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Philosophy

I. DEFINITION OF PHILOSOPHY

Etymology

According to its etymology, the word "philosophy" ( philosophia , from philein , to love, and sophia , wisdom) means "the love of wisdom". This sense appears again in sapientia , the word used in the Middle Ages to designate philosophy.

In the early stages of Greek, as of every other, civilization, the boundary line between philosophy and other departments of human knowledge was not sharply defined, and philosophy was understood to mean "every striving towards knowledge ". This sense of the word survives in Herodotus (I, xxx) and Thucydides (II, xl). In the ninth century of our era, Alcuin, employing it in the same sense, says that philosophy is "naturarum inquisitio, rerum humanarum divinarumque cognitio quantum homini possibile est aestimare" -- investigation of nature, and such knowledge of things human and Divine as is possible for man ( P.L. , CI, 952).

In its proper acceptation, philosophy does not mean the aggregate of the human sciences, but "the general science of things in the universe by their ultimate determinations and reasons"; or again, "the intimate knowledge of the causes and reasons of things", the profound knowledge of the universal order.

Without here enumerating all the historic definitions of philosophy, some of the most significant may be given. Plato calls it "the acquisition of knowledge ", ktêsis epistêmês (Euthydemus, 288 d). Aristotle, mightier than his master at compressing ideas, writes: tên onomazomenên sophian peri ta procirc;ta aitia kai tas archas hupolambanousi pantes -- "All men consider philosophy as concerned with first causes and principles" ( Metaph. , I, i). These notions were perpetuated in the post-Aristotelean schools (Stoicism, Epicureanism, neo-Platonism ), with this difference, that the Stoics and Epicureans accentuated the moral bearing of philosophy ("Philosophia studium summae virtutis", says Seneca in "Epist.", lxxxix, 7), and the neo-Platonists its mystical bearing (see section V below). The Fathers of the Church and the first philosophers of the Middle Ages seem not to have had a very clear idea of philosophy for reasons which we will develop later on ( section IX ), but its conception emerges once more in all its purity among the Arabic philosophers at the end of the twelfth century and the masters of Scholasticism in the thirteenth. St. Thomas, adopting the Aristotelean idea, writes: "Sapientia est scientia quae considerat causas primas et universales causas; sapientia causas primas omnium causarum considerat" -- Wisdom [i.e. philosophy] is the science which considers first and universal causes; wisdom considers the first causes of all causes" (In Metaph. , I, lect. ii).

In general, modern philosophers may be said to have adopted this way of looking at it. Descartes regards philosophy as wisdom: "Philosophiae voce sapientiae studium denotamus" -- "By the term philosophy we denote the pursuit of wisdom" ( Princ. philos. , preface); and he understands by it "cognitio veritatis per primas suas causas" -- " knowledge of truth by its first causes" (ibid.). For Locke, philosophy is the true knowledge of things; for Berkeley, "the study of wisdom and truth " ( Princ. ). The many conceptions of philosophy given by Kant reduce it to that of a science of the general principles of knowledge and of the ultimate objects attainable by knowledge -- "Wissenschaft von den letzten Zwecken der menschlichen Vernunft". For the numerous German philosophers who derive their inspiration from his criticism -- Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, Schleiermacher, Schopenhauer, and the rest -- it is the general teaching of science (Wissenschaftslehre). Many contemporary authors regard it as the synthetic theory of the particular sciences : "Philosophy", says Herbert Spencer, "is completely unified knowledge " ( First Principles , #37). Ostwald has the same idea. For Wundt, the object of philosophy is "the acquisition of such a general conception of the world and of life as will satisfy the exigencies of the reason and the needs of the heart" -- "Gewinnung einer allgemeinen Welt -- und Lebensanschauung, welche die Forderungen unserer Vernunft und die Bedurfnisse unseres Gemüths befriedigen soll" ( Einleit. in d. Philos. , 1901, p. 5). This idea of philosophy as the ultimate science of values (Wert lehre) is emphasized by Windelband, Déring, and others.

The list of conceptions and definitions might be indefinitely prolonged. All of them affirm the eminently synthetic character of philosophy. In the opinion of the present writer, the most exact and comprehensive definition is that of Aristotle. Face to face with nature and with himself, man reflects and endeavours to discover what the world is, and what he is himself. Having made the real the object of studies in detail, each of which constitutes science (see section VIII ), he is led to a study of the whole, to inquire into the principles or reasons of the totality of things, a study which supplies the answers to the last Why 's. The last Why of all rests upon all that is and all that becomes: it does not apply, as in any one particular science (e.g. chemistry), to this or that process of becoming, or to this or that being (e.g. the combination of two bodies), but to all being and all becoming. All being has within it its constituent principles, which account for its substance (constitutive material and formal causes); all becoming, or change, whether superficial or profound, is brought about by an efficient cause other than its subject; and lastly things and events have their bearings from a finality, or final cause. The harmony of principles, or causes, produces the universal order. And thus philosophy is the profound knowledge of the universal order, in the sense of having for its object the simplest and most general principles, by means of which all other objects of thought are, in the last resort, explained.

By these principles, says Aristotle, we know other things, but other things do not suffice to make us know these principles ( dia gar tauta kai ek toutôn t'alla gnôrizetai, all' ou tauta dia tôn hupokeimenôn -- Metaph. , I). The expression universal order should be understood in the widest sense. Man is one part of it: hence the relations of man with the world of sense and with its Author belong to the domain of philosophy. Now man, on the one hand, is the responsible author of these relations, because he is free, but he is obliged by nature itself to reach an aim, which is his moral end. On the other hand, he has the power of reflecting upon the knowledge which he acquires of all things, and this leads him to study the logical structure of science. Thus philosophical knowledge leads to philosophical acquaintance with morality and logic. And hence we have this more comprehensive definition of philosophy: "The profound knowledge of the universal order, of the duties which that order imposes upon man, and of the knowledge which man acquires from reality" -- "La connaissance approfondie de l'ordre universel, des devoirs qui en résultent pour l'homme et de la science que l'homme acquiert de la rémite" (Mercier, "Logique", 1904, p. 23). -- The development of these same ideas under another aspect will be found in section VIII of this article.

II. DIVISIONS OF PHILOSOPHY

Since the universal order falls within the scope of philosophy (which studies only its first principles, not its reasons in detail), philosophy is led to the consideration of all that is: the world, God (or its cause), and man himself (his nature, origin, operations, moral end, and scientific activities).

It would be out of the question to enumerate here all the methods of dividing philosophy that have been given: we confine ourselves to those which have played a part in history and possess the deepest significance.

A. In Greek Philosophy

Two historical divisions dominate Greek philosophy: the Platonic and the Aristotelean.

(1) Plato divides philosophy into dialectic, physics, and ethics. This division is not found in Plato's own writings, and it would be impossible to fit his dialogues into the triple frame, but it corresponds to the spirit of the Platonic philosophy. According to Zeller, Xenocrates (314 B.C.) his disciple, and the leading representative of the Old Academy, was the first to adopt this triadic division, which was destined to go down through the ages ( Grundriss d. Geschichte d. griechischen Philosophie , 144), and Aristotle follows it in dividing his master's philosophy. Dialectic is the science of objective reality, i.e., of the Idea ( idea eidos ), so that by Platonic dialectic we must understand metaphysics. Physics is concerned with the manifestations of the Idea, or with the Real, in the sensible universe, to which Plato attributes no real value independent of that of the Idea. Ethics has for its object human acts. Plato deals with logic, but has no system of logic ; this was a product of Aristotle's genius.

Plato's classification was taken up by his school (the Academy), but it was not long in yielding to the influence of Aristotle's more complete division and according a place to logic. Following the inspirations of the old Academics, the Stoics divided philosophy into physics (the study of the real), logic (the study of the structure of science ) and morals (the study of moral acts). This classification was perpetuated by the neo-Platonists, who transmitted it to the Fathers of the Church , and through them to the Middle Ages.

(2) Aristotle, Plato's illustrious disciple, the most didactic, and at the same time the most synthetic, mind of the Greek world, drew up a remarkable scheme of the divisions of philosophy. The philosophical sciences are divided into theoretic, practical, and poetic, according as their scope is pure speculative knowledge, or conduct ( praxis ), or external production ( poiêsis ). Theoretic philosophy comprises: (a) physics, or the study of corporeal things which are subject to change ( achôrista men all' ouk akinêta ) (b) mathematics, or the study of extension, i.e., of a corporeal property not subject to change and considered, by abstraction, apart from matter ( akinêta men ou chôrista d'isôs, all' hôs en hulê ); (c) metaphysics, called theology, or first philosophy, i.e. the study of being in its unchangeable and (whether naturally or by abstraction ) incorporeal determinations ( chôrista kau akinêt ). Practical philosophy comprises ethics, economics, and politics, the second of these three often merging into the last. Poetic philosophy is concerned in general with the external works conceived by human intelligence. To these may conveniently be added logic, the vestibule of philosophy, which Aristotle studied at length, and of which he may be called the creator.

To metaphysics Aristotle rightly accords the place of honour in the grouping of philosophical studies. He calls it "first philosophy". His classification was taken up by the Peripatetic School and was famous throughout antiquity; it was eclipsed by the Platonic classification during the Alexandrine period, but it reappeared during the Middle Ages.

B. In the Middle Ages

Though the division of philosophy into its branches is not uniform in the first period of the Middle Ages in the West, i.e. down to the end of the twelfth century, the classifications of this period are mostly akin to the Platonic division into logic, ethics, and physics. Aristotle's classification of the theoretic sciences, though made known by Boethius, exerted no influence for the reason that in the early Middle Ages the West knew nothing of Aristotle except his works on logic and some fragments of his speculative philosophy (see section V below). It should be added here that philosophy, reduced at first to dialectic, or logic, and placed as such in the Trivium, was not long in setting itself above the liberal arts.

The Arab philosophers of the twelfth century ( Avicenna, Averroes ) accepted the Aristotelean classification, and when their works -- particularly their translations of Aristotle's great original treatises -- penetrated into the West, the Aristotelean division definitively took its place there. Its coming is heralded by Gundissalinus (see section XII ), one of the Toletan translators of Aristotle, and author of a treatise, "De divisione philosophiae", which was imitated by Michael Scott and Robert Kilwardby . St. Thomas did no more than adopt it and give it a precise scientific form. Later on we shall see that, conformably with the medieval notion of sapientia , to each part of philosophy corresponds the preliminary study of a group of special sciences. The general scheme of the division of philosophy in the thirteenth century, with St. Thomas's commentary on it, is as follows:

There are as many parts of philosophy as there are distinct domains in the order submitted to the philosopher's reflection. Now there is an order which the intelligence does not form but only considers; such is the order realized in nature. Another order, the practical, is formed either by the acts of our intelligence or by the acts of our will, or by the application of those acts to external things in the arts: e.g., the division of practical philosophy into logic, moral philosophy, and æsthetics, or the philosophy of the arts ( "Ad philosophiam naturalem pertinet considerare ordinem rerum quem ratio humana considerat sed non facit; ita quod sub naturali philosophia comprehendamus et metaphysicam. Ordo autem quem ratio considerando facit in proprio actu, pertinet ad rationalem philosophiam, cujus est considerare ordinem partium orationis ad invicem et ordinem principiorum ad invicem et ad conclusiones. Ordo autem actionum voluntariarum pertinet ad considerationem moralis philosophiae. Ordo autem quem ratio considerando facit in rebus exterioribus per rationem humanam pertinet ad artes mechanicas." ) To natural philosophy pertains the consideration of the order of things which human reason considers but does not create -- just as we include metaphysics also under natural philosophy. But the order which reason creates of its own act by consideration pertains to rational philosophy, the office of which is to consider the order of the parts of speech with reference to one another and the order of the principles with reference to one another and to the conclusions. The order of voluntary actions pertains to the consideration of moral philosophy, while the order which the reason creates in external things through the human reason pertains to the mechanical arts. -- In "X Ethic. ad Nic.", I, lect. i.

The philosophy of nature, or speculative philosophy, is divided into metaphysics, mathematics, and physics, according to the three stages traversed by the intelligence in its effort to attain a synthetic comprehension of the universal order, by abstracting from movement (physics), intelligible quantity (mathematics), being ( metaphysics ) ( In lib. Boeth. de Trinitate , Q. v., a. 1). In this classification it is to be noted that, man being one element of the world of sense, psychology ranks as a part of physics.

C. In Modern Philosophy

The Scholastic classification may be said, generally speaking, to have lasted, with some exceptions, until the seventeenth century. Beginning with Descartes, we find a multitude of classifications arising, differing in the principles which inspire them. Kant, for instance, distinguishes metaphysics, moral philosophy, religion, and anthropology. The most widely accepted scheme, that which still governs the division of the branches of philosophy in teaching, is due to Wolff (1679-1755), a disciple of Leibniz, who has been called the educator of Germany in the eighteenth century. This scheme is as follows:

  • Logic.
  • Speculative Philosophy.
  • Practical Philosophy.
  • Wolff broke the ties binding the particular sciences to philosophy, and placed them by themselves; in his view philosophy must remain purely rational. It is easy to see that the members of Wolff's scheme are found in the Aristotelean classification, wherein theodicy is a chapter of metaphysics and psychology a chapter of physics. It may even be said that the Greek classification is better than Wolff's in regard to speculative philosophy, where the ancients were guided by the formal object of the study -- i.e. by the degree of abstraction to which the whole universe is subjected, while the moderns always look at the material object -- i.e., the three categories of being, which it is possible to study, God, the world of sense, and man.

    D. In Contemporary Philosophy

    The impulse received by philosophy during the last half-century gave rise to new philosophical sciences, in the sense that various branches have been detached from the main stems. In psychology this phenomenon has been remarkable: criteriology, or epistemology (the study of the certitude of knowledge ) has developed into a special study. Other branches which have formed themselves into new psychological sciences are: physiological psychology or the study of the physiological concomitant of psychic activities; didactics, or the science of teaching; pedagogy, or the science of education ; collective psychology and the psychology of people (Volkerpsychologie), studying the psychic phenomena observable in human groups as such, and in the different races. An important section of logic (called also noetic, or canonic) is tending to sever itself from the main body, viz., methodology, which studies the special logical formation of various sciences. On moral philosophy, in the wide sense, have been grafted the philosophy of law, the philosophy of society, or social philosophy (which is much the same as sociology ), and the philosophies of religion and of history.

    III. THE PRINCIPAL SYSTEMATIC SOLUTIONS

    From what has been said above it is evident that philosophy is beset by a great number of questions. It would not be possible here to enumerate all those questions, much less to detail the divers solutions which have been given to them. The solution of a philosophic question is called a philosophic doctrine or theory. A philosophic system (from sunistêmi , put together) is a complete and organized group of solutions. It is not an incoherent assemblage or an encyclopedic amalgamation of such solutions; it is dominated by an organic unity. Only those philosophic systems which are constructed conformably with the exigencies of organic unity are really powerful: such are the systems of the Upanishads, of Aristotle, of neo-Platonism, of Scholasticism, of Leibniz, Kant and Hume. So that one or several theories do not constitute a system; but some theories, i.e. answers to a philosophic question, are important enough to determine the solution of other important problems of a system. The scope of this section is to indicate some of these theories.

    A. Monism, or Pantheism, and Pluralism, Individualism, or Theism

    Are there many beings distinct in their reality, with one Supreme Being, God at the summit of the hierarchy; or is there but one reality ( monas , hence monism ), one All-God ( pan-theos ) of whom each individual is but a member or fragment (Substantialistic Pantheism ), or else a force, or energy (Dynamic Pantheism )? Here we have an important question of metaphysics the solution of which reacts upon all other domains of philosophy. The system of Aristotle, of the Scholastics, and of Leibniz are Pluralistic and Theistic; the Indian, neo-Platonic, and Hegelian are Monistic. Monism is a fascinating explanation of the real, but it only postpones the difficulties which it imagines itself to be solving (e.g. the difficulty of the interaction of things), to say nothing of the objection, from the human point of view, that it runs counter to our most deep-rooted sentiments.

    B. Objectivism and Subjectivism

    Does being, whether one or many, possess its own life, independent of our mind, so that to be known by us is only accident to being, as in the objective system of metaphysics (e.g. Aristotle, the Scholastics, Spinoza )? Or is being no other reality than the mental and subjective presence which it acquires in our representation of it as in the Subjective system (e.g. Hume)? It is in this sense that the "Revue de métaphysique et de morale" (see bibliography) uses the term metaphysics in its title. Subjectivism cannot explain the passivity of our mental representations, which we do not draw out of ourselves, and which therefore oblige us to infer the reality of a non-ego.

    C. Substantialism and Phenomenism

    Is all reality a flux of phenomena (Heraclitus, Berkeley, Hume, Taine), or does the manifestation appear upon a basis, or substance, which manifests itself, and does the phenomenon demand a noumenon (the Scholastics )? Without an underlying substance, which we only know through the medium of the phenomenon, certain realities, as walking, talking, are inexplicable, and such facts as memory become absurd.

    D. Mechanism and Dynamism (Pure and Modified)

    Natural bodies are considered by some to be aggregations of homogeneous particles of matter (atoms) receiving a movement which is extrinsic to them, so that these bodies differ only in the number and arrangement of their atoms (the Atomism, or Mechanism, of Democritus, Descartes, and Hobbes). Others reduce them to specific, unextended, immaterial forces, of which extension is only the superficial manifestation (Leibniz). Between the two is Modified Dynamism ( Aristotle ), which distinguishes in bodies an immanent specific principle (form) and an indeterminate element (matter) which is the source of limitation and extension. This theory accounts for the specific characters of the entities in question as well as for the reality of their extension in space.

    E. Materialism, Agnosticism, and Spiritualism

    That everything real is material, that whatever might be immaterial would be unreal, such is the cardinal doctrine of Materialism (the Stoics, Hobbes, De Lamettrie). Contemporary Materialism is less outspoken: it is inspired by a Positivist ideology (see section VI ), and asserts that, if anything supra-material exists, it is unknowable ( Agnosticism, from a and gnôsis , knowledge ; Spencer, Huxley). Spiritualism teaches that incorporeal, or immaterial, beings exist or that they are possible (Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, the Scholastics, Descartes, Leibniz ). Some have even asserted that only spirits exist: Berkeley, Fichte, and Hegel are exaggerated Spiritualists. The truth is that there are bodies and spirits ; among the latter we are acquainted (though less well than with bodies) with the nature of our soul, which is revealed by the nature of our immaterial acts, and with the nature of God, the infinite intelligence, whose existence is demonstrated by the very existence of finite things. Side by side with these solutions relating to the problems of the real, there is another group of solutions, not less influential in the orientation of a system, and relating to psychical problems or those of the human ego.

    F. Sensualism and Rationalism, or Spiritualism

    These are the opposite poles of the ideogenetic question, the question of the origin of our knowledge. For Sensualism the only source of human knowledge is sensation: everything reduces to transformed sensations. This theory, long ago put forward in Greek philosophy (Stoicism, Epicureanism ), was developed to the full by the English Sensualists (Locke, Berkeley, Hume) and the English Associationists (Brown, Hartley, Priestley); its modern form is Positivism (John Stuart Mill, Huxley, Spencer, Comte, Taine, Littré etc.). Were this theory true, it would follow that we can know only what falls under our senses, and therefore cannot pronounce upon the existence or non-existence, the reality or unreality, of the super-sensible. Positivism is more logical than Materialism. In the New World, the term Agnosticism has been very happily employed to indicate this attitude of reserve towards the super-sensible. Rationalism (from ratio , reason ), or Spiritualism, establishes the existence in us of concepts higher than sensations, i.e. of abstract and general concepts (Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, the Scholastics, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Cousin etc.). Ideologic Spiritualism has won the adherence of humanity's greatest thinkers. Upon the spirituality, or immateriality, of our higher mental operations is based the proof of the spirituality of the principle from which they proceed and, hence, of the immortality of the soul.

    G. Scepticism, Dogmatism, and Criticism

    So many answers have been given to the question whether man can attain truth, and what is the foundation of certitude, that we will not attempt to enumerate them all. Scepticism declares reason incapable of arriving at the truth, and holds certitude to be a purely subjective affair (Sextus Empiricus, Ænesidemus). Dogmatism asserts that man can attain to truth, and that, in measure to be further determined, our cognitions are certain. The motive of certitude is, for the Traditionalists, a Divine revelation, for the Scotch School (Reid) it is an inclination of nature to affirm the principles of common sense ; it is an irrational, but social, necessity of admitting certain principles for practical dogmatism (Balfour in his "Foundations of Belief" speaks of "non-rational impulse", while Mallock holds that "certitude is found to be the child, not of reason but of custom " and Brunetière writes about "the bankruptcy of science and the need of belief "); it is an affective sentiment, a necessity of wishing that certain things may be verities ( Voluntarism ; Kant's Moral Dogmatism), or the fact of living certain verities (contemporary Pragmatism and Humanism, William James, Schiller). But for others -- and this is the theory which we accept -- the motive of certitude is the very evidence of the connection which appears between the predicate and the subject of a proposition, an evidence which the mind perceives, but which it does not create (Moderate Dogmatism). Lastly for Criticism, which is the Kantian solution of the problem of knowledge, evidence is created by the mind by means of the structural functions with which every human intellect is furnished (the categories of the understanding). In conformity with these functions we connect the impressions of the senses and construct the world. Knowledge, therefore, is valid only for the world as represented to the mind. Kantian Criticism ends in excessive Idealism, which is also called Subjectivism or Phenomenalism, and according to which the mind draws all its representations out of itself, both the sensory impressions and the categories which connect them: the world becomes a mental poem, the object is created by the subject as representation (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel ).

    H. Nominalism, Realism, and Conceptualism

    Nominalism, Realism, and Conceptualism are various answers to the question of the real objectivity of our predications, or of the relation of fidelity existing between our general representations and the external world.

    I. Determinism and Indeterminism

    Has every phenomenon or fact its adequate cause in an antecedent phenomenon or fact (Cosmic Determinism )? And, in respect to acts of the will, are they likewise determined in all their constituent elements (Moral Determinism, Stoicism, Spinoza )? If so, then liberty disappears, and with it human responsibility, merit and demerit. Or, on the contrary, is there a category of volitions which are not necessitated, and which depend upon the discretionary power of the will to act or not to act and in acting to follow freely chosen direction? Does liberty exist? Most Spiritualists of all schools have adopted a libertarian philosophy, holding that liberty alone gives the moral life an acceptable meaning; by various arguments they have confirmed the testimony of conscience and the data of common consent. In physical nature causation and determinism rule; in the moral life, liberty. Others, by no means numerous, have even pretended to discover cases of indeterminism in physical nature (the so-called Contingentist theories, e.g. Boutroux).

    J. Utilitarianism and the Morality of Obligation

    What constitutes the foundation of morality in our actions? Pleasure or utility say some, personal or egoistic pleasure ( Egoism -- Hobbes, Bentham, and "the arithmetic of pleasure"); or again, in the pleasure and utility of all ( Altruism -- John Stuart Mill). Others hold that morality consists in the performance of duty for duty's sake, the observance of law because it is law, independently of personal profit (the Formalism of the Stoics and of Kant ). According to another doctrine, which in our opinion is more correct, utility, or personal advantage, is not incompatible with duty, but the source of the obligation to act is in the last analysis, as the very exigencies of our nature tell us, the ordinance of God.

    IV. PHILOSOPHICAL METHODS

    Method ( meth' hodos ) means a path taken to reach some objective point. By philosophical method is understood the path leading to philosophy, which, again, may mean either the process employed in the construction of a philosophy (constructive method, method of invention), or the way of teaching philosophy (method of teaching, didactic method). We will deal here with the former of these two senses; the latter will be treated in section XI. Three methods can be, and have been, applied to the construction of philosophy.

    A. Experimental (Empiric, or Analytic) Method

    The method of all Empiric philosophers is to observe facts, accumulate them, and coordinate them. Pushed to its ultimate consequences, the empirical method refuses to rise beyond observed and observable fact; it abstains from investigating anything that is absolute. It is found among the Materialists, ancient and modern, and is most unreservedly applied in contemporary Positivism. Comte opposes the "positive mode of thinking", based solely upon observation, to the theological and metaphysical modes. For Mill, Huxley, Bain, Spencer, there is not one philosophical proposition but is the product, pure and simple, of experience: what we take for a general idea is an aggregate of sensations; a judgment is the union of two sensations; a syllogism, the passage from particular to particular (Mill, "A System of Logic, Rational and Inductive", ed. Lubbock, 1892; Bain, "Logic", New York, 1874). Mathematical propositions, fundamental axioms such as a = a, the principle of contradiction, the principle of causality are only "generalizations from facts of experience" (Mill, op. cit., vii, #5). According to this author, what we believe to be superior to experience in the enunciation of scientific laws is derived from our subjective incapacity to conceive its contradictory; according to Spencer, this inconceivability of the negation is developed by heredity.

    Applied in an exaggerated and exclusive fashion, the experimental method mutilates facts, since it is powerless to ascend to the causes and the laws which govern facts. It suppresses the character of objective necessity which is inherent in scientific judgments, and reduces them to collective formulae of facts observed in the past. It forbids our asserting, e.g., that the men who will be born after us will be subject to death, seeing that all certitude rests on experience, and that by mere observation we cannot reach the unchangeable nature of things. The empirical method, left to its own resources, checks the upward movement of the mind towards the causes or object of the phenomena which confront it.

    B. Deductive, or Synthetic a Priori, Method

    At the opposite pole to the preceding, the deductive method starts from very general principles, from higher causes, to descend ( Latin deducere , to lead down) to more and more complex relations and to facts. The dream of the Deductionist is to take as the point of departure an intuition of the Absolute, of the Supreme Reality -- for the Theists, God ; for the Monists, the Universal Being -- and to draw from this intuition the synthetic knowledge of all that depends upon it in the universe, in conformity with the metaphysical scale of the real.

    Plato is the father of deductive philosophy: he starts from the world of Ideas, and from the Idea of the Sovereign Good, and he would know the reality of the world of sense only in the Ideas of which it is the reflection. St. Augustine, too, finds his satisfaction in studying the universe, and the least of the beings which compose it, only in a synthetic contemplation of God, the exemplary, creative, and final cause of all things. So, too, the Middle Ages attached great importance to the deductive method. "I propose", writes Boethius, "to build science by means of concepts and maxims, as is done in mathematics." Anselm of Canterbury draws from the idea of God, not only the proof of the real existence of an infinite being, but also a group of theorems on His attributes and His relations with the world. Two centuries before Anselm, Scotus Eriugena, the father of anti-Scholasticism, is the completest type of the Deductionist: his metaphysics is one long description of the Divine Odyssey, inspired by the neo-Platonic, monistic conception of the descent of the One in its successive generations. And, on the very threshold of the thirteenth century, Alain de Lille would apply to philosophy a mathematical methodology. In the thirteenth century Raymond Lullybelieved that he had found the secret of "the Great Art" ( ars magna ), a sort of syllogism-machine, built of general tabulations of ideas, the combination of which would give the solution of any question whatsoever. Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz are Deductionists: they would construct philosophy after the manner of geometry ( more geometrico ), linking the most special and complicated theorems to some very simple axioms. The same tendency appears among the Ontologists and the post-Kantian Pantheists in Germany (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel ), who base their philosophy upon an intuition of the Absolute Being.

    The deductive philosophers generally profess to disdain the sciences of observation. Their great fault is the compromising of fact, bending it to a preconceived explanation or theory assumed a priori , whereas the observation of the fact ought to precede the assignment of its cause or of its adequate reason. This defect in the deductive method appears glaringly in a youthful work of Leibniz's, "Specimen demonstrationum politicarum pro rege Polonorum eligendo", published anonymously in 1669, where he demonstrates by geometrical methods ( more geometrico ), in sixty propositions, that the Count Palatine of Neuburg ought to be elected to the Polish Throne.

    C. Analytico-Synthetic Method

    This combination of analysis and synthesis, of observation and deduction, is the only method appropriate to philosophy. Indeed, since it undertakes to furnish a general explanation of the universal order (see section I ), philosophy ought to begin with complex effects, facts known by observation, before attempting to include them in one comprehensive explanation of the universe. This is manifest in psychology, where we begin with a careful examination of activities, notably of the phenomena of sense, of intelligence, and of appetite ; in cosmology, where we observe the series of changes, superficial and profound, of bodies; in moral philosophy, which sets out from the observation of moral facts; in theodicy, where we interrogate religious beliefs and feelings; even in metaphysics, the starting-point of which is really existing being.

    But observation and analysis once completed, the work of synthesis begins. We must pass onward to a synthetic psychology that shall enable us to comprehend the destinies of man's vital principle; to a cosmology that shall explain the constitution of bodies, their changes, and the stability of the laws which govern them; to a synthetic moral philosophy establishing the end of man and the ultimate ground of duty ; to a theodicy and deductive metaphysics that shall examine the attributes of God and the fundamental conceptions of all being.

    As a whole and in each of its divisions, philosophy applies the analytic-synthetic method. Its ideal would be to give an account of the universe and of man by a synthetic knowledge of God, upon whom all reality depends. This panoramic view -- the eagle's view of things -- has allured all the great geniuses. St. Thomas expresses himself admirably on this synthetic knowledge of the universe and its first cause. The analytico-synthetic process is the method, not only of philosophy, but of every science, for it is the natural law of thought, the proper function of which is unified and orderly knowledge. "Sapientis est ordinare." Aristotle, St. Thomas, Pascal, Newton, Pasteur, thus understood the method of the sciences. Men like Helmholtz and Wundt adopted synthetic views after doing analytical work. Even the Positivists are metaphysicians, though they do not know it or wish it. Does not Herbert Spencer call his philosophy synthetic? and does he not, by reasoning, pass beyond that domain of the "observable" within which he professes to confine himself?

    V. THE GREAT HISTORICAL CURRENTS

    Among the many peoples who have covered the globe philosophic culture appears in two groups: the Semitic and the Indo-European, to which may be added the Egyptians and the Chinese. In the Semitic group ( Arabs, Babylonians, Assyrians, Aramaeans, Chaldeans) the Arabs are the most important; nevertheless, their part becomes insignificant when compared with the intellectual life of the Indo-Europeans. Among the latter, philosophic life appears successively in various ethnic divisions, and the succession forms the great periods into which the history of philosophy is divided; first, among the people of India (since 1500 B.C.); then among the Greeks and the Romans (sixth century B.C. to sixth century of our era); again, much later, among the peoples of Central and Northern Europe.

    A. Indian Philosophy

    The philosophy of India is recorded principally in the sacred books of the Veda, for it has always been closely united with religion. Its numerous poetic and religious productions carry within themselves a chronology which enables us to assign them to three periods.

    (1) The Period of the Hymns of the Rig Veda (1500-1000 B.C.)

    This is the most ancient monument of Indo-Germanic civilization; in it may be seen the progressive appearance of the fundamental theory that a single Being exists under a thousand forms in the multiplied phenomena of the universe (Monism).

    (2) The Period of the Brahmans (l000-500 B.C.)

    This is the age of Brahminical civilization. The theory of the one Being remains, but little by little the concrete and anthropomorphic ideas of the one Being are replaced by the doctrine that the basis of all things is in oneself ( âtman ). Psychological Monism appears in its entirety in the Upanishads: the absolute and adequate identity of the Ego -- which is the constitutive basis of our individuality ( âtman ) -- and of all things, with Brahman, the eternal being exalted above time, space, number, and change, the generating principle of all things in which all things are finally reabsorbed -- such the fundamental theme to be found in the Upanishad under a thousand variations of form. To arrive at the âtman, we must not stop at empirical reality which is multiple and cognizable; we must pierce this husk, penetrate to the unknowable and ineffable superessence, and identify ourselves with it in an unconscious unity.

    (3) The Post-Vedic or Sanskrit, Period (since 500 B.C.)

    From the germs of theories contained in the Upanishad a series of systems spring up, orthodox or heterodox. Of the orthodox systems, Vedanta is the most interesting; in it we find the principles of the Upanishads developed in an integral philosophy which comprise metaphysics, cosmology, psychology, and ethics (transmigration, metempsychosis ). Among the systems not in harmony with the Vedic dogmas, the most celebrated is Buddhism , a kind of Pessimism which teaches liberation from pain in a state of unconscious repose, or an extinction of personality (Nirvâna). Buddhism spread in China, where it lives side by side with the doctrines of Lao Tse and that of Confucius. It is evident that even the systems which are not in harmony with the Veda are permeated with religious ideas.

    B. Greek philosophy

    This philosophy, which occupied six centuries before, and six after, Christ, may be divided into four periods, corresponding with the succession of the principal lines of research (1) From Thales of Miletus to Socrates (seventh to fifth centuries B.C. — preoccupied with cosmology) (2) Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle (fifth to fourth centuries B.C. — psychology); (3) From the death of Aristotle to the rise of neo-Platonism (end of the fourth century B.C. to third century after Christ — moral philosophy); (4) neo-Platonic School (from the third century after Christ, or, including the systems of the forerunners of neo-Platonism, from the first century after Christ, to the end of Greek philosophy in the seventh century — mysticism).

    (1) The Pre-Socratic Period

    The pre-Socratic philosophers either seek for the stable basis of things — which is water, for Thales of Miletus; air, for Anaximenes of Miletus; air endowed with intelligence, for Diogenes of Apollonia; number, for Pythagoras (sixth century B.C.); abstract and immovable being, for the Eleatics — or they study that which changes: while Parmenides and the Eleatics assert that everything is, and nothing changes or becomes. Heraclitus (about 535-475) holds that everything becomes, and nothing is unchangeable. Democritus (fifth century) reduces all beings to groups of atoms in motion, and this movement, according to Anaxagoras, has for its cause an intelligent being.

    (2) The Period of Apogee: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.

    When the Sophists (Protagoras, Gorgias) had demonstrated the insufficiency of these cosmologies, Socrates (470-399) brought philosophical investigation to bear on man himself, studying man chiefly from the moral point of view. From the presence in us of abstract ideas Plato (427-347) deduced the existence of a world of supersensible realities or ideas, of which the visible world is but a pale reflection. These ideas, which the soul in an earlier life contemplated, are now, because of its union with the body, but faintly perceived. Aristotle (384-322), on the contrary, shows that the real dwells in the objects of sense. The theory of act and potentiality, of form and matter, is a new solution of the relations between the permanent and the changing. His psychology, founded upon the principle of the unity of man and the substantial union of soul and body, is a creation of genius. And as much may be said of his logic.

    (3) The Moral Period

    After Aristotle (end of the fourth Century B.C.) four schools are in evidence: Stoic, Epicurean, Platonic, and Aristotelean. The Stoics (Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, Chrysippus), like the Epicureans, make speculation subordinate to the quest of happiness, and the two schools, in spite of their divergencies, both consider happiness to be ataraxia or absence of sorrow and preoccupation. The teachings of both on nature (Dynamistic Monism with the Stoics, and Pluralistic Mechanism with the Epicureans) are only a prologue to their moral philosophy. After the latter half of the second century B.C. we perceive reciprocal infiltrations between the various schools. This issues in Eclecticism. Seneca (first century B.C.) and Cicero (106-43 B.C.) are attached to Eclecticism with a Stoic basis; two great commentators of Aristotle, Andronicus of Rhodes (first century B.C.) and Alexander of Aphrodisia about 200), affect a Peripatetic Eclecticism. Parallel with Eclecticism runs a current of Scepticism (Ænesidemus, end of first century B.C., and Sextus Empiricus, second century A.D.).

    (4) The Mystical Period

    In the first century B.C. Alexandria had become the capital of Greek intellectual life. Mystical and theurgic tendencies, born of a longing for the ideal and the beyond, began to appear in a current of Greek philosophy which originated in a restoration of Pythagorism and its alliance with Platonism (Plutarch of Chieronea, first century B.C.; Apuleius of Madaura; Numenius, about 160 and others), and still more in the Graeco-Judaic philosophy of Philo the Jew (30 B.C. to A.D. 50). But the dominance of these tendencies is more apparent in neo-Platonism. The most brilliant thinker of the neo-Platonic series is Plotinus (A.D. 20-70). In his "Enneads" he traces the paths which lead the soul to the One, and establishes, in keeping with his mysticism, an emanationist metaphysical system. Porphyry of Tyre (232-304), a disciple of Plotinus, popularizes his teaching, emphasizes its religious bearing, and makes Aristotle's "Organon" the introduction to neo-Platonic philosophy. Later on, neo-Platonism, emphasizing its religious features, placed itself, with Jamblichus, at the service of the pagan pantheon which growing Christianity was ruining on all sides, or again, as with Themistius at Constantinople (fourth century), Proclus and Simplicius at Athens (fifth century), and Ammonius at Alexandria, it took an Encyclopedic turn. With Ammonius and John Philoponus (sixth century) the neo-Platonic School of Alexandria developed in the direction of Christianity.

    C. Patristic philosophy

    In the closing years of the second century and, still more, in the third century, the philosophy of the Fathers of the Church was developed. It was born in a civilization dominated by Greek ideas, chiefly neo-Platonic, and on this side its mode of thought is still the ancient. Still, if some, like St. Augustine, attach the greatest value to the neo-Platonic teachings, it must not be forgotten that the Monist or Pantheistic and Emanationist ideas, which have been accentuated by the successors of Plotinus, are carefully replaced by the theory of creation and the substantial distinction of beings; in this respect a new spirit animates Patristic philosophy. It was developed, too, as an auxiliary of the dogmatic system which the Fathers were to establish. In the third century the great representatives of the Christian School of Alexandria are Clement of Alexandria and Origen. After them Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Ambrose, and, above all, St. Augustine (354-430) appear. St. Augustine gathers up the intellectual treasures of the ancient world, and is one of the principal intermediaries for their transmission to the modern world. In its definitive form Augustinism is a fusion of intellectualism and mysticism, with a study of God as the centre of interest. In the fifth century, pseudo-Dionysius perpetuates many a neo-Platonic doctrine adapted to Christianity, and his writings exercise a powerful influence in the Middle Ages.

    D. Medieval philosophy

    The philosophy of the Middle Ages developed simultaneously in the West, at Byzantium, and in divers Eastern centres; but the Western philosophy is the most important. It built itself up with great effort on the ruins of barbarism: until the twelfth century, nothing was known of Aristotle, except some treatises on logic, or of Plato, except a few dialogues. Gradually, problems arose, and, foremost, in importance, the question of universals in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries (see NOMINALISM). St. Anselm (1033-1109) made a first attempt at systematizing Scholastic philosophy, and developed a theodicy. But as early as the ninth century an anti-Scholastic philosophy had arisen with Eriugena who revived the neo-Platonic Monism.

    In the twelfth century Scholasticism formulated new anti-Realist doctrines with Adelard of Bath, Gauthier de Mortagne, and, above all, Abelard and Gilbert de la Porrée, whilst extreme Realism took shape in the schools of Chartres. John of Salisbury and Alain de Lille, in the twelfth century, are the co-ordinating minds that indicate the maturity of Scholastic thought. The latter of these waged a campaign against the Pantheism of David of Dinant and the Epicureanism of the Albigenses — the two most important forms of anti-Scholastic philosophy. At Byzantium, Greek philosophy held its ground throughout the Middle Ages, and kept apart from the movement of Western ideas. The same is true of the Syrians and Arabs.

    But at the end of the twelfth century the Arabic and Byzantine movement entered into relation with Western thought, and effected, to the profit of the latter, the brilliant philosophical revival of the thirteenth century. This was due, in the first place, to the creation of the University of Paris; next, to the foundation of the Dominican and Franciscan orders; lastly, to the introduction of Arabic and Latin translations of Aristotle and the ancient authors. At the same period the works of Avicenna and Averroes became known at Paris. A pleiad of brilliant names fills the thirteenth century — Alexander of Hales, St. Bonaventure, Bl. Albertus Magnus, St. Thomas Aquinas, Godfrey of Fontaines, Henry of Ghent, Giles of Rome, and Duns Scotus — bring Scholastic synthesis to perfection. They all wage war on Latin Averroism and anti-Scholasticism, defended in the schools of Paris by Siger of Brabant. Roger Bacon, Lully, and a group of neo-Platonists occupy a place apart in this century, which is completely filled by remarkable figures.

    In the fourteenth century Scholastic philosophy betrays the first symptoms of decadence. In place of individualities we have schools, the chief being the Thomist, the Scotist, and the Terminist School of William of Occam, which soon attracted numerous partisans. With John of Jandun, Averroism perpetuates its most audacious propositions; Eckhart and Nicholas of Cusa formulate philosophies which are symptomatic of the approaching revolution. The Renaissance was a troublous period for philosophy. Ancient systems were revived: the Dialectic of the Humanistic philologists (Laurentius Valla, Vivés), Platonism, Aristoteleanism, Stoicism. Telesius, Campanella, and Giordano Bruno follow a naturalistic philosophy. Natural and social law are renewed with Thomas More and Grotius. All these philosophies were leagued together against Scholasticism, and very often against Catholicism. On the other hand, the Scholastic philosophers grew weaker and weaker, and, excepting for the brilliant Spanish Scholasticism of the sixteenth century (Bañez, Francisco Suárez, Vasquez, and so on), it may be said that ignorance of the fundamental doctrine became general. In the seventeenth century there was no one to support Scholasticism: it fell, not for lack of ideas, but for lack of defenders.

    E. Modern philosophy

    The philosophies of the Renaissance are mainly negative: modern philosophy is, first and foremost, constructive. The latter is emancipated from all dogma; many of its syntheses are powerful; the definitive formation of the various nationalities and the diversity of languages favour the tendency to individualism.

    The two great initiators of modern philosophy are Descartes and Francis Bacon. The former inaugurates a spiritualistic philosophy based on the data of consciousness, and his influence may be traced in Malebranche, Spinoza, and Leibniz. Bacon heads a line of Empiricists, who regarded sensation as the only source of knowledge.

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a Sensualist philosophy grew up in England, based on Baconian Empiricism, and soon to develop in the direction of Subjectivism. Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and David Hume mark the stages of this logical evolution. Simultaneously an Associationist psychology appeared also inspired by Sensualism, and, before long, it formed a special field of research. Brown, David Hartley, and Priestley developed the theory of association of ideas in various directions. At the outset Sensualism encountered vigorous opposition, even in England, from the Mystics and Platonists of the Cambridge School (Samuel Parker and, especially, Ralph Cudworth). The reaction was still more lively in the Scotch School, founded and chiefly represented by Thomas Reid, to which Adam Ferguson, Oswald, and Dugald Stewart belonged in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and which had great influence over Eclectic Spiritualism, chiefly in America and France. Hobbes's "selfish" system was developed into a morality by Bentham, a partisan of Egoistic Utilitarianism, and by Adam Smith, a defender of Altruism, but provoked a reaction among the advocates of the moral sentiment theory (Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, Samuel Clarke). In England, also, Theism or Deism was chiefly developed, instituting a criticism of all positive religion, which it sought to supplant with a philosophical religion. English Sensualism spread in France during the eighteenth century: its influence is traceable in de Condillac, de la Mettrie, and the Encyclopedists; Voltaire popularized it in France and with Jean-Jacques Rousseau it made its way among the masses, undermining their Christianity and preparing the Revolution of 1789. In Germany, the philosophy of the eighteenth century is, directly or indirectly, connected with Leibniz — the School of Wolff, the Æsthetic School (Baumgarten), the philosophy of sentiment. But all the German philosophers of the eighteenth century were eclipsed by the great figure of Kant.

    With Kant (1724-1804) modern philosophy enters its second period and takes a critical orientation. Kant bases his theory of knowledge, his moral and æsthetic system, and his judgments of finality on the structure of the mind. In the first half of the eighteenth century, German philosophy is replete with great names connected with Kantianism — after it had been put through a Monistic evolution, however — Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel have been called the triumvirate of Pantheism; then again, Schopenhauer, while Herbart returned to individualism. French philosophy in the nineteenth century is at first dominated by an eclectic Spiritualistic movement with which the names of Maine de Biran and, especially, Victor Cousin are associated. Cousin had disciples in America (C. Henry), and in France he gained favour with those whom the excesses of the Revolution had alarmed. In the first half of the nineteenth century French Catholics approved the Traditionalism inaugurated by de Bonald and de Lamennais, while another group took refuge in Ontologism. In the same period Auguste Comte founded Positivism, to which Littré and Taine adhered, though it rose to its greatest height in the English-speaking countries. In fact, England may be said to have been the second fatherland of Positivism; John Stuart Mill, Huxley, Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer expanded its doctrines, combined them with Associationism and emphasized it criteriological aspect, or attempted (Spencer) to construct a vast synthesis of human sciences. The Associationist philosophy at this time was confronted by the Scotch philosophy which, in Hamilton, combined the teachings of Reid and of Kant and found an American champion in Noah Porter. Mansel spread the doctrines of Hamilton. Associationism regained favour with Thomas Brown and James Mill, but was soon enveloped in the large conception of Positivism, the dominant philosophy in England. Lastly, in Italy, Hegel was for a long time the leader of nineteenth-century philosophical thought (Vera and d'Ercole), whilst Gioberti, the ontologist and Rosmini occupy a distinct position. More recently, Positivism has gained numerous adherents in Italy. In the middle of the century, a large Krausist School existed in Spain, represented chiefly by Sanz del Rio (d. 1869) and N. Salmeron. Balmes (1810-48), the author of "Fundamental Philosophy" is an original thinker whose doctrines have many points of contact with Scholasticism.

    VI. Contemporary orientations

    Favourite problems

    Leaving aside social questions, the study of which belongs to philosophy in only some of their aspects, it may be said that in the philosophic interest of the present day psychological questions hold the first place, and that chief among them is the problem of certitude. Kant, indeed, is so important a factor in the destinies of contemporary philosophy not only because he is the initiator of critical formalism, but still more because he obliges his successors to deal with the preliminary and fundamental question of the limits of knowledge. On the other hand the experimental investigation of mental processes has become the object of a new study, psycho-physiology, in which men of science co-operate with philosophers, and which meets with increasing success. This study figures in the programme of most modern universities. Originating at Leipzig (the School of Wundt) and Würzburg, it has quickly become naturalized in Europe and America. In America, "The Psychological Review" has devoted many articles to this branch of philosophy. Psychological studies are the chosen field of the American (Ladd, William James, Hall).

    The great success of psychology has emphasized the subjective character of æsthetics, in which hardly anyone now recognizes the objective and metaphysical element. The solutions in vogue are the Kantian, which represents the æsthetic judgment as formed in accordance with the subjective, structural function of the mind, or other psychologic solutions which reduce the beautiful to a psychic impression (the "sympathy", or Einfühlung, of Lipps; the "concrete intuition" of Benedetto Croce). These explanations are insufficient, as they neglect the objective aspect of the beautiful — those elements which, on the part of the object, are the cause of the æsthetic impression and enjoyment. It may be said that the neo-Scholastic philosophy alone takes into account the objective æsthetic factor.

    The absorbing influence of psychology also manifests itself to the detriment of other branches of philosophy; first of all, to the detriment of metaphysics, which our contemporaries have unjustly ostracized — unjustly, since, if the existence or possibility of a thing-in-itself is considered of importance, it behooves us to inquire under what aspects of reality it reveals itself. This ostracism of metaphysics, moreover, is largely due to misconception and to a wrong understanding of the theories of substance, of faculties, of causes etc., which belong to the traditional metaphysics. Then again, the invasion of psychology is manifest in logic: side by side with the ancient logic or dialectic, a mathematical or symbolic logic has developed (Peano, Russell, Peirce, Mitchell, and others) and, more recently, a genetic logic which would study, not the fixed laws of thought, but the changing process of mental life and its genesis (Baldwin).

    We have seen above (section II, D) how the increasing cultivation of psychology has produced other scientific ramifications which find favour with the learned world. Moral philosophy, long neglected, enjoys a renewed vogue notably in America, where ethnography is devoted to its service (see, e.g., the publications of the Smithsonian Institution). "The International Journal of Ethics" is a review especially devoted to this line of work. In some quarters, where the atmosphere is Positivist, there is a desire to get rid of the old morality, with its notions of value and of duty, and to replace it with a collection of empiric rules subject to evolution (Sidgwick, Huxley, Leslie Stephen, Durkheim, Levy-Bruhl).

    As to the history of philosophy, not only are very extended special studies devoted to it, but more and more room is given it in the study of every philosophic question. Among the causes of this exaggerated vogue are the impulse given by the Schools of Cousin and of Hegel, the progress of historical studies in general, the confusion arising from the clash of rival doctrines, and the distrust engendered by that confusion. Remarkable works have been produced by Deussen, on Indian and Oriental philosophy; by Zeller, on Greek antiquity; by Denifle, Hauréau, Bäumker, and Mandonnet, on the Middle Ages; by Windelband, Kuno Fischer, Boutroux and Höffding, on the modern period; and the list might easily be considerably prolonged.

    The opposing systems

    The rival systems of philosophy of the present time may be reduced to various groups: Positivism, neo-Kantianism, Monism, neo-Scholasticism. Contemporary philosophy lives in an atmosphere of Phenomenism, since Positivism and neo-Kantianism are at one on this important doctrine: that science and certitude are possible only within the limits of the world of phenomena, which is the immediate object of experience. Positivism, insisting on the exclusive rights of sensory experience, and Kantian criticism, reasoning from the structure of our cognitive faculties, hold that knowledge extends only as far as appearances; that beyond this is the absolute, the dark depths, the existence of which there is less and less disposition to deny, but which no human mind can fathom. On the contrary, this element of the absolute forms an integral constituent in neo-Scholasticism which has revived, with sobriety and moderation, the fundamental notions of Aristotelean and Medieval metaphysics, and has succeeded in vindicating them against attack and objection.

    Positivism

    Positivism, under various forms, is defended in England by the followers of Spencer, by Huxley, Lewes, Tyndall, F. Harrison, Congreve, Beesby, J. Bridges, Grant Allen (James Martineau is a reactionary against Positivism); by Balfour, who at the same time propounds a characteristic theory of belief, and falls back on Fideism. From England Positivism passed over to America, where it soon dethroned the Scottish doctrines (Carus). De Roberty, in Russia, and Ribot, in France, are among its most distinguished disciples. In Italy it is found in the writings of Ferrari, Ardigo, and Morselli; in Germany, in those of Laas, Riehl, Guyau, and Durkheim. Less brutal than Materialism, the radical vice of Positivism is its identification of the knowable with the sensible. It seeks in vain to reduce general ideas to collective images, and to deny the abstract and universal character of the mind's concepts. It vainly denies the super-experiential value of the first logical principles in which the scientific life of the mind is rooted; nor will it ever succeed in showing that the certitude of such a judgment as 2 + 2 = 4 increases with our repeated addition of numbers of oxen or of coins. In morals, where it would reduce precepts and judgments to sociological data formed in the collective conscience and varying with the period and the environment, Positivism stumbles against the judgments of value, and the supersensible ideas of obligation, moral good, and law, recorded in every human conscience and unvarying in their essential data.

    Kantianism

    Kantianism had been forgotten in Germany for some thirty years (1830-60); Vogt, Büchner, and Molesehott had won for Materialism an ephemeral vogue; but Materialism was swept away by a strong Kantian reaction. This reversion towards Kant (Rückkehr zu Kant) begins to be traceable in 1860 (notably as a result of Lange's "History of Materialism"), and the influence of Kantian doctrines may be said to permeate the whole contemporary German philosophy (Otto Liebmann, von Hartmann, Paulsen, Rehmke, Dilthey, Natorp, Fueken, the Immanentists, and the Empirico-criticists). French neo-Criticism, represented by Renouvier, was connected chiefly with Kant's second "Critique" and introduced a specific Voluntarism. Vacherot, Secrétan, Lachelier, Boutroux, Fouillée, and Bergson are all more or less under tribute to Kantianism. Ravaisson proclaims himself a follower of Maine de Biran. Kantianism has taken its place in the state programme of education and Paul Janet, who, with F. Bouillier and Caro, was among the last legatees of Cousin's Spiritualism, appears, in his "Testament philosophique", affecting a Monism with a Kantian inspiration. All those who, with Kant and the Positivists, proclaim the "bankruptcy of science" look for the basis of our certitude in an imperative demand of the will. This Voluntarism, also called Pragmatism (William James), and, quite recently, Humanism (Schiller at Oxford), is inadequate to the establishment of the theoretic moral and social sciences upon an unshakable base: sooner or later, reflection will ask what this need of living and of willing is worth, and then the intelligence will return to its position as the supreme arbiter of certitude.

    From Germany and France Kantianism has spread everywhere. In England it has called into activity the Critical Idealism associated with T.H. Green and Bradley. Hodgson, on the contrary, returns to Realism. S. Laurie may be placed between Green and Martineau. Emerson, Harris, Everett, and Royce spread Idealistic Criticism in America; Shadworth Hodgson, on the other hand, and Adamson tend to return to Realism, whilst James Ward emphasizes the function of the will.

    Monism

    With a great many Kantians, a stratum of Monistic ideas is superimposed on Criticism, the thing in itself being considered numerically one. The same tendencies are observable among Positivist Evolutionists like Clifford and Romanes, or G.T. Ladd.

    Neo-Scholasticism

    Neo-Scholasticism, the revival of which dates from the last third of the nineteenth century (Liberatore, Taparelli, Cornoldi, and others), and which received a powerful impulse under Leo XIII, is tending more and more to become the philosophy of Catholics. It replaces Ontologism, Traditionalism, Gunther's Dualism, and Cartesian Spiritualism, which had manifestly become insufficient. Its syntheses, renewed and completed, can be set up in opposition to Positivism and Kantianism, and even its adversaries no longer dream of denying the worth of its doctrines. The bearings of neo-Scholasticism have been treated elsewhere (see NEO-SCHOLASTICISM).

    VII. Is progress in philosophy indefinite, or is there a philosophia perennis?

    Considering the historic succession of systems and the evolution of doctrines from the remotest ages of India down to our own times, and standing face to face with the progress achieved by contemporary scientific philosophy, must we not infer the indefinite progress of philosophic thought? Many have allowed themselves to be led away by this ideal dream. Historic Idealism (Karl Marx) regards philosophy as a product fatally engendered by pre-existing causes in our physical and social environment. Auguste Comte's "law of the three states", Herbert Spencer's evolutionism, Hegel's "indefinite becoming of the soul", sweep philosophy along in an ascending current toward an ideal perfection, the realization of which no one can foresee. For all these thinkers, philosophy is variable and relative: therein lies their serious error. Indefinite progress, condemned by history in many fields, is untenable in the history of philosophy. Such a notion is evidently refuted by the appearance of thinkers like Aristotle and Plato three centuries before Christ, for these men, who for ages have dominated, and still dominate, human thought, would be anachronisms, since they would be inferior to the thinkers of our own time. And no one would venture to assert this. History shows, indeed, that there are adaptations of a synthesis to its environment, and that every age has its own aspirations and its special way of looking at problems and their solutions; but it also presents unmistakable evidence of incessant new beginnings, of rhythmic oscillations from one pole of thought to the other. If Kant found an original formula of Subjectivism and the reine Innerlichkeit, it would be a mistake to think that Kant had no intellectual ancestors: he had them in the earliest historic ages of philosophy: M. Deussen has found in the Vedic hymn of the Upanishads the distinction between noumenon and phenomenon, and writes, on the theory of Mâyâ, "Kants Grunddogma, so alt wie die Philosophie" ("Die Philos. des Upanishad's", Leipzig, 1899, p. 204).

    It is false to say that all truth is relative to a given time and latitude, and that philosophy is the product of economic conditions in a ceaseless course of evolution, as historical Materialism holds. Side by side with these things, which are subject to change and belong to one particular condition of the life of mankind, there is a soul of truth circulating in every system, a mere fragment of that complete and unchangeable truth which haunts the human mind in its most disinterested investigations. Amid the oscillations of historic systems there is room for a philosophia perennis — as it were a purest atmosphere of truth, enveloping the ages, its clearness somehow felt in spite of cloud and mist.

    "The truth Pythagoras sought after, and Plato, and Aristotle, is the same that Augustine and Aquinas pursued. So far as it is developed in history, truth is the daughter of time; so far as it bears within itself a content independent of time, and therefore of history, it is the daughter of eternity" [Willmann, "Gesch. d Idealismus", II (Brunswick, 1896), 550; cf. Commer "Die immerwahrende Philosophie" (Vienna, 1899)].

    This does not mean that essential and permanent verities do not adapt themselves to the intellectual life of each epoch. Absolute immobility in philosophy, no less than absolute relativity, is contrary to nature and to history. It leads to decadence and death. It is in this sense that we must interpret the adage: Vita in motu.

    VIII. Philosophy and the sciences

    Aristotle of old laid the foundation of a philosophy supported by observation and experience. We need only glance through the list of his works to see that astronomy, mineralogy, physics and chemistry, biology, zoology, furnished him with examples and bases for his theories on the constitution, of the heavenly and terrestrial bodies, the nature of the vital principle, etc. Besides, the whole Aristotelean classification of the branches of philosophy (see section II) is inspired by the same idea of making philosophy — general science — rest upon the particular sciences. The early Middle Ages, with a rudimentary scientific culture, regarded all its learning, built up on the Trivium (grammar, rhetoric, dialectic) and Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music), as preparation for philosophy. In the thirteenth century, when Scholasticism came under Aristotelean influences, it incorporated the sciences in the programme of philosophy itself. This may be seen in regulation issued by the Faculty of Arts of Paris 19 March, 1255, "De libris qui legendi essent" This order prescribes the study of commentaries or various scientific treatises of Aristotle, notably those on the first book of the "Meteorologica", on the treatises on Heaven and Earth, Generation, the Senses and Sensations, Sleeping and Waking, Memory, Plants, and Animals. Here are amply sufficient means for the magistri to familiarize the "artists" with astronomy, botany, physiology, and zoology to say nothing of Aristotle's "Physics", which was also prescribed as a classical text, and which afforded opportunities for numerous observations in chemistry and physics as then understood. Grammar and rhetoric served as preliminary studies to logic, Bible history, social science, and politics were introductory to moral philosophy. Such men as Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon expressed their views on the necessity of linking the sciences with philosophy and preached it by example. So that both antiquity and the Middle Ages knew and appreciated scientific philosophy.

    In the seventeenth century the question of the relation between the two enters upon a new phase: from this period modern science takes shape and begins that triumphal march which it is destined to continue through the twentieth century, and of which the human mind is justly proud. Modern scientific knowledge differs from that of antiquity and the Middle Ages in three important respects: the multiplication of sciences; their independent value; the divergence between common knowledge and scientific knowledge. In the Middle Ages astronomy was closely akin to astrology, chemistry to alchemy, physics to divination; modern science has severely excluded all these fantastic connections. Considered now from one side and again from another, the physical world has revealed continually new aspects, and each specific point of view has become the focus of a new study. On the other hand, by defining their respective limits, the sciences have acquired autonomy; useful in the Middle Ages only as a preparation for rational physics and for metaphysics, they are nowadays of value for themselves, and no longer play the part of handmaids to philosophy. Indeed, the progress achieved within itself by each particular science brings one more revolution in knowledge. So long as instruments of observation were imperfect, and inductive methods restricted, it was practically impossible to rise above an elementary knowledge. People knew, in the Middle Ages, that wine, when left exposed to the air, became vinegar; but what do facts like this amount to in comparison with the complex formulae of modern chemistry? Hence it was that an Albertus Magnus or a Roger Bacon could flatter himself, in those days, with having acquired all the science of his time, a claim which would now only provoke a smile. In every department progress has drawn the line sharply between popular and scientific knowledge; the former is ordinarily the starting-point of the latter, but the conclusions and teachings involved in the sciences are unintelligible to those who lack the requisite preparation.

    Do not, then, these profound modifications in the condition of the sciences entail modifications in the relations which, until the seventeenth century, had been accepted as existing between the sciences and philosophy? Must not the separation of philosophy and science widen out to a complete divorce? Many have thought so, both scientists and philosophers, and it was for this that in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries so many savants and philosophers turned their backs on one another. For the former, philosophy has become useless; the particular sciences, they say, multiplying and becoming perfect, must exhaust the whole field of the knowable, and a time will come when philosophy shall be no more. For the philosophers, philosophy has no need of the immeasurable mass of scientific notions which have been acquired, many of which possess only a precarious and provisional value. Wolff, who pronounced the divorce of science from philosophy, did most to accredit this view, and he has been followed by certain Catholic philosophers who held that scientific study may be excluded from philosophic culture.

    What shall we say on this question? That the reasons which formerly existed for keeping touch with science are a thousand times more imperative in our day. If the profound synthetic view of things which justifies the existence of philosophy presupposes analytical researches, the multiplication and perfection of those researches is certainly reason for neglecting them. The horizon of detailed knowledge widens incessantly; research of every kind is busy exploring the departments of the universe which it has mapped out. And philosophy, whose mission is to explain the order of the universe by general and ultimate reasons applicable, not only to a group of facts, but to the whole body of known phenomena, cannot be indifferent to the matter which it has to explain. Philosophy is like a tower whence we obtain the panorama of a great city — its plan, its monuments, its great arteries, with the form and location of each — things which a visitor cannot discern while he goes through the streets and lanes, or visits libraries, churches, palaces, and museums, one after another. If the city grows and develops, there is all the more reason, if we would know it as a whole, why we should hesitate to ascend the tower and study from that height the plan upon which its new quarters have been laid out.

    It is, happily, evident that contemporary philosophy is inclined to be first and foremost a scientific philosophy; it has found its way back from its wanderings of yore. This is noticeable in philosophers of the most opposite tendencies. There would be no end to the list if we had to enumerate every case where this orientation of ideas has been adopted. "This union", says Boutroux, speaking of the sciences and philosophy, "is in truth the classic tradition of philosophy. But there had been established a psychology and a metaphysics which aspired to set themselves up beyond the sciences, by mere reflection of the mind upon itself. Nowadays all philosophers are agreed to make scientific data their starting-point" (Address at the International Congress of Philosophy in 1900; Revue de Métaph. et de Morale, 1900, p. 697). Boutroux and many others spoke similarly at the International Congress of Bologna (April, 1911). Wundt introduces this union into the very definition of philosophy, which, he says, is "the general science whose function it is to unite in a system free of all contradictions the knowledge acquired through the particular sciences, and to reduce to their principles the general methods of science and the conditions of knowledge supposed by them" ("Einleitung in die Philosophie", Leipzig, 1901, p. 19). And R. Eucken says: "The farther back the limits of the observable world recede, the more conscious are we of the lack of an adequately comprehensive explanation" — "Gesammelte Aufsatze zur Philos. u. Lebensanschanung" (Leipzig, 1903), p. 157]. This same thought inspired Leo XIII when he placed the parallel and harmonious teaching of philosophy and of the sciences on the programme of the Institute of Philosophy created by him in the University of Louvain (see NEO-SCHOLASTICISM).

    On their side, the scientists have been coming to the same conclusions ever since they rose to a synthetic view of that matter which is the object of their study. So it was with Pasteur, so with Newton. Ostwald, professor of chemistry at Leipzig, has undertaken to publish the "Annalen der Naturphilosophie", a review devoted to the cultivation of the territory which is common to philosophy and the sciences A great many men of science, too, are engaged in philosophy without knowing it: in their constant discussions of "Mechanism", "Evolutionism", "Transformism", they are using terms which imply a philosophical theory of matter.

    If philosophy is the explanation as a whole of that world which the particular sciences investigate in detail, it follows that the latter find their culmination in the former, and that as the sciences are so will philosophy be. It is true that objections are put forward against this way of uniting philosophy and the sciences. Common observation, it is said, is enough support for philosophy. This is a mistake: philosophy cannot ignore whole departments of knowledge which are inaccessible to ordinary experience biology, for example, has shed a new light on the philosophic study of man. Others again adduce the extent and the growth of the sciences to show that scientific philosophy must ever remain an unattainable ideal; the practical solution of this difficulty concerns the teaching of philosophy (see section XI).

    IX. Philosophy and religion

    Religion presents to man, with authority, the solution of man's problems which also concern philosophy. Such are the questions of the nature of God, of His relation with the visible world, of man's origin and destiny. Now religion, which precedes philosophy in the social life, naturally obliges it to take into consideration the points of religious doctrine. Hence the close connection of philosophy with religion in the early stages of civilization, a fact strikingly apparent in Indian philosophy, which, not only at its beginning but throughout its development, was intimately bound up with the doctrine of the sacred books (see above). The Greeks, at least during the most important periods of their history, were much less subject to the influences of pagan religions; in fact, they combined with extreme scrupulosity in what concerned ceremonial usage a wide liberty in regard to dogma. Greek thought soon took its independent flight; Socrates ridicules the gods in whom the common people believed; Plato does not banish religious ideas from his philosophy; but Aristotle keeps them entirely apart, his God is the Actus purus, with a meaning exclusively philosophic, the prime mover of the universal mechanism. The Stoics point out that all things obey an irresistible fatality and that the wise man fears no gods. And if Epicurus teaches cosmic determinism and denies all finality, it is only to conclude that man can lay aside all fear of divine intervention in mundane affairs. The question takes a new aspect when the influences of the Oriental and Jewish religions are brought to bear on Greek philosophy by neo-Pythagorism, the Jewish theology (end of the first century), and, above all, neo-Platonism (third century B.C.). A yearning for religion was stirring in the world, and philosophy became enamoured of every religious doctrine Plotinus (third century after Christ), who must always remain the most perfect type of the neo-Platonic mentality, makes philosophy identical with religion, assigning as its highest aim the union of the soul with God by mystical ways. This mystical need of the supernatural issues in the most bizarre lucubrations from Plotinus's successors, e.g. Jamblicus (d. about A.D. 330), who, on a foundation of neo-Platonism, erected an international pantheon for all the divinities whose names are known.

    It has often been remarked that Christianity, with its monotheistic dogma and its serene, purifying morality, came in the fulness of time and appeased the inward unrest with which souls were afflicted at the end of the Roman world. Though Christ did not make Himself the head of a philosophical school, the religion which He founded supplies solutions for a group of problems which philosophy solves by other methods (e.g. the immortality of the soul). The first Christian philosophers, the Fathers of the Church, were imbued with Greek ideas and took over from the circumambient neo-Platonism the commingling of philosophy and religion. With them philosophy is incidental and secondary, employed only to meet polemic needs, and to support dogma; their philosophy is religious. In this Clement of Alexandria and Origen are one with St. Augustine and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. The early Middle Ages continued the same traditions, and the first philosophers may be said to have received neo-Platonic influences through the channel of the Fathers. John Scotus Eriugena (ninth century), the most remarkable mind of this first period, writes that "true religion is true philosophy and, conversely, true philosophy is true religion" (De div. praed., I, I). But as the era advances a process of dissociation sets in, to end in the complete separation between the two sciences of Scholastic theology or the study of dogma, based fundamentally on Holy Scripture, and Scholastic philosophy, based on purely rational investigation. To understand the successive stages of this differentiation, which was not completed until the middle of the thirteenth century, we must draw attention to certain historical facts of capital importance.

    (1) The origin of several philosophical problems, in the early Middle Ages, must be sought within the domain of theology, in the sense that the philosophical discussions arose in reference to theological questions. The discussion, e.g. of transubstantiation (Berengarius of Tours), raised the problem of substance and of change, or becoming.

    (2) Theology being regarded as a superior and sacred science, the whole pedagogic and didactic organization of the period tended to confirm this superiority (see section XI).

    (3) The enthusiasm for dialectics, which reached its maximum in the eleventh century, brought into fashion certain purely verbal methods of reasoning bordering on the sophistical. Anselm of Besata (Anselmus Peripateticus) is the type of this kind of reasoner. Now the dialecticians, in discussing theological subjects, claimed absolute validity for their methods, and they ended in such heresies as Gottschalk's on predestination, Berengarius's on transubstantiation, and Roscelin's Tritheism. Berengarius's motto was: "Per omnia ad dialecticam confugere". There followed an excessive reaction on the part of timorous theologians, practical men before all things, who charged dialectics with the sins of the dialecticians. This antagonistic movement coincided with an attempt to reform religious life. At the head of the group was Peter Damian (1007-72), the adversary of the liberal arts; he was the author of the saying that philosophy is the handmaid of theology. From this saying it has been concluded that the Middle Ages in general put philosophy under tutelage, whereas the maxim was current only among a narrow circle of reactionary theologians. Side by side with Peter Damian in Italy, were Manegold of Lautenbach and Othloh of St. Emmeram, in Germany.

    (4) At the same time a new tendency becomes discernible in the eleventh century, in Lanfranc, William of Hirschau, Rodulfus Ardens, and particularly St. Anselm of Canterbury; the theologian calls in the aid of philosophy to demonstrate certain dogmas or to show their rational side. St. Anselm, in an Augustinian spirit, attempted this justification of dogma, without perhaps invariably applying to the demonstrative value of his arguments the requisite limitations. In the thirteenth century these efforts resulted in a new theological method, the dialectic.

    (5) While these disputes as to the relations of philosophy and theology went on, many philosophical questions were nevertheless treated on their own account, as we have seen above (universals, St. Anselm's theodicy, Abelard's philosophy, etc.).

    (6) The dialectic method, developed fully in the twelfth century, just when Scholastic theology received a powerful impetus, is a theological, not a philosophical, method. The principal method in theology is the interpretation of Scripture and of authority; the dialectic method is secondary and consists in first establishing a dogma and then showing its reasonableness, confirming the argument from authority by the argument from reason. It is a process of apologetics. From the twelfth century onward, these two theological methods are fairly distinguished by the words auctoritates, rationes. Scholastic theology, condensed in the "summae" and "books of sentences", is henceforward regarded as distinct from philosophy. The attitude of theologians towards philosophy is threefold: one group, the least influential, still opposes its introduction into theology, and carries on the reactionary traditions of the preceding period (e.g. Gauthier de Saint-Victor); another accepts philosophy, but takes a utilitarian view of it, regarding it merely as a prop of dogma (Peter Lombard); a third group, the most influential, since it includes the three theological schools of St. Victor, Abelard, and Gilbert de la Porrée, grants to philosophy, in addition to this apologetic role, an independent value which entitles it to be cultivated and studied for its own sake. The members of this group are at once both theologians and philosophers.

    (7) At the opening of the thirteenth century one section of Augustinian theologians continued to emphasize the utilitarian and apologetic office of philosophy. But St. Thomas Aquinas created new Scholastic traditions, and wrote a chapter on scientific methodology in which the distinctness and in dependence of the two sciences is thoroughly established. Duns Scotus, again, and the Terminists exaggerated this independence. Latin Averroism, which had a brilliant but ephemeral vogue in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, accepted whole and entire in philosophy Averroistic Peripateticism, and, to safeguard Catholic orthodoxy, took refuge behind the sophism that what is true in philosophy may be false in theology, and conversely — wherein they were more reserved than Averroes and the Arab philosophers, who regarded religion as something inferior, good enough for the masses, and who did not trouble themselves about Moslem orthodoxy. Lully, going to extremes, maintained that all dogma is susceptible of demonstration, and that philosophy and theology coalesce. Taken as a whole, the Middle Ages, profoundly religious, constantly sought to reconcile its philosophy with the Catholic Faith. This bond the Renaissance philosophy severed. In the Reformation period a group of publicists, in view of the prevailing strife, formed projects of reconciliation among the numerous religious bodies. They convinced themselves that all religions possess a common fund of essential truths relating to God, and that their content is identical, in spite of divergent dogmas. Besides, Theism, being only a form of Naturism applied to religion, suited the independent ways of the Renaissance. As in building up natural law, human nature was taken into consideration, so reason was interrogated to discover religious ideas. And hence the wide acceptance of Theism, not among Protestants only, but generally among minds that had been carried away with the Renaissance movement (Erasmus, Coornheert).

    For this tolerance or religious indifferentism modern philosophy in more than one instance substituted a disdain of positive religions. The English Theism or Deism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries criticizes all positive religion and, in the name of an innate religious sense, builds up a natural religion which is reducible to a collection of theses on the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. The initiator of this movement was Herbert of Cherbury (1581-1648); J. Toland (1670-1722), Tindal (1656-1733), and Lord Bolingbroke took part in it. This criticizing movement inaugurated in England was taken up in France, where it combined with an outright hatred of Catholicism. Pierre Bayle (1646-1706) propounded the thesis that all religion is anti-rational and absurd, and that a state composed of Atheists is possible. Voltaire wished to substitute for Catholicism an incoherent mass of doctrines about God. The religious philosophy of the eighteenth century in France led to Atheism and paved the way for the Revolution. In justice to contemporary philosophy it must be credited with teaching the amplest tolerance towards the various religions; and in its programme of research it has included religious psychology, or the study of the religious sentiment.

    For Catholic philosophy the relations between philosophy and theology, between reason and faith, were fixed, in a chapter of scientific methodology, by the great Scholastic thinkers of the thirteenth century. Its principles, which still retain their vitality, are as follows:

    (a) Distinctness of the two sciences.

    The independence of philosophy in regard to theology, as in regard to any other science whatsoever, is only an interpretation of this undeniable principle of scientific progress, as applicable in the twentieth century as it was in the thirteenth, that a rightly constituted science derives its formal object, its principles, and its constructive method from its own resources, and that, this being so, it cannot borrow from any other science without compromising its own right to exist.

    (b) Negative, not positive, material, not formal, subordination of philosophy in regard to theology.

    This means that, while the two sciences keep their formal independence (the independence of the principles by which their investigations are guided), there are certain matters where philosophy cannot contradict the solutions afforded by theology. The Scholastics of the Middle Ages justified this subordination, being profoundly convinced that Catholic dogma contains the infallible word of God, the expression of truth. Once a proposition, e.g. that two and two make four, has been accepted as certain, logic forbids any other science to form any conclusion subversive of that proposition. The material mutual subordination of the sciences is one of those laws out of which logic makes the indispensable guarantee of the unity of knowledge. "The truth duly demonstrated by one science serves as a beacon in another science." The certainty of a theory in chemistry imposes its acceptance on physics, and the physicist who should go contrary to it would be out of his course. Similarly, the philosopher cannot contradict the certain data of theology, any more than he can contradict the certain conclusions of the individual sciences. To deny this would be to deny the conformity of truth with truth, to contest the principle of contradiction, to surrender to a relativism which is destructive of all certitude. "It being supposed that nothing but what is true is included in this science (sacred theology) . . . it being supposed that whatever is true by the decision and authority of this science can nowise be false by the decision of right reason: these things, I say, being supposed, as it is manifest from them that the authority of this science and reason alike rest upon truth, and one verity cannot be contrary to another, it must be said absolutely that reason can in no way be contrary to the authority of this Scripture, nay, all right reason is in accord with it" (Henry of Ghent, "Summa Theologica", X, iii, n.4).

    But when is a theory certain? This is a question of fact, and error is easy. In proportion as the principle is simple and absolute, so are its applications complex and variable. It is not for philosophy to establish the certitude of theological data, any more than to fix the conclusions of chemistry or of physiology. The certainty of those data and those conclusions must proceed from another source. "The preconceived idea is entertained that a Catholic savant is a soldier in the service of his religious faith, and that, in his hands, science is but a weapon to defend his Credo. In the eyes of a great many people, the Catholic savant seems to be always under the menace of excommunication, or entangled in dogmas which hamper him, and compelled, for the sake of loyalty to his Faith, to renounce the disinterested love of science and its free cultivation" (Mercier, "Rapport sur les études supér. de philos.", 1891, p. 9). Nothing could be more untrue.

    X. The Catholic Church and philosophy

    The principles which govern the doctrinal relations of philosophy and theology have moved the Catholic Church to intervene on various occasions in the history of philosophy. As to the Church's right and duty to intervene for the purpose of maintaining the integrity of theological dogma and the deposit of faith, there is no need of discussion in this place. It is interesting, however, to note the attitude taken by the Church towards philosophy throughout the ages, and particularly in the Middle Ages, when a civilization saturated with Christianity had established extremely intimate relations between theology and philosophy.

    A. The censures of the Church have never fallen upon philosophy as such, but upon theological applications, judged false, which were based upon philosophical reasonings. John Scotus Eriugena, Roscelin, Berengarius, Abelard, Gilbert de la Porrée were condemned because their teachings tended to subvert theological dogmas. Eriugena denied the substantial distinction between God and created things; Roscelin held that there are three Gods; Berengarius, that there is no real transubstantiation in the Eucharist; Abelard and Gilbert de la Porrée essentially modified the dogma of the Trinity. The Church, through her councils, condemned their theological errors; with their philosophy as such she does not concern herself. "Nominalism", says Hauréau, "is the old enemy. It is, in fact, the doctrine which, because it best accords with reason, is most remote from axioms of faith. Denounced before council after council, Nominalism was condemned in the person of Abelard as it had been in the person of Roscelin" (Hist. philos. scol., I, 292).

    No assertion could be more inaccurate. What the Church has condemned is neither the so-called Nominalism, nor Realism, nor philosophy in general, nor the method of arguing in theology, but certain applications of that method which are judged dangerous, i.e. matters which are not philosophical. In the thirteenth century a host of teachers adopted the philosophical theories of Roscelin and Abelard, and no councils were convoked to condemn them. The same may be said of the condemnation of David of Dinant (thirteenth century), who denied the distinction between God and matter, and of various doctrines condemned in the fourteenth century as tending to the negation of morality. It has been the same in modern times. To mention only the condemnation of Gunther, of Rosmini, and of Ontologism in the nineteenth century, what alarmed the Church was the fact that the theses in question had a theological bearing.

    B. The Church has never imposed any philosophical system, though she has anathematized many doctrines, or branded them as suspect. This corresponds with the prohibitive, but not imperative attitude of theology in regard to philosophy. To take one example, faith teaches that the world was created in time; and yet St. Thomas maintains that the concept of eternal creation (ab aeterno) involves no contradiction. He did not think himself obliged to demonstrate creation in time: his teaching would have been heterodox only if, with the Averroists his day, he had maintained the necessary eternity of the world. It may, perhaps, be objected that many Thomistic doctrines were condemned in 1277 by Etienne Tempier, Bishop of Paris. But it is well to note, and recent works on the subject have abundantly proved this, that Tempier's condemnation, in so far as it applied to Thomas Aquinas, was the issue of intrigues and personal animosity, and that, in canon law, it had no force outside of the Diocese of Paris. Moreover, it was annulled by one of Tempier's successors, Etienne de Borrète, in 1325.

    C. The Church has encouraged philosophy. To say nothing of the fact that all those who applied themselves to science and philosophy in the Middle Ages were churchmen, and that the liberal arts found an asylum in capitular and monastic schools until the twelfth century, it is important to remark that the principal universities of the Middle Ages were pontifical foundations. This was the case with Paris. To be sure, in the first years of the university's aquaintance with the Aristotelean encyclopaedia (late twelfth century) there were prohibitions against reading the "Physics", the "Metaphysics", and the treatise "On the Soul". But these restrictions were of a temporary character and arose out of particular circumstances. In 1231, Gregory IX laid upon a commission of three consultors the charge to prepare an amended edition of Aristotle "ne utile per inutile vitietur" (lest what is useful suffer damage through what is useless). The work of expurgatio was done, in point of fact, by the Albertine-Thomist School, and, beginning from the year 1255, the Faculty of Arts, with the knowledge of the ecclesiastical authority, ordered the teaching of all the books previously prohibited (see Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant et l'averroïsme latin au XIIIe s.", Louvain, 1910). It might also be shown how in modern times and in our own day the popes have encouraged philosophic studies. Leo XIII, as is well known, considered the restoration of philosophic Thomism on of the chief tasks of his pontificate.

    XI. The teaching of philosophy

    The methods of teaching philosophy have varied in various ages. Socrates used to interview his auditors, and hold symposia in the market-place, on the porticoes and in the public gardens. His method was interrogation; he whetted the curiosity of the audience and practised what had become known as Socratic irony and the maieutic art (maieutikê techne), the art of delivering minds of their conceptions. His successor opened schools properly so called, and from the place occupied by these schools several systems took their names (the Stoic School, the Academy, the Lyceum). In the Middle Ages and down to the seventeenth century, the learned language was Latin. The German discourses of Eckhart are mentioned as merely sporadic examples. From the ninth to the twelfth century teaching was confined to the monastic and cathedral schools. It was the golden age of schools. Masters and students went from one school to another: Lanfranc travelled over Europe; John of Salisbury (twelfth century) heard at Paris all the then famous professors of philosophy; Abelard gathered crowds about his rostrum. Moreover, as the same subjects were taught everywhere, and from the same text-books, scholastic wanderings were attended with few disadvantages. The books took the form of commentaries or monographs. From the time of Abelard a method came into use which met with great success, that of setting forth the pros and cons of a question, which was later perfected by the addition of a solutio. The application of this method was extended in the thirteenth century (e.g. in the "Summa theologica" of St. Thomas). Lastly, philosophy being an educational preparation for theology, the "Queen of the Sciences", philosophical and theological topics were combined in one and the same book, or even in the same lecture.

    At the end of the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth, the University of Paris was organized, and philosophical teaching was concentrated in the Faculty of Arts. Teaching was dominated by two principles: internationalism and freedom. The student was an apprentice-professor: after receiving the various degrees, he obtained from the chancellor of the university a licence to teach (licentia docendi). Many of the courses of this period have been preserved, the abbreviated script of the Middle Ages being virtually a stenographic system. The programme of courses drawn up in 1255 is well known: it comprises the exegesis of all the books of Aristotle. The commentary, or lectio (from legere, to read), is the ordinary form of instruction (whence the German Vorlesungen and the English lecture). There were also disputations, in which questions were treated by means of objections and answers; the exercise took a lively character, each one being invited to contribute his thoughts on the subject. The University of Paris was the model for all the others, notably those of Oxford and Cambridge. These forms of instruction in the universities lasted as long as Aristoteleanism, i.e. until the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century — the siècle des lumières (Erklärung) — philosophy took a popular and encyclopedic form, and was circulated in the literary productions of the period. In the nineteenth century it resumed its didactic attitude in the universities and in the seminaries, where, indeed its teaching had long continued. The advance of philological and historical studies had a great influence on the character of philosophical teaching: critical methods were welcomed, and little by little the professors adopted the practice of specializing in this or that branch of philosophy — a practice which is still in vogue. Without attempting to touch on all the questions involved in modern methods of teaching philosophy, we shall here indicate some of the principal features.

    The language of philosophy

    The earliest of the moderns — as Descartes or Leibniz — used both Latin and the vernacular, but in the nineteenth century (except in ecclesiastical seminaries and in certain academical exercises mainly ceremonial in character) the living languages supplanted Latin; the result has been a gain in clearness of thought and interest and vitality of teaching. Teaching in Latin too often contents itself with formulae: the living language effects a better comprehension of things which must in any case be difficult. Personal experience, writes Fr. Hogan, formerly superior of the Boston Seminary, in his "Clerical Studies" (Philadelphia, 1895-1901), has shown that among students who have learned philosophy, particularly Scholastic, only in Latin, very few have acquired anything more than a mass of formulae, which they hardly understand; though this does not always prevent their adhering to their formulae through thick and thin. Those who continue to write in Latin — as many Catholic philosophers, often of the highest worth, still do — have the sad experience of seeing their books confined to a very narrow circle of readers.

    Didactic processes

    Aristotle's advice, followed by the Scholastics, still retains its value and its force: before giving the solution of a problem, expound the reasons for and against. This explains, in particular, the great part played by the history of philosophy or the critical examination of the solutions proposed by the great thinkers. Commentary on a treatise still figures in some special higher courses; but contemporary philosophical teaching is principally divided according to the numerous branches of philosophy (see section II). The introduction of laboratories and practical seminaries (séminaires practiques) in philosophical teaching has been of the greatest advantage. Side by side with libraries and shelves full of periodicals there is room for laboratories and museums, once the necessity of vivifying philosophy by contact with the sciences is admitted (see section VIII). As for the practical seminary, in which a group of students, with the aid of a teacher, investigate to some special problem, it may be applied to any branch of philosophy with remarkable results. The work in common, where each directs his individual efforts towards one general aim, makes each the beneficiary of the researches of all; it accustoms them to handling the instruments of research, facilitates the detection of facts, teaches the pupil how to discover for himself the reasons for what he observes, affords a real experience in the constructive methods of discovery proper to each subject, and very often decides the scientific vocation of those whose efforts have been crowned with a first success.

    The order of philosophical teaching

    One of the most complex questions is: With what branch ought philosophical teaching to begin, and what order should it follow? In conformity with an immemorial tradition, the beginning is often made with logic. Now logic, the science of science, is difficult to understand and unattractive in the earliest stages of teaching. It is better to begin with the sciences which take the real for their object: psychology, cosmology, metaphysics, and theodicy. Scientific logic will be better understood later on; moral philosophy presupposes psychology; systematic history of philosophy requires a preliminary acquaintance with all the branches of philosophy (see Mercier, "Manuel de philosophie", Introduction, third edition, Louvain, 1911).

    Connected with this question of the order of teaching is another: viz. What should be the scientific teaching preliminary to philosophy? Only a course in the sciences specially appropriate to philosophy can meet the manifold exigencies of the problem. The general scientific courses of our modern universities include too much or too little: "too much in the sense that professional teaching must go into numerous technical facts and details with which philosophy has nothing to do; too little, because professional teaching often makes the observation of facts its ultimate aim, whilst, from our standpoint, facts are, and can be, only a means, a starting-point, towards acquiring a knowledge of the most general causes and laws" (Mercier, "Rapport sur les études supérieures de philosophie", Louvain, 1891, p. 25). M. Boutroux, a professor at the Sorbonne, solves the problem of philosophical teaching at the university in the same sense, and, according to him, the flexible and very liberal organization of the faculty of philosophy should include "the whole assemblage of the sciences, whether theoretic, mathematico-physical, or philologico-historical" ("Revue internationale de l'enseignement", Paris, 1901, p. 510). The programme of courses of the Institute of Philosophy of Louvain is drawn up in conformity with this spirit.

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    Pápago Indians

    An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock, speaking a dialect of the Pima language and ...

    Pázmány, Peter

    A famous Hungarian ecclesiastic of the seventeenth century; died 19 March, 1637. He was born of ...

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    3

    Pérez de Hita, Ginés

    Spanish writer, born at Murcia. Little is known of his life except that he lived during the ...

    Périgueux

    (PETROCORICENSIS) Comprises the Department of Dordogne and is suffragan to the Archbishopric of ...

    Pétau, Denis

    (DIONYSIUS PETAVIUS) One of the most distinguished theologians of the seventeenth century, ...

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    Pa 223

    Pacandus

    Titular see, recorded under "Pacanden." Among the titular sees in the official list of the Curia ...

    Pacca, Bartolommeo

    Cardinal, scholar, and statesman, b. at Benevento, 27 Dec., 1756; d. at Rome, 19 Feb., 1844; ...

    Pachomius, Saint

    Died about 346. The main facts of his life will be found in MONASTICISM (Section II: Eastern ...

    Pachtler, George Michael

    Controversial and educational writer, b. at Mergentheim, Wurtemberg, 14 Sept., 1825; d. at ...

    Pacificus

    A disciple of St. Francis of Assisi, born probably near Ascoli, Italy, in the second half of ...

    Pacificus of Ceredano, Blessed

    (Also known as Pacificus of Novara, or Novariensis ). Born 1420 at Cerano, in the Diocese ...

    Pacificus of San Severino, Saint

    Born at San Severino, in the parents died soon after his confirmation when three years old; he ...

    Pacioli, Lucas

    (Paciuolo.) Mathematician, born at Borgo San Sepolco, Tuscany, toward the middle of the ...

    Paderborn

    (Paderbornensis) Suffragan diocese of Cologne, includes: the District of Minden, ...

    Padilla, Juan de

    Friar Minor, protomartyr of the United States of America , member of the Andalusian province, ...

    Padua

    (Patavina) Diocese in northern Italy. The city is situated on a fertile plain and is ...

    Padua, University of

    The University of Padua dates, according to some anonymous chronicles (Muratori, "Rer. Ital. ...

    Paganism

    Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, ...

    Pagano, Mario

    Jurisconsult and man of letters, born in Brienza, Province of Salerno, 8 Dec., 1748; died at ...

    Page, Venerable Anthony

    English martyr, born at Harrow-on-the-Hill, Middlesex, 1571; died at York, 20 or 30 April, 1593. ...

    Pagi, Antoine

    French ecclesiastical historian. Born 31 March, 1624, at Rognes in the Department of ...

    Pagi, François

    French ecclesiastical historian, nephew of Antoine Pagi. Born 7 September, 1654, at Lambesc in ...

    Pagnino, Santes

    (Or XANTES) A Dominican, born 1470 at Lucca, Tuscany ; died 24 Aug., 1541, at Lyons, one of ...

    Painting, Religious

    Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. From the time of the ...

    Pakawá Indians

    (Also written Pacoá) One of a group of cognate tribes, hence designated the ...

    Palæography

    ( palaia , "ancient", graphe , "writing") The art of deciphering ancient writing in ...

    Palæontology

    ( logos ton palaion onton ) Palæ ontology, or the science of fossils, deals with ...

    Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de

    Bishop of La Puebla de Los Angeles, b. at Fitero in Navarre, 24 June, 1600; d. at Osma in ...

    Palasor, Venerable Thomas

    ( Or Palliser). English martyr, born at Ellerton-upon-Swale, parish of Catterick, North ...

    Palatinate, Rhenish

    ( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

    Palatini

    ( Latin palatium , palace) The designation, primarily, of certain high officials in the ...

    Palawan

    Prefecture Apostolic in the Philippine Islands ; comprises Palawan, Cuyo, Culion, Twahig, and ...

    Palencia

    (PALENTINA) This Diocese comprises the civil provinces of Palencia, Santander, Valladolid, ...

    Paleopolis

    (Palæopolis) A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The history of this ...

    Paleotti, Gabriele

    Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna. Born at Bologna, 4 October, 1522; died at Rome, 22 July, ...

    Palermo

    Archdiocese of Palermo (Panormitana), in Sicily. The city is built on an inlet of the ...

    Palermo, University of

    The Convent of St. Dominic of Palermo may be considered the nucleus of the future University of ...

    Palestrina

    (PBÆNESTINENSIS) The town of Palestrina, in the province of Rome, central Italy, is the ...

    Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da

    The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time, born at Palestrina (ancient ...

    Paley, Frederick Apthorp

    Classical scholar, born at Easingwold near York, 14 Jan., 1815; died at Bournemouth, 9 December, ...

    Pall

    A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque ...

    Pall, Funeral

    A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

    Palladio, Andrea

    Italian architect, born at Vicenza 1508; died at Venice, 19 August, 1580. There is a tradition ...

    Palladius

    ( Palladios ) Born in Galatia, 368; died probably before 431. The identity of the author of ...

    Palladius, Saint

    First bishop sent by Pope Celestine to Ireland (431). The chronicle of the contemporary St. ...

    Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza

    A cardinal, born 28 Nov., 1607; died 5 June, 1667. Descended from the line of Parma of the ...

    Pallium

    Form and Use of the Modern Pallium The modern pallium is a circular band about two inches wide, ...

    Pallotti, Vincent Mary

    The founder of the Pious Society of Missions , born at Rome, 21 April, 1798 [other sources say ...

    Palm in Christian Symbolism

    In pre-Christian times the palm was regarded as a symbol of victory (Aulus Gellius, "Noct. Att.", ...

    Palm Sunday

    The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week, a Sunday of the highest rank, ...

    Palma Vecchio

    (JACOPO NIGRETI) Born at Serinalta near Bergamo, about 1480; d. at Venice, 30 July 1528. ...

    Palmer, William

    Born at Mixbury, Oxfordshire, 12 July, 1811; died at Rome, 4 April, 1879; the elder brother of ...

    Palmieri, Domenico

    A theologian, born at Piacenza, Italy, 4 July, 1829; died in Rome, 29 May, 1909. He studied in ...

    Palmieri, Luigi

    Physicist and meteorologist, b. at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy, 22 April, 1807; d. in Naples, 9 ...

    Palmyra

    Titular metropolitan see in Phoenicia Secunda. Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:18 ) built Palmira (A. V. ...

    Palou, Francisco

    A Friar Minor, born at Palma, Island of Majorca, about 1722; died in 1789 or 1790. He entered the ...

    Paltus

    A titular see and suffragan of Seleucia Pieria in Syria Prima. The town was founded by a ...

    Paludanus, Peter

    (PETRUS DE PALUDE) A theologian and archbishop, born in the County of Bresse, Savoy, about ...

    Pamelius

    (Jacques de Joigny De Pamele). Belgian theologian, born at Bruges, Flanders, 13 May, 1536; ...

    Pamiers

    (APAMÆA) A Diocese comprising the Department of Ariège, and suffragan of ...

    Pammachius, Saint

    Roman senator, d. about 409. In youth he frequented the schools of rehetoric with St. Jerome. In ...

    Pamphilus of Cæsarea, Saint

    Martyred 309. Eusebius's life of Pamphilus is lost, but from his "Martyrs of Palestine" we ...

    Pamplona

    (PAMPILONENSIS) This Diocese comprises almost all of Navarre and part of Guipuzcoa. This ...

    Panama

    Located in Central America, occupies the Isthmus of Panama, or Darien, which extends east and west ...

    Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints

    The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

    Pandects

    (PANDECTÆ, or DIGESTA) This part of Justinian's compilation was his most important ...

    Pandulph

    A papal legate and Bishop of Norwich, died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1226. He is commonly but ...

    Panemotichus

    A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. Panemotichus coined money during the ...

    Pange Lingua Gloriosi

    The opening words of two hymns celebrating respectively the Passion and the Blessed Sacrament. ...

    Panigarola, Francesco

    A preacher and controversialist, Bishop of Asti, born at Milan, 6 Feb., 1548; died at Asti, 31 ...

    Pannartz, Arnold

    See also KONRAD SWEYNHEIM . Both printers; Pannartz died about 1476, Sweinheim in 1477. ...

    Pano Indians

    A former important mission tribe on the middle Ucayali River, Peru, being the principal of a group ...

    Panopolis

    A titular see, suffragan of Antinoe in Thebais Prima; the ancient Apu or Khimmin which the ...

    Panpsychism

    (Greek pan , all; psyche , soul ) Panpsychism is a philosophical theory which holds ...

    Pantænus

    Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180 ( Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, x), still ...

    Pantaleon, Saint

    Martyr, died about 305. According to legend he was the son of a rich pagan, Eustorgius of ...

    Pantheism

    (From Greek pan , all; theos , god). The view according to which God and the world are ...

    Panvinio, Onofrio

    Historian and archaeologist, born at Verona, 23 February, 1530; died at Palermo, 7 April, 1568. ...

    Panzani, Gregorio

    Bishop of Mileto, died early in 1662. He was a secular priest of Arezzo, having left the ...

    Paoli, Venerable Angelo

    Born at Argigliano, Tuscany, 1 Sept., 1642; died at Rome, 17 January, 1720. The son of Angelo ...

    Papacy, The

    This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of ...

    Papal Arbitration

    An institution almost coeval with the papacy itself. The principle of arbitration presupposes ...

    Papal Elections

    For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

    Papal Mint

    The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

    Papal Rescripts

    ( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

    Papal States

    ( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...

    Paphnutius

    I The most celebrated personage of this name was bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the ...

    Paphos

    A titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. There were two towns of this name, Old Paphos ...

    Papias, Saint

    Bishop of Hierapolis (close to Laodicea and Coloss Colossae aelig; in the valley of the ...

    Papiensis, Bernardus

    An Italian canonist of the thirteenth century; died 18 Sept., 1213. He was born at Pavia, ...

    Papini, Nicholas

    An historian, born at San Giovanni Valdarno, between Florence and Arezzo, about 1751; died at ...

    Parætonium

    Parætonium, a titular see of Lybia Secunda or Inferior (i.e. Marmarica), suffragan of ...

    Paré, Ambroise

    French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, department of Maine, 1517; died 20 ...

    Parœcopolis

    A titular see of Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (III, 13, ...

    Para du Phanjas, François

    Writer, b. at the castle of Phanja Champsaur, Basses-Alpes, 1724; d. at Paris, 1797. After his ...

    Parables

    The word parable (Hebrew mashal ; Syrian mathla , Greek parabole ) signifies in general ...

    Parabolani

    paraboloi, parabalanoi The members of a brotherhood who in the Early Church voluntarily ...

    Paracelsus, Theophrastus

    Celebrated physician and reformer of therapeutics, b. at the Sihlbrücke, near Einsiedeln, ...

    Paraclete

    Paraclete, Comforter (L. Consolator ; Greek parakletos ), an appellation of the Holy Ghost. ...

    Paradise, Terrestrial

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

    Paraguay

    One of the inland republics of South America, separated from Spain and constituted as an ...

    Parahyba

    (PARAHYBENESIS) Located in the State of Parahyba, Brazil, suffragan of Bahia, founded 27 ...

    Paralipomenon, Books of

    ( Paraleipomenon ; Libri Paralipomenon ). Two books of the Bible containing a summary of ...

    Parallelism

    The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Either ...

    Parallelism, Psycho-Physical

    A doctrine which states that the relation between mental processes, on the one hand, and ...

    Paralus

    A titular see, suffragan of Cabasa in Ægyptus Secunda. One of the seven mouths of the ...

    Paraná

    (PARANENSIS) Suffragan of Buenos Aires, in Argentina until recently, comprised two civil ...

    Parasceve

    (Gr. paraskevé ); seems to have supplanted the older term prosábbaton , used ...

    Paray-le-Monial

    A town of five thousand inhabitants in the Department of Sâone-Loire, Diocese of Autun , ...

    Pardies, Ignace-Gaston

    French scientist, b. at Pau, 5 Sept., 1636; d. of fever contracted whilst ministering to the ...

    Pardons of Brittany

    Pardon, from the Latin perdonare , — assimilated in form to donum , a gift, middle ...

    Paredes, Blessed Mary Anne de

    Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

    Pareja, Francisco

    Missionary, probably born at Auñon in the Diocese of Toledo, Spain, date unknown; died ...

    Parents

    ( Latin parere , to beget) I. DUTIES OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR CHILDREN In the old pagan ...

    Parenzo-Pola

    (PARENTINA-POLENSIS) The little town of Parenzo is picturesquely situated on a promontory ...

    Parini, Giuseppe

    Italian poet, born at Bosisio, 23 May, 1729; died at Milan, 15 Aug., 1799. Parini was early ...

    Paris

    ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS (PARIBIENSIS) See also UNIVERSITY OF PARIS . Paris comprises the ...

    Paris Commune, Martyrs of the

    The secular priests and the religious who were murdered in Paris, in May 1871, on account of ...

    Paris, Alexis-Paulin

    Philologist, born at Avenay, Marne, France, 25 March, 1800; died 13 Feb., 1881. Having finished ...

    Paris, Gaston-Bruno-Paulin

    A French philologist, son of Paulin, born at Avenay (Marne), 9 August, 1839; died at Cannes, 6 ...

    Paris, Matthew

    Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1200; d. 1259. There seems no reason to infer from the ...

    Paris, University of

    See also ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS . Origin and Early Organization Three schools were especially ...

    Parish

    (Latin par&ligcia, parochia , Greek paroikia , a group of neighbouring dwellings). I. ...

    Parium

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontus. The Acts of the martyr St. Onesiphorus ...

    Park, Abbey of the

    Located half a mile south of Louvain, Belgium, founded in 1129 by Duke Godfrey, surnamed ...

    Parkinson, Anthony

    An historian, born in England, 1667; died there 30 January, 1728. In 1692 he was appointed ...

    Parlais

    A titular see of Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. As a Roman colony it was called Julia Augusta ...

    Parlatore, Filippo

    Italian botanist, b. at Palermo, 8 Aug., 1816; d. at Florence, 9 Sept., 1877, a devout and ...

    Parma

    Located in central Italy. The city is situated on the river of the same name, an affluent of the ...

    Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin

    An agriculturist, born at Montdidier, 17 August, 1737; died in Paris, 13 Dec., 1813. Left an orphan ...

    Parmigiano, Il

    (THE PARMESAN) The current name of FRANCESCO MAZZUOLA, MAZZOLA, MAZZUOLI, or MAZZOLI, Italian ...

    Parnassus

    A titular see in Cappadocia Secunda, suffragan of Mocessus. Situated between Ancyra and ...

    Parochial Mass

    The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

    Parochial Missions, Catholic

    This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

    Parrenin, Dominique

    Born at Russey, near Besançon, 1 Sept., 1665; died at Pekin, 29 Sept., 1741. He entered ...

    Parsis

    (PARSEES). A small community in India, adherents of the Zoroastrian religion and originally ...

    Particular Judgment

    A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

    Partnership

    Partnership, an unincorporated association of two or more persons, known as partners, having for ...

    Paruta, Paolo

    Venetian historian and statesman, born at Venice, 14 May, 1540; died there, 6 Dec., 1598. Of a ...

    Pascal Baylon, Saint

    Born at Torre-Hermosa, in the Kingdom of Aragon, 24 May, 1540, on the Feast of Pentecost, called ...

    Pascal, Blaise

    Born at Clermont-Ferrand, 19 June 1623; died in Paris, 19 August 1662. He was the son of Etienne ...

    Pasch

    Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

    Paschal Candle

    The blessing of the "paschal candle ", which is a column of wax of exceptional size, usually ...

    Paschal I, Pope

    (817-824) The date of his birth is unknown; he died in April, May, or June, 824. He was the ...

    Paschal II, Pope

    (RAINERIUS). Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 ...

    Paschal III (Antipope)

    (GUIDO OF CREMA) The second antipope in the time of Alexander III. He was elected in 1164 ...

    Paschal Lamb

    A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

    Paschal Tide

    I. LITURGICAL ASPECT The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost are called by the older ...

    Paschasius Radbertus, Saint

    Theologian, b. at Soissons, 786; d. in the Monastery of Corbie, c. 860 (the date 865 is ...

    Paschasius, Saint

    A deacon of the Roman Church about 500; died after 511. Almost all that is known of Paschasius ...

    Passaglia, Carlo

    Born at Lucca, 9 May, 1812; died at Turin, 12 March, 1887. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

    Passau

    (PASSAVIENSIS) Located in Bavaria, suffragan of Munich-Freising, including within its ...

    Passerat, Joseph, Venerable

    Born 30 April, 1772, at Joinville, France ; died 30 October, 1858. The difficulties he had to ...

    Passignano, Domenico

    (known as IL CRESTI, or IL PASSIGNANO, Cresti being his family name) A Venetian painter, ...

    Passion Music

    Precisely when, in the development of the liturgy, the history of the Passion of Our Lord ...

    Passion of Christ, Commemoration of the

    A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima. Its object is the devout remembrance and honour ...

    Passion of Jesus Christ

    See also THE PASSION OF CHRIST IN THE GOSPELS . The sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated ...

    Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels

    See also DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF CHRIST . We have in the Gospels four separate accounts ...

    Passion Offices

    The recitation of these offices, called also Of the Instruments of the Passion, was first granted ...

    Passion Plays

    The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle ...

    Passion Sunday

    The fifth Sunday of Lent, a Sunday of the first class, not permitting the celebration of any ...

    Passionei, Domenico

    A cardinal, theologian, born at Fossombrone, 2 Dec., 1682; died 5 July, 1761. Educated in the ...

    Passionists

    The full title of the Passionist institute is: The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most ...

    Passions

    By passions we are to understand here motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend ...

    Passiontide

    The two weeks between Passion Sunday and Easter. The last week is Holy Week, while the first ...

    Passos

    (Or, more fully, Santos Passos ) The Portuguese name locally used to designate certain ...

    Passover

    Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

    Pasteur, Louis

    Chemist, founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics; born ...

    Pasto, Diocese of

    (PASTENSIS, PASTOPOLITANA). A Colombian see, suffragan of Popayan, from which it was separated ...

    Pastor

    This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls ( cura animarum ), that is, who is ...

    Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus)

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Pastoral Staff

    (Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...

    Pastoral Theology

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

    Pastoureaux, Crusade of the

    One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. ...

    Patagonia

    Patagonia is the name given to the southernmost extremity of South America. Its boundary on the ...

    Patara

    Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, formerly a large cornmercial town, opposite Rhodes. ...

    Paten

    The eucharistic vessel known as the paten is a small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon ...

    Patenson, Venerable William

    Venerable William Patenson, English martyr , born in Yorkshire or Durham ; died at Tyburn, 22 ...

    Pater Noster

    Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

    Pathology, Mental

    This subject will be considered under the following headings: I. Localization of Mental ...

    Patmore, Coventry

    One of the major poets of the nineteenth century, in spite of the small bulk of his verse, born at ...

    Patmos

    A small volcanic island in the Ægean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, to the south of Samos ...

    Patras

    A metropolitan see in Achaia. It was one of the twelve ancient cities of Achaia, built near ...

    Patriarch

    The word patriarch as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version, where ...

    Patriarch and Patriarchate

    Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. ...

    Patrician Brothers

    (Or BROTHERS OF SAINT PATRICK). This Brotherhood was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Daniel ...

    Patrick's Purgatory, Saint

    Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

    Patrick, Saint

    Apostle of Ireland, born at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, in Scotland, in the year 387; died at ...

    Patrizi, Francis Xavier

    Jesuit exegete, b. at Rome, 19 June, 1797; d. there 23 April, 1881. He was the eldest son and ...

    Patrology

    Patrology, the study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church, has more commonly been known ...

    Patron and Patronage

    I By the right of patronage ( ius patronatus ) is understood a determinate sum of rights ...

    Patron Saints

    A patron is one who has been assigned by a venerable tradition, or chosen by election, as a ...

    Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the

    It was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 6 May, 1679, for all the ...

    Patti, Diocese of

    (PACTENSIS) Patti, in the Province of Messina (Sicily), on the western shore of the gulf of ...

    Paul and John, Saints

    Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

    Paul I, Pope

    (757-67) Date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 28 June, 767. He was a brother of Stephen II. ...

    Paul II, Pope

    (PIETRO BARBO) Born at Venice, 1417; elected 30 August, 1464; died 26 July, 1471; son of ...

    Paul III, Pope

    (A LESSANDRO F ARNESE ). Born at Rome or Canino, 29 Feb., 1468; elected, 12 Oct., 1534; ...

    Paul IV, Pope

    (G IOVANNI P IETRO C ARAFFA ). Born near Benevento, 28 June, 1476; elected 23 May, ...

    Paul of Burgos

    (PAUL DE SANTA MARIA; Jewish name, SOLOMON HA-LEVI) A Spanish archbishop, lord chancellor and ...

    Paul of Middelburg

    A scientist and bishop, born in 1446 at Middelburg, the ancient capital of the province of ...

    Paul of Samosata

    Bishop of Antioch. Several synods, probably three, were held against him about 264-66. St. ...

    Paul of the Cross, Saint

    Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775. ...

    Paul the Deacon

    (Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

    Paul the Hermit, Saint

    There are three important versions of the Life of St. Paul: (1) the Latin version ( H ) of St. ...

    Paul the Simple, Saint

    The story of Paul, as Palladius heard it from men who had known St. Anthony, was as follows: ...

    Paul V, Pope

    (CAMILLO BORGHESE). Born at Rome, 17 Sept., 1550; elected 16 May, 1605; died 28 Jan., 1621. ...

    Paul, Saint

    I. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS A. Apocryphal Acts of St. Paul Professor Schmidt has published a ...

    Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint

    ( San Paolo fuori le mura ). An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the ...

    Paula, Saint

    Born in Rome, 347; died at Bethlehem, 404. She belonged to one of the first families of Rome. ...

    Pauli, Johannes

    Born about 1455; died after 1530 in the monastery at Thann in Alsace. What little is known of ...

    Paulicians

    A dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. The origin of the name ...

    Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo

    (PHILIP WESDIN). Missionary and Orientalist, b. at Hoff in Lower Austria, 25 Apr., 1748; d. ...

    Paulinus II, Saint

    Born at Premariacco, near Cividale, Italy, about 730-40; died 802. Born probably of a Roman ...

    Paulinus of Pella

    Christian poet of the fifth century; b. at Pella in Macedonia, but of a Bordelaise family. He ...

    Paulinus, Saint

    Archbishop of York, died at Rochester, 10 October, 644. He was a Roman monk in St. Andrew's ...

    Paulinus, Saint

    (Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus). Born at Bordeaux about 354; died 22 June, 431. He ...

    Paulist Fathers

    Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

    Paulists

    From the time that the abode and virtues of St. Paul the first hermit were revealed to St. ...

    Paulus Diaconus

    (Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

    Paulus Venetus

    Theologian of the Hermits of the Order of Saint Augustine, born according to the chroniclers of ...

    Pavia

    (PAPIA) Located in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It is situated in a fertile plain; the city is ...

    Pavia, University of

    Pavia was, even in Roman times, a literary centre (Ennodius); as the capital of the Lombard ...

    Pavillon, Nicolas

    Bishop of Alet, b. at Paris 1597; d. at Alet, 1677. He joined the community of St-Lazare, ...

    Pax

    (Osculatorium, Tabula Pacis, Lapis Pacis). A tablet to be kissed. The primitive usage in the ...

    Pax in the Liturgy

    Pax vobis (or vobiscum ), like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum ), ...

    Payeras, Mariano

    Born 10 Oct., 1769, at Inca, Island of Majorca; died 28 April, 1823. He received the habit of St. ...

    Payne, Blessed John

    Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

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    Pe 170

    Peña, Francisco

    (PEGNA) A canonist, born at Villaroya de los Pinares, near Saragossa, about 1540; died at ...

    Peñalver y Cardenas, Luis Ignatius

    Bishop of New Orleans, Archbishop of Guatemala, son of a wealthy and noble family ; born ...

    Peace Congresses

    I. EARLY HISTORY The genesis of the idea of a meeting of representatives of different nations ...

    Peace of the Church

    This is the designation usually applied to the condition of the Church after the publication at ...

    Peasants, War of the (1524-25)

    A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany, the causes of which are disputed as a ...

    Peba Indians

    (Or Peva ) The principal of a small group of cognate tribes, comprising the Peba proper, ...

    Pecham, John

    (PECCHAM) Archbishop of Canterbury, born about 1240; died 6 December, 1292. His birthplace ...

    Pecock, Reginald

    (PEACOCK) Bishop of Chichester, born in North Wales about 1395; died at Thorney Abbey about ...

    Pectoral

    ("Pectoral of judgment"). The original meaning of the Hebrew term has been lost, and little ...

    Pectorale

    ( Crux Pectoralis ). The name of the cross used by the pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, ...

    Pectorius of Autun

    The name with which the important document frequently known as the Inscription of Autun ...

    Pednelissus

    (Petnelissus). A titular see in Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. In ancient times ...

    Pedro de Cordova

    Born at Cordova, Andalusia, Spain, about 1460; died on the Island of Santo Domingo, 1525. He ...

    Pelagia

    The name of several saints. The old Syrian martyrology gives the feast of a St. Pelagia of ...

    Pelagius and Pelagianism

    Pelagianism received its name from Pelagius and designates a heresy of the fifth century, which ...

    Pelagius I, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; died 3 March, 561, was a Roman of noble family ; his father, John, seems ...

    Pelagius II, Pope

    The date of whose birth is unknown, seemingly a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, as his ...

    Pelargus, Ambrose

    Theologian, born at Nidda, Hesse, about 1488; died at Trier, 1557. Stork (Greek Pelargon , ...

    Pelisson-Fontanier, Paul

    French writer, born at Béziers in 1624 of Protestant parents ; died at Versailles, 7 ...

    Pella

    A titular see and suffragan of Scythopolis in Palaestina Secunda. According to Stephanus ...

    Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph

    Born in Paris, 22 March, 1788; died there, 19 July, 1842. His father, Bertrand Pelletier, a ...

    Pellico, Silvio

    Italian author and patriot, born at Saluzzio, Italy, 24 June, 1788; died at Turin 31 Jan., ...

    Pellissier, Guillaume

    (PELLICIER) Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, about 1490; died at the castle of Montferraud, ...

    Pelotas

    (PELOTASENSIS) Located in Brazil, suffragan to Porto Alegre. By a decree of Pius X, dated ...

    Pelouze, Théophile-Jules

    Scientist, b. at Valognes, La Manche, 26 Feb., 1807; d. in Paris, 31 May or 1 June, 1867. He began ...

    Peltrie, Madeleine de la

    née CHAUVIGNY A French noblewoman, and foundress, born at Caen, 1603; died at Quebec, ...

    Pelusium

    A titular metropolitan see of Augustamnica Prima in Egypt, mentioned in Ezech., xxx, 15 sq., ...

    Pembroke

    (PEMBROKIENSIS) A suffragan of Ottawa, in Canada. The town of Pembroke has a beautiful ...

    Penal Laws

    This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

    Penance (as a Virtue)

    Penance ( poenitentia ) designates (1) a virtue ; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a ...

    Penance, Sacrament of

    Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

    Pendleton, Henry

    Controversialist, born at Manchester ; died in London, September, 1557; educated at Brasenose ...

    Penelakut Indians

    A small tribe of Salishan stock, speaking a dialect of the Cowichan language and occupying a ...

    Penitentes, Los Hermanos

    (The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

    Penitential Canons

    Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins. ...

    Penitential Orders

    A general name for religious congregations whose members are bound to perform extraordinary works ...

    Penitents, Confraternities of

    Congregations, with statutes prescribing various penitential works, such as fasting, the use of ...

    Penne and Atri, Diocese of

    (Pennensis et Atriensis). Penne is a city in the Province of Teramo, in the Abruzzi, central ...

    Pennsylvania

    One of the thirteen original United States of America , lies between 39° 43' and 42° 15' ...

    Penobscot Indians

    The principal tribe of the famous Abnaki confederacy of Maine, and the only one still keeping its ...

    Pension, Ecclesiastical

    The right to a certain sum of money to be paid yearly out of the revenues of a church or ...

    Pentacomia

    A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Areopolis or Rabbah. It was never a residential see; ...

    Pentapolis

    The word, occurring in Wisdom, x, 6, designates the region where stood the five cities ( pente, ...

    Pentateuch

    Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

    Pentecost

    A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

    Pentecost (Jewish Feast)

    The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. The term, adopted from the ...

    Peoria

    (PEORIENSIS). Diocese comprising that part of Central Illinois south of the Counties of ...

    Peoria Indians

    A principal tribe of the confederated Illinois Indians (q.v.) having their chief residence, in the ...

    Pepin the Short

    Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King ...

    Peppergrass, Paul

    Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass", born in ...

    Perboyre, Blessed Jean-Gabriel

    Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

    Percy, Blessed Thomas

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

    Percy, John

    ( alias JOHN FISHER) Born at Holmeside, Durham, 27 Sep., 1569; died at London, 3 Dec., ...

    Peregrinus

    The canons of Priscillian, prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul in many (chiefly Spanish) ...

    Pereira, Benedict

    (PEREYRA, PERERA, PERERIUS) Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, born about 1535, at Ruzafa, ...

    Perez, Juan

    Died before 1513. At one time he held the office of contador or accountant to the Queen of ...

    Perfection, Christian and Religious

    A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect ...

    Pergamus

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus. This city was situated on the banks of the Selinus. It was ...

    Perge

    Titular metropolitan see in Pamphylia Secunda. Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was ...

    Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista

    Born at Naples, 3 Jan., 1710; d. 16 March, 1736, at Pozzuoli, near Naples. This young man of ...

    Pericui Indians

    A rude and savage tribe, of unknown linguistic affinity, formerly occupying the extreme southern ...

    Periodi

    (P ETRI ) The name under which the Pseudo-Clementine writings are quoted by Epiphanius, ...

    Periodical Literature, Catholic

    The invention of printing, besides exerting a great influence on literature in general and on ...

    Perjury

    (Latin per , through and jurare , to swear) Perjury is the crime of taking a false oath. ...

    Permaneder, Franz Michael

    Canonist, b. at Traunstein, Bavaria, 12 Aug., 1794; d. at Ratisbon, 10 Oct., 1862. He studied ...

    Pernter, Joseph Maria

    Scientist, b. at Neumark, Tyrol, 15 March, 1848; d. at Arco, 20 Dec., 1908. He entered the ...

    Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

    Perpetual Adoration

    A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Religious of

    (Belgium) A congregation with simple vows, founded at Brussels, 1857, by Anna de Meeus, ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Religious of the

    A contemplative religious congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer (d. 1546), at ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the

    (Quimper, France ). An institute of nuns devoted to perpetual adoration of the Blessed ...

    Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament

    (Sacramentines.) Anton Le Quien, b. in Paris, 23 Feb., 1601, the founder of the first order ...

    Perpetual Help, Our Lady of

    ( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

    Perpetual Help, Our Lady of, Sisters of

    A congregation founded in the parish of St. Damien, Bellechasse, P.Q., Canada, 28 August, 1892, ...

    Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of

    ( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

    Perpetuus, Saint

    Eighth Bishop of Tours, d. 1 January, or 8 December, 490, or 8 April, 491. He was a member of ...

    Perpignan, Diocese of

    (Perpinianum.) Comprises the Department of Pyrénées Orientales; created by the ...

    Perpignan, University of

    Peter IV of Aragon (1327-87), having conquered (1344) the town of Perpignan and reunited to his ...

    Perraud, Adolphe

    Cardinal and academician; b. at Lyons, France, 7 Feb., 1828; d. 18 Feb., 1906. He had a ...

    Perrault, Charles

    Writer, b. in Paris, 12 Jan., 1628; d. 16 May, 1703. His first literary attempts were a parody of ...

    Perrault, Claude

    Born at Paris, 1613; died there, 1688. He built the main eastern façade of the Louvre, ...

    Perreyve, Henri

    Born at Paris, 11 April, 1831; died there 18 June, 1865. His father was professor at the ...

    Perrone, Giovanni

    Jesuit theologian, b. at Chieri, Italy, 11 March, 1794; d. at Rome, 28 Aug., 1876. After studying ...

    Perry, Stephen Joseph

    Born in London, August, 1833; d. 27 Dec. 1889. He belonged to a well-known Catholic family. His ...

    Persecution

    GENERAL Persecution may be defined in general as the unlawful coercion of another's liberty or ...

    Persecutions, Coptic

    (ACCORDING TO GREEK AND LATIN SOURCES) During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria ...

    Perseverance, Final

    ( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

    Persia

    The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Both Medes ...

    Persian Rite

    Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...

    Persico, Ignatius

    A cardinal, born 30 Jan., 1823, at Naples, Italy ; died 7 Dec., 1896. He entered the Capuchin ...

    Person

    The Latin word persona was originally used to denote the mask worn by an actor. From this it ...

    Person, Ecclesiastical

    In its etymological sense this expression signifies every person who forms a part of the external ...

    Personality

    It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of ...

    Persons, Robert

    (Also, but less correctly, P ARSONS ) Jesuit, b., at Nether Stowey, Somerset, 24 June, 1546; ...

    Perth

    (PERTHENSIS) Located in Western Australia, suffragan to Adelaide; bounded on the north by ...

    Pertinax, Publius Helvius

    Roman Emperor (31 Dec., 192), b. at Alba Pompeia, in Luguria, 1 August, 126; d. at Rome 28 ...

    Peru

    A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, ...

    Perugia

    (PERUSINA) Located in Umbria, Central Italy. The city is situated on a hill on the right of ...

    Perugia, University of

    One of the "free" universities of Italy, was erected into a studium generale on 8 Sept., 1308, ...

    Perugino

    (PIETRO VANNUCCI) An Italian painter, founder of the Umbrian school, born at Città ...

    Peruzzi, Baldassare

    An architect and painter, born at Siena, 7 March, 1481; died at Rome, 6 Jan., 1537. He derived ...

    Pesaro

    (PESAURENSIS) Located in central Italy. The city is situated at the mouth of the river ...

    Pescennius Niger

    Emperor of Rome (193-194). He was a native of central Italy, and during the reigns of Marcus ...

    Pesch, Tilman

    A Jesuit philosopher, b. at Cologne, 1 Feb., 1836; d. at Valkenberg, Holland, 18 Oct., 1899. He ...

    Pescia

    (PISCIENSIS) Diocese in Tuscany, Italy, on the Rivers Pescia Maggiore and Pescia Minore, ...

    Pessimism

    I. A TEMPER OF MIND In popular language the term pessimist is applied to persons who ...

    Pessinus

    ( Pessinous .) A titular see of Galatia Secunda. Pessinonte, on the southern slope of Mt. ...

    Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism

    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, one of the greatest pioneers of modern education, born at Zurich, ...

    Peter Baptist, Saint, and Twenty-Five Companions

    Died at Nagasaki, 5 Feb., 1597. In 1593 while negotiations were pending between the Emperor of ...

    Peter Canisius, Blessed

    (Kannees, Kanys, probably also De Hondt). Born at Nimwegen in the Netherlands, 8 May, 1521; ...

    Peter Cantor

    Theologian, b. probably at Gisberoi near Beauvais, France ; d. at Long Pont Abbey, 22 Sept., ...

    Peter Cellensis

    (PETER DE LA CELLE). Bishop of Chartres, b. of noble parentage in Champagne; d. at Chartres, ...

    Peter Chrysologus, Saint

    Born at Imola, 406; died there, 450. His biography, first written by Agnellus (Liber pontificalis ...

    Peter Claver, Saint

    The son of a Catalonian farmer, was born at Verdu, in 1581; he died 8 September, 1654. He ...

    Peter Comestor

    Theological writer, b. at Troyes, date unknown; d. at Paris about 1178. He was first attached ...

    Peter Damian, Saint

    (Or Damiani). Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, b. at Ravenna "five years ...

    Peter de Blois

    A statesman and theologian, born at Blois about 1130; died about 1203. He appears to have ...

    Peter de Honestis

    Born at Ravenna about 1049; died, 29 March, 1119. Among his ancestors was the great St. Romuald, ...

    Peter de Regalado, Saint

    (REGALATUS) A Friar Minor and reformer, born at Valladolid, 1390; died at Aguilera, 30 ...

    Peter de Vinea

    (DE VINEIS, DELLA VIGNA) Born at Capua about 1190; died 1249. Peter's legal learning and the ...

    Peter Faber, Saint

    Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

    Peter Fourier, Saint

    Known as LE BON PÈRE DE MATTAINCOURT, born at Mirecourt, Lorraine, 30 Nov., 1565 died at ...

    Peter Fullo

    Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

    Peter Gonzalez, Saint

    Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

    Peter Igneus, Blessed

    (Peter Aldobrandini.) An Italian monk of the Benedictine congregation of the ...

    Peter Lombard

    Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

    Peter Mongus

    ( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

    Peter Nolasco, Saint

    Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

    Peter of Alcántara, Saint

    Born at Alcántara, Spain, 1499; died 18 Oct., 1562. His father, Peter Garavita, was the ...

    Peter of Alexandria, Saint

    Became Bishop of Alexandria in 300; martyred Nov., 311. According to Philip of Sidetes he ...

    Peter of Aquila

    (SCOTELLUS). Friar Minor , theologian and bishop, b. at Aquila in the Abruzzi, Italy, towards ...

    Peter of Arbues, Saint

    (Correctly, PETER ARBUES). Born in 1441 (or 1442); died 17 Sept., 1485. His father, a ...

    Peter of Auvergne

    A philosopher and theologian ; died after 1310. He was a canon of Paris ; some biographers ...

    Peter of Bergamo

    (ALMADURA) A theologian, date of birth unknown; died at Placentia, in 1482. He entered the ...

    Peter of Montboissier, Blessed

    (Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

    Peter of Poitiers

    A French scholastic theologian, born at Poitiers or in its neighbourhood about 1130; died in ...

    Peter of Sebaste, Saint

    Bishop, b. about 340; d. 391. He belonged to the richly blest family of Basil and Emmelia of ...

    Peter of Verona, Saint

    Born at Verona, 1206; died near Milan, 6 April, 1252. His parents were adherents of the ...

    Peter Snow, Venerable

    English martyr, suffered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or near Ripon and arrived at the ...

    Peter the Hermit

    Born at Amiens about 1050; d. at the monastery of Neufmoutier (Liège), in 1115. His ...

    Peter Urseolus, Saint

    (Orseolo) Born at Rivo alto, Province of Udina, 928; at Cuxa, 10 January, 987 (997 is less ...

    Peter, Basilica of Saint

    TOPOGRAPHY The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the ...

    Peter, Chair of

    Under this head will be treated: I. The annual Feast of the Chair of Peter ( Cathedra Petri ) at ...

    Peter, Saint

    The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads: I. Until the ...

    Peter, Saint, Epistles of

    These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. Recipients, ...

    Peter, Sarah

    Philanthropist, b. at Chillicothe, Ohio, U.S.A. 10 May, 1800; d. at Cincinnati, 6 Feb., 1877. Her ...

    Peter, Tomb of Saint

    The history of the relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul is one which is involved in ...

    Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint

    The print version of the C ATHOLIC E NCYCLOPEDIA contains two articles on this saint. We ...

    Peterborough

    (PETERBOROUGHENSIS) Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada, comprises the Counties of ...

    Peterspence

    Peterspence, otherwise known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Romescot", is the name traditionally given to ...

    Peterssen, Gerlac

    (GERLACUS PETRI) Born at Deventer, 1377 or 1378; died 18 Nov., 1411. He entered the ...

    Petinessus

    (PITNISUS) A titular see in Galatia Secunda (Salutaris). This city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

    Petit-Didier, Matthieu

    A Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Saint-Nicolas-du-Port in ...

    Petitions to the Holy See

    I. MODE OF PETITIONING Faculties, indults, dispensations, and other favours, the granting of ...

    Petra

    Titular metropolitan see of Palæstina Tertia. Under the name of Sela (the rock) this ...

    Petrarch, Francesco

    Italian poet and humanist, b. at Arezzo, 20 July, 1304; d. at Arquá, 19 July, 1374. His ...

    Petre, Family of

    The Petres are one of those staunch and constant families, which have played a great part in the ...

    Petrobrusians

    Heretics of the twelfth century so named from their founder Peter of Bruys. Our information ...

    Petronilla, Saint

    Virgin, probably martyred at Rome at the end of the first century. Almost all the sixth- and ...

    Petronius, Saint

    Bishop of Bologna, date of birth unknown; died before 450. The only certain historical ...

    Petropolis

    (Petropolitanensis). Diocese in the Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, erected 11 Feb., ...

    Petrus Alfonsus

    A converted Jew and controversialist, born at Huesca, in the former Kingdom of Aragon, 1062; ...

    Petrus Bernardinus

    Florentine heretic ; born at Florence about 1475; died 1502. His parents were common folk, and ...

    Petrus de Natalibus

    Bishop; author of a collection of lives of the saints; date of birth unknown; d. between 1400 and ...

    Petrus Diaconus

    The name of several men of note in ecclesiastical history and literature. (1) One of the ...

    Petun Nation

    One of the three great divisions of the Huron Indians, the other two being the Hurons proper, and ...

    Peuerbach, George von

    (Also Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius) Austrian astronomer, b. at Peuerbach near Linz, 30 May, ...

    Peutinger, Conrad

    An antiquarian and humanist, born at Augsburg, 14 Oct., 1465; died 28 Dec., 1547. As a young ...

    Peyto, William

    (P ETO, P ETOW ). Cardinal ; d. 1558 or 1559. Though his parentage was long unknown, it is ...

    Pez

    (1) BERNHARD An historian, born 22 February, 1683, at Ybbs near Melk ; died 27 March, 1735, at ...

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    Pf 5

    Pfanner, Franz

    An abbot, born at Langen, Vorarlberg, Austria, 1825; died at Emmaus, South Africa, 24 May, ...

    Pfefferkorn, Johannes

    A baptized Jew, b. probably at Nuremberg, 1469; d. at Cologne, between 1521 and 1524. In 1505, ...

    Pfister, Adolf

    An educationist, born at Hechingen in Hohenzollern, 26 Sept., 1810; died at Ober-Dischingen in ...

    Pflug, Julius Von

    The last Catholic Bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, born at Eythra, near Leipzig, 1499; died at Zeits, ...

    Pforta

    A former Cistercian monastery (1137-1540), near Naumburg on the Saale in the Prussian province ...

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    Ph 44

    Phœnicia

    Phœnicia is a narrow strip of land, about one hundred and fifty miles long and thirty miles ...

    Phacusa

    A titular see and suffragan of Pelusium, in Augustamnica Prima. Ptolemy (IV, v, 24) makes it ...

    Pharao

    (Prah, Par‘o, or, after a vowel, Phar‘o ; Greek Pharaó ; Latin Pharao). ...

    Pharbætus

    Titular see and suffragan of Leontopolis, in Augustamnica Secunda. This name is merely the ...

    Pharisees

    A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into ...

    Pharsalus

    Titular see and suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. The city is mentioned for the first time after ...

    Phaselis

    Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. The city was a Doric colony on the Pamphylian Gulf. ...

    Phasga

    (A.V. Pisgah ). Whether the word in Hebrew is a proper or a common noun is not clear; ...

    Phenomenalism

    Phenomenalism ( phainomenon ) literally means any system of thought that has to do with ...

    Philadelphia (Lydia)

    A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardes. The city was founded by Philadelphus, King of ...

    Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

    (PHILADELPHIENSIS) A diocese established in 1808; made an archdiocese, 12 Feb., 1875, ...

    Philanthropinism

    The system of education educed from the ideas of Rousseau and of the German "Enlightenment", ...

    Philastrius, Saint

    Bishop of Brescia, died before 397. He was one of the bishops present at a synod held in ...

    Philemon

    A citizen of Coloss Colossæ, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the ...

    Philip II

    King of Spain, only son of the Emperor Charles V, and Isabella of Portugal, b. at Valladolid, 21 ...

    Philip II (Augustus)

    King of France, born 22 or 25 August, 1165; died at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Louis VII ...

    Philip IV

    Surnamed Le Bel (the Fair) King of France, b. at Fontainebleau, 1268; d. there, 29 Nov., 1314; ...

    Philip of Jesus, Saint

    Born in Mexico, date unknown; died at Nagasaki early in February, 1597. Though unusually ...

    Philip of the Blessed Trinity

    (ESPRIT JULIEN). Discalced Carmelite, theologian, born at Malaucene, near Avignon, 1603; died ...

    Philip Romolo Neri, Saint

    THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...

    Philip the Apostle, Saint

    Like the brothers, Peter and Andrew, Philip was a native of Bethsaida on Lake Genesareth ( John ...

    Philip the Arabian

    (Philippus) Emperor of Rome (244-249), the son of an Arab sheik, born in Bosra. He rose ...

    Philippi

    (Greek Phílippoi , Latin Philippi ). Philippi was a Macedonian town, on the ...

    Philippi

    A titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. As early as the sixth century B. C. we learn of a ...

    Philippians, Epistle to the

    I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER ( See also PHILIPPI ). The Philippians, ...

    Philippine Islands

    Situation and Area The Philippine Islands lie between 116° 40' and 126° and 34' E. long., ...

    Philippopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Secunda. The city was founded by Philip of Macedon in 342 ...

    Philippopolis

    Titular see in Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Its bishop, Hormisdas, was present at the Council ...

    Philips, Peter

    (Also known as PETRUS PHILIPPUS, PIETRO PHILLIPO.) Born in England about 1560; date and place ...

    Philistines

    ( Septuagint phylistieim in the Pentateuch and Josue, elsewhere allophyloi , ...

    Phillip, Robert

    Priest, d. at Paris, 4 Jan., 1647. He was descended from the Scottish family of Phillip of ...

    Phillips, George

    A canonist, born at Königsberg, 6 Sept., 1804; died at Vienna, 6 September, 1872, was the son ...

    Philo Judæus

    Born about 25 B.C. . His family, of a sacerdotal line, was one of the most powerful of the ...

    Philomelium

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. According to ancient writers Philomelium was ...

    Philomena, Saint

    On 25 May, 1802, during the quest for the graves of Roman martyrs in the Catacomb of Priscilla, ...

    Philosophy

    I. Definition of Philosophy . II. Division of Philosophy . III. The Principal Systematic ...

    Philoxenus

    (AKHSENAYA) OF MABBOGH. Born at Tahal, in the Persian province of Beth-Garmai in the second ...

    Phocæa

    A titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The town of Phocæa was founded in the ...

    Photinus

    A heretic of the fourth century, a Galatian and deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra ...

    Photius of Constantinople

    Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b. at ...

    Phylacteries

    ( Phulachterion — safeguard, amulet, or charm). The word occurs only once in the New ...

    Physics, History of

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. A Glance at Ancient Physics; II. ...

    Physiocrats

    ( physis , nature, kratein , rule) A school of writers on political and economic ...

    Physiologus

    An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous ...

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    Pi 89

    Piacenza

    DIOCESE OF PIACENZA (PLACENTINENSIS) Piacenza is a diocese in Emilia, central Italy. The city ...

    Pianô Carpine, Giovanni da

    Born at Pian di Carpine (now called della Magione), near Perugia, Umbria, 1182; died probably in ...

    Pianciani, Giambattista

    Scientist, b. at Spoleto, 27 Oct., 1784; d. at Rome, 23 March, 1862. He entered the Society of ...

    Piatto Cardinalizio

    An allowance granted by the pope to cardinals residing in curia or otherwise employed by ...

    Piatus of Mons

    (Secular name, JEAN-JOSEPH LOISEAUX), b. 5 Aug., 1815; d. in the Monastery of Ste. Claire, ...

    Piauhy

    (DE PIAUHY, PIAHUNENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the State of ...

    Piazza Armerina

    (PLATIENSIS) Located in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily. The city of Piazza Armerina is ...

    Piazzi, Giuseppe

    Astronomer, b. at Ponte in Valtellina, 16 July, 1746; d. at Naples, 22 July, 1826. He took the ...

    Pibush, John

    English martyr, born at Thirsk, Yorkshire; died at St Thomas's Waterings, Camberwell, 18 February, ...

    Picard, Jean

    Astronomer, b. at La Flêche, 21 July, 1620; d. at Paris, 12 Oct., 1682. He was a priest ...

    Piccolomini, Alessandro

    Littérateur, philosopher, astronomer, b. 13 June, 1508; d. 12 March, 1578. He passed his ...

    Piccolomini-Ammannati, Jacopo

    A cardinal, born in the Villa Basilica near Lucca, 1422; died at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 10 ...

    Pichler

    A renowned Austrian family of gem-cutters who lived and died in Italy. ANTONIO (JOHANN ...

    Pichler, Vitus

    Distinguished canonist and controversial writer, b. at Grosberghofen, 24 May, 1670; d. at Munich, ...

    Pickering, Ven. Thomas

    Lay brother and martyr, a member of an old Westmoreland family, b. c. 1621; executed at Tyburn, ...

    Piconio, Bernadine a

    (HENRI BERNARDINE DE PICQUIGNY) Born at Picquigny, Picardy, 1633; died in Paris, 8 December, ...

    Picquet, François

    A celebrated Sulpician missionary in Canada, b. at Bourg, Bresse, France, 4 Dec., 1708; d. at ...

    Picture Bibles

    In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement ...

    Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Domine

    The sixth quatrain of Adoro Te Devote , sometimes used as a separate hymn at Benediction of ...

    Pie, Louis-Edouard-Désiré

    Cardinal, born at Pontgouin, Diocese of Chartres, 1815; died at Angoulême, 1880. He studied ...

    Pieck, Saint Nicholas

    (Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

    Piedmont

    ( Italian Piemonte ). A part compartimento of northern Italy, bounded on the north by ...

    Piel, Peter

    A pioneer in the movement for reform of church music, b. at Kessewick, near Bonn, 12 Aug., 1835; ...

    Pierius

    A priest and probably head master of the catechetical school at Alexandria conjointly with ...

    Pierre de Castelnau, Blessed

    Born in the Diocese of Montpellier , Languedoc, now Department of Hérault, France ; died ...

    Pierre de Maricourt

    Surnamed PETER THE PILGRIM ( Petrus Peregrinus ) A physician of the Middle Ages. Under the ...

    Pierron, Jean

    A missionary, born at Dun-sur-Meuse, France, 28 Sept., 1631; date and place of death unknown. He ...

    Pierson, Philippe

    Born at Ath, Hainaut (Belgium), 4 January, 1642; died at Lorette, Quebec, 1688. At the age of ...

    Pietism

    Pietism is a movement within the ranks of Protestantism, originating in the reaction against the ...

    Pighius, Albert

    A theologian, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Kampen, Overyssel, Holland, about 1490; ...

    Pignatelli, Venerable Giuseppe Maria

    Born 27 December, 1737, in Saragossa, Spain ; died 11 November, 1811. His family was of ...

    Pike, William

    Martyr, born in Dorsetshire; died at Dorchester, dec., 1591. He was a joiner, and lived at West ...

    Pilar, Nuestra Señora del

    "Our Lady of the Pillar", a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a ...

    Pilate, Pontius

    After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

    Pilchard, Venerable Thomas

    ( Or PILCHER). Martyr, born at Battle, Sussex, 1557; died at Dorchester, 21 March 1586-7. ...

    Pileolus

    ( zucca , head). The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is ...

    Pilgrimage of Grace

    The name given to the religious rising in the north of England, 1536. The cause of this great ...

    Pilgrimages

    (Middle English, pilgrime, Old French, pelegrin, derived from Latin peregrinum, supposed ...

    Piligrim

    Bishop of Passau, date of birth unknown; died 20 May, 991. He was educated at the ...

    Pillar of Cloud/Fire

    (P ILLAR OF F IRE ). A cloud which accompanied the Israelites during their wandering. It ...

    Pima Indians

    An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and its affluent, the ...

    Pinar del Rio

    (Pinetensis ad Flumen) Located in Cuba, erected by the Brief "Actum præclare" of Leo ...

    Pinara

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Pinara was one of the chief cities of the Lycian ...

    Pindemonte, Ippolito

    An Italian poet of noble birth, born at Verona, 13 Nov., 1753; died there, 18 Nov., 1828. He ...

    Pineda, John de

    Born in Seville, 1558; died there, 27 Jan., 1637. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1572, ...

    Pinerolo

    (PINEROLIENSIS) Located in the province of Turin, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, suffragan of ...

    Pingré, Alexandre Guy

    Born in Paris 11 September, 1711; died 1 May, 1796. He was educated in Senlis at the college ...

    Pinna da Encarnaçao, Mattheus

    A writer and theologian, born at Rio de Janeiro, 23 Aug., 1687; died there, 18 Dec., 1764. On 3 ...

    Pinto, Fernão Mendes

    A Portuguese traveller, born at Montemor-o-Velho near Coimbra, c. 1509; died at Almada near ...

    Pinturicchio

    (BERNARDINO DI BETTO, surnamed PINTURICCHIO) Born at Verona, about 1454; died at Siena, 11 ...

    Pinzón, Martín Alonso

    Spanish navigator and companion of Columbus on his first voyage to the New World, b. at Palos ...

    Piombo, Sebastiano del

    More correctly known as S EBASTIANO L UCIANI . Venetian portrait painter, b. at Venice, ...

    Pionius, Saint

    Martyred at Smyrna, 12 March, 250. Pionius, with Sabina and Asclepiades, was arrested on 23 ...

    Pious Fund of the Californias, The

    (Fondo Piadoso de las Californias) The Pious Fund of the Californias had its origin, in 1697, ...

    Pious Society of Missions, The

    Founded by Ven. Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835. The members of the society are generally called ...

    Piranesi, Giambattista

    An Italian etcher and engraver, b. at Venice, 1720; d. in Rome, 9 Nov., 1778. His uncle ...

    Pirhing, Ernricus

    Born at Sigarthin, near Passau, 1606; died between 1678 and 1681. At the age of twenty-two he ...

    Pirkheimer

    Charitas Pirkheimer Abbess of the Convent of St. Clara, of the Poor Clares, in Nuremberg, and ...

    Piro Indians

    A tribe of considerable importance, ranging by water for a distance of three hundred miles along ...

    Pisa

    ARCHDIOCESE OF PISA (PISÆ) Archdiocese in Tuscany, central Italy. The city is situated ...

    Pisa, Council of

    Preliminaries. The great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of ...

    Pisa, University of

    In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law ; prominent ...

    Pisano, Andrea

    Or ANDREA DA PISA (the name by which Andrea da Pontadera is known). An Italian sculptor and ...

    Pisano, Niccola

    Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

    Piscataway Indians

    A tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock formerly occupying the peninsula of lower Maryland ...

    Piscina

    (Latin from piscis, a fish, fish-pond, pool or basin, called also sacrarium, thalassicon, or ...

    Pise, Charles Constantine

    Priest, poet, and prose writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, 22 Nov., 1801; d. at Brooklyn, New ...

    Pisidia

    A country in the southwestern part of Asia Minor, between the high Phrygian tableland and the ...

    Pistoia and Prato

    (PISTORIENSIS ET PRATENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence. The city of Pistoia is ...

    Pistoia, Synod of

    Held 18 to 28 September, 1786, by Scipio de’ Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. It marks ...

    Pistorius, Johann

    A controversialist and historian, born at Nidda in Hesse, 14 February, 1546; died at Freiburg, 18 ...

    Pithou, Pierre

    A writer, born at Troyes, 1 Nov. 1539; died at Nogent-sur-Seine, 1 Nov., 1596. His father, a ...

    Pitoni, Joseph

    A musician, born at Rieti, Perugia, Italy, 18 March, 1657; died at Rome, 1 Feb., 1743, and ...

    Pitra, Jean-Baptiste-François

    Cardinal, famous archeologist and theologian, b. 1 August, 1812, at Champforgeuil in the ...

    Pitts, John

    Born at Alton, Hampshire, 1560; died at Liverdun, Lorraine, 17 Oct., 1616. He was educated at ...

    Pittsburgh

    DIOCESE OF PITTSBURG/PITTSBURGH (PITTSBURGENSIS). Suffragan of Philadelphia, in the United ...

    Pityus

    A titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. Pityus was a large and ...

    Pius I, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; pope from about 140 to about 154. According to the earliest list of the ...

    Pius II, Pope

    (Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini). Born at Corsignano, near Siena, 18 Oct., 1405; elected 19 ...

    Pius III, Pope

    (Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini). B. at Siena, 29 May, 1439; elected 22 Sept., 1503; d. in ...

    Pius IV, Pope

    (Giovanni Angelo Medici). B. 31 March, 1499, at Milan ; elected 26 December, 1559; d. in ...

    Pius IX, Pope

    (G IOVANNI M ARIA M ASTAI -F ERRETTI ). Pope from 1846-78; born at Sinigaglia, 13 May, ...

    Pius V, Pope Saint

    (MICHELE GHISLERI). Born at Bosco, near Alexandria, Lombardy, 17 Jan., 1504 elected 7 Jan., ...

    Pius VI, Pope

    (G IOVANNI A NGELICO B RASCHI ). Born at Cesena, 27 December, 1717; elected 15 ...

    Pius VII, Pope

    (B ARNABA C HIARAMONTI ). Born at Cesena in the Pontifical States, 14 August, 1740; ...

    Pius VIII, Pope

    (Francesco Xaverio Castiglione). B. at Cingoli, 20 Nov., 1761; elected 31 March, 1829; d. 1 ...

    Pius X, Pope Saint

    (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto). Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His ...

    Piusverein

    The name given to Catholic associations in various countries of Europe. I. THE PIUS ...

    Pizarro, Francisco

    Born in Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain, probably in 1471; died at Lima, Peru, 26 June, 1541. He ...

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    Pl 27

    Placidus, Saint

    St. Placidus, disciple of St. Benedict, the son of the patrician Tertullus, was brought as a ...

    Plagues of Egypt

    Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharao's obstinacy and force him to let ...

    Plain Chant

    By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of ...

    Plantaganet, Henry Beaufort

    Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, born c. 1377; died at Westminster, 11 April, 1447. He was the ...

    Plantin, Christophe

    Book-binder and publisher of Antwerp, b. 1514, at or near Tours ( France ); d. 1 July, 1589, at ...

    Plants in the Bible

    When Moses spoke to the people about the Land of Promise, he described it as a "land of hills ...

    Plasencia

    (PLACENTINA) Plasencia comprises the civil provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and ...

    Plateau, Joseph-Antoine

    Belgian physicist, b. at Brussels, 14 Oct., 1801; d. at Ghent, 15 Sept., 1883. His father, a ...

    Platina, Bartolomeo

    Originally named S ACCHI, b. at Piadena, near Mantua, in 1421; d. at Rome, 1481. He first ...

    Plato and Platonism

    I. LIFE OF PLATO Plato ( Platon , "the broad shouldered") was born at Athens in 428 or 427 ...

    Play, Pierre-Guillaume-Frédéric Le

    A French economist, born at La Rivière (Calvados), 11 April, 1806; died at Paris, 5 ...

    Plegmund

    Archbishop of Canterbury, died 2 August, 914. He was a Mercian, and spent his early life near ...

    Plenarium

    A book of formulae and texts. Plenarium or Plenarius ( Liber ) is any book that contains ...

    Plenary Council

    A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. The word itself, derived from ...

    Plessis, Joseph-Octave

    Bishop of Quebec, born at Montreal, 3 March, 1763; died at Quebec, 4 Dec., 1822. He studied ...

    Plethon, Georgius Gemistus

    Born in Constantinople about 1355, died in the Peloponnesus, 1450. Out of veneration for Plato ...

    Plock

    (PLOCENSIS) Located in Russian Poland, suffragan of Warsaw, includes the district of Plock ...

    Plowden, Charles

    Born at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 1743; died at Jougne, Doubs, France, 13 June, 1821. He was ...

    Plowden, Edmund

    Born 1517-8; died in London, 6 Feb., 1584-5. Son of Humphrey Plowden of Plowden Hall, Shropshire, ...

    Plowden, Francis

    Son of William Plowden of Plowden Hall, b. at Shropshire, 8 June, 1749; d. at Paris, 4 Jan., ...

    Plowden, Robert

    Elder brother of Charles, born 27 January, 1740; died at Wappenbury, 27 June, 1823. He entered ...

    Plowden, Thomas

    ( Alias Salisbury). Born in Oxfordshire, England, 1594; died in London, 13 Feb., 1664; ...

    Plowden, Thomas Percy

    Born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, England, 1672; died at Watten, 21 Sept., 1745; joined the Society ...

    Plumier, Charles

    (botanical abbreviation, Plum .) A French botanist, born at Marseilles, 20 April, 1646; ...

    Plunket, Blessed Oliver

    [ Editor's Note: St. Oliver Plunkett was canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 10, 1975.] ...

    Pluscarden Priory

    Founded in 1230 by Alexander III , King of Scotland, six miles from Elgin, Morayshire, for ...

    Plymouth

    (PLYMUTHENSIS, PLYMUTHÆ) Plymouth consists of the County of Dorset, which formed a ...

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    Pn 1

    Pneumatomachi (Macedonians)

    (Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

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    Po 120

    Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament

    Since the Bible is divinely inspired, and thus becomes the "written word" of God, many devout ...

    Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco

    An Italian humanist and historian; born at Terranuova, near Arezzo, in 1380; died at Florence, ...

    Poggio Mirteto

    DIOCESE OF POGGIO MIRTETO (MANDELENSIS) Diocese in the province of Perugia, central Italy. The ...

    Pogla

    ( ta Pogla ) Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda. Pogla is mentioned only by Ptolemy, V, 5, ...

    Poitiers

    D IOCESE OF P OITIERS (P ICTAVENSIS ) The Diocese of Poitiers includes the Departments of ...

    Poland

    I. GEOGRAPHY The western part of the Sarmatian Plain together with the northern slopes of the ...

    Polding, John Bede

    Archbishop of Sydney, born at Liverpool, 18 Oct., 1794; died at Sydney, 16 March, 1877. In 1805 ...

    Pole, Blessed Margaret

    Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

    Pole, Reginald

    Cardinal, b. at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England, in March, 1500; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

    Polemonium

    Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. At the mouth of the Sidenus, ...

    Poleni, Giovanni

    Marquess, physicist, and antiquarian; b. at Venice, 23 Aug., 1683; d. at Padua, 14 Nov., 1761; ...

    Poles in the United States

    Causes of Immigration There is good foundation for the tradition that a Pole, John of Kolno (a ...

    Policastro

    DIOCESE OF POLICASTRO (POLICASTRENSIS) Diocese in the province of Salerno, Southern Italy. The ...

    Polignac, Melchior de

    Cardinal, diplomatist, and writer, b. of an ancient family of Auvergne, at Le Puy, France, 11 ...

    Polish Literature

    The subject will be divided, for convenience of treatment, into historical periods. First ...

    Politi, Lancelot

    (In religion AMBROSIUS CATHARINUS) Born at Siena, 1483; died at Naples, 1553. At sixteen he ...

    Politian

    (ANGIOLO DE 'AMBROSINI DA MONTE PULCIANO) An Italian Humanist, born at Monte Pulciano in 1454; ...

    Political Economy, Science of

    S CIENCE OF P OLITICAL E CONOMY (E CONOMICS ). I. DEFINITIONS Political economy (Greek, ...

    Pollajuolo, Antonio and Piero Benci

    Antonio and Piero Benci Pollajuolo derived their surname, according to Florentine custom, from ...

    Polo, Marco

    Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

    Polybotus

    A titular see in Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. This town is mentioned only in the ...

    Polycarp, Saint

    Martyr (A.D. 69-155). Our chief sources of information concerning St. Polycarp are: (1) the ...

    Polycarpus

    The title of a canonical collection in eight books composed in Italy by Cardinal Gregorius. It is ...

    Polyglot Bibles

    The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcalá (in Latin ...

    Polystylum

    A titular see of Macedonia Secunda, suffragan of Philippi. When Philippi was made a ...

    Polytheism

    The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. See the various articles on national ...

    Pomaria

    A titular see in Mauretania Cæsarea. It is north of Tlemcen (capital of an arrondissement ...

    Pombal, Marquis de

    S EBASTIâO J OSÉ DE C ARVALHO E M ELLO The son of a country gentleman of ...

    Pomerania

    A Prussian province on the Baltic Sea situated on both banks of the River Oder, divided into ...

    Pompeiopolis

    A titular see in Paphlagonia. The ancient name of the town is unknown; it may have been ...

    Pomponazzi, Pietro

    (POMPONATIUS, also known as PERETTO on account of his small stature) A philosopher and ...

    Ponce de León, Juan

    Explorer, born at San Servas in the province of Campos, 1460; died in Cuba, 1521. He was ...

    Ponce, John

    A philosopher and theologian, born at Cork, 1603, died at Paris, 1670. At an early age he went ...

    Poncet, Joseph Anthony de la Rivière

    Missionary; b. at Paris, 17 May, 1610; d. at Martinique, 18 June, 1675. He entered the Jesuit ...

    Pondicherry

    (PONDICHERIANA OR PUDICHERIANA) Located in India, it is bounded on the east by the Bay of ...

    Pontefract Priory

    Located in Yorkshire, England, a Cluniac monastery dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, founded ...

    Pontian, Pope Saint

    Dates of birth and death unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 145) gives Rome ...

    Pontifical Colleges

    In earlier times there existed in Europe outside of the city of Rome a large number of ...

    Pontifical Decorations

    Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other ...

    Pontifical Mass

    Pontifical Mass is the solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the ...

    Pontificale

    ( Pontificale Romanum ). A liturgical book which contains the rites for the performance ...

    Pontificalia

    (PONTIFICALS). The collective name given for convenience sake to those insignia of the ...

    Pontigny, Abbey of

    Second daughter of Cîteaux, was situated on the banks of the Serain, present Diocese of ...

    Pontius Carbonell

    Born at Barcelona, c. ú died c. 1320. Pontius and Carbonell are names frequently met with ...

    Pontius Pilate

    After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

    Pontus

    In ancient times, Pontus was the name of the north-eastern province of Asia Minor , a long ...

    Pools in Scripture

    In the English Bibles, the word "pool" stands for three Hebrew words: (1) 'agam means properly ...

    Poona

    (PUNENSIS) Diocese in India, comprises that portion of the Bombay Presidency which lies on ...

    Poor Brothers of St. Francis Seraphicus

    A congregation of lay brothers of the Third Order of St. Francis, instituted for charitable ...

    Poor Catholics

    ( Pauperes Catholici ) A religious mendicant order, organized in 1208, to reunite the ...

    Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the

    A congregation founded at Aachen in 1844 for the support and education of poor, orphan, and ...

    Poor Clares

    (POOR LADIES, SISTERS OF ST. CLARE) The Second Order of St. Francis. The subject will be treated ...

    Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ

    A community founded by Catherine Kasper, a native of Dernbach, Germany. She was born 26 May, 1820, ...

    Poor Handmaids of the Mother of God

    A religious congregation founded in 1808 by Mother Mary Magdalen Taylor in conjunction with ...

    Poor Laws

    Poor Laws are those legal enactments which have been made at various periods of the world's ...

    Poor, Care of, by the Church

    I. OBJECTS, HISTORY, AND ORGANIZATION A. The care of the poor is a branch of charity. In the ...

    Poor, Little Sisters of the

    An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded at St Servan, Brittany, 1839, through the ...

    Poor, Sisters of the, of St. Francis

    A Congregation, founded by the Venerable Mother Frances Schervier at Aachen in the year 1845, ...

    Popayán

    (POPAYANENSIS) Popayán lies approximately between 1º 20' and 3º 2' north ...

    Pope, Alexander

    Poet, son of Alexander Pope and his second wife, Edith Turner, b. in London, England, 22 May, ...

    Pope, The

    ( Ecclesiastical Latin papa from Greek papas , a variant of pappas father, in classical ...

    Popes, Chronological Lists of the

    See also POPE, LIST OF POPES, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. The historical lists ...

    Popes, Election of the

    For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

    Popes, List of

    See also POPE, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76) ...

    Poppo, Saint

    Abbot, born 977; died at Marchiennes, 25 January, 1048. He belonged to a noble family of ...

    Popular Devotions

    Devotion, in the language of ascetical writers, denotes a certain ardour of affection in the ...

    Population, Theories of

    Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

    Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture)

    A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

    Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio

    Italian painter, b. at Pordenone, 1483; d. at Ferrara, January, 1539. He is occasionally referred ...

    Pordenone, Ordric of

    A Franciscan missionary of a Czech family named Mattiussi, born at Villanova near Pordenone, ...

    Pormort, Ven. Thomas

    English martyr, b. at Hull about 1559; d. at St. Paul's Churchyard, 20 Feb., 1592. He was probably ...

    Porphyreon

    Titular see, suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima. It is described in the "Notitia Episcopatuum" ...

    Porphyrius, Saint

    Bishop of Gaza in Palestine, b. at Thessalonica about 347; d. at Gaza, 26 February, 420. ...

    Porrecta, Serafino

    Family name Capponi, called a Porrecta from the place of birth, theologian, b. 1536; d. at Bologna, ...

    Port Augusta

    (PORTAUGUSTANA) This diocese is a suffragan of Adelaide, South Australia, created in ...

    Port Louis

    (PORTUS LUDOVICI) This diocese comprises the islands of Mauritius, Rodriguez, Chagos, and ...

    Port of Spain

    (PORTUS HISPANIÆ) An archiepiscopal and metropolitan see, including the Islands of ...

    Port Victoria

    (PORTUS VICTORIÆ SEYCHELLARUM.) Port Victoria comprises the Seychelles Islands in the ...

    Port-au-Prince

    (PORTUS PRINCIPIS) This archdiocese comprises the western part of the Republic of Haiti. Its ...

    Port-Royal

    A celebrated Benedictine abbey which profoundly influenced the religious and literary life of ...

    Porta, Carlo

    Poet, b. at Milan in 1775; d. there 5 January, 1821; educated by the Jesuits at Monza and ...

    Porta, Giacomo della

    Architect and sculptor, b. at Porlizza on Lake Lugano 1541; d. 1604. He was a pupil of ...

    Portable Altar

    A portable altar consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to ...

    Portalegre

    Suffragan diocese of Lisbon, Portugal, established by Pope Julius III in 1550. Its first ...

    Porter

    (Also called DOORKEEPER. From ostiarius , Latin ostium , a door.) Porter denoted among ...

    Porter, George

    Archbishop of Bombay, b. 1825 at Exeter, England ; d. at Bombay, 28 September, 1889. Of ...

    Portiuncula

    (PORZIONCULA or PORZIUNCOLA). A town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from ...

    Portland

    Diocese in the State of Maine ; suffragan of Boston ; established by Pius IX, 8 Dec., 1854. ...

    Porto Alegre

    (PORTALEGRENSIS) Located in Eastern Brazil. Porto Alegre, the capital and chief port of the ...

    Porto Alegre

    (PORTALEGREN) Porto Alegre comprises the southern part of the State of Minas Geraes, and part ...

    Porto and Santa-Rufina

    (PORTUENSIS ET SANCTÆ RUFINÆ) This diocese was formed from the union of two ...

    Porto Rico

    (PUERTO RICO) The smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles, rectangular in shape, ...

    Portoviejo

    (PORTUS VETERIS). A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Quito, Republic of Ecuador. It was ...

    Portraits of the Apostles

    The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of ...

    Portsmouth

    (PORTUS MAGNUS, or PORTEMUTHENSIS) This diocese was created by a Brief of Leo XIII , ...

    Portugal

    I. GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Portugal is situated on the west of the Iberian ...

    Portuguese East Africa

    Portuguese East Africa consists of the Province of Mozambique. Portuguese activity on that ...

    Portuguese Literature

    The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the lingua rustica spoken in the countries ...

    Portuguese West Africa

    The name usually given to the Province of Angola. It has a coast line of 1015 miles from the ...

    Positivism

    Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. As ...

    Possenti, Blessed Gabriel

    Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

    Possession, Demonical

    ( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, EXORCIST.) Man is in various ways subject to the ...

    Possevinus, Antonius

    Theologian and papal envoy, b. at Mantua in 1533 or 1534; d. at Ferrara, 26 Feb., 1611. At ...

    Possidius, Saint

    Bishop of Calama in Numidia, author of a short life of St. Augustine and of an indiculus or ...

    Postcommunion

    The Communion act finishes the essential Eucharistic service. Justin Martyr (I Apol., lxv-lxvi) ...

    Postgate, Nicholas

    English martyr, b. at Kirkdale House, Egton, Yorkshire, in 1596 or 1597; d. at York, 7 August, ...

    Postulant

    Postulancy is a preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. ...

    Postulation

    ( Latin postulare, to request) A postulation is a petition presented to a competent ...

    Potawatomi Indians

    An important tribe of Algonquin linguistic stock, closely related dialectically to the Ojibwa ...

    Pothier, Robert Joseph

    A celebrated French lawyer, b. at Orléans, 9 January, 1699; d. there, 2 March, 1772. His ...

    Pouget, Jean-François-Albert du

    Marquis de Nadaillac, b. in 1817; d. at Rougemont, Cloyes, 1 October, 1904; the scion of an old ...

    Pounde, Thomas

    Lay brother, b. at Beaumond (or Belmony), Farlington, Hampshire, 29 May, 1538; d. there, 26 Feb., ...

    Poussin, Nicolas

    French painter, b. at Les Andelys near Rouen in 1594; d. at Rome, 19 November, 1666. His early ...

    Poverty

    I. THE MORAL DOCTRINE OF POVERTY Jesus Christ did not condemn the possession of worldly goods, or ...

    Poverty and Pauperism

    See also CARE OF THE POOR BY THE CHURCH In a legal and technical sense, pauperism denotes the ...

    Powel, Philip

    ( alias M ORGAN, alias P ROSSER ) Martyr, b. at Tralon, Brecknockshire, 2 Feb., 1594; d. ...

    Powell, Blessed Edward

    With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

    Poynter, William

    Born 20 May, 1762, at Petersfield, Hants; died 26 Nov., 1827, in London. He was educated at the ...

    Pozzo, Andreas

    (P UTEUS ) Italian painter and architect of the Baroque period, b. at Trent, 1642; d. at ...

    Pozzuoli

    (PUTEOLANA) The city of Pozzuoli in the province of Naples, southern Italy, on the gulf of ...

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    Pr 155

    Prémare, Joseph Henri Marie de

    Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare, missionary and sinologist, born at Cherbourg, 17 July, 1666; ...

    Prémontré, Abbey of

    Located about twelve miles west of Laon, Department of Aisne, France ; founded by St. Norbert. ...

    Prüm

    A former Benedictine abbey in Lorraine, now in the Diocese of Trier, founded by a Frankish ...

    Prades, Jean-Martin de

    A theologian, born about 1720 at Castelsarrasin ( Diocese of Montauban ), died in 1782 at ...

    Prado, Jerome de

    Exegete, b. at Baeza in Spain, 1547; d. at Rome, 13 Jan., 1595. He entered the Society of ...

    Praelatus Nullius

    (i.e. Dioceseos) A prelate who exercises quasi-episcopal jurisdiction in a territory not ...

    Pragmatic Sanction

    ( pragmatica sanctio , lex , jussio , also pragmatica or pragmaticum ) Pragmatic ...

    Pragmatism

    Pragmatism, as a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical ...

    Prague

    (PRAGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bohemia. From about the middle of the sixth century Slavonic ...

    Prague, University of

    The University of Prague was founded by Charles IV with the consent of the Estates on the model ...

    Praxeas

    An early anti- Montanist, is known to us only by Tertullian's book "Adversus Praxean". His name ...

    Praxedes and Pudentiana

    Martyrs of an unknown era. The seventh-century itineraries to the graves of the Roman martyrs ...

    Pray Brethren

    The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

    Pray, George

    Abbot, canon, librarian of the University library of Buda, and important Hungarian historian, b. ...

    Prayer

    (Greek euchesthai , Latin precari , French prier , to plead, to beg, to ask earnestly). ...

    Prayer of Christ, Feast of the

    This feast occurs on the Tuesday after Septuagesima (double major). Its object is to ...

    Prayer of Quiet

    The Prayer of Quiet is regarded by all writers on mystical theology as one of the degrees of ...

    Prayer, Lord's

    Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

    Prayer-Books

    By "prayer-books" usage generally understands a collection of forms of prayer intended for ...

    Prayers for the Dead

    This subject will be treated under the following three heads: I. General Statement and Proof of ...

    Preacher Apostolic

    A dignitary of the pontifical household. As a regular function, under special Regulations, this ...

    Preachers, Order of

    As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we ...

    Preadamites

    The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Strictly speaking, the expression ought to be ...

    Prebend

    The right of a member of a chapter to his share in the revenues of the cathedral ; also the ...

    Precaria

    ( Preces , prayers ). A precaria is a contract granting to a petitioner the use and ...

    Precedence

    ( Latin præcedere , to go before another). Precedence signifies the right to enjoy ...

    Precentor

    (Latin Præcentor , from præ , before- cantor singer). A word describing ...

    Precept

    ( Precept: From the Latin præceptum from præcipere , to command). Precept , ...

    Precious Blood

    The blood of our Divine Saviour. Jesus, at the Last Supper, ascribes to it the same life-giving ...

    Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the Most

    Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

    Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most

    An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions ...

    Precious Blood, Congregations of the

    I. BERNADINES OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence, founded by ...

    Precious Blood, Feast of the Most

    For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

    Precipiano, Humbert-Guillaume de, Count

    Born at Besançon, 1626; died at Brussels, 7 June, 1711. Having studied the classics at ...

    Preconization

    (Latin præconizare , to publish, from præco , herald, public crier) This word ...

    Predestinarianism

    Predestinarianism is a heresy not unfrequently met with in the course of the centuries which ...

    Predestination

    Predestination ( Latin prœ , destinare ), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine ...

    Preface

    ( Latin Præfatio ). The first part of the Eucharistic prayers ( Anaphora or Canon) in ...

    Prefect Apostolic

    ( Latin prœfectus, one put over or in charge of something) During the last few ...

    Prefecture Apostolic (Supplemental List)

    (SUPPLEMENTAL LIST) An account is here given of the prefectures Apostolic that have been ...

    Prelate

    Real Prelate, the incumbent of a prelature, i.e., of an ecclesiastical office with special and ...

    Premonstratensian Canons

    (C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

    Presbyterianism

    Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies ...

    Presbytery

    The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy was known in antiquity by various names, ...

    Prescription

    (Latin prœ , before, and scribere , to write, in later legal Latin involving the idea ...

    Prescription in Civil Jurisprudence

    Prescription "in some form and under some name" is said to have existed as a part of the municipal ...

    Presence of God

    Doctrinal All solid devotion and devotional practices must be founded upon the truths of ...

    Presence, Real

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Presentation Brothers

    In the early part of the nineteenth century when the Penal Laws were relaxed, and the ban which ...

    Presentation of Mary, Congregation of the

    This congregation, devoted to the education of young girls, was founded in 1796 at Theuyts, ...

    Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

    The Protoevangel of James, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, and ...

    Presentation, Feast of the

    Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin (Greek Hypapante ), Feast of the Presentation of ...

    Presentation, Order of the

    An Order founded at Cork, Ireland, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle (see below). In 1775 she entered with ...

    Presentation, Religious Congregations of the

    (1) Daughters of the Presentation , founded in 1627 by Nicolas Sanguin (b. 1580; d. 1653), ...

    Presentation, Right of

    Out of gratitude for the foundation or endowment of churches and benefices, the Church grants ...

    Prester John

    Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. FIRST STAGE The mythical journey to Rome of a ...

    Preston, Thomas

    ( Alias R OGER W IDDRINGTON ). Benedictine, d. in the Clink prison, 5 April, 1640. He ...

    Preston, Thomas Scott

    The Vicar-General of New York, prothonotary Apostolic, chancellor, distinguished convert, ...

    Presumption

    (Latin praesumere , "to take before", "to take for granted"). Presumption is here ...

    Presumption

    (IN CANON LAW) A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn ...

    Pretorium

    This name is derived from the Latin prætorium, in later Greek tò ...

    Pride

    Pride is the excessive love of one's own excellence. It is ordinarily accounted one of the seven ...

    Priene

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The foundation of the town of Priene dates ...

    Priest

    This word (etymologically "elder", from presbyteros , presbyter ) has taken the meaning of ...

    Priest, Assistant

    The assistant priest ( presbyter assistens , anciently called capellanus ) is the first and ...

    Priest, High

    The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

    Priesthood

    The word priest (Germ. Priester ; Fr. prêtre ; Ital. prete ) is derived from the ...

    Priestly Perseverance, Association of

    A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese. ...

    Priests' Communion League

    An association of priests established at Rome on 20 July, 1906, in the Church of San ...

    Priests' Eucharistic League

    I. Object The Priests' Eucharistic League (Confraternitas sacerdotalis adorationis Sanctissimi ...

    Priests, Confraternities of

    Three confraternities of priests -- the Apostolic Union, the Priests' Eucharistic League, ...

    Primacy

    (Latin primatus, primus , first). The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as ...

    Primadicci, James

    (Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

    Primate

    (Lat. primas, from primus, "first"). In the Western Church a primate is a bishop ...

    Prime

    I. THE NAME The name Prime ( prima hora ) belongs with those of Terce, Sext, None, to the ...

    Primer, The

    The common English name for a book of devotions which from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century ...

    Primicerius

    (Etymologically primus in cera , sc. in tabula cerata , the first in a list of a class of ...

    Primus and Felician, Saints

    Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

    Prince Albert, Diocese of

    A suffragan see of St. Boniface, Manitoba, in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Originally ...

    Prior

    A monastic superior. In the Rule of St. Benedict the term prior occurs several times, but ...

    Prioress

    (Priorissa, Praeposita). A superioress in a monastic community for women. The term prioress ...

    Priory

    A monastery whose superior is a prior. The Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Carthusians, ...

    Prisca, Saint

    She was a martyr of the Roman Church, whose dates are unknown. The name Prisca or Priscilla ...

    Priscianus

    Latin grammarian, born at Caesarea (Mauretania) , taught at Constantinople under Anastatius I ...

    Priscilla and Aquila

    ( Or Prisca.) Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome (Aquila was a native of Pontus ) in the ...

    Priscillianism

    This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic - ...

    Prisons

    I. IN ANCIENT TIMES Many jurisconsults and Scriptural interpreters include imprisonment among ...

    Prisons, Ecclesiastical

    It is plain from many decrees in the "Corpus Juris Canonici" that the Church has claimed and ...

    Privilege

    ( Latin, privilegium , like priva lex ) Privilege is a permanent concession made by a ...

    Privileged Altar

    An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic ...

    Privileges, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical privileges are exceptions to the Law made in favour of the clergy or in favour ...

    Proba, Faltonia

    A Christian poetess of the fourth century. The name Faltonia is doubtful and is apparently due ...

    Probabilism

    Probabilism is the moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the ...

    Probus, Marcus Aurelius

    Roman Emperor, 276-82, raised to the throne by the army in Syria to succeed Tacitus. Of humble ...

    Probus, Tarachus, and Andronicus, Saints

    Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

    Processional Cross

    A processional cross is simply a crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and ...

    Processional, Roman

    Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

    Processions

    Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every ...

    Processus and Martinian, Saints

    The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

    Proclus, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople. Saint Proclus died in 446 or 447. Proclus came to the fore in the ...

    Proconnesus

    (PRŒCONNESUS) A titular see in Hellespont. Proconnesus was the name of an island ...

    Procopius of Caesarea

    Byzantine historian, b. in the latter years of the fifth century at Caesarea in Palestine , d. ...

    Procter, Adelaide Anne

    Poetess and philanthropist, b. in London, England, 30 October, 1825; d. in London, 2 February, ...

    Procurator

    A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. There are ...

    Profession, Religious

    HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

    Promise, Divine

    The term promise in Holy Writ both in its nominal and verbal form embraces not only promises ...

    Promotor Fidei

    (P ROMOTER OF THE F AITH ). An official of the Roman Congregation of Rites. The office ...

    Promulgation

    ( Latin promulgare, to make known, to post in public). I. PROMULGATION IN GENERAL This is the ...

    Proof

    Proof is the establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. ...

    Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of

    The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide , whose official title is "sacra congregatio ...

    Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the

    This society is an international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of ...

    Property

    I. NOTION OF PROPERTY The proprietor or owner of a thing, in the current acceptation of the word, ...

    Property, Ecclesiastical

    Abstract Right of Ownership That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal ...

    Property, Ecclesiastical, in the United States

    The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed (tit. IX, cap. i, n. 264): "We must hold, ...

    Prophecy

    As the term is used in mystical theology , it applies both to the prophecies of canonical ...

    Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess

    I. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT A. Introduction Yahweh had forbidden Israel all kinds of oracles in ...

    Proprium

    The Proprium de tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum form in the present liturgy the two ...

    Proschko, Franz Isidor

    A well-known Austrian author, born at Hohenfurt, Bohemia, 2 April, 1816; died at Vienna, 6 ...

    Prose or Sequence

    I. DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Sequence ( Sequentia )–or, more accurately as ...

    Proselyte

    ( proselytos , stranger or newcomer; Vulgate, advena ). The English term "proselyte" ...

    Proske, Karl

    Born at Grobing in Upper Silesia, 11 Feb., 1794; died 20 Dec., 1861. He took his degree as Doctor ...

    Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro

    The first sure date in the life of Prosper is that of his letter to St. Augustine written ...

    Protasius and Gervasius, Saints

    Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

    Protector, Altar

    A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the ...

    Protectorate of Missions

    The right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an infidel country with regard to ...

    Protectories

    The institutions for the shelter and training of the young, designed to afford neglected or ...

    Protestant Episcopal Church

    The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

    Protestantism

    The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.: I. Origin of the Name. II. ...

    Prothonotary Apostolic

    A member of the highest college of prelates in the Roman Curia, and also of the honorary ...

    Protocol

    The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries, e.g., mention of the reign, ...

    Protopope

    A priest of higher rank in the Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, corresponding in ...

    Protus and Hyacinth, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

    Prout, Father

    The name by which the Rev. Francis Sylvester Mahony (O'Mahony), author of "The Bells of ...

    Provancher, Léon Abel

    Naturalist, b. 10 March, 1820, in the parish of Béconcourt, Nicolet county, Province of ...

    Proverbs, Book of

    One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the ...

    Providence, Congregations of (I)

    Founded at Paris, by Madame Polaillon (Marie de Lumague), a devout widow. In 1643 Madame ...

    Providence, Congregations of (II)

    (St. Mary-of-the-Woods) Among the teaching religious orders that originated in France at ...

    Providence, Congregations of (III)

    SISTERS OF CHARITY The Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, known also as Sisters of ...

    Providence, Congregations of (IV)

    Founded at Turin in 1834 by the Marchesa Julia Falletti de Barolo for the care of children and ...

    Providence, Congregations of (V)

    SISTERS OF THE INSTITUTE OF CHARITY An offshoot from the Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, ...

    Providence, Diocese of

    (PROVIDENTIENSIS) Co-extensive with the State of Rhode Island . When erected (17 Feb., 1872) ...

    Providence, Divine

    ( Latin, Providentia ; Greek, pronoia ). Providence in general, or foresight, is a ...

    Province, Ecclesiastical

    The name given to an ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an ...

    Provincial

    An officer acting under the superior general of a religious order, and exercising a general ...

    Provincial Council

    A deliberative assembly of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province, summoned and presided ...

    Provision, Canonical

    Canonical Provision is a term signifying regular induction into a benefice, comprising three ...

    Provisors, Statute of

    The English statute usually so designated is the 25th of Edward III, St. 4 (1350-1), otherwise ...

    Provost

    (Latin, prœpositus; French, prévôt; German, Probst ) Anciently (St. ...

    Prudence

    (Latin prudentia , contracted from providentia , seeing ahead). One of the four ...

    Prudentius

    (GALINDO) A Bishop of Troyes, born in Spain ; died at Troyes on 6 April, 861; celebrated ...

    Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens

    A Christian poet, born in the Tarraconensis, Northern Spain, 348; died probably in Spain, ...

    Prusias ad Hypium

    Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in the Honoriad. Memnon, the historian, says that Prusias ...

    Prussia

    The Kingdom of Prussia at the present time covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 ...

    Przemysl

    (PREMISLIENSIS) Latin see in Galicia, suffragan of Lemberg. After conquering Halicz and ...

    Przemysl, Sambor, and Sanok

    (PREMISLIENSIS, SAMBORIENSIS, ET SANOCHIENSIS) A Græco-Ruthenian Uniat diocese of ...

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    Ps 7

    Psalms

    The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" ( Kethubhim or Hagiographa ...

    Psalms, Alphabetic

    Alphabetic psalms are so called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, ...

    Psalterium

    The Psalterium, or Book of the Psalms, only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed ...

    Psaume, Nicholas

    (also PSAULME, PREAUME, Latin PSALMÆUS) Bishop of Verdun, born at Chaumont-sur-Aire in ...

    Psellus, Michael

    ( Michael ho Psellos ), Byzantine statesman, scholar, and author, born apparently at ...

    Psychology

    (Greek psyche, logos ; Latin psychologia; French psychologie; German Seelenkunde ) In ...

    Psychotherapy

    (from the Greek psyche , "mind", and therapeuo , "I cure") Psychotherapy is that ...

    × Close

    Pt 3

    Ptolemais

    Ptolemais, a titular see in Egypt, metropolis of Thebais Secunda. Ptolemais owes its name to ...

    Ptolemais

    (SAINT-JEAN D'ACRE) Ptolemais, a titular metropolis in Phoenicia Prima, or Maritima. The ...

    Ptolemy the Gnostic

    A heretic of the second century and personal disciple of Valentinus. He was probably still ...

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    Pu 31

    Public Authority

    Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

    Public Honesty (Decency)

    A diriment matrimonial impediment consisting in a relationship, which arises from a valid ...

    Publican

    Publican , in the Gospels, is derived from the publicanus of the Vulgate, and signifies a ...

    Pueblo Indians

    NAME From the Spanish word meaning "village" or "town". A term used collectively to designate ...

    Puget, Pierre

    A painter, sculptor, architect, and naval constructor, born at Marseilles, 31 Oct., 1622; died ...

    Pugh, George Ellis

    A jurist and statesman, born at Cincinnati, Ohio., 28 November, 1822; died there, 19 July, 1876. ...

    Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore

    Architect and archeologist, born in London, 1 March, 1812; died at Ramsgate, 14 September, 1852; ...

    Puiseux, Victor-Alexandre

    French mathematician and astronomer, b. 16 April, 1820, at Argenteuil (Seine-et-Oise); d. 9 ...

    Pulaski, Casimir

    Patriot and soldier, b. at Winiary, Poland, 4 March, 1748; d. on the Wasp, in the harbour of ...

    Pulati

    (The Diocese of Pulati: Pulatensis or Polatinensis ). The ancient Pulati in Albania no ...

    Pulcheria, Saint

    Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire, eldest daughter of the Emperor Arcadius, b. 19 Jan., 399; d. ...

    Pulci, Luigi

    An Italian poet, born at Florence, 15 Aug., 1432; died at Padua in 1484. The Pulci gave many ...

    Pullen, Robert

    (POLENIUS, PULLAN, PULLEIN, PULLENUS, PULLY, LA POULE) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Died 1147 (?). ...

    Pullus, Robert

    (PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

    Pulpit

    ( Latin pulpitum , a stage or scaffold) An elevated stand to preach on. To elucidate the ...

    Punishment, Capital

    The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The ...

    Puno

    DIOCESE OF PUNO (PUNIENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima in Peru. Its jurisdiction ...

    Purcell, John Baptist

    Archbishop of Cincinnati, born at Mallow, Ireland, 26 Feb., 1800; died at the convent of the ...

    Purgative Way

    The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

    Purgatorial Societies

    Pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to ...

    Purgatory

    The subject is treated under these heads: I. Catholic Doctrine II. Errors III. Proofs IV. Duration ...

    Purgatory, St. Patrick's

    Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

    Purim

    (P HURIM ). The origin of the name is disputed: some derive it from the Persian pure ...

    Puritans

    One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is ...

    Pusey and Puseyism

    Edward Bouverie Pusey, born at Pusey House, Berkshire, 22 Aug., 1800; died at Ascot Priory, ...

    Pustet

    The name of a family of well-known Catholic publishers. The original home of the Pustets was ...

    Putative Marriage

    Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

    Puteanus, Erycius

    (ERRIJCK DE PUT) Born at Venloo, in Dutch Limbourg, 4 Nov., 1574; died at Louvain, 17 Sept., ...

    Putzer, Joseph

    Theologian and canonist, b. at Rodaneck, Tyrol, 4 March, 1836; d. at Ilchester, Md., 15 May, ...

    Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre

    French painter, b. at Lyons, 14 Dec., 1824; d. at Paris, 24 Oct., 1898. Through his father ...

    Puyallup Indians

    An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly holding the territory along the river of ...

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    Py 4

    Pyrker, Johann Ladislaus von Oberwart

    (FELSÖ-EÖR) He was born at Langh near Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, 2 Nov., 1772; died ...

    Pyrrhonism

    Pyrrhonism is a system of scepticism, the founder of which was Pyrrho, a Greek philosopher, ...

    Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism

    Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician and founder of the Pythagorean school, ...

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