could have done so. The judgment of all men is the same on this point. When we say that a person is justly held responsible for a crime, or that he deserves praise or reward for an heroic act of self-sacrifice, we mean that he was author and cause of that act in such fashion that he had it in his power not to perform the act. We exempt the insane or the child, because we believe them devoid of moral freedom and determined inevitably by the motives which happened to act on them. So true is this, that determinists have had to admit that the meaning of these terms will, according to their view, have to be changed. But this is to admit that their theory is in direct conflict with universal psychological facts. It thereby stands disproved. Again, it may be urged that, if logically followed out, the determinist doctrine would annihilate human morality, consequently that such a theory cannot be true. (See FATALISM. )

    (2) Psychological Argument

    Consciousness testifies to our moral freedom. We feel ourselves to be free when exercising certain acts. We judge afterwards that we acted freely in those acts. We distinguish them quite clearly from experiences, in which we believe we were not free or responsible. The conviction is not confined to the ignorant ; even the determinist psychologist is governed in practical life by this belief. Henry Sidgwick states the fact in the most moderate terms, when he says:

    Certainly in the case of actions in which I have a distinct consciousness of choosing between alternatives of conduct, one of which I conceive as right or reasonable, I find it impossible not to think that I can now choose to do what I so conceive, however strong may be my inclination to act unreasonably, and however uniformly I may have yielded to such inclinations in the past (Methods of Ethics ).

    The force of the evidence is best realized by carefully studying the various mental activities in which freedom is exercised. Amongst the chief of these are: voluntary attention, deliberation, choice, sustained resistance to temptation. The reader will find them analyzed at length by the authors referred to at the end of this article; or, better still, he can think them out with concrete examples in his own inner experience.

    Objections

    The main objection to this argument is stated in the assertion that we can be conscious only of what we actually do, not of our ability to do something else. The reply is that we can be conscious not only of what we do, but of how we do it; not only of the act but of the mode of the act. Observation reveals to us that we are subjects of different kinds of processes of thought and volition. Sometimes the line of conscious activity follows the direction of spontaneous impulse, the preponderating force of present motive and desire; at other times we intervene and exert personal causality. Consciousness testifies that we freely and actively strengthen one set of motives, resist the stronger inclination, and not only drift to one side but actively choose it. In fact, we are sure that we sometimes exert free volition, because at other times we are the subject of conscious activities that are not free, and we know the difference. Again, it is urged that experience shows that men are determined by motives, and that we always act on this assumption. The reply is that experience proves that men are influenced by motives, but not that they are always inexorably determined by the strongest motive. It as alleged that we always decide in favour of the strongest motive. This is either untrue, or the barren statement that we always choose what we choose. A free volition is "a causeless volition". The mind itself is the cause. (For other objections see FATALISM; ENERGY, THE LAW OF THE CONSERVATION OF; and the works referred to at the end of this article.)

    NATURE AND RANGE OF MORAL LIBERTY

    Free will does not mean capability of willing in the absence of all motive, or of arbitrarily choosing anything whatever. The rational being is always attracted by what is apprehended as good. Pure evil, misery as such, man could not desire. However, the good presents itself in many forms and under many aspects--the pleasant, the prudent, the right, the noble, the beautiful--and in reflective or deliberate action we can choose among these. The clear vision of God would necessarily preclude all volition at variance with this object, but in this world we never apprehend Infinite Good. Nor does the doctrine of free will imply that man is constantly exerting this power at every waking moment, any more than the statement that he is a "rational" animal implies that he is always reasoning. Much the larger part of man's ordinary life is administered by the machinery of reflex action, the automatic working of the organism, and acquired habits. In the series of customary acts which fill up our day, such as rising, meals, study, work, etc., probably the large majority are merely "spontaneous" and are proximately determined by their antecedents, according to the combined force of character and motive. There is nothing to arouse special volition, or call for interference with the natural current, so the stream of consciousness flows smoothly along the channel of least resistance. For such series of acts we are responsible, as was before indicated, not because we exert deliberate volition at each step, but because they are free in causa , because we have either freely initiated them, or approved them from time to time when we adverted to their ethical quality, or because we freely acquired the habits which now accomplish these acts. It is especially when some act of a specially moral complexion is recognized as good or evil that the exertion of our freedom is brought into play. With reflective advertence to the moral quality comes the apprehension that we are called on to decide between right and wrong; then the consciousness that we are choosing freely, which carries with it the subsequent conviction that the act was in the strictest sense our own, and that we are responsible for it.

    CONSEQUENCES

    Our moral freedom, like other mental powers, is strengthened by exercise. The practice of yielding to impulse results in enfeebling self-control. The faculty of inhibiting pressing desires, of concentrating attention on more remote goods, of reinforcing the higher but less urgent motives, undergoes a kind of atrophy by disuse. In proportion as a man habitually yields to intemperance or some other vice, his freedom diminishes and he does in a true sense sink into slavery. He continues responsible in causa for his subsequent conduct, though his ability to resist temptation at the time is lessened. On the other hand, the more frequently a man restrains mere impulse, checks inclination towards the pleasant, puts forth self-denial in the face of temptation, and steadily aims at a virtuous life, the more does he increase in self-command and therefore in freedom. The whole doctrine of Christian asceticism thus makes for developing and fostering moral liberty, the noblest attribute of man. William James's sound maxim: "Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day", so that your will may be strong to stand the pressure of violent temptation when it comes, is the verdict of the most modern psychology in favour of the discipline of the Catholic Church.

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    Theologian, b. at Leutkirch, in Swabia, 1478; d. in Vienna, 21 May, 1541. He studied ...

    Faber, Johann

    Johann Faber of Heilbronn, controversialist and preacher; b. 1504, at Heilbronn in Wittenberg ; ...

    Faber, Johann Augustanus

    Theologian, born at Fribourg, Switzerland, c. 1470; died about 1531. He entered the Dominican ...

    Faber, Matthias

    Writer and preacher, born at Altomünster, Germany, 24 February, 1586; died at Tyrnau, 26 ...

    Faber, Peter, Saint

    Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

    Faber, Philip

    (Or Fabri.) Theologian, philosopher and noted commentator of Duns Scotus ; born in 1564, at ...

    Fabian, Pope Saint

    (FABIANUS) Pope (236-250), the extraordinary circumstances of whose election is related by ...

    Fabiola, Saint

    A Roman matron of rank, died 27 December, 399 or 400. She was one of the company of noble Roman ...

    Fabre, Joseph

    Second Superior General of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, born 14 November, 1824, at Cuges, ...

    Fabri, Honoré

    (Lefèvre.) Jesuit, theologian, b. about 1607 in the Department of Ain, France ; d. at ...

    Fabri, Philip

    (Or Fabri.) Theologian, philosopher and noted commentator of Duns Scotus ; born in 1564, at ...

    Fabriano and Matelica

    Diocese of Fabriano and Matelica (Fabrianensis et Mathelicensis). Fabriano, a city in the ...

    Fabrica Ecclesiæ

    A Latin term, meaning, etymologically, the construction of a church, but in a broader sense the ...

    Fabricius, Hieronymus

    (Surnamed ab Aquapendente ). Distinguished Italian anatomist and surgeon, b. in the little ...

    Fabyan, Robert

    English chronicler, died 28 February, 1513. He was a London clothier, a member of the Drapers' ...

    Facciolati, Jacopo

    Lexicographer and philologist, b. at Torreglia, near Padua, Italy, 4 Jan., 1682; d. at Padua, 26 ...

    Fact, Dogmatic

    (1) Definition By a dogmatic fact , in wider sense, is meant any fact connected with a dogma ...

    Faculties of the Soul

    I. MEANING Whatever doctrine one may hold concerning the nature of the human soul and its ...

    Faculties, Canonical

    ( Latin Facultates ) In law, a faculty is the authority, privilege, or permission, to ...

    Facundus of Hermiane

    A sixth-century Christian author, Bishop of Hermiane in Africa, about whose career very little ...

    Faenza

    DIOCESE OF FAENZA (FAVENTINA) Diocese in the province of Ravenna (Central Italy ), suffragan ...

    Fagnani, Prospero

    Canonist, b. in Italy, place and date of birth uncertain; d. in 1678. Some writers place his ...

    Fagnano, Guilio Carlo de' Toschi di

    Mathematician, born at Sinigaglia, Italy, 26 September, 1682; died there 18 May, 1766. He made ...

    Faillon, Etienne-Michel

    Historian, born at Tarascon, France, 3 January, 1800; died at Paris, 25 October, 1870. He studied ...

    Faith

    I. THE MEANING OF THE WORD ( Pistis , fides). In the Old Testament , the Hebrew means ...

    Faith, Hope, and Charity (Saints)

    The names of two groups of Roman martyrs around whom a considerable amount of legendary lore has ...

    Faith, The Rule of

    The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...

    Faithful, The

    ( Latin fideles , from fides , faith.) Those who have bound themselves to a religious ...

    Falco, Juan Conchillos

    Painter, b. at Valencia of an ancient noble family in 1641; d. 14 May, 1711. He was a pupil of ...

    Faldstool

    (Latin faldistorium ; also facistorium, faudestolus, faudestola ). A movable folding ...

    Falkner, Thomas

    Born 6 Oct., 1707; died 30 Jan., 1784. He was the son of Thomas Falkner, a Manchester ...

    Fall River

    DIOCESE OF FALL RIVER (RIVERORMENSIS), U.S.A. A suffragan see of the Province of Boston ; ...

    Fallopio, Gabriello

    Anatomist, "one of the most important of the many-sided physicians of the sixteenth century" ...

    Falloux du Coudray

    Frédéric Alfred Pierre, Vicomte de Falloux du Coudray Born at Angers, 7 March, ...

    False Decretals

    (The Decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore) False Decretals is a name given to certain apocryphal ...

    Falsity

    ( Latin Falsitas .) A perversion of truth originating in the deceitfulness of one party, and ...

    Famagusta

    A titular see in the Island of Cyprus. The name appears to be derived from the Greek ...

    Familiars

    Strictly speaking, seculars subject to a master's authority and maintained at his expense. In this ...

    Family

    A term derived from the Latin, famulus , servant, and familia , household servants, or the ...

    Fano

    (FANENSIS.) Fano, the ancient Fanum Fortunæ, a city of the Marches in the province of ...

    Fanon

    A shoulder-cape worn by the pope alone, consisting of two pieces of white silk ornamented with ...

    Faraud, Henri

    Titular Bishop of Anémour and first Vicar Apostolic of Athabasca-Mackenzie , Canada ; ...

    Farfa, Abbey of

    Situated about 26 miles from Rome, not far from the Farfa Sabina Railway station. A legend in the ...

    Fargo

    (FARGUS; FARGENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of St. Paul, U.S.A., embracing the whole of the State ...

    Faribault, George-Barthélemy

    An archaeologist, b. at Quebec, Canada, 3 Dec., 1789; d. 1866. He was a first cousin of ...

    Faribault, Jean-Baptiste

    A trader with the Indians and early settler in Minnesota, U.S.A.; b. 19 October, 1774, at ...

    Farinato, Paolo

    An Italian painter, b. at Verona 1524; d. there, 1606. He belonged to the old Florentine ...

    Faringdon, Blessed Hugh

    ( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

    Farlati, Daniele

    An ecclesiastical historian, b. at San Daniele del Friuli in the present Italian province of ...

    Farnese, Alessandro

    The name of two cardinals. For the elder see POPE PAUL III. The young Alessandro Farnese -- ...

    Faro

    (PHARENSIS) A suffragan of Evora, Portugal, and extending over the province of Algarve. The ...

    Faroe Islands

    Geography and Statistics A group of Danish islands rising from the sea some four hundred miles ...

    Fast

    In general abstinence from food or drink, a term common to the various Teutonic tongues. Some ...

    Fatalism

    Fatalism is in general the view which holds that all events in the history of the world, and, in ...

    Fate

    ( Latin fatum, from fari, to tell or predict ). This word is almost redundant in the ...

    Fathers of Mercy, The

    A congregation of missionary priests first established at Lyons, France, in 1808, and later at ...

    Fathers of the Church

    The Appeal to the Fathers Classification of Patristic Writings Apostolic Fathers and the Second ...

    Fathers, The Apostolic

    Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had ...

    Faunt, Lawrence Arthur

    A Jesuit theologian, b. 1554, d. at Wilna, Poland, 28 February, 1590-91. After two years at ...

    Fauriel, Charles-Claude

    A historian, b. at St-Etienne, France, 27 October, 1772; d. at Paris,15 July, 1844. He studied ...

    Faustinus and Jovita, Saints

    Martyrs, members of a noble family of Brescia ; the elder brother, Faustinus, being a priest, ...

    Faustus of Riez

    Bishop of Riez ( Rhegium ) in Southern Gaul (Provence), the best known and most distinguished ...

    Faversham Abbey

    A former Benedictine monastery of the Cluniac Congregation situated in the County of Kent ...

    Faye, Hervé-Auguste-Etienne-Albann

    An astronomer, b. at Saint-Benoît-du-Sault (Indre, France ), Oct., 1814; d. at Paris, 4 ...

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    Fe 62

    Fear (from a Moral Standpoint)

    (CONSIDERED FROM A MORAL STANDPOINT.) Fear is an unsettlement of soul consequent upon the ...

    Fear (in Canon Law)

    (IN CANON LAW.) A mental disturbance caused by the perception of instant or future danger. ...

    Feast of Fools

    A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

    Feasts, Ecclesiastical

    ( Latin Festum ; Greek heorte ). Feast Days, or Holy Days, are days which are celebrated in ...

    Febronianism

    The politico-ecclesiastical system outlined by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, Auxiliary Bishop of ...

    Feckenham, John de

    Last Abbot of Westminster, and confessor of the Faith ; b. in Feckenham Forest, ...

    Feder, Johann Michael

    A German theologian, b. 25 May, 1753, at Oellingen in Bavaria ; d. 26 July, 1824, at ...

    Feilding, Rudolph William Basil

    The eighth Earl of Denbigh, and ninth Earl of Desmond, b. 9 April, 1823; d. 1892. He was educated ...

    Feilmoser, Andreas Benedict

    A theologian and Biblical scholar, b. 8 April, 1777, at Hopfgarten, Tyrol; d. at Tübingen, ...

    Felbiger, Johann Ignaz von

    A German educational reformer, pedagogical writer, and canon regular of the Order of St. ...

    Felician and Primus, Saints

    Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

    Felician Sisters, O.S.F.

    Founded 21 November, 1855, at Warsaw, Poland, by Mother Mary Angela, under the direction of ...

    Felicissimus

    A deacon of Carthage who, in the middle of the third century, headed a short-lived but dangerous ...

    Felicitas and Perpetua, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

    Felicitas, Saint

    MARTYR. The earliest list of the Roman feasts of martyrs, known as the "Depositio Martyrum" ...

    Felix and Adauctus, Saints

    Martyrs at Rome, 303, under Diocletian and Maximian. The Acts, first published in Ado's ...

    Felix and Nabor, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (303). The relics of these holy witnesses to the ...

    Felix I, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 274. Early in 269 he succeeded Saint Dionysius as head of the Roman ...

    Felix II

    Pope (more properly Antipope ), 355-358; d. 22 Nov., 365. In 355 Pope Liberius was ...

    Felix III (II), Pope Saint

    (Reigned 483-492). Born of a Roman senatorial family and said to have been an ancestor of ...

    Felix IV (III), Pope Saint

    (Reigned 526-530). On 18 May, 526, Pope John I died in prison at Ravenna, a victim of the ...

    Felix of Cantalice, Saint

    A Capuchin friar, b. at Cantalice, on the north-western border of the Abruzzi; d. at Rome, 18 ...

    Felix of Nola, Saint

    Born at Nola, near Naples, and lived in the third century. After his father's death he ...

    Felix of Valois, Saint

    Born in 1127; d. at Cerfroi, 4 November, 1212. He is commemorated 20 November. He was surnamed ...

    Felix V

    Regnal name of Amadeus of Savoy, Antipope (1440-1449). Born 4 December, 1383, died at ...

    Feller, François-Xavier de

    An author and apologist, b. at Brussels 18 August, 1735; d. at Ratisbon 22 May, 1802. He ...

    Feneberg, Johann Michael Nathanael

    Born in Oberdorf, Allgau, Bavaria, 9 Feb., 1751; died 12 Oct., 1812. He studied at Kaufbeuren and ...

    Fenn, John

    Born at Montacute near Wells in Somersetshire; d. 27 Dec., 1615. He was the eldest brother of Ven. ...

    Ferber, Nicolaus

    A Friar Minor and controversialist, born at Herborn, Germany, in 1485; died at Toulouse, 15 ...

    Ferdinand II

    Emperor, eldest son of Archduke Karl and the Bavarian Princess Maria, b. 1578; d. 15 February, ...

    Ferdinand III, Saint

    King of Leon and Castile, member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born in 1198 near ...

    Ferdinand, Blessed

    Prince of Portugal, b. in Portugal, 29 September, 1402; d. at Fez, in Morocco, 5 June, 1443. He ...

    Ferdinando, Luigi, Count de Marsigli

    Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...

    Ferentino, Diocese of

    (FERENTINUM) In the province of Rome, immediately subject to the Holy See. The town was in ...

    Fergus, Saints

    St. Fergus Cruithneach Died about 730, known in the Irish martyrologies as St. Fergus ...

    Feria

    ( Latin for "free day"). A day on which the people, especially the slaves, were not obliged ...

    Ferland, Jean-Baptiste-Antoine

    A French Canadian historian, b. at Montreal, 25 December, 1805; d. at Quebec, 11 January, ...

    Fermo, Archdiocese of

    (FIRMANA). In the province of Ascoli Piceno (Central Italy ). The great antiquity of the ...

    Fernández de Palencia, Diego

    A Spanish conqueror and historian; b. at Palencia in the early part of the sixteenth century. ...

    Fernández, Antonio

    A Jesuit missionary; b. at Lisbon, c. 1569; d. at Goa, 12 November, 1642. About 1602 he was ...

    Fernández, Juan

    A Jesuit lay brother and missionary; b. at Cordova ; d. 12 June, 1567, in Japan. In a letter ...

    Ferns

    DIOCESE OF FERNS (FERNENSIS). Diocese in the province of Leinster ( Ireland ), suffragan of ...

    Ferrara

    A RCHDIOCESE OF F ERRARA (F ERRARIENSIS ). Archdiocese immediately subject to the Holy ...

    Ferrari, Gaudenzio

    An Italian painter and the greatest master of the Piedmontese School, b. at Valduggia, near ...

    Ferraris, Lucius

    An eighteenth-century canonist of the Franciscan Order. The exact dates of his birth and death ...

    Ferre, Vicente

    Theologian, b. at Valencia, Spain ; d. at Salamanca in 1682. He entered the Dominican Order ...

    Ferreira, Antonio

    A poet, important both for his lyric and his dramatic compositions, b. at Lisbon, Portugal, in ...

    Ferrer, Rafael

    A Spanish missionary and explorer; b. at Valencia, in 1570; d. at San José, Peru, in ...

    Ferrer, Saint Vincent

    Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

    Ferrières, Abbey of

    Situated in the Diocese of Orléans , department of Loiret, and arrondissement of ...

    Ferstel, Heinrich, Freiherr von

    Architect; with Hansen and Schmidt, the creator of modern Vienna ; b. 7 July, 1828, at Vienna ; ...

    Fesch, Joseph

    Cardinal, b. at Ajaccio, Corsica, 3 January, 1763; d. at Rome, 13 May, 1839. He was the son of a ...

    Fessler, Josef

    Bishop of St. Polten in Austria and secretary of the Vatican Council ; b. 2 December, 1813, at ...

    Fetherston, Blessed Richard

    Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

    Feti, Domenico

    An Italian painter ; born at Rome, 1589; died at Venice, 1624. He was a pupil of Cigoli ...

    Fetishism

    Fetishism means the religion of the fetish. The word fetish is derived through the Portuguese ...

    Feuardent, François

    A Franciscan, theologian, preacher of the Ligue, b. at Coutanees, Normandy, in 1539; d. at ...

    Feuchtersleben, Baron Ernst von

    An Austrian poet, philosopher, and physician; born at Vienna, 29 April, 1806; died 3 September, ...

    Feudalism

    Etymology This term is derived from the Old Aryan pe'ku , hence Sanskrit pacu , "cattle"; ...

    Feuillants

    The Cistercians who, about 1145, founded an abbey in a shady valley in the Diocese of Rieux ...

    Feuillet, Louis

    (FEUILLÉE) Geographer, b. at Mane near Forcalquier, France, in 1660; d. at Marseilles ...

    Feyjóo y Montenegro, Benito Jerónimo

    A celebrated Spanish writer, b. at Casdemiro, in the parish of Santa Maria de Molias, Galicia, ...

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    Fi 52

    Fiacc, Saint

    (Lived about 415-520.) A poet, chief bishop of Leinster, and founder of two churches. His ...

    Fiacre, Saint

    Abbot, born in Ireland about the end of the sixth century; died 18 August, 670. Having been ...

    Ficino, Marsilio

    A philosopher, philologist, physician, b. at Florence, 19 Oct., 1433; d. at Correggio, 1 Oct, ...

    Ficker, Julius

    (More correctly Caspar von Ficker). Historian, b. at Paderborn, Germany, 30 April, 1826; d. at ...

    Fideism

    (Latin fides , faith). A philosophical term meaning a system of philosophy or an ...

    Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint

    Born in 1577, at Sigmaringen, Prussia, of which town his father Johannes Rey was burgomaster; ...

    Fiesole

    DIOCESE OF FIESOLE (FÆSULANA). Diocese in the province of Tuscany, suffragan of Florence. ...

    Figueroa, Francisco de

    A celebrated Spanish poet, surnamed "the Divine", b. at Alcalá de Henares, c. 1540, d. ...

    Figueroa, Francisco García de la Rosa

    Franciscan, b. in the latter part of the eighteenth century at Toluca, in the Archdiocese of ...

    Fiji, Vicariate Apostolic of

    Comprising the islands belonging to the Fiji Archipelago. This archipelago forms the central ...

    Filby, Blessed William

    Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

    Filelfo, Franscesco

    A humanist, b. at Tolentino, 25 July, 1398; d. at Florence 31 July, 1481. He studied grammar, ...

    Filial Church

    (Latin filialis , from filia , daughter), a church to which is annexed the cure of souls , ...

    Filicaja, Vincenzo da

    Lyric poet; born at Florence, 30 December, 1642; died there 24 September, 1707. At Pisa he was ...

    Filioque

    Filioque is a theological formula of great dogmatic and historical importance. On the one ...

    Fillastre, Guillaume

    French cardinal, canonist, humanist, and geographer, b. 1348 at La Suze, Maine, France ; d. at ...

    Filliucci, Vincenzo

    Jesuit moralist; b. at Sienna, Italy, 1566; d. at Rome 5 April, 1622. Having entered the Society ...

    Filliucius, Felix

    (Or, as his name is more often found, in its Italian form, FIGLIUCCI). An Italian humanist, a ...

    Final Perseverance

    ( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

    Finan, Saint

    Second Bishop of Lindisfarne ; died 9 February, 661. He was an Irish monk who had been ...

    Finbarr, Saint

    (Lochan, Barr). Bishop and patron of Cork, born near Bandon, about 550, died at Cloyne, 25 ...

    Finch, Ven. John

    A martyr, b. about 1548; d. 20 April, 1584. He was a yeoman of Eccleston, Lancashire, and a ...

    Finglow, Ven. John

    An English martyr ; b. at Barnby, near Howden, Yorkshire; executed at York, 8 August, 1586. He ...

    Finland

    Note: This article was taken from the 1909 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, and is presented ...

    Finnian of Moville, Saint

    Born about 495; died 589. Though not so celebrated as his namesake of Clonard, he was the ...

    Finotti, Joseph M.

    Born at Ferrara, Italy, 21 September, 1817; died at Central City, Colorado, 10 January, 1879. ...

    Fintan, Saints

    St. Fintan of Clonenagh A Leinster saint, b. about 524; d. 17 February, probably 594, or at least ...

    Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi

    Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

    Fire, Liturgical Use of

    Fire is one of the most expressive and most ancient of liturgical symbols. All the creeds of ...

    Firmament

    (Septuagint stereoma ; Vulgate, firmamentum ). The notion that the sky was a vast solid ...

    Firmicus Maternus

    Christian author of the fourth century; wrote a work "De errore profanarum religionum". Nothing ...

    Firmilian

    Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, died c. 269. He had among his contemporaries a reputation ...

    First-Born

    The word, though casually taken in Holy Writ in a metaphorical sense, is most generally used by ...

    First-Fruits

    The practice of consecrating first-fruits to the Deity is not a distinctly Jewish one (cf. ...

    Fiscal Procurator

    ( Latin PROCURATOR FISCALIS). The duties of the fiscal procurator consist in preventing ...

    Fischer, Antonius

    Archbishop of Cologne and cardinal, b. at Julich, 30 May, 1840; d. at Neuenahr, 30 July, 1912. ...

    Fish, Symbolism of the

    Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish ranks probably first in ...

    Fisher, Philip

    (An alias , real name THOMAS COPLEY) Missionary, b. in Madrid, 1595-6; d. in Maryland, U. ...

    Fisherman, The Ring of the

    The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

    Fitter, Daniel

    Born in Worcestershire, England, 1628; died at St. Thomas' Priory, near Stafford, 6 Feb., 1700. ...

    Fitton, James

    Missionary, b. at Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. , 10 April, 1805; d. there, 15 Sept., 1881. His ...

    Fitz-Simons, Thomas

    American merchant, b. in Ireland, 1741; d. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 26 Aug., 1811. There is no ...

    Fitzalan, Henry

    Twelfth Earl of Arundel, b. about 1511; d. in London, 24 Feb., 1580 (O.S. 1579). Son of William, ...

    FitzGibbon, Catherine

    (Catherine FitzGibbon.) Born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, ...

    Fitzherbert, Anthony, Sir

    Judge, b. in 1470; d. 27 May, 1538. He was the sixth son of Ralph Fitzherbert of Norbury, ...

    Fitzherbert, Maria Anne

    Wife of King George IV; b. 26 July, 1756 (place uncertain); d. at Brighton, England, 29 March, ...

    Fitzherbert, Thomas

    Born 1552, at Swynnerton, Staffs, England ; died 17 Aug., 1640, at Rome. His father having died ...

    Fitzpatrick, William John

    Historian, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 31 Aug., 1830; d. there 24 Dec., 1895. The son of a rich ...

    Fitzralph, Richard

    Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, 16 Dec., 1360. He ...

    Fitzsimon, Henry

    (Fitz Simon). Jesuit, b. 1566 (or 1569), in Dublin, Ireland ; d. 29 Nov., 1643 (or 1645), ...

    Fixlmillner, Placidus

    Astronomer, b. at Achleuthen near Kremsmünster, Austria, in 1721; d. at Kremsmünster, ...

    Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis

    Physicist, b. at Paris, 23 Sept., 1819; d. at Nanteuil, Seine-et-Marne, 18 Sept., 1896. His ...

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    Fl 39

    Fléchier, Esprit

    Bishop; b. at Pernes, France, 1632; died at Montpellier, 1710; member of the Academy, and ...

    Flórez, Enrique

    Spanish theologian, archeologist, and historian; born at Valladolid, 14 February, 1701; died at ...

    Flabellum

    The flabellum, in liturgical use, is a fan made of leather, silk, parchment, or feathers ...

    Flaccilla, Ælia

    ( Plakilla ) Empress, wife of Theodosius the Great , died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like ...

    Flagellants

    A fanatical and heretical sect that flourished in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries, Their ...

    Flagellation

    The history of the whip, rod, and stick, as instruments of punishment and of voluntary penance, ...

    Flaget, Benedict Joseph

    First Bishop of Bardstown (subsequently of Louisville ), Kentucky, U.S.A. b. at Contournat, ...

    Flanagan, Thomas Canon

    Born in England in 1814, though Irish by descent; died at Kidderminster, 21 July, 1865. He was ...

    Flanders

    (Flemish VLAENDEREN; German FLANDEREN; French FLANDRE). Designated in the eighth century a ...

    Flandrin, Jean-Hippolyte

    French painter, b. at Lyons, 23 March, 1809; d. at Rome, 21 March, 1864. He came of a family of ...

    Flathead Indians

    A name used in both Americas, without special ethnologic significance, to designate tribes ...

    Flathers, Ven. Mathew

    ( Alias Major). An English priest and martyr ; b. probably c. 1580 at Weston, Yorkshire, ...

    Flavia Domitilla

    A Christian Roman matron of the imperial family who lived towards the close of the first ...

    Flavian, Saint

    Bishop of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; d. at Hypæpa in Lydia, August, 449. ...

    Flavias

    A titular see of Cilicia Secunda. Nothing is known of its ancient name and history, except that ...

    Flavigny, Abbey of

    A Benedictine abbey in the Diocese of Dijon, the department of Côte-d'Or, and ...

    Flaviopolis

    A titular see in the province of Honorias. The city, formerly called Cratia, originally belonged ...

    Flemael, Bertholet

    (The name was also spelled FLEMALLE and FLAMAEL). Painter, b. at Liège, Flanders, in ...

    Fleming, Patrick

    Franciscan friar b. at Lagan, Couny Louth, Ireland, 17 April, 1599; d. 7 November, 1631. His ...

    Fleming, Richard

    (FLEMMING, FLEMMYNGE). Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; b. of a ...

    Fleming, Thomas

    Archbishop of Dublin, son of the Baron of Slane, b. in 1593; d. in 1665. He studied at thy ...

    Fletcher, John

    A missionary and theologian, b. at Ormskirk, England, of an old Catholic family ; educated at ...

    Flete, William

    An Augustinian hermit friar, a contemporary and great friend of St. Catherine of Siena ; the ...

    Fleuriot, Zénaide-Marie-Anne

    A French novelist, b. at Saint-Brieuc, 12 September, 1829; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1890. She ...

    Fleury, Abbey of

    ( More completely FLEURY-SAINT-BENOÎT) One of the oldest and most celebrated ...

    Fleury, André-Hercule de

    Born at Lodève, 26 June, 1653; died at Paris, 29 January, 1742. He was a ...

    Flodoard

    (Or FRODOARD) French historian and chronicler, b. at Epernay in 894; d. in 966. He was ...

    Flood of Noah

    Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the ...

    Floreffe, Abbey of

    Pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Sambre, about seven miles southwest of Namur, ...

    Florence

    (Latin Florentia ; Italian Firenze ). ARCHDIOCESE OF FLORENCE (FLORENTINA). Located in ...

    Florence of Worcester

    English chronicler; all that is known of his personal history is that he was a monk of ...

    Florence, Council of

    The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council was, correctly speaking, the continuation of the Council of ...

    Florentina, Saint

    Virgin ; born towards the middle of the sixth century; died about 612. The family of St. ...

    Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de

    Born at the château of Florian (Gard), 6 March, 1755; died at Sceaux, 13 September, 1794. An ...

    Florians, The

    (Floriacenses), an altogether independent order, and not, as some consider, a branch of the ...

    Florida

    The Peninsular or Everglade State, the most southern in the American Union and second largest east ...

    Florilegia

    Florilegia (Lat., florilegium, an anthology) are systematic collections of excerpts (more or ...

    Florus

    A deacon of Lyons, ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the ninth century. We have no ...

    Floyd, John

    English missionary, wrote under the names Flud, Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, George ...

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    Fo 64

    Fogaras

    ARCHDIOCESE OF FOGARAS (FOGARASIENSIS). Archdiocese in Hungary, of the Greek-Rumanian Rite. It ...

    Foggia

    DIOCESE OF FOGGIA (FODIANA). Diocese in the province of the same name in Apulia (Southern ...

    Foillan, Saint

    ( Irish FAELAN, FAOLAN, FOELAN, FOALAN.) Represented in iconography with a crown at his ...

    Folengo, Teofilo

    An Italian poet, better known by his pseudonyrn MERLIN COCCALO or COCAI; b. at Mantua in 1496; ...

    Foley, Henry

    Born at Astley in Worcestershire, England, 9 Aug., 1811; died at Manresa House, Roehampton, 19 ...

    Foligno

    DIOCESE OF FOLIGNO (FULGINATENSIS). Diocese in the province of Perugia, Italy, immediately ...

    Foliot, Gilbert

    Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

    Folkestone Abbey

    Folkestone Abbey -- more correctly FOLKESTONE PRIORY -- is situated in the east division of ...

    Fonseca Soares, Antonio da

    (ANTONIO DAS CHAGAS). Friar Minor and ascetical writer; b. at Vidigueira, 25 June, 1631; d. at ...

    Fonseca, José Ribeiro da

    Friar Minor ; b. at Evora, 3 Dec., 1690; d. at Porto, 16 June, 1752. He was received into the ...

    Fonseca, Pedro Da

    A philosopher and theologian, born at Cortizada, Portugal, 1528; died at Lisbon, 4 Nov., 1599. ...

    Fontana, Carlo

    An architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714. There seems to be no ...

    Fontana, Domenico

    A Roman architect of the Late Renaissance, b. at Melide on the Lake of Lugano, 1543; d. at ...

    Fontana, Felice

    Italian naturalist and physiologist, b. at Pomarolo in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1730; d. at Florence, ...

    Fontbonne, Jeanne

    In religion Mother St. John, second foundress and superior-general of the Sisters of St. Joseph ...

    Fonte-Avellana

    A suppressed order of hermits, which takes its name from their first hermitage in the Apennines. ...

    Fontenelle, Abbey of

    (Or ABBEY OF SAINT WANDRILLE). A Benedictine monastery in Normandy ...

    Fontevrault, Order and Abbey of

    I. CHARACTER OF THE ORDER The monastery of Fontevrault was founded by Blessed Robert ...

    Fonts, Holy Water

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

    Fools, Feast of

    A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

    Foppa, Ambrogio

    Generally known as CARADOSS0. Italian goldsmith, sculptor, and die sinker, b. at Mondonico in ...

    Forbes, John

    Capuchin, b. 1570; d. 1606. His father, John, eighth Lord Forbes, being a Protestant, and his ...

    Forbin-Janson, Comte de Charles-Auguste-Marie-Joseph

    A Bishop of Nancy and Toul, founder of the Association of the Holy Childhood , born in Paris, ...

    Forcellini, Egidio

    Latin lexicographer, b. at Fener, near Treviso, Italy, 26 Aug., 1688; d. at Padua, 4 April, ...

    Ford, Blessed Thomas

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

    Fordham University

    Fordham University developed out of Saint John's College, founded by Bishop Hughes upon the old ...

    Foreman, Andrew

    A Scottish prelate, of good border family ; b. at Hatton, near Berwick-on-Tweed; d. 1522. His ...

    Forer, Laurenz

    Controversialist, b. at Lucerne, 1580; d. at Ratisbon, 7 January, 1659. He entered the Society ...

    Foresters, Catholic Orders of

    I On 30 July, 1879, some members of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of Boston, Massachusetts, ...

    Forgery, Forger

    If we accept the definition usually given by canonists, forgery ( Latin falsum ) differs very ...

    Forli

    (FOROLIVIENSIS) Diocese in the province of Romagna (Central Italy ); suffragan of Ravenna. ...

    Form

    (Latin forma; Greek eidos, morphe, he kata ton logon ousia, to ti en einai : Aristotle) ...

    Formby, Henry

    Born 1816; died at Normanton Hall, Leicester, 12 March, 1884. His father, Henry Grenehalgh Formby, ...

    Formosus, Pope

    (891-896) The pontificate of this pope belongs to that era of strife for political supremacy ...

    Formularies

    (LIBRI FORMULARUM) Formularies are medieval collections of models for the execution of ...

    Forrest, William

    Priest and poet; dates of birth and death uncertain. Few personal details are known of him. He ...

    Forster, Fobrenius

    Prince-Abbot of St. Emmeram at Ratisbon, b. 30 Aug., 1709, at Königsfeld in Upper Bavaria ...

    Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria

    Astronomer and naturalist, b. at London, 9 Nov., 1789; d. at Brussels, 2 Feb., 1860. His literary ...

    Fort Augustus Abbey

    St. Benedict's Abbey, at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire, is at present the only monastery for ...

    Fort Wayne

    DIOCESE OF (WAYNE CASTRENSIS). The Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A. established in ...

    Fortaleza, Diocese of

    (FORTALEXIENSIS) The Diocese of Fortaleza is co-extensive with the State of Ceará in ...

    Fortescue, Blessed Adrian

    Knight of St. John, martyr, b. about 1476, executed 10 July, 1539. He belonged to the Salden ...

    Fortitude

    (1) Manliness is etymologically what is meant by the Latin word virtus and by the Greek andreia ...

    Fortunato of Brescia

    Morphologist and Minorite of the Reform of Lombardy ; b. at Brescia, 1701; d. at Madrid, ...

    Fortunatus

    Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus A Christian poet of the sixth century, b. ...

    Forty Hours' Devotion

    Also called Quarant' Ore or written in one word Quarantore , is a devotion in which continuous ...

    Forty Martyrs

    A party of soldiers who suffered a cruel death for their faith, near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, ...

    Forum, Ecclesiastical

    That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...

    Fossano

    DIOCESE OF FOSSANO (FOSSANENSIS). Fossano is a town in the province of Cuneo, in Piedmont, ...

    Fossombrone

    DIOCESE OF FOSSOMBRONE (FOROSEMPRONIENSIS). Diocese in the province of Pesaro, Italy, a ...

    Fossors

    (Latin fossores , fossarii from fodere , to dig). Grave diggers in the Roman ...

    Foster, John Gray

    Soldier, convert, b. at Whitfield, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 27 May, 1823; d. at Nashua, New ...

    Fothad, Saint

    Surnamed NA CANOINE ("of the Canon"). A monk of Fahan-Mura, County Doneval, Ireland, at the ...

    Fouard, Constant

    An ecclesiastical writer b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, 6 Aug. 1837; his early life was a ...

    Foucault, Jean-Bertrand-Léon

    A physicist and mechanician, b. at Paris, 19 Sept., 1819; d. there 11 Feb., 1868. He received ...

    Foulque de Neuilly

    A popular Crusade preacher, d. March, 1202. At the end of the twelfth century he was ...

    Foundation

    ( Latin fundatio; German Stiftung ) An ecclesiastical foundation is the making over of ...

    Foundling Asylums

    Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or ...

    Fountains Abbey

    A monastery of the Cistercian Order situated on the banks of the Skell about two and a half ...

    Fouquet, Jehan

    (Or J EAN F OUQUET ) French painter and miniaturist, b. at Tours, c. 1415; d. about 1480. ...

    Four Crowned Martyrs

    The old guidebooks to the tombs of the Roman martyrs make mention, in connection with the ...

    Four Masters, Annals of the

    The most extensive of all the compilations of the ancient annals of Ireland. They commence, ...

    Fowler, John

    Scholar and printer, b. at Bristol, England, 1537; d. at Namur, Flanders, 13 Feb., 1578-9. He ...

    Foxe's Book of Martyrs

    John Foxe was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, England, in 1516, and was educated at Magdalen ...

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    Fr 82

    Fréchette, Louis-Honoré

    Born at Notre-Dame de Lévis, P.Q., Canada, 16 November, 1839; died 30 May, 1908. He ...

    Fréjus

    DIOCESE OF FRÉJUS (FORUM JULII). Suffragan of Aix ; comprises the whole department of ...

    Fra Angelico

    A famous painter of the Florentine school, born near Castello di Vicchio in the province of ...

    Fractio Panis

    (BREAKING OF BREAD.) The name given to a fresco in the so-called "Capella Greca" in the ...

    France

    The fifth in size (usually reckoned the fourth) of the great divisions of Europe. DESCRIPTIVE ...

    Frances d'Amboise, Blessed

    Duchess of Brittany, afterwards Carmelite nun, b. 1427; d. at Nantes, 4 Nov., 1485. The daughter ...

    Frances of Rome, Saint

    (Bussa di Leoni.) One of the greatest mystics of the fifteenth century; born at Rome, of a noble ...

    Franceschini, Marc' Antonio

    Italian painter ; b. at Bologna, 1648; d. there c. 1729; best known for the decorative works he ...

    Franchi, Ausonio

    The pseudonym of CRISTOFORO BONAVINO, philosopher ; b. 24 February, 1821, at Pegli, province of ...

    Francia

    (FRANCESCO RAIBOLINI) A famous Bolognese goldsmith, engraver, and artist, b. about 1450; d. in ...

    Francis Borgia, Saint

    (Spanish F RANCISCO DE B ORJA Y A RAGON ) Francis Borgia, born 28 October, 1510, was the ...

    Francis Caracciolo, Saint

    Co-founder with John Augustine Adorno of the Conregation of the Minor Clerks Regular ; b. in Villa ...

    Francis de Geronimo, Saint

    (Girolamo, Hieronymo). Born 17 December, 1642; died 11 May, 1716. His birthplace was ...

    Francis de Sales, Saint

    Bishop of Geneva, Doctor of the Universal Church ; born at Thorens, in the Duchy of Savoy, 21 ...

    Francis I

    King of France ; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547. He was the ...

    Francis Ingleby, Venerable

    English martyr, born about 1551; suffered at York on Friday, 3 June, 1586 (old style). According ...

    Francis of Assisi, Saint

    Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year ...

    Francis of Fabriano, Blessed

    Priest of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. 2 Sept., 1251; d. 22 April, 1322. His birth and ...

    Francis of Paula, Saint

    Founder of the Order of Minims; b. in 1416, at Paula, in Calabria, Italy ; d. 2 April, 1507, at ...

    Francis of Vittoria

    A Spanish theologian ; b. about 1480, at Vittoria, province of Avila, in Old Castile ; d. 12 ...

    Francis Regis Clet, Blessed

    A Lazarist missionary in China ; b. 1748, martyred, 18 Feb., 1820. His father was a merchant ...

    Francis Solanus, Saint

    South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. at Montilla, in the Diocese of ...

    Francis Xavier, Saint

    Born in the Castle of Xavier near Sanguesa, in Navarre, 7 April, 1506; died on the Island of ...

    Francis, Rule of Saint

    As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here only the ...

    Franciscan Crown

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

    Franciscan Order

    A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men ...

    Franck, Kasper

    A theologian and controversialist; b. at Ortrand, Saxony, 2 Nov., 1543; d. at Ingolstadt, 12 ...

    Franco, Giovanni Battista

    (Frequently known as IL SEMOLIE) Italian historical painter and etcher, b. at Udine in ...

    Frank, Michael Sigismund

    Catholic artist and rediscoverer of the lost art of glass-painting; b. 1 June, 1770, at ...

    Frankenberg

    JOHANN HEINRICH, GRAF VON FRANKENBERG. Archbishop of Mechlin (Malines), Primate of ...

    Frankfort, Council of

    Convened in the summer of 794, by the grace of God, authority of the pope, and command of ...

    Frankfort-on-the-Main

    Frankfort-on-the-Main, formerly the scene of the election and coronation of the German emperors, ...

    Franks, The

    The Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient ...

    Franzelin, Johann Baptist

    Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Aldein, in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1816; d. at Rome, 11 Dec., ...

    Frascati

    DIOCESE OF FRASCATI (TUSCULANA). One of the six suburbicarian (i.e. neighbouring) dioceses ...

    Frassen, Claude

    A celebrated Scotist theologian and philosopher of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. near ...

    Fraternal Correction

    Fraternal correction is here taken to mean the admonishing of one's neighbor by a private ...

    Fraticelli

    (Or F RATRICELLI ) A name given to various heretical sects which appeared in the fourteenth ...

    Fraud

    In the common acceptation of the word, an act or course of deception deliberately practised with ...

    Fraunhofer, Joseph von

    Optician, b. at Straubing, Bavaria, 6 March, 1787; d. at Munich, 7 June, 1826. He was the tenth ...

    Frayssinous, Denis de

    1765-1841, Bishop of Hermopolis in partibus infidelium , is celebrated chiefly for his ...

    Fredegarius

    The name used since the sixteenth designate the supposed author of an anonymous historical ...

    Fredegis of Tours

    (Fridugisus or Fredegisus). A ninth-century monk, teacher, and writer. Fredegis was an ...

    Frederick I (Barbarossa)

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick of Swabia (d. 1147) and Judith, daughter of Henry ...

    Frederick II

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily; born 26 Dec., 1194; died ...

    Fredoli, Berenger

    Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati ; b. at Vérune, France, c. ú d. at Avignon, 11 June, ...

    Free Church of Scotland

    (Known since 1900 as the UNITED FREE CHURCH) An ecclesiastical organization in Scotland ...

    Free Will

    RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

    Free-Thinkers

    Those who, abandoning the religious truths and moral dictates of the Christian Revelation, and ...

    Freeman, Ven. William

    A priest and martyr, b. at Manthorp near York, c. 1558; d. at Warwick, 13 August, 1595. His ...

    Freemasonry

    The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...

    Fregoso, Federigo

    Cardinal ; b. at Genoa, about 1480; d. 22 July, 1541; belonged to the Fregosi, one of the four ...

    Freiburg

    City, archdiocese, and university in the Archduchy of Baden, Germany . THE CITY Freiburg in ...

    Fremin, James

    Jesuit missionary to the American Indians ; b. at Reims, 12 March, 1628; d. at Quebec, 2 July, ...

    French Academy, The

    The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of ...

    French Catholics in the United States

    The first Bishop of Burlington, the Right Reverend Louis de Goesbriand, in a letter dated 11 ...

    French Concordat of 1801, The

    This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope ...

    French Literature

    Origin and Foundations of the French Language When the Romans became masters of Gaul, they imposed ...

    French Revolution

    The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

    French, Nicholas

    Bishop of Ferns, Ireland, b. at Ballytory, Co. Wexford, in 1604, his parents being John ...

    Freppel, Charles-Emile

    Born at Ober-Ehnheim, Alsace, 1 June, 1827; died at Paris, 22 Dec., 1891. He was Bishop of ...

    Frequent Communion

    Without specifying how often the faithful should communicate, Christ simply bids us eat His Flesh ...

    Fresnel, Augustin-Jean

    Physicist; b. at Broglie near Bernay, Normandy, 10 May, 1788; d. at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, ...

    Friar

    [From Lat. frater , through O. Fr. fredre, frere, M. E. frere; It. frate (as prefix ...

    Friars Minor, Order of

    (Also known as FRANCISCANS.) This subject may be conveniently considered under the following ...

    Fribourg, University of

    From the sixteenth century, the foundation of a Catholic university in Switzerland had often ...

    Fridelli, Xavier Ehrenbert

    (Properly FRIEDEL.) Jesuit missioner and cartographer, b. at Linz, Austria, 11 March, 1673; ...

    Frideswide, Saint

    (FRIDESWIDA, FREDESWIDA, French FRÉVISSE, Old English FRIS). Virgin, patroness of ...

    Fridolin, Saint

    Missionary, founder of the Monastery of Säckingen, Baden (sixth century). In accordance with ...

    Friedrich von Hausen

    (HUSEN) Medieval German poet, one of the earliest of the minnesingers; date of birth ...

    Friends of God

    ( German G OTTESFREUNDE ). An association of pious persons, both ecclesiastical and lay, ...

    Friends, Society of

    The official designation of an Anglo - American religious sect originally styling themselves ...

    Frigolet, Abbey of

    The monastery of St. Michael was founded, about 960, at Frigolet, by Conrad the Pacific, King ...

    Fringes (in Scripture)

    This word is used to denote a special kind of trimming, consisting of loose threads of wool, silk, ...

    Fritz, Samuel

    A Jesuit missionary of the eighteenth century noted for his exploration of the Amazon River and ...

    Froissart, Jean

    French historian and poet, b. at Valenciennes, about 1337, d. at sentence -->Chimay early ...

    Fromentin, Eugène

    French writer and artist; b. at La Rochelle, 24 October, 1820; d. at Saint-Maurice, near La ...

    Frontal, Altar

    The frontal ( antipendium, pallium altaris ) is an appendage which covers the entire front of ...

    Frontenac, Louis de Baude

    A governor of New France, b. at Paris, 1622; d. at Quebec, 28 Nov., 1698. His father was captain ...

    Frowin, Blessed

    Benedictine abbot, d. 11 March, 1178. Of the early life of Frowin nothing is known, save that he ...

    Fructuosus of Braga, Saint

    An Archbishop, d. 16 April, c. 665. He was the son of a Gothic general, and studied in Palencia. ...

    Fructuosus of Tarragona, Saint

    A bishop and martyr ; d. 21 January, 259. During the night of 16 January, he, together with ...

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    Fu 21

    Fuchs, Johann Nepomuk von

    A chemist and mineralogist, b. at Mattenzell, near Bremberg, Lower Bavaria, 15 May, 1774; d. at ...

    Fulbert of Chartres

    Bishop, b. between 952 and 962; d. 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was ...

    Fulcran, Saint

    Bishop of Lodève; d. 13 February, 1006. According to the biography which Bernard Guidonis, ...

    Fulda

    DIOCESE OF FULDA (FULDENSIS). This diocese of the German Empire takes its name from the ...

    Fulgentius Ferrandus

    A canonist and theologian of the African Church in the first half of the sixth century. He was ...

    Fulgentius, Saint

    A Bishop of Ecija (Astigi), in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. Like his brothers ...

    Fulgentius, Saint

    (FABIUS CLAUDIUS GORDIANUS FULGENTIUS). Born 468, died 533. Bishop of Ruspe in the province ...

    Fullerton, Lady Georgiana Charlotte

    Novelist; born 23 September, 1812, in Staffordshire, died 19 January, 1885, at Bournemouth. She ...

    Fullo, Peter

    Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

    Fumo, Bartolommeo

    A theologian, b. at Villon near Piacenza ; d. 1545. At an early age he entered the Dominican ...

    Funchal

    (FUNCHALENSIS.) Diocese in the Madeira Islands. Both in neo-Latin and in Portuguese the name ...

    Fundamental Articles

    This term was employed by Protestant theologians to distinguish the essential parts of the ...

    Funeral Dues

    The canonical perquisites of a parish priest receivable on the occasion of the funeral of any of ...

    Funeral Pall

    A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

    Funk, Franz Xaver von

    Church historian, b. in the small market town of Abtsgemünd in Würtemberg, 12 October, ...

    Furness Abbey

    Situated in the north of Lancashire about five miles from the town of Ulverston. Originally a ...

    Furni

    A titular see in Proconsular Africa, where two towns of this name are known to have existed. One ...

    Furniss, John

    A well-known children's missioner, born near Sheffield, England, 19 June, 1809; at Clapham, ...

    Fursey, Saint

    An Abbot of Lagny, near Paris, d. 16 Jan., about 650. He was the son of Fintan, son of Finloga, ...

    Fussola

    A titular see in Numidia. It was a fortified town, inhabited for the most part by Donatists ...

    Fust, John

    ( Or FAUST.) A partner of Gutenberg in promoting the art of printing, d. at Paris about ...

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    Fy 1


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