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Roman Catholic Relief Bill

IN ENGLAND

With the accession of Queen Elizabeth (1558) commenced the series of legislative enactments, commonly known as the Penal Laws , under which the profession and practice of the Catholic religion were subjected to severe penalties and disabilities. By laws passed in the reign of Elizabeth herself, any English subject receiving Holy Orders of the Church of Rome and coming to England was guilty of high treason, and any one who aided or sheltered him was guilty of capital felony. It was likewise made treason to be reconciled to the Church of Rome, and to procure others to be reconciled. Papists were totally disabled from giving their children any education in their own religion. Should they educate them at home under a schoolmaster who did not attend the parish church, and was not licenced by the bishop of the diocese, the parents were liable to forfeit ten pounds a month, and the schoolmaster himself forty shillings a day. Should the children be sent to Catholic seminaries beyond the seas, their parents were liable to forfeit one hundred pounds, and the children themselves were disabled from inheriting, purchasing, or enjoying any species of property. Saying Mass was punished by a forfeiture of 200 marks; hearing it by one of 100 marks. The statutes of recusancy punished nonconformity with the Established Church by a fine of twenty pounds per lunar month during which the parish church was not attended, there being thirteen of such months in the year. Such non-attendances constituted recusancy in the proper sense of the term, and originally affected all, whether Catholics, or others, who did not conform. In 1593 by 35 Eliz. c. 2, the consequences of such non-conformity were limited to Popish recusants. A Papist, convicted of absenting himself from church, became a Popish recusant convict, and besides the monthly fine of twenty pounds, was disabled from holding any office or employment, from keeping arms in his house, from maintaining actions or suits at law or in equity, from being an executor or a guardian, from presenting to an advowson, from practising the law or physic, and from holding office civil or military. He was likewise subject to the penalties attaching to excommunication, was not permitted to travel five miles from his house without licence, under pain of forfeiting all his goods, and might not come to Court under a penalty of one hundred pounds. Other provisions extended similar penalties to married women. Popish recusants convict were, within three months of conviction, either to submit and renounce their papistry, or, if required by four justices, to abjure the realm. If they did not depart, or returned without licence, they were guilty of a capital felony. At the outset of Elizabeth's reign, an oath of supremacy containing a denial of the pope's spiritual jurisdiction, which therefore could not be taken by Catholics, was imposed on all officials, civil and ecclesiastical. The "Oath of allegiance and obedience" enacted under James I, in 1605, in consequence of the excitement of the Gunpowder Plot, confirmed the same. By the Corporation Act of 1661, no one could legally be elected to any municipal office unless he had within the year received the Sacrament according to the rite of the Church of England, and likewise, taken the Oath of Supremacy. The first provision excluded all non-conformists; the second Catholics only. The Test Act (1672) imposed on all officers, civil and military, a "Declaration against Transubstantiation ", whereby Catholics were debarred from such employment. In 1677 it was enacted that all members of either House of Parliament should, before taking their seats, make a "Declaration against Popery", denouncing Transubstantiation, the Mass and the invocation of saints, as idolatrous.

With the Resolution of 1688 came a new crop of penal laws, less atrocious in character than those of previous times, but on that very account more likely to be enforced, and so to become effective, the sanguinary penalties of the sixteenth century, having in great measure defeated their own end, and being now generally left on the statute book in terrorem. In 1689 (1 William and Mary, i, c. 9) a shorter form of the Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy was substituted, the clause aimed against Catholics being carefully retained. It was likewise ordered that all Papists and reputed Papists should be "amoved" ten miles from the cities of London and Westminster. In 1700 (11 and 12 William III, c. 4.) a reward of one hundred pounds was promised to anyone who should give information leading to the conviction of a Popish priest or bishop, who was made punishable by imprisonment for life. Moreover, any Papist who within six months of attaining the age of eighteen failed to take the Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy and subscribe to the Declaration against Popery, was disabled in respect to himself (but not of his heirs or posterity) from acquiring or holding land, and until he submitted, his next of kin who was a Protestant might enjoy his lands, without being obliged to account for the profits. The recusant was also incapable of purchasing, and all trusts on his behalf were void. In 1714 (George I, c. 13) a new element was introduced, namely Constructive Recusancy. The Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy might be tendered to any suspected person by any two Justices of the Peace, and persons refusing it were to be adjudged Popish recusants convict and to forfeit, and be proceeded against accordingly. Thus the refusal of the Oath was placed on the same footing as a legal conviction, and the person so convicted was rendered liable to all penalties under those statutes. At the same time an obligation was imposed on Catholics requiring them to register their names and estates, and to enroll their deeds and wills.

These penal laws remained on the statute book unmitigated till late in the eighteenth century, and although there was less and less disposition to put them in force, there was ever the danger, which upon occasion grew more acute. In 1767 a priest named Malony was tried at Croydon for his priesthood, and condemned to perpetual imprisonment, which, at the end of two or three years, was commuted, "by the mercy of the Government" to banishment. In 1768 the Reverend James Webb was tried in the Court of King's Bench for saying Mass but was acquitted, the Chief Justice, Lord Mansfield, ruling that there was no evidence sufficient to convict. In 1769 and on other occasions, seemingly as late as 1771, Dr. James Talbot, coadjutor to Bishop Challoner, was tried for his life at the Old Bailey, on the charge of his priesthood and of saying Mass, but was acquitted on similar grounds. Such instances were not solitary. In 1870, Mr. Charles Butler found that one firm of lawyers had defended more than twenty priests under prosecutions of this nature. In 1778 a Catholic committee was formed to promote the cause of relief for their co-religionists, and though several times elected afresh, continued to exist until 1791, with a short interval after the Gordon Riots . It was always uniformly aristocratic in composition, and until 1787 included no representation of the hierarchy and then but three co-opted members. In the same year, 1778, was passed the first Act for Catholic Relief (18 George III c. 60). By this, an oath was imposed, which besides a declaration of loyalty to the reigning sovereign, contained an abjuration of the Pretender, and of certain doctrines attributed to Catholics, as that excommunicated princes may lawfully be murdered, that no faith should be kept with heretics, and that the pope has temporal as well as spiritual jurisdiction in this realm. Those taking this oath were exempted from some of the most galling provisions of the Act of William III passed in 1700. The section as to taking and prosecuting priests were repealed, as also the penalty of perpetual imprisonment for keeping a school. Catholics were also enabled to inherit and purchase land, nor was a Protestant heir any longer empowered to enter and enjoy the estate of his Catholic kinsman. The passing of this act was the occasion of the Gordon Riots (1780) in which the violence of the mob was especially directed against Lord Mansfield who had balked various prosecutions under the statutes now repealed.

In 1791 there followed another Act (31 George III, c. 32) far more extensive and far-reaching. By it there was again an oath to be taken, in character much like that of 1778, but including an engagement to support the Protestant Succession under the Act of Settlement (12 and 13 William III). No Catholic taking the oath was henceforward to be prosecuted for being a Papist, or for being educated in the Popish religion, or for hearing Mass or saying it, or for being a priest or deacon or for entering into, or belonging to, any ecclesiastical order or community in the Church of Rome, or for assisting at, or performing any Catholic rites or ceremonies. Catholics were no longer to be summoned to take the Oath of Supremacy, or to be removed from London ; the legislation of George I, requiring them to register their estates and wills, was absolutely repealed; while the professions of counsellor and barrister at law, attorney, solicitor, and notary were opened to them. It was however provided that all their assemblies for religious worship should be certified at Quarter Sessions; that no person should officiate at such assembly until his name had been recorded by the Clerk of the Peace: that no such place of assembly should be locked or barred during the meeting; and that the building in which it was held, should not have a steeple or bell. The Relief Act of 1791 undoubtedly marked a great step in the removal of Catholic grievances, but the English statesmen felt, along with the Catholic body, that much more was required. Pitt and his rival, Fox, were alike pledged to a full measure of Catholic Emancipation, but they were both thwarted by the obstinacy of King George III, who insisted that to agree to any such measure would be a violation of his coronation oath. There were also at this period considerable dissensions within the Catholic ranks. These concerned first the question of Veto on the appointment of bishops in Ireland, which it was proposed to confer on the English Government, and belongs chiefly to the history of Emancipation in that country. There was another cause of dissension, more properly English, which was connected with the adjuration of the supposed Catholic doctrines contained in the oath imposed upon those who wished to participate in the benefits conferred by the Act of 1791, as previously by that of 1778. The lay members of the Catholic committee who had framed this disclaimer were accused by the vicars Apostolic, who then administered the Church in England, of tampering with matters of ecclesiastical discipline ; and although the bishops had their way in the matter of the oath, the feud survived, and was proclaimed to the world by the formation in 1792 of the Cisalpine Club, the members whereof were pledged "to resist any ecclesiastical interference which may militate against the freedom of English Catholics ".

Such internal dissension, no doubt, did much to retard the course of Emancipation. Its final triumph was due more than aught else to the pressure which the Catholic body in Ireland was able to put upon the Government, for it was acknowledged by the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel themselves, who carried the Bill, that their action was due to the necessity of pacifying Ireland which had found so powerful a leader in Daniel O'Connell, and of thus averting the danger of a civil war. It would take too much space to go into details regarding the provisions of the Act of Emancipation. Its general effect was to open public life to Catholics taking the prescribed oath, to enable them to sit in Parliament, to vote at elections (as previously they could not in England or Scotland, though they could in Ireland ) to fill all offices of State with a few exceptions, viz.: A Catholic cannot succeed to the throne, and a sovereign becoming a Catholic or marrying one, thereby forfeits the crown, and a Catholic cannot hold the office of Regent. It is uncertain whether the English Chancellorship and the Irish Viceroyalty are barred to Catholics or not. Like the previous Relief Acts, that of 1829 still retained the "Roman Catholic Oath ", to be imposed upon those who desire to enjoy its benefits. it likewise added something in the way of penal legislation by a clause prohibiting religious orders of men to receive new members, and subjecting those who should disobey to banishment as misdemeanants. This prohibition is still upon the statute book, and within the present century an attempt has been made to give it effect. Finally, in 1871 (34 and 35 Victoria, c. 48) the invidious Roman Catholic Oath was abolished, as also the still more objectionable declaration against Transubstantiation.

IN IRELAND

When Elizabeth became Queen of England, her Irish deputy was ordered "to set up the worship of God in Ireland as it is in England ". The Irish Parliament soon enacted that all candidates for office should take the Oath of Supremacy; and by the Act of Uniformity the Protestant liturgy was prescribed in all churches. For a time, however, these Acts were but mildly enforced. But when the pope excommunicated the queen, and the Spanish king made war on her, and both in attempting to dethrone here found that the Irish Catholics were ready to be instruments and allies, the latter, regarded as rebels and traitors by the English sovereign and her ministers, were persecuted and hunted down. Their chiefs were outlawed, their churches laid in ruins, their clergy driven to exile or death. The expectations of a harassed people and an outlawed creed -- that better times had come with the advent of the Stuarts -- were falsified by the repeated proclamations against priests, by the Plantation of Ulster, and, later, by the attempted confiscations of Strafford. Charles II had special reasons for being grateful to large masses of Irish, who fought his battles at home and supported him abroad; yet at the Restoration he left them to their fate, and confirmed the gigantic scheme of confiscation which had been carried out by Cromwell. He was not indeed much attached to any religion, and disliked religious persecution ; and more than once during his reign he tried to interpose between the Catholics and the Acts of Uniformity and Supremacy. But the militant and aggressive Protestantism of the English Parliament would have no Catholic in any office, civil or military, and none in the corporations ; and Charles was too politic to strain unduly the allegiance of these intolerant legislators. Had James II been equally politic he would have gradually allayed Protestant prejudice; and perhaps there would have been no long-drawn-out penal code, and no wearisome struggle for emancipation. But he insisted on Catholic predominance and soon picked a quarrel with his Protestant subjects which resulted in the loss of his crown.

The war which followed in Ireland was terminated by the Treaty of Limerick, and had its terms been kept, the position of the Catholics would have been at least tolerable. Granted such privileges as they had enjoyed in the reign of Charles II, with an Oath of Allegiance substituted for the Oath of Supremacy, and with a promise of a further relaxation of the penal enactments in force, they could practice their religion without hindrance, sit in Parliament and vote for its members, engage in trade and in the learned professions, and fill all civil and military offices; and they were protected in the possession of the lands they held. William III, whose name has been made a rallying-cry for bigotry, was in favour of these, and even more generous terms. But the forces of intolerance on both sides of the Channel were too strong. A small minority of Protestants in Ireland, pampered by privileges and possessing confiscated lands, thought that their only chance of security was to trample upon the Catholic majority surrounding them. Sustained and encouraged by England, in defiance of the solemn obligations of public faith, they tore the Treaty of Limerick into tatters, refused to ratify its concessions, and elaborated a penal code which every fair-minded Englishman now blushes to recall. For more than a quarter of a century the work of outlawry and proscription was continued by an exclusively Protestant Parliament at Dublin ; and when the work was completed the position of the vast majority of Irishmen was that of slaves. An Irish Judge declared in 1760 that the law did not recognize the existence of an Irish Catholic, and, assuredly the penal code had placed him effectually beyond its pale. It branded Catholics with proscription and inferiority, struck at every form of Catholic activity, and checked every symptom of Catholic enterprise. It excluded them from Parliament, from the corporations, from the learned professions, from civil and military offices, from being executors, or administrators, or guardians of property, from holding land under lease, or from owning a horse worth 5. They were deprived of arms and of the franchise, denied education at home and punished if they sought it abroad, forbidden to observe Catholic Holy Days, to make pilgrimages, or to continue to use the old monasteries as the burial places of their dead. For the clergy there was no mercy, nothing but prison, exile, or death.

After the Catholics had vainly protested against the Bill "To Prevent the Further Growth of Popery" of 1704, their protests ceased. The more energetic of them went abroad; those at home were torpid and inert, the peasantry steeped in poverty and ignorance, the clergy and gentry sunk in servitude and all of them afraid even to complain of their condition lest the anger of their tyrants might be provoked. At last the tide turned. The Irish Parliament became less bigoted, and after 1750 or thereabouts no more penal laws were passed. Indeed the work of crushing and debasing the Catholics had been so well done that they were paupers and slaves, and to crush them still further would give the Protestants no additional security. Some Catholics had made money in trade and lent it to needy Protestant landlords and these and their friends in Parliament would naturally favour toleration ; the fact that the Catholics had so long been peaceable, and had given no support to the Pretenders showed that they no longer clung to the Stuarts; and this greatly strengthened their position both in England and Ireland. The growth of a strong sentiment of nationality among Irish Protestants also helped their cause. Claiming powers which it did not possess, the British Parliament asserted and exercised the right to legislate for Ireland, treated the Irish Parliament with disdain, and in the interests of English manufacturers imposed ruinous commercial restrictions on Irish trade, Dissatisfied with their English friends, the Irish Protestants turned to their own Catholic countrymen, and the more Catholics and Protestants came together, the better for the cause of religious toleration. This turn of affairs inspired the Catholics with hope and courage, and three of them, Dr. Curry, a Dublin physician, Mr. Wyse of Waterford, and Mr. Charles O'Connor, formed, in 1759, a Catholic Association, which was to meet at Dublin, correspond with representative Catholics in the country, and watch over Catholic interests. But such was the spiritless condition of the Catholics that the gentry and clergy held aloof, and the new association was chiefly manned by Dublin merchants. Under its auspices a loyal address was presented to the viceroy, and another to George III on his accession to the throne, and the Catholics rejoiced that both addresses were graciously received.

These friendlier dispositions, however, were slow to develop into legislative enactments, and not until 1771 did the first instalment of emancipation come. By the Act of that year Catholics were allowed to reclaim and hold under lease for sixty-one years fifty acres of bog but it should not be within a mile of any city or market town. Three years later an oath of allegiance was substituted for that of supremacy. A further concession was granted in 1778 when Catholics were allowed to hold leases of land for 999 years, and might inherit land in the same way as Protestants, the preamble of the Act declaring that the law was passed to reward Catholics for their long-continued peaceable behaviour, and for the purpose of allowing them to enjoy "the blessings of our free constitution". Distrust of them, however, continued, and though they subscribed money to equip the volunteers, they would not be admitted within the ranks. Nor was the Irish Parliament of 1782 willing to do more than to repeal the law compelling bishops to quit the kingdom, and the law binding those who had assisted at Mass to give the celebrant's name. Further, Catholics were no longer prohibited from owning a horse worth 5, and Catholic schools might be opened with the consent of the Protestant bishop of the diocese. These small concessions were not supplemented by others for ten years.

Dissensions and jealousies were largely responsible for this slow progress. Between the Catholic landed sentry and the Catholic merchants there was little in common except their religion. The timidity and submission to authority of the former, and the bolder and freer spirit of the latter were difficult to blend, and in 1763 the Catholic Association fell to pieces. After ten years of inactivity a Catholic committee was formed partly out of the debris of the defunct association. Its chairman was the Earl of Kenmare, and again it was sought to have all Catholics act together. But Kenmare was not the man to reconcile divergent views and methods, to form a homogeneous party out of discordant elements, and then with such a party to adopt a vigorous policy. His manner was cold his tone one of patronage and superiority; he disliked agitation as savouring of vulgarity and sedition, and preferred to seek redress by submissive petitions, slavish protestations of loyalty, and secret intrigue; and when an overwhelming majority of the Catholic Committee favoured manlier measures, he and sixty-eight others who sympathized with him seceded from its ranks. This was in 1791. The committee then chose for its leader John Keogh, a Dublin merchant of great ability, strong manly, fearless, prudent but firm, a man who favoured bolder measures and a decisive tone. Instead of begging for small concessions he demanded the repeal of the whole penal code, a demand considered so extravagant that it had few friends in Parliament. When that assembly was made independent it had not been reformed; and Grattan had foolishly allowed the volunteers to lay aside their swords before the battle of reform had been won.

Unrepresentative and corrupt, Parliament continued to be dominated by pensioners and placemen, and under the influence of Fitzgibbon and Foster, two Irishmen and two bigots, it refused to advance further on the path of concession. Even Charlemont and flood would not join emancipation with parliamentary reform, and while willing to safeguard Catholic liberty and property would give Catholics no political power. But this attitude of intolerance and exclusion could not be indefinitely maintained. The French Revolution was in progress, and a young and powerful republic had arisen preaching the rights of man, the iniquity of class distinctions and religious persecution, and proclaiming its readiness to aid all nations who were oppressed and desired to be free. These attractive doctrines rapidly seized on men's minds, and Ireland did not escape the contagion. The Ulster Presbyterians celebrated with enthusiasm the fall of the Bastille, and in 1791 founded the Society of United Irishmen, having as the two chief planks in its programme Parliamentary reform and Catholic Emancipation. The Catholics and Dissenters, so long divided by religious antagonism, were coming together, and if they made a united demand for equal rights for all Irishmen, without distinction of creed, the ascendency of the Episcopalian Protestants, who were but a tenth of the population, must necessarily disappear. Yet the selfish and corrupt junta who ruled the Parliament, and ruled Ireland, would not yield an inch of ground, and only under the strongest pressure from England was an act passed in 1792 admitting Catholics to the Bar, legalizing marriages between Catholics and Protestants, and allowing Catholic schools to be set up without the necessity of obtaining the permission of a Protestant bishop.

Such grudging concessions irritated rather than appeased in the existing temper of the Catholic body. To consider their position and take measures for the future the Catholic Committee had delegates appointed by the different parishes in Ireland, and in December, 1792, a Catholic convention commenced its sittings in Dublin. By the Protestant bigots it was derisively called the Back Lane Parliament, and every effort was made to discredit its proceedings and identify it with sedition. Fitzgibbon excited the fears of the Protestant landlords by declaring that the repeal of the penal code would involve the repeal of the Act of Settlement, and invalidate the titles by which they held their lands. The Catholic convention, however, went on unheeding, and turning with contempt from the Dublin Parliament sent delegates with a petition to London. The relations between Catholics and Dissenters were then so friendly that Keogh became a United Irishman, and a Protestant barrister named Theobald Wolfe Tone, the ablest of the United Irishmen, became secretary to the Catholic Committee. And when the Catholic delegates on their way to London passed through Belfast, their carriage was drawn through the streets by Presbyterians amid thunders of applause. Had the Prime Minister, Pitt, advised the king to receive the Catholics coldly, he would certainly have earned the goodwill of a small clique in Ireland, to whom their own interests were everything and the interests of England little. But he would have intensified disaffection among nine-tenths of the Irish people and this at a time when the French had beheaded their king, hurled back the Prussian attack at Valmy, conquered Belgium, and, maddened with enthusiasm for liberty and with hatred of monarchy, were about to declare war on England. The king graciously received the Catholics, and Pitt and Dundas, the Home Secretary, warned the Irish junta that the time for concessions had come, and that if rebellion broke out in Ireland, Protestant ascendency would not be supported by British arms. And then these Protestants, whom Fitzgibbon and the viceroy painted as ready to die rather than yield quietly, gave way; and in 1793 a bill was passed giving the Catholics the parliamentary and municipal franchise, and admitting them to the university and to office. They were still excluded from Parliament and from the higher offices, and from being king's counsel, but in all other respects they were placed on a level with Protestants. In the Commons Foster spoke and voted against the Bill. In the Lords, though not opposing it, Fitzgibbon spoiled the effect of the concession by a bitter speech, and by having an Act passed declaring the Catholic convention illegal, and prohibiting all such conventions, Catholic or otherwise, in the future.

Relief from so many disabilities left the Catholics almost free. Few of them were affected by exclusion from the higher offices, fewer still by exclusion from the inner Bar; and Liberal Protestants would always be found ready to voice Catholic interests in Parliament if they owed their seats to Catholic votes. Besides, in the better temper of the times, it was certain that these last relics of the penal code would soon disappear. Meantime what was needed was a sympathetic and impartial administration of the law. But with Fitzgibbon the guiding spirit of Irish government this was impossible. The grandson of a Catholic peasant, he hated Catholics and seized upon every occasion to cover them and their religion with insults. Autocratic and overbearing, he commanded rather than persuaded, and since he became attorney-general in 1783, his influence in Irish government was immense. His action on the regency question in 1789 procured him the special favour of the king and of Pitt, and he became a peer and Lord Chancellor. It was one of the anomalies of the Irish constitution that a change of measures did not involve a change of men, and hence the viceroy and the chief secretary, who had opposed all concessions to Catholics, were retained in office, and Fitzgibbon was still left as if to prevent further concessions and to nullify what had been done.

For a brief period, however, it seemed as if men as well as measures were to be changed. At the end of 1794 a section of the English Whigs joined Pitt's administration. The Duke of Portland became Home Secretary, with Irish affairs in his department, and Earl Fitzwilliam became Lord Lieutenant. He came to Ireland early in 1795. His sympathy with the Catholics was well known; he was the friend of Grattan and the Ponsonbys the champions of Emancipation, and in coming to Ireland he believed he had the full sanction of Pitt to popularize Irish Government and finally settle the Catholic question. At once he dismissed Cooke, the Under Secretary, a determined foe of concession and reform and also John Beresford who, with his relatives filled so many offices that he was called the "King" of Ireland. Fitzgibbon and Foster he seldom consulted. Further, when Grattan at the opening of Parliament introduced an Emancipation Bill, Fitzwilliam determined to support it. Of all that he did or intended to do he informed the English Ministry, and got no word of protest in reply, and then when the hopes of the Catholics ran high, Pitt turned back and Fitzwilliam was recalled. Why he was thus repudiated, after being allowed to go so far, has never been satisfactorily explained. It may be because Pitt changed his mind, and meditating a union wished to leave the Catholic question open. It may be because of the dismissal of Beresford who had powerful friends. It may be that Fitzwiiliam, misunderstanding Pitt, went further than he wished him to go; and it seems evident that he managed the question badly and irritated interests he ought to have appeased. Lastly, it is certain that Fitzgibbon poisoned the king's mind by pointing out that to admit Catholics to Parliament would be to violate his coronation oath.

However the change be explained, it was certainly complete. The new viceroy was instructed to conciliate the Catholic clergy by establishing a seminary for the education of Irish priests, and he established Maynooth College. But all further concessions to Catholics and every attempt to reform Parliament he was firmly to oppose. He was to encourage the enemies of the people and frown upon their friends, and he was to rekindle the dying fires of sectarian hate. And all this he did. Beresford and Cooke were restored to office, Foster favoured more than ever, Fitzgibbon made Earl of Clare, Grattan and Ponsonby regarded with suspicion, and the corrupt majority in Parliament petted and caressed. The religious factions of the "Defenders" and the "Peep o' Day Boys" in Ulster became embittered with a change of names. The Defenders became United Irishmen, and these, despairing of Parliament, became republicans and revolutionists, and after Fitzwilliam's recall were largely recruited by Catholics. Their opponents became identified with the Orange society recently formed in Ulster, with William of Orange as its patron saint, and intolerance of Catholicism as the chief article in its creed. These rival societies spread to the other provinces, and while every outrage done by Catholics was punished by Government, those done by Orangemen were condoned. In rapid succession Parliament passed an Arms Act, an Insurrection Act, an Indemnity Act, and a suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, and these placed the Catholics beyond the protection of law. An undisciplined soldiery recruited from the Orangemen were let loose among them; destruction of Catholic property, free quarters, flogging, picketing, half-hanging, outrages on women followed, until at last Catholic patience was exhausted. Grattan and his friends, vainly protesting, withdrew from Parliament, and Clare and Foster had then a free hand. They were joined by Viscount Castlereagh, and under their management the rebellion of 1798 broke out with all its attendant horrors.

When it was suppressed Pitt's policy of a legislative union gradually unfolded itself, and Foster and Clare, who had so long acted together, had reached the parting of the ways. The latter, with Castlereagh, was ready to go on and support the proposed union; but Foster drew back, and in the union debates his voice and influence were the most potent on the opposition side. His defection was considered a serious blow by Pitt, who vainly offered him offices and honours. Others followed the lead of Foster, incorruptible amidst corruption; Grattan and his friends returned to Parliament; and the opposition became so formidable that Castlereagh was defeated in 1799, and had to postpone the question of a union to the following year. During this interval, with the aid of Cornwallis who succeeded Camden as viceroy in 1798, he left nothing undone to ensure success, and threats and terrors, bribery and corruption were freely employed. Cornwallis was strongly in favour of emancipation as part of the union arrangement, and Castlereagh was not averse; and Pitt would probably have agreed with them had not Clare visited him in England and poisoned his mind. That bitter anti-Catholic boasted of his success; and when Pitt in 1799 brought forward his union resolutions in the British Parliament, he would only promise that at some future time something might be done for the Catholics, dependent, however on their good conduct, and on the temper of the times.

But something more than this was required. The anti-Unionists were making overtures to the Catholics, knowing that the county members elected by Catholic votes could be decisively influenced by Catholic voters. In these circumstances Castlereagh was authorized to assure the leading Irish Catholics that Pitt and his colleagues only waited for a favourable opportunity to bring forward emancipation, but that this should remain a secret lest Protestant prejudice be excited and Protestant support lost. These assurances obtained Catholic support for the union. Not all of the Catholics, however, favoured it, and many of them opposed it to the last. Many more would have been on the same side had they not been repelled by the bigotry of Foster, who stubbornly refused to advocate emancipation, and in doing so failed to make the fight against the union a national struggle. As for the uneducated Catholics, they did not understand political questions, and viewed the union contest with indifference. The gentry had no sympathy with a Parliament from which they were excluded, nor the clergy for one which encouraged the atrocities of the recent rebellion. Gratitude for the establishment of Maynooth College inclined some of the bishops to support the Government; and Pitt's assurances that concessions would come in the United Parliament inclined them still more. From the first, indeed, Dr. Moylan, Bishop of Cork, was a Unionist, as was Dr. Troy, Archbishop of Dublin. In 1798 the latter favoured a union provided there was no clause against future emancipation, and, early in the following year, he induced nine of his brother bishops to concede to the Government a veto on episcopal appointments in return for a provision for the clergy. The bent of his mind was to support authority, even when authority and tyranny were identified, and through the terrible weeks of the rebellion his friendly relations with Dublin Castle were unbroken. He was foremost in every negotiation between the Government and the Catholics, and he and some of his colleagues went so far in advocating the union, that Grattan angrily described them as a "band of prostituted men engaged in the service of Government". This language is unduly severe, for they were clearly not actuated by mercenary motives; but they certainly advanced the cause of the union.

Remembering this, and the assurances given by Castlereagh, they looked for an early measure of emancipation, and when in 1801 the United Parliament first opened its doors, their hopes ran high. The omission of all reference to emancipation in the King's Speech disappointed them; but when Pitt resigned and was succeeded by Addington, an aggressive anti-Catholic, they saw that they had been shamefully betrayed. In Parliament Pitt explained that he and his colleagues wished to supplement the Act of Union by concessions to the Catholics, and that, having encountered insurmountable obstacles they resigned, feeling that they could no longer hold office consistently with their duty and their honour. Cornwallis, on his own behalf and on behalf of the retiring ministers, assured the Irish Catholic leaders, and in language which was free from every shade of ambiguity, that the blame rested with George III, whose stubborn bigotry nothing could overcome. He promised that Pitt would do everything to establish the Catholic cause in public favour, and would never again take office unless emancipation were conceded; and he advised the Catholics to be patient and loyal, knowing that with Pitt working on their behalf the triumph of their cause was near. Cornwallis noted with satisfaction that this advice was well received by Dr. Troy and his friends. But those who knew Pitt better had no faith in his sincerity, and their estimate of him was proved to be correct, when he again became Prime Minister in 1804, no longer the friend of the Catholics but their opponent.

The fact was that he had played them false throughout. He knew that the king was violently opposed to them; that he had assented to the Union in the hope that it would "shut the door to any further measures with respect to the Roman Catholics " that he believed that to assent to such measures would be a violation of his coronation oath. Had Pitt been sincere he would have endeavoured to change the king's views, and failing to persuade he would have resigned office, and opposed his successor. And if he had acted thus the king must have yielded, for no government to which the great minister was opposed could have lived. Pitt's real reason for resigning in 1801 was, that the nation wanted peace, and he was too proud to make terms with Napoleon. He supported Addington's measures; nor did he lift a finger on behalf of the Catholics ; and when the Treaty of Amiens was broken and the great struggle with France was being renewed, he brushed Addington aside with disdain. In 1801 the king had one of his fits of insanity, and when he recovered complained that Pitt's agitation of the Catholic question was the chief cause of his illness; in consequence of which, when Pitt returned to power, in 1804, he bound himself never again to agitate the question during the lifetime of the king.

In the meantime, one bitter enemy of the Catholics disappeared, in 1802, with the death of Lord Clare. Hating Ireland and Catholicism to the last, he strove in the British House of Lords to arouse anti-Irish prejudice by representing Ireland as filled with disaffection and hatred of England ; he defended all the Government atrocities of 1798, and advocated for Ireland perpetual martial law. Once he had declared that he would have the Irish as tame as cats; and a Dublin mob retorted by groaning and hooting before his house as he lay dying, by creating disorder at his funeral, and at the graveside they poured a shower of dead cats upon his coffin. Pitt himself died in 1806, after having opposed the Catholic claims in the preceding year. A brief period of hope supervened when the "Ministry of all the Talents" took office; but hope was soon dissipated by the death of Fox, and by the dismissal of Grenville and his colleagues. They had brought into Parliament a bill assimilating the English law to the Irish by allowing Catholics in England to get commissions in the army. But the king not only insisted on having the measure dropped, but also that ministers should pledge themselves against all such concessions in the future; and when they indignantly refused he dismissed them. The Duke of Portland then became premier, with Mr. Perceval leader in the Commons; and the ministry going to the country in 1807 on a No Popery cry, were returned with an enormous majority.

Grattan was then in Parliament. He had entered it in 1805 with reluctance, partly at the request of Lord Fitzwilliam, chiefly in the hope of being able to serve the Catholics. He supported the petition presented by Fox; he presented Catholic petitions himself in 1808 and 1810; and he supported Parnell's motion for a commutation of tithes ; but each time he was defeated, and it was plain that the Catholic cause was not advancing. The Catholic Committee, broken up by the rebellion, had been revived in 1805. But its members were few, its meetings irregularly held, its spirit one of diffidence and fear, its activity confined to preparing petitions to Parliament. Nor were its leaders the stamp of men to conduct a popular movement to success. Keogh was old, and age and the memory of the events he had passed through chilled his enthusiasm for active work. Lord Fingall was suave and conciliatory, and not without courage, but was unable to grapple with great difficulties and powerful opponents. Lords Gormanston and Trimbleston were out of touch with the people; Lord French, Mr. Hussey, and Mr. Clinch were men of little ability; Mr. Scully was a clever lawyer who had written a book on the penal laws ; and Dr. Dromgool

More Volume: R 452

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Râle, Sebastian

Missionary, martyr, b. at Pontarlier, Diocese of Besançoison, 20 Jan., 1654 (?); shot by ...

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1

Räss, Andreas

Bishop of Strasburg, b. at Sigolsheim in upper Alsace, 6 April, 1794; d. at Strasburg, 17 ...

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Régis, Jean-Baptiste

Born at Istres, Provence, 11 June, 1663, or 29 Jan., 1664; died at Peking, 24 Nov., 1738. He was ...

Régis, Pierre Sylvain

Born at La Salvetat de Blanquefort, near Agen, in 1632; died in Paris, in 1707. After his ...

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Ra 67

Rabanus, Blessed Maurus Magnentius

( Also Hrabanus, Reabanus). Abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, celebrated theological ...

Rabbi and Rabbinism

The special condition which prevailed in Palestine after the Restoration led to the gradually ...

Rabbulas

Bishop of Edessa and, in the later years of his life, one of the foremost opponents of ...

Rabelais, François

The life of this celebrated French writer is full of obscurities. He was born at Chinon in ...

Raccolta

( Italian "a collection") A book containing prayers and pious exercises to which the popes ...

Race, Human

Mankind exhibits differences which have been variously interpreted. Some consider them so great ...

Race, Negro

The term negro , derived from the Spanish and the Latin words meaning "black" ( negro; niger ...

Rachel

Rachel ("a ewe"), daughter of Laban and younger sister of Lia. The journey of Jacob to the ...

Racine, Jean

Dramatist, b. a La Ferté-Milon, in the old Duchy of Valois, 20 Dec., 1639; d. in Paris, ...

Rader, Matthew

Philologist and historian, born at Innichen in the Tyrol in 1561; died at Munich, 22 December, ...

Radewyns, Florens

Co-founder of the Brethren of the Common Life , b. at Leyderdam, near Utrecht, about 1350; d. at ...

Radowitz, Joseph Maria von

Born at Blankenburg, 6 February, 1797; died at Berlin, 25 December, 1853. Radowitz was of ...

Radulph of Rivo

(or OF TONGRES; RADULPH VAN DER BEEKE) An historian and liturgist, born at Breda, in Dutch ...

Raffeix, Pierre

Missionary, born at Clermont, 1633; died at Quebec, 1724. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Ragueneau, Paul

Jesuit missionary, b. in Paris, 18 March, 1608; d. 8 Sept., 1680. He entered the Society in ...

Ragusa

DIOCESE OF RAGUSA (EPIDAURUS; RAGUSINA). A bishopric in Dalmatia, suffragan of Zara. The ...

Raich, Johann Michael

Catholic theologian, born at Ottobeuren in Bavaria, 17 January, 1832; died at Mainz, 28 March, ...

Rail, Altar

The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. It ...

Raimondi, Marcantonio

Engraver, b. at Bologna, 1475 (1480?); d. there, 1530 (1534?). He studied under the goldsmith and ...

Rainald of Dassel

Born probably not before 1115; died in Italy, 14 August, 1167. A younger son of a rich Saxon ...

Rajpootana

Prefecture Apostolic in India, attached to the Province of Agra, comprises approximately the ...

Ralph Crockett, Venerable

English martyr, b. at Barton, near Farndon, Cheshire; executed at Chichester, 1 October, 1588. ...

Ralph Milner, Venerable

Layman and martyr, born at Flacsted, Hants, England, early in the sixteenth century; suffered ...

Ralph Sherwin, Blessed

English martyr, born 1550 at Rodesley, near Longford, Derbyshire; died at Tyburn, 1 December, ...

Ram, Pierre François Xavier de

Born at Louvain 2 Sept., 1804; died there 14 May, 1865; Belgian historian and rector of the ...

Ramatha

A titular see in Palestine, suppressed in 1884 by the Roman Curia . It was never an episcopal ...

Rambler, The

A Catholic periodical (not of course to be confused with the older "Rambler", published a ...

Rameau, Jean-Philippe

Musician, b. at Dijon, Burgundy, 25 Sept., 1683; d. at Paris, 12 Sept., 1764. His father, ...

Ramsey Abbey

Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire, England, was founded by Ailwine (Ethelwine, Egelwine), a Saxon ...

Ramus, Peter

(PIERRE DE LA RAMÉE) Humanist and logician, b. at Cuth in Picardy, 1515; d. in Paris, ...

Rancé, Jean-Armand le Bouthillier de

Abbot and reformer of Notre Dame de la Trappe, second son of Denis Bouthillier, Lord of ...

Randall, James Ryder

Journalist and poet, b. 1 Jan., 1839, at Baltimore, Maryland ; d. 15 Jan., 1908 at Augusta, ...

Ransom, Feast of Our Lady of

24 September, a double major, commemorates the foundation of the Mercedarians. On 10 August, ...

Raphael

The most famous name in the history of painting, b. at Urbino, 6 April (or 28 March), 1483; d. at ...

Raphael, Saint

The name of this archangel ( Raphael = " God has healed") does not appear in the Hebrew ...

Raphoe

Diocese of Raphoe (Rapotensis) Comprises the greater part of the Co. Donegal (Gael. Tirconail ...

Rapin, René

French Jesuit, born at Tours, 1621; died in Paris, 1687. He entered the Society in 1639, taught ...

Raskolniks

(Russian raskolnik , a schismatic, a dissenter; from raskol , schism, splitting; that in ...

Rathborne, Joseph

Priest and controversialist (sometimes erroneously called RATHBONE), born at Lincoln, 11 May, ...

Ratherius of Verona

He was born about 887; died at Namur 25 April, 974. He belonged to a noble family which lived in ...

Ratio Studiorum

The term "Ratio Studiorum" is commonly used to designate the educational system of the Jesuits ; ...

Rationale

Rational, an episcopal humeral, a counterpart of the pallium, and like it worn over the chasuble. ...

Rationalism

(Latin, ratio -- reason, the faculty of the mind which forms the ground of calculation, i.e. ...

Ratisbon

DIOCESE OF RATISBON (RATISBONENSIS), also called REGENSBURG. Suffragan of Munich-Freising. It ...

Ratisbonne, Maria Alphonse

A converted Jew, born at Strasburg on 1 May, 1814; died at Ain Karim near Jerusalem, on 6 May, ...

Ratisbonne, Maria Theodor

A distinguished preacher and writer, and director of the Archconfraternity of Christian Mothers, ...

Ratramnus

(Rathramnus) A Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Corbie, in the present Department of Somme, ...

Ratzeburg, Ancient See of

(RACEBURGUM, RACEBURGENSIS.) In Germany, suffragan to Hamburg. The diocese embraced the ...

Ratzinger, Georg

Political economist and social reformer, b. at Rickering, near Deggendorf, in lower Bavaria, 3 ...

Rauscher

Prince- Archbishop of Vienna, born at Vienna, 6 Oct., 1797; died there 24 Nov., 1875. He ...

Ravalli, Antonio

Missionary, b. in Italy, 1811; d. at St. Mary's, Montana, U. S. A., 2 Oct., 1884. He entered ...

Ravenna

Archdiocese of Ravenna (Ravennatensis) The city of Ravenna is the capital of a province in ...

Ravesteyn, Josse

Born about 1506, at Tielt, a small town in Flanders, hence often called T ILETANUS (J ODACUS ...

Ravignan, Gustave Xavier Lacroix de

French Jesuit, orator, and author, b. at Bayonne (Basses-Pyrénées), 1 Dec. 1795; ...

Rawes, Henry Augustus

Oblate of St. Charles, hymn-writer and preacher, b. at Easington near Durham, England, 11 Dec., ...

Raymbault, Charles

Missionary, b. in France, 1602; entered the Society of Jesus at Rouen (1621); d. at Quebec, ...

Raymond IV, of Saint-Gilles

Count of Toulouse and of Tripoli, b. about 1043; d. at Tripoli in 1105. He was the son of ...

Raymond Lully

(RAMON LULL) "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, ...

Raymond Martini

Dominican, theologian, Orientalist, b. at Subirats, Catalonia, c. 1220; d. after July, 1284. In ...

Raymond Nonnatus, Saint

(In Spanish SAN RAMON). Born 1200 or 1204 at Portello in the Diocese of Urgel in Catalonia ...

Raymond of Peñafort, Saint

Born at Villafranca de Benadis, near Barcelona, in 1175; died at Barcelona, 6 January, 1275. He ...

Raymond of Sabunde

(SABONDE, SEBON, SEBEYDE, etc.) Born at Barcelona, Spain, towards the end of the fourteenth ...

Raymond VI

Count of Toulouse, b. 1156; d. 1222; succeeded his father, Raymond V, in 1195. He was a ...

Raymond VII

Count of Toulouse, son of Raymond VI, b. at Beaucaire, 1197; d. at Milhaud, 1249; had espoused a ...

Raynaldi, Odorico

Oratorian, b. at Treviso in 1595; d. at Rome, 22 January, 1671. Of patrician birth, he studied ...

Raynaud, Théophile

Theologian and writer, b. at Sospello near Nice, 15 Nov., 1583; d. at Lyons, 31 Oct., 1663. He ...

Raynouard, Françpois-Juste-Marie

A French poet, dramatist, and philologist, b. at Brignoles, Var, 8 September, 1761; d. at Passy, ...

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Re 118

Reading Abbey

Reading Abbey in Surrey, England, was founded by Henry I in 1121, who built it, writes ...

Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Realism, Nominalism, Conceptualism

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...

Reason

GENERAL MEANINGS Both in ordinary life and in philosophical discussions the term reason is of ...

Reason, Age of

The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally ...

Recanati and Loreto

DIOCESE OF RECANATI AND LORETO (RECINETENSIS) Province of Ancona, Central Italy, so called ...

Rechab and the Rechabites

Rechab was the father of Jonadab who in 2 Kings 10:15-28 , appears as a fervent supporter of ...

Recollection

Recollection, as understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of ...

Reconciliation, Sacrament of

Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

Rector

(From the Latin regere , to rule). Priests who preside over missions or quasi- parishes ...

Rector Potens, Verax Deus

The daily hymn for Sext in the Roman Breviary finds its theme in the great heat and light of ...

Recusants, English

The first statute in which the term "Popish Recusants" is used is 35 Eliz. c. 2, "An Act for ...

Red Sea

(Hebrew Yâm-Sûph; Septuagint ‘e ’eruthrà thálassa; ...

Redeemer, Feast of the Most Holy

The feast is found only in the special calendar of some dioceses and religious orders, and ...

Redeemer, Knights of the

A secular community founded in 1608 by the Duke of Mentone, Vincent Gonzaga, on the occasion of ...

Redemption

The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God ...

Redemption in the Old Testament

Redemption means either strictly deliverance by payment of a price or ransom, or simply ...

Redemptions, Penitential

Penitential redemptions are the substitution of exercises (especially alms-deeds), either easier ...

Redemptoristines

The cradle of the Redemptoristines is Scala, not far from Amalfi, Italy. Father Thomas Falcoia, of ...

Redemptorists

(CONGREGATION OF THE MOST HOLY REDEEMER) A society of missionary priests founded by St. ...

Redford, Sebastion

Born 27 April, 1701; died 2 January, 1763. Educated at St. Omer , Watten, and Liège, ...

Redi, Francesco

Italian poet, b. at Arezzo, 18 February, 1626; d. at Pisa 1 March, 1698. After taking his ...

Reding, Augustine

Prince-Abbot of Einsiedeln and theological writer, born at Lichtensteig, Switzerland, 10 ...

Reductions of Paraguay

The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay, one of the most singular and beautiful creations of Catholic ...

Referendarii

The papal office of the referendarii (from refero , to inform) existed at the Byzantine ...

Reform of a Religious Order

Reform of a Religious Order, in the true sense of the word, is a return or bringing back of the ...

Reformation, The

The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the ...

Reformed Churches

The name given to Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the ...

Refuge, Cities of

Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had ...

Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the

The Institute of Our Lady of Charity was founded (1641) by [St. Jean] Eudes, at Caen, Normandy, ...

Regale, Droit de

( jus regaliœ, jus regale, jus deportus; German Regalienrecht ) Droit de Regale ...

Regalia

According to the usage current in the British Isles the term regalia is almost always employed to ...

Regeneration

(Latin regeneratio ; Greek anagennesis and paliggenesia ). Regeneration is a ...

Regensburg

DIOCESE OF RATISBON (RATISBONENSIS), also called REGENSBURG. Suffragan of Munich-Freising. It ...

Regesta, Papal

Papal Regesta are the copies, generally entered in special registry volumes, of the papal ...

Reggio dell' Emilia

DIOCESE OF REGGIO DELL' EMILIA (REGINENSIS) Suffragan of Modena in central Italy. The city is ...

Reggio di Calabria

ARCHDIOCESE OF REGGIO DI CALABRIA (RHEGIENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, southern Italy. The ...

Regina

DIOCESE OF REGINA (REGINENSIS) A newly created (4 March, 1910) ecclesiastical division, ...

Regina Coeli

The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin, the recitation of which is ...

Reginald of Piperno

Dominican, theologian, companion of St. Thomas Aquinas, b. at Piperno about 1230; d. about 1290. ...

Regino of Prüm

Date of birth unknown; d. at Trier in 915. According to the statements of a later era Regino was ...

Regionarii

The name given in later antiquity and the early Middle Ages to those clerics and officials of ...

Regis, John Francis, Saint

Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...

Registers, Parochial

One having the cure of souls is commanded by Divine precept to know his subjects (Conc. Trid., ...

Regnault, Henri Victor

Chemist and physicist, b. at Aachen, 21 July, 1810; d. in Paris, 19 Jan., 1878. Being left an ...

Regulæ Juris

("Rules of Law") General rules or principles serving chiefly for the interpretation of laws. ...

Regulars

( Latin regula, rule). The observance of the Rule of St. Benedict procured for the monks ...

Reichenau

Reichenau, called Augia Dives in medieval Latin manuscripts and possessing a once ...

Reichensperger, August

Politician and author, born at Coblenz, 22 March, 1808; died at Cologne, 16 July, 1895. He studied ...

Reichensperger, Peter

Jurist and parliamentarian, b. at Coblenz, 28 May, 1810; d. at Berlin, 31 December, 1892. He ...

Reifenstein

A former Cistercian abbey in Eichsfeld, founded on 1 August, 1162 by Count Ernst of Tonna. It ...

Reiffenstuel, Johann Georg

In religion A NACLETUS Theologian and canonist; b. at Kaltenbrunn (Tegernsee) 2 July, 1641; d. ...

Reims

ARCHDIOCESE OF REIMS (RHEMENSIS) The Archdiocese of Reims comprises the district of Reims in ...

Reims, Synods of

The first synod said to have been held at Reims by Archbishop Sonnatius between 624 and 630 ...

Reinmar of Hagenau

A German minnesinger of the twelfth century, surnamed in the manuscripts der Alte (the old) to ...

Reisach, Carl von

Born at Roth, Bavaria, 7 July, 1800; died in the Redemptorist monastery of Contamine, France, ...

Reisch, Gregor

Born at Balingen in Wurtemberg, about 1467; died at Freiburg, Baden, 9 May, 1525. In 1487 he ...

Relationship

(CARNAL AND SPIRITUAL) The theologians understand by relationship in general a certain ...

Relatives, Duties of

The general precept of charity obliging us to love our neighbour as ourselves is of course ...

Relativism

Any doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the ...

Relics

The word relics comes from the Latin reliquiae (the counterpart of the Greek leipsana ) ...

Religion

I. Derivation, Analysis, and Definition. II. Subjective Religion. III. Objective ...

Religion, Virtue of

Of the three proposed derivations of the word "religion", that suggested by Lactantius and ...

Religions, Statistics of

I. DEFINITION This study concerns itself with religious bodies, the number of their members, and ...

Religious Life

I. GENERAL VIEW AND EVANGELICAL IDEA OF THE RELIGIOUS LIFE A. GENERAL VIEW We all have within us ...

Religious Profession

HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

Reliquaries

It would follow of necessity from the data given in the article RELICS that ...

Remesiana

A titular see in Dacia Mediterranea, suffragan of Sardica. Remesiana is mentioned by the ...

Remigius of Auxerre

A Benedictine monk, b. about the middle of the ninth century; d. 908. Remigius, or Remi, was a ...

Remigius, Saint

Apostle of the Franks, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Cerny or Laon, 437; d. at Reims, 13 January ...

Remiremont

Vosges, France, monastery and nunnery of the Rule of St. Benedict, founded by Sts. Romaricus ...

Remuzat, Ven. Anne-Madeleine

Born at Marseilles, 29 Nov., 1696; died 15 Feb., 1730. At nine years of age she asked her parents ...

Remy, Abbey of Saint

Founded at Reims before 590. Its early history is very obscure; at first a little chapel ...

Renaissance, The

The Renaissance may be considered in a general or a particular sense, as (1) the achievements of ...

Renaudot, Eusebius

An apologetical writer and Orientalist, b. at Paris, 22 July, 1648; d. there, 1 Sept., 1720. He ...

Renaudot, Théophraste

Born at Loudun, 1586; died at Paris, 25 October, 1653. Doctor of the medical faculty at ...

Reni, Guido

Italian painter, b. at Calvenzano near Bologna, 4 Nov., 1575; d. at Bologna, 18 Aug. 1642. At one ...

Rennes

(RHEDONENSIS) Rennes includes the Department of Ille et Vilaine. The Concordat of 1802 ...

Renty, Gaston Jean Baptiste de

Born 1611 at the castle of Beni, Diocese of Bayeux in Normandy ; died 24 April, 1649. The only ...

Renunciation

( Latin renuntiare ). A canonical term signifying the resignation of an ecclesiastical ...

Reordinations

I. STATE OF THE QUESTION The Oratorian Jean Morin , in the seventeenth century, and Cardinal ...

Reparation

Reparation is a theological concept closely connected with those of atonement and satisfaction, ...

Repington, Philip

( Also Repyngdon). Cardinal-priest of the title of SS. Nereus and Achilleus, Bishop of ...

Repose, Altar of

(Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository). The altar ...

Reputation (as Property)

It is certain that a man is indefeasibly the owner of what he has been able to produce by his ...

Requiem, Masses of

Masses of Requiem will be treated under the following heads: I. Origins; II. Formulary ; III. ...

Rerum Crerator Optime

The hymn for Matins of Wednesday in the Divine Office. It comprises four strophes of four ...

Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor

The daily hymn for None in the Roman Breviary, comprises (like the hymns for Terce and Sext ...

Rerum Novarum

The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the ...

Rescripts, Papal

( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

Reservation

The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an ...

Reserved Cases

A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor, but is ...

Residence, Ecclesiastical

A remaining or abiding where one's duties lie or where one's occupation is properly carried on, ...

Respicius, Tryphon, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

Respighi, Lorenzo

Born at Cortemaggiore, Province of Piacenza, 7 October, 1824; died at Rome, 10 December, 1889. He ...

Responsorium

Responsory, or Respond, a series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and ...

Restitution

Restitution has a special sense in moral theology. It signifies an act of commutative justice ...

Resurrection of Jesus Christ

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...

Resurrection, General

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. The Fourth Lateran ...

Rethel, Alfred

Born at Aachen, 1816; died at Düsseldorf, 1859. He combined in a brilliant and forcible ...

Retreat of the Sacred Heart, Congregation of

(DAMES DE LA RETRAITE) Originally founded in 1678 under the name of the Institute of Retreat, ...

Retreats

If we call a retreat a series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of ...

Retz, Cardinal de

ARCHBISHOP OF PARIS Born at the Château of Montmirail, Oct., 1614; died in Paris, 24 ...

Reuben

(REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

Reuchlin, Johannes

( Græcized , Capnion). Celebrated German humanist, b. at Pforzheim, Baden, 22 ...

Reumont, Alfred von

Statesman and historian, b. at Aachen, 15 August, 1808; d. there, 27 April, 1887. After finishing ...

Reusens, Edmond

Archeologist and historian, b. at Wijneghem (Antwerp), 25 April, 1831; d. at Louvain, 25 Dec., ...

Reuss

Name of the two smallest states of the German Confederation, which lie almost in the centre of ...

Revelation

I. MEANING OF REVELATION Revelation may be defined as the communication of some truth by God ...

Revelation, Book of

Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto , to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the ...

Revelations, Private

There are two kinds of revelations: (1) universal revelations, which are contained in the Bible ...

Revocation

The act of recalling or annulling, the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the making ...

Revolution, English

James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...

Revolution, French

The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

Rex Gloriose Martyrum

Rex Gloriose Martyrum, the hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs (Commune plurimorum ...

Rex Sempiterne Cælitum

The Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time (from ...

Rey, Anthony

An educator and Mexican War chaplain, born at Lyons, 19 March, 1807; died near Ceralvo, Mexico, ...

Reynolds, William

(RAINOLDS, RAYNOLDS, REGINALDUS) Born at Pinhorn near Exeter, about 1544; died at Antwerp, ...

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Rh 18

Rhætia

(RHÆTORUM). Prefecture Apostolic in Switzerland ; includes in general the district ...

Rhaphanæa

A titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Rhaphanæa is mentioned in ancient ...

Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel

A composer and organist, born at Vaduz, in the Principality of Lichtenstein, Bavaria, 17 March, ...

Rhenish Palatinate

( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

Rhesæna

A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. Rhesæna (numerous variations of the name ...

Rhinocolura

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium. Rhinocolura or Rhinocorura was a ...

Rhithymna

(RHETHYMNA) A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, mentioned by Ptolemy, III, 15, ...

Rhizus

( Rizous .) A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus suffragan of Neocæsarea, ...

Rho, Giacomo

Missionary, born at Milan, 1593; died at Peking 27 April, 1638. He was the son of a noble and ...

Rhode Island

The State of Rhode Island and xxyyyk.htm">Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original ...

Rhodes

(RHODUS) A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades. It is an island opposite to Lycia and ...

Rhodes, Alexandre De

A missionary and author, born at Avignon, 15 March, 1591; died at Ispahan, Persia, 5 Nov., 1660. ...

Rhodesia

A British possession in South Africa, bounded on the north and north-west by the Congo Free ...

Rhodiopolis

A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, called Rhodia by Ptolemy (V, 3) and Stephanus ...

Rhodo

A Christian writer who flourished in the time of Commodus (180-92); he was a native of Asia ...

Rhosus

A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba. Rhosus or Rhossus was a seaport ...

Rhymed Bibles

The rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms. The oldest ...

Rhythmical Office

I. DESCRIPTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND DIVISION By rhythmical office is meant a liturgical horary ...

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Ri 66

Ribadeneira, Pedro de

(Or RIBADENEYRA and among Spaniards often RIVADENEIRA) Pedro De Ribadeneira was born at ...

Ribas, Andrés Pérez De

A pioneer missionary, historian of north-western Mexico; born at Cordova, Spain, 1576; died in ...

Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland)

(RIPAE, RIPENSIS.) The diocese (29 deaneries, 278 parishes ) consisted of the modern ...

Ribeirao Preto

(DE RIBERAO PRETO) A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of São Paulo , Brazil, ...

Ribera, Jusepe de

Called also SPAGNOLETTO, L'ESPAGNOLET (the little Spaniard) Painter born at Jativa, 12 Jan., ...

Ricardus Anglicus

Ricardus Anglicus, Archdeacon of Bologna, was an English priest who was rector of the law ...

Riccardi, Nicholas

A theologian, writer and preacher; born at Genoa, 1585; died at Rome, 30 May, 1639. Physically ...

Ricci, Lorenzo

General of the Society of Jesus b. at Florence, 2 Aug., 1703; d. at the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ...

Ricci, Matteo

Founder of the Catholic missions of China, b. at Macerata in the Papal States, 6 Oct. 1552; ...

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista

Italian astronomer, b. at Ferrara 17 April, 1598; d. at Bologna 25 June, 1671. He entered the ...

Rice, Edmund Ignatius

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as "Irish ...

Rich, St. Edmund

Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...

Richard

A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and ...

Richard de Bury

Bishop and bibliophile, b. near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, England, 24 Jan., 1286; d. at ...

Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin

Archbishop of Paris, born at Nantes, 1 March, 1819; died in Paris, 28 January, 1908. ...

Richard de Wyche, Saint

Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

Richard Fetherston, Blessed

Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

Richard I, King Of England

Richard I, born at Oxford, 6 Sept, 1157; died at Chaluz, France, 6 April, 1199; was known to ...

Richard of Cirencester

Chronicler, d. about 1400. He was the compiler of a chronicle from 447 to 1066, entitled "Speculum ...

Richard of Cornwall

(RICHARD RUFUS, RUYS, ROSSO, ROWSE). The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but he ...

Richard of Middletown

(A MEDIA VILLA). Flourished at the end of the thirteenth century, but the dates of his birth ...

Richard of St. Victor

Theologian, native of Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are unknown; d. 1173 and ...

Richard Thirkeld, Blessed

Martyr ; b. at Coniscliffe, Durham, England ; d. at York, 29 May, 1583. From Queen's College, ...

Richard Whiting, Blessed

Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

Richard, Charles-Louis

Theologian and publicist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 1711; d. at Mons, ...

Richardson, Ven. William

( Alias Anderson.) Last martyr under Queen Elizabeth; b. according to Challoner at Vales in ...

Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de

Cardinal ; French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 1585; d. there 4 December 1642. At first ...

Richmond, Diocese of

(RICHMONDENSIS.) Suffragan of Baltimore, established 11 July, 1820, comprises the State of ...

Ricoldo da Monte di Croce

(PENNINI.) Born at Florence about 1243; d. there 31 October, 1320. After studying in various ...

Riemenschneider, Tillmann

One of the most important of Frankish sculptors, b. at Osterode am Harz in or after 1460; d. at ...

Rienzi, Cola di

(i.e., NICOLA, son of Lorenzo) A popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure. His ...

Rieti

(REATINA). Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See. The city is ...

Rievaulx, Abbey of

(RIEVALL.) Thurston, Archbishop of York, was very anxious to have a monastery of the newly ...

Riffel, Caspar

Historian, b. at Budesheim, Bingen, Germany, 19 Jan., 1807, d. at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1856. He ...

Rigby, John, Saint

English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

Rigby, Nicholas

Born 1800 at Walton near Preston, Lancashire; died at Ugthorpe, 7 September, 1886. At twelve years ...

Right

Right, as a substantive (my right, his right), designates the object of justice. When a person ...

Right of Exclusion

(Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

Right of Option

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...

Right of Voluntary Association

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

Rimbert, Saint

Archbishop of Bremen - Hamburg, died at Bremen 11 June, 888. It is uncertain whether he was ...

Rimini

DIOCESE OF RIMINI (ARIMINUM). Suffragan of Ravenna. Rimini is situated near the coast between ...

Rimini, Council of

The second Formula of Sirmium (357) stated the doctrine of the Anomoeans, or extreme Arians. ...

Rimouski

DIOCESE OF RIMOUSKI (SANCTI GERMANI DE RIMOUSKI) Suffragan of Quebec, comprises the counties of ...

Ring of the Fisherman, The

The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

Rings

Although the surviving ancient rings, proved by their devices, provenance, etc., to be of ...

Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista

Born at Rome, 1592; d. at Fermo, 1653; was the son of a Florentine patrician, his mother being a ...

Rio Negro

Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil, bounded on the south by a line running westwards from the ...

Rio, Alexis-François

French writer on art, b. on the Island of Arz, Department of Morbihan, 20 May, 1797; d. 17 June, ...

Riobamba

Diocese of (Bolivarensis), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, erected by Pius IX, 5 January, 1863. ...

Rioja, Francisco de

A poet, born at Seville, 1583; died at Madrid, 1659. Rioja was a canon in the cathedral at ...

Ripalda, Juan Martínez de

Theologian, b. at Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. at Madrid, 26 April, 1648. He entered the Society ...

Ripatransone

(RIPANENSIS). Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy. The city is situated on five hills, ...

Ripon, Marquess of

George Frederick Samuel Robinson, K.G., P.C., G.C.S.I., F.R.S., Earl de Grey, Earl of Ripon, ...

Risby, Richard

Born in the parish of St. Lawrence, Reading, 1489; executed at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1534. ...

Rishanger, William

Chronicler, b. at Rishangles, Suffolk, about ú d. after 1312. He became a Benedictine at ...

Rishton, Edward

Born in Lancashire, 1550; died at Sainte-Ménehould, Lorraine, 29 June, 1585. He was ...

Rita of Cascia, Saint

Born at Rocca Porena in the Diocese of Spoleto , 1386; died at the Augustinian convent of ...

Rites

I. NAME AND DEFINITION Ritus in classical Latin in means primarily, the form and manner of any ...

Rites in the United States

Since immigration from the eastern portion of Europe and from Asia and Africa set in with ...

Ritschlianism

Ritschlianism is a peculiar conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in ...

Ritter, Joseph Ignatius

Historian, b. at Schweinitz, Silesia, 12 April, 1787; d. at Breslau, 5 Jan., 1857. He pursued his ...

Ritual

The Ritual ( Rituale Romanum ) is one of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all ...

Ritualists

The word "Ritualists" is the term now most commonly employed to denote that advanced section of ...

Rivington, Luke

Born in London, May, 1838; died in London, 30 May, 1899; fourth son of Francis Rivington, a ...

Rizal, José Mercado

Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor ; b. at Calamba, Province of La Laguna, ...

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Ro 133

Robbers, Seven

(Septem Latrones), martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their ...

Robbia, Andrea della

Nephew, pupil, assistant, and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 1528. It is ...

Robbia, Lucia di Simone

Sculptor, b. at Florence, 1400; d. 1481. He is believed to have studied design with a goldsmith, ...

Robert Bellarmine, Saint

(Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at ...

Robert Johnson, Blessed

Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

Robert of Arbrissel

Itinerant preacher, founder of Fontevrault, b. c. 1047 at Arbrissel (now Arbressec) near ...

Robert of Courçon

(DE CURSONE, DE CURSIM, CURSUS, ETC.). Cardinal, born at Kedleston, England ; died at ...

Robert of Geneva

Antipope under the name of Clement VII, b. at Geneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, 16 Sept., 1394. He ...

Robert of Jumièges

Archbishop of Canterbury (1051-2). Robert Champart was a Norman monk of St. Ouen at Rouen ...

Robert of Luzarches

(LUS). Born at Luzarches near Pontoise towards the end of the twelfth century; is said to have ...

Robert of Melun

(DE MELDUNO; MELIDENSIS; MEIDUNUS). An English philosopher and theologian, b. in England ...

Robert of Molesme, Saint

Born about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who bore the names of Thierry ...

Robert of Newminster, Saint

Born in the district of Craven, Yorkshire, probably at the village of Gargrave; died 7 June, 1159. ...

Robert Pullus

(PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

Robert, Saint

Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurilac, Auvergne, about 1000; d. in ...

Roberts, Saint John

First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

Robertson, James Burton

Historian, b. in London 15 Nov., 1800; d. at Dublin 14 Feb., 1877, son of Thomas Robertson, a ...

Robinson, Venerable Christopher

Born at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date unknown; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. ...

Robinson, William Callyhan

Jurist and educator, b. 26 July, 1834, at Norwich, Conn.; d. 6 Nov., 1911, at Washington, D.C. ...

Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de

Theologian, b. of a noble family at Perelada, in Catalina, c. 1624; d. at Madrid 13 June, 1699. ...

Rocamadour

Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the ...

Rocca, Angelo

Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome, b. at Rocca, now Arecevia, near Ancone, 1545; d. at ...

Roch, Saint

Born at Montpellier towards 1295; died 1327. His father was governor of that city. At his birth ...

Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien

Marshal, b. at Vendôme, France, 1 July, 1725; d. at Thoré, 10 May, 1807. At the age ...

Roche, Alanus de la

( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

Rochester, Ancient See of

(ROFFA; ROFFENSIS). The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was ...

Rochester, Blessed John

Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

Rochester, Diocese of

This diocese, on its establishment by separation from the See of Buffalo, 24 January, 1868, ...

Rochet

An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), ...

Rochette, Désiré Raoul

Usually known as Raoul-Rochette, a French archeologist, b. at St. Amand (Cher), 9 March, 1789; d. ...

Rock, Daniel

Antiquarian and ecclesiologist, b. at Liverpool, 31 August, 1799; d. at Kensington, London, 28 ...

Rockford, Diocese of

(ROCKFORDIENSIS). Created 23 September, 1908, comprises Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, ...

Rockhampton

Diocese in Queensland, Australia. In 1862 Father Duhig visited the infant settlement on the banks ...

Rococo Style

This style received its name in the nineteenth century from French émigrés , who ...

Rodez

(RUTHENAE) The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of ...

Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre

A Brazilian natural scientist and explorer, b. at Bahia in 1756; d. at Lisbon in 1815. He ...

Rodriguez, Alonso

Born at Valladolid, Spain, 1526; died at Seville 21 February, 1616. When twenty years of age he ...

Rodriguez, Joao

(GIRAM, GIRAO, GIRON, ROIZ). Missionary and author, b. at Alcochete in the Diocese of Lisbon ...

Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus

(Also Alonso). Born at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1532; died at Majorca, 31 October, 1617. ...

Roe, Bartholomew

(VENERABLE ALBAN). English Benedictine martyr, b. in Suffolk, 1583; executed at Tyburn, 21 ...

Roermond

(RUBAEMUNDENSIS). Diocese in Holland ; suffragan of Utrecht. It includes the Province of ...

Rogation Days

Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger ...

Roger Bacon

Philosopher, surnamed D OCTOR M IRABILIS , b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at ...

Roger Cadwallador, Venerable

English martyr, b. at Stretton Sugwas, near Hereford, in 1568; executed at Leominster, 27 Aug., ...

Roger of Wendover

Benedictine monk, date of birth unknown; d. 1236, the first of the great chroniclers of St. ...

Roger, Bishop of Worcester

Died at Tours, 9 August, 1179. A younger son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, he was educated ...

Roh, Peter

Born at Conthey (Gunthis) in the canton of Valais ( French Switzerland ), 14 August, 1811; d. at ...

Rohault de Fleury

A family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century, of which the most ...

Rohrbacher, Réné François

Ecclesiastical historian, b. at Langatte (Langd) in the present Diocese of Metz, 27 September, ...

Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de

Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Toledo, 4 Oct., 1607; d. 1680. Authentic information regarding the ...

Rokewode, John Gage

Born 13 Sept., 1786; died at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, 14 Oct., 1842. He was the fourth son of ...

Rolduc

(RODA DUCIS, also Roda, Closterroda or Hertogenrade). Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands. ...

Rolfus, Hermann

Catholic educationist, b. at Freiburg, 24 May, 1821; d. at Buhl, near Offenburg, 27 October, ...

Rolle de Hampole, Richard

Solitary and writer, b. at Thornton, Yorkshire, about 1300; d. at Hampole, 29 Sept., 1349. The ...

Rollin, Charles

Born in Paris, 1661; died there, 1741. The son of a cutler, intended to follow his father's ...

Rolls Series

A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official ...

Rolph, Thomas

Surgeon, b. 1800; d. at Portsmouth, 17 Feb., 1858. He was a younger son of Dr. Thomas Rolph and ...

Roman Catacombs

This subject will be treated under seven heads: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. ...

Roman Catechism

This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the ...

Roman Catholic

A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those ...

Roman Catholic Relief Bill

IN ENGLAND With the accession of Queen Elizabeth (1558) commenced the series of legislative ...

Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early

This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome. For ...

Roman Colleges

This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ...

Roman Congregations

Certain departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the ...

Roman Curia

Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff ...

Roman Processional

Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

Roman Rite, The

( Ritus romanus ). The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, ...

Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio

The restoration by Pius IX, 29 Sept. 1850, by letters Apostolic "Universalis ecclesiæ" of ...

Romanos, Saint

Surnamed ho melodos and ho theorrhetor , poet of the sixth century. The only authority for ...

Romans, Epistle to the

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. ...

Romanus, Pope

Of this pope very little is known with certainty, not even the date of his birth nor the exact ...

Romanus, Saints

(1) A Roman martyr Romanus is mentioned in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 155) ...

Rome

The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop ...

Rome, University of

The University of Rome must be distinguished from the "Studium Generale apud Curiam", established ...

Romero, Juan

Missionary and Indian linguist, b. in the village of Machena, Andalusia, Spain, 1559; d. at ...

Romuald, Saint

Born at Ravenna, probably about 950; died at Val-di-Castro, 19 June, 1027. St. Peter Damian, his ...

Romulus Augustulus

Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. His reign was purely ...

Ronan, Saint

There are twelve Irish saints bearing the name of Ronan commemorated in the "Martyrology of ...

Ronsard, Pierre de

French poet, b. 2 (or 11) Sept., 1524, at the Château de la Poissonniere, near ...

Rood

(Anglo-Saxon Rod, or Rode, "cross"), a term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, ...

Roothaan, Johann Philipp

Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus , b. at Amsterdam, 23 November, 1785; d. at Rome, ...

Roper, William

Biographer of St. Thomas More, born 1496; died 4 January, 1578. Both his father and mother ...

Rorate Coeli

(Vulgate, text), the opening words of Isaiah 45:8 . The text is used frequently both at Mass and ...

Rosa, Salvatore

(Also spelled SALVATOR; otherwise known as RENNELLA, or ARENELLA, from the place of his birth). ...

Rosalia, Saint

Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she in patroness. ...

Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the

The proper office granted by Leo XIII (5 August, 1888) to the feast contains four hymns ...

Rosary, Confraternity of the

In accordance with the conclusion of the article ROSARY no sufficient evidence is forthcoming to ...

Rosary, Feast of the Holy

Apart from the signal defeat of the Albigensian heretics at the battle of Muret in 1213 which ...

Rosary, Seraphic

( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

Rosary, The

Please see our How to Recite the Holy Rosary sheet in PDF format, and feel free to copy and ...

Rosate, Alberico de

(Or ROSCIATE). Jurist, date of birth unknown; died in 1354. He was bom in the village of ...

Roscelin

Roscelin, a monk of Compiègne, was teaching as early as 1087. He had contact with ...

Roscommon

Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland ; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman ...

Rose of Lima, Saint

Virgin, patroness of America, born at Lima, Peru 20 April, 1586; died there 30 August, 1617. ...

Rose of Viterbo, Saint

Virgin, born at Viterbo, 1235; died 6 March, 1252. The chronology of her life must always remain ...

Rose Window

A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

Rosea

A titular see. The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of ...

Roseau

(ROSENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I. The different islands of ...

Rosecrans, William Starke

William Born at Kingston, Ohio, U.S.A. 6 Sept., 1819; died near Redondo California, 11 March, ...

Roseline, Saint

(Rossolina.) Born at Château of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. 17 January, 1329. ...

Rosenau

( Hungarian ROZSNYÓ; Latin ROSNAVIENSIS). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, ...

Rosh Hashanah

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Rosicrucians

The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic- theosophic "Rosicrucian ...

Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark

(ROSCHILDIA, ROSKILDENSIS.) Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536. The ...

Roskoványi, August

Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology, b. at Szenna in the County ...

Rosmini and Rosminianism

Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, ...

Rosminians

The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata , is a religious ...

Ross

(ROSSENSIS). Diocese in Ireland. This see was founded by St. Fachtna, and the place-name ...

Ross, School of

The School of Ross &151; now called Ross-Carbery, but formerly Ross-Ailithir from the large ...

Rossano

(ROSSANENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy. The city is ...

Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico

The youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stone cutters, family name Gamberelli (1427-78). He ...

Rosselino, Bernardo

(Properly BERNARDO DI MATTEO GAMBARELLI.) B. at Florence, 1409; d. 1464. Rosselino occupies ...

Rosselli, Cosimo

(LORENZO DI FILIPPO). Italian fresco painter, b. at Florence, 1439; d. there in 1507. The ...

Rossi, Bernardo de

(DE RUBEIS, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BERNARDO MARIA). Theologian and historian; b. at Cividale del ...

Rossi, Giovanni Battista de

A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman ...

Rossi, Pellegrino

Publicist, diplomat, economist, and statesman, b. at Carrara, Italy, 13 July, 1787; assassinated ...

Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio

Born 29 February, 1792, at Pesaro in the Romagna; died 13 November, 1868, at Passy, near Paris. ...

Rostock, Sebastian von

Bishop of Breslau, b. at Grottkau, Silesia, 24 Aug. 1607; d. at Breslau, 9 June, 1671. He ...

Rostock, University of

Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419 through the united efforts of Dukes John ...

Roswitha

A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

Rota, Sacra Romana

In the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" (29 June, 1908), II, 2, Pins X re-established the Sacra ...

Roth, Heinrich

Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar, b. of illustrious parentage at Augsburg, 18 December, ...

Rothe, David

Bishop of Ossory ( Ireland ), b. at Kilkenny in 1573, of a distinguished family ; d. 20 ...

Rottenburg

(ROTTENBURGENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine. It ...

Rotuli

Rotuli, i.e. rolls — in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one ...

Rouen, Archdiocese of

(ROTHOMAGENSIS) Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and ...

Rouen, Synods of

The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650. ...

Rouquette, Adrien

Born in Louisiana in 1813, of French parentage; died as a missionary among the Choctaw Indians ...

Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste

French poet, b. in Paris, 16 April 1670; d. at La Genette, near Brussels, 17 May, 1741. ...

Rovezzano, Benedetto da

Sculptor and architect, b. in 1490, either at Rovezzano, near Florence, or, according to some ...

Rowsham, Stephen

A native of Oxfordshire, entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. He took orders in the English ...

Royal Declaration, The

This is the name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in ...

Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul

Philosopher and French politician, b. at Sompuis (Marne), 21 June, 1763; d. at ...

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Ru 42

Ruadhan, Saint

One of the twelve "Apostles of Erin" ; died at the monastery of Lorrha, County Tipperary, ...

Ruben

(REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

Rubens, Peter Paul

Eminent Flemish painter, b. at Siegen, Westphalia, 28 June, 1577; d. at Antwerp, 30 May, 1640. ...

Rubrics

I. IDEA Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica , ...

Rubruck, William

(Also called William of Rubruck and less correctly Ruysbrock, Ruysbroek, and Rubruquis), ...

Rudolf of Fulda

Chronicler, d. at Fulda, 8 March, 862. In the monastery of Fulda Rudolf entered the ...

Rudolf of Habsburg

German king, b. 1 May 1218; d. at Speyer, 15 July, 1291. He was the son of Albert IV, the founder ...

Rudolf of Rüdesheim

Bishop of Breslau, b. at Rüdesheim on the Rhine, about 1402; d. at Breslau in Jan., 1482. ...

Rudolf von Ems

[Hohenems in Austria ]. A Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century. Almost ...

Rueckers, Family of

Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp. Hans Rueckers, the founder, lived in ...

Ruffini, Paolo

Physician and mathematician, b. at Valentano in the Duchy of Castro, 3 Sept., 1765; d. at Modena, ...

Rufford Abbey

A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about ...

Rufina, Saints

The present Roman Martyrology records saints of this name on the following days: (1) On ...

Rufinus, Saint

The present Roman Martyrology records eleven saints named Rufinus: (1) On 28 February, a ...

Rufus, Saint

The present Roman Martyrology records ten saints of this name. Historical mention is made of ...

Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de

Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Mexico City, about 1580; d. at Madrid, 4 August, 1639. He received ...

Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio

One of the most distinguished pioneers of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay, and a ...

Ruiz de Montoya, Diego

Theologian, b. at Seville, 1562; d. there 15 March, 1632. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Rule of Faith, The

The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...

Rule of St. Augustine

The title, Rule of Saint Augustine , has been applied to each of the following documents: ...

Rule of St. Benedict

This work holds the first place among monastic legislative codes, and was by far the most ...

Rumania

A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian ...

Rumohr, Karl Friedrich

Art historian, b. at Dresden, 1785; d. there, 1843. He became a Catholic in 1804. He was ...

Rupe, Alanus de

( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

Rupert, Saint

(Alternative forms, Ruprecht, Hrodperht, Hrodpreht, Roudbertus, Rudbertus, Robert, Ruprecht). ...

Rusaddir

A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana. Rusaddir is a Phoenician settlement whose name ...

Rusicade

A titular see of Numidia. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (IV, 3), Mela (I, 33), Pliny (V, 22), ...

Ruspe

Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the "Tabula" of ...

Russell, Charles

(BARON RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN). Born at Newry, Ireland, 10 November, 1832; died in London, 10 ...

Russell, Charles William

Born at Killough, Co. Down, 14 May, 1812; died at Dublin 26 Feb., 1880. He was descended from the ...

Russell, Richard

Bishop of Vizéu in Portugal, b. in Berkshire, 1630; d. at Vizéu, 15 Nov., 1693. He ...

Russia

GEOGRAPHY Russia ( Rossiiskaia Imperiia; Russkoe Gosudarstvo ) comprises the greater part of ...

Russia, The Religion of

A. The Origin of Russian Christianity There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity ...

Russian Language and Literature

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE; ANCIENT POPULAR ...

Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint

Born either at Marseilles or at Narbonnaise, Gaul; died 26 Oct., 461. According to biographers, ...

Ruth, Book of

One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine ...

Ruthenian Rite

There is, properly speaking, no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but inasmuch as ...

Ruthenians

(Ruthenian and Russian: Rusin , plural Rusini ) A Slavic people from Southern Russia, ...

Rutter, Henry

( vere BANISTER) Born 26 Feb., 1755; died 17 September, 1838, near Dodding Green, ...

Ruvo and Bitonto

(RUBENSIS ET BITUNTINENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, ...

Ruysbroeck, Blessed John

Surnamed the Admirable Doctor, and the Divine Doctor, undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish ...

Ruysch, John

Astronomer, cartographer, and painter, born at Utrecht about 1460; died at Cologne, 1533. Little ...

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Ry 4

Ryan, Father Abram J.

The poet-priest of the South, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 15 August, 1839; died at Louisville, ...

Ryan, Patrick John

Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia, b. At Thurles, County Tipperary, ...

Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley

English Oratorian priest and controversialist, b. 3 Jan., 1837; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 7 ...

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