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Pennsylvania

One of the thirteen original United States of America , lies between 39° 43' and 42° 15' N. latitude, and between the Delaware River on the east, and the eastern boundary of Ohio on the meridian 80° 36' W. longitude. It is 176 miles wide from north to south and about 303 miles long from east to west, containing 45,215 square miles, of which 230 are covered by water. It has a shore line on Lake Erie 45 miles in length, and is bounded by New York on the north, New Jersey on the east, Ohio and West Virginia on the west, Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia on the south. It is the only one of the thirteen original states having no sea coast. About one-third of the state is occupied by parallel ranges and valleys. The mountains average from 1000 to 2000 feet in height. The main ridge, highest on the east, is broken by the north and west branches of the Susquehanna River, which flows through the centre of the state. The Delaware, which is 400 miles in total length, beginning from its origin in Otsego Lake, New York, is navigable for a distance of 130 miles from the sea, and forms the eastern boundary of the state. In the west, the Allegheny and Monongahela unite to form the Ohio. There is a wide range of climate within the geographical limits of the state.

I. HISTORY

Although Captain John Smith, in 1608, was the first white man to meet natives of Pennsylvania, which he did when he ascended Chesapeake Bay, he never set foot within the limits of the present state. Henry Hudson, on 28 August, 1609, came within the Delaware Capes, but went no farther towards Pennsylvania. The first white man actually to enter the State appears to have been a Frenchman who came from Canada, Etienne Brullé, a companion of Champlain. He explored the valley of the Susquehanna from New York to Maryland in the winter of 1615-16, as is described by Champlain in an account of his voyages. In June, 1610, Captain Samuel Argall, coming from Virginia in search of provisions, entered the Delaware River and gave it its name in honour of the then Governor of Virginia, Lord de la Warr. Captain Cornelius Mey came to the Delaware Capes in 1614 (see NEW JERSEY). Another Dutch captain, Cornelius Hendrickson, came from Manhattan Island and probably navigated the Delaware River as far as the site of Philadelphia in 1616. In 1631, David Pietersen de Vries established a post at Lewes, in Delaware, and later, in 1634, made voyages as far as Tinicum Island and Ridley Creek. For five years after this the Dutch traded on the Delaware River and in 1633 established a post called Fort Beverstrede near Philadelphia. The English Government laid claim to the entire region in 1632 on the ground of first discovery, occupation, and possession, but in April, 1638, an expedition made up partly of Swedes and partly of Dutch, under Peter Minuit, established a post at Fort Christiana on the Brandywine River. This was the first white settlement in the country of the Delaware made by the Swedish Government, and was against the protest of the Dutch Governor of Manhattan. It was but a small colony and lasted only seventeen years. In 1643-44 permanent settlements were made at Tinicum, and in 1651 the Dutch Governor, Peter Stuyvesant, caused Fort Casimer to be built on the present site of New Castle, Delaware, to overawe the Swedes at Christiana. Fort Casimer was occupied by the Swedes in 1654, but they were in their turn driven out by the Dutch, who remained in possession of the Delaware River country until the organization of Penn's colony in 1681.

When William Penn was thirty-six years old, in 1680, his father being dead, there was due him from the Crown the sum of £16,000 for services rendered by his father, Admiral Penn. This was cancelled in 1681 by a gift to him from the Crown of the largest tract of territory that had ever been given in America to a single individual, and in addition he received from the Duke of York all of the territory now included in the State of Delaware , for the sake of controlling the free navigation of the river of that name. This charter, or grant, gave him the title in fee-simple to over 40,000 square miles of territory with the power of adopting any form of government, providing the majority of the colonists consented, and if the freemen could not assemble Penn had the right to make laws without their consent. The new colony was named Pennsylvania. Penn wished the name to be New Wales, or else Sylvania, modestly endeavouring to avoid the special honour implied by prefixing his surname but the king insisted. It has been said, no doubt truthfully, that Penn was impelled by two principal motives in founding the colony: "The desire to found a free commonwealth on liberal and humane principles, and the desire to provide a safe home for persecuted Friends. He was strongly devoted to his religious faith, and warmly attached to those who professed it, but not the less was he an idealist in politics, and a generous and hopeful believer in the average goodness of his fellow men" (Jenkins, "Pennsylvania", I, 204). Penn himself, speaking of the grant by the king, says: "I eyed the Lord in obtaining it, and more was I drawn inward to look to Him, and to owe it to His hand and power than to any other way. I have so obtained it and desire to keep it that I may not be unworthy of His love and do that which may answer His kind providence and serve His truth and people, that an example may be set to the nations. There may be room there but not here for such an holy experiment" (Jenkins, "Pennsylvania", I, 207). He had already shown ability as a colonizer, being concerned in the settlement of New Jersey, where the towns of Salem and Burlington had been laid out before the charter of Pennsylvania was granted.

During practically all of the colonial period, Penn and his descendants governed Pennsylvania through agents or deputy governors. He was the feudal lord of the land, it being his plan to sell tracts from time to time, reserving a small quit-rent or selling outright. Until the American Revolution, in 1776, Penn and his sons held the proprietorship of the Province of Pennsylvania during a period of ninety-four years, excepting only about two years under William III. The colony was organized at the council held at Upland, 3 August, 1681, the deputy governor being William Markham, a cousin of Penn. When Penn himself landed, 28 October, 1682, at New Castle, Philadelphia had been laid out and a few houses had been built. After his landing Penn changed the name of Upland to Chester in honour of the English city. There he summoned the freeholders to meet, and they adopted the "Frame of Government" and ratified "The Laws agreed upon in England ". The former instrument provided for a Provincial Council of seventy-two members to be elected by the people. This council was to propose laws to be submitted for the approval of the General Assembly, also to be elected by the people. Thus was formed the first Constitution of Pennsylvania. The laws accepted and re-enacted with many additions became known as "The Great Law". It establishes religious liberty, allowing freedom of worship to all who acknowledge one God, and provides that all members of the Assembly, as well as those who voted for them, should be such as believed Jesus Christ to be the Son of God, the Saviour of the World. The Great Law prohibits swearing, cursing, drunkenness, health-drinking, card-playing, scolding, and lying in conversation. In the preface to the "Frame of Government" may be found the key to Penn's fundamental views on political questions. Thus he wrote: "Governments rather depend upon men than men upon governments; let men be good, and the government cannot be bad; if it be ill they will cure it. Though good laws do well, good men do better; for good laws may want [i.e. lack] good men and be abolished or evaded by ill men; but good men will never want good laws nor suffer ill ones. That, therefore, which makes a good constitution must keep it, viz. men of wisdom and virtue ; qualities that, because they descend not with worldly inheritance, must be carefully propagated by a virtuous education of youth. For liberty without obedience is confusion, and obedience without liberty is slavery."

Penn was far in advance of his time in his views of the capacity of mankind for democratic government, and equally so in his broad-minded toleration of differences of religious belief. Indeed, it has been well said that the declaration of his final charter of privileges of 1701 was not alone "intended as the fundamental law of the Province and declaration of religious liberty on the broadest character and about which there could be no doubt or uncertainty. It is a declaration not of toleration but of religious equality and brought within its protection all who professed one Almighty God, -- Roman Catholics, and Protestants, Unitarians, Trinitarians, Christians, Jews, and Mohammedans, and excluded only Atheists and Polytheists." At that time in no American colony did anything approaching to toleration exist. When the provisions of "The Great Law" were submitted to the Privy Council of England for approval they were not allowed; but in 1706 a new law concerning liberty of conscience was passed, whereby religious liberty was restricted to Trinitarian Christians, and when the Constitution of 1776 was adopted, liberty of conscience and worship were extended even further by the declaration that "no human authority can in any case whatever control or interfere with the rights of conscience." It has been said: "There never was in Pennsylvania during the colonial period, to our knowledge, any molestation or interruption of the liberty of Jews, Deists or Unitarians, . . . while the Frame of Government of 1701 . . . guaranteed liberty of conscience to all who confessed and acknowledged 'one Almighty God, the Creator, Upholder and Ruler of the World', and made eligible for office all who believed in ' Jesus Christ the Saviour of the World.'" His toleration of other forms of religious belief was in no way half-hearted and imbued the Society of Friends with feelings of kindness towards Catholics, or at least accentuated those feelings in them. During the time of Lieutenant Governor Gordon a Catholic chapel was erected, which was thought to be contrary to the laws of Parliament, but it was not suppressed pending a decision of the British Government upon the question whether immunity granted by the Pennsylvania law did not protect Catholics. When, during the French War, hostility to France led to an attack upon the Catholics of Philadelphia by a mob after Braddock's defeat, the Quakers protected them.

Penn returned to England in a short time, but made another visit to Pennsylvania in 1699. He returned to England again in 1701, but before his departure a new constitution for the colony was adopted, containing more liberal provisions. This constitution endured until 1776, when a new one was adopted which has since been superseded by three others -- the Constitutions of 1790, 1838, and 1873. In 1718 the white population of the colony was estimated at 40,000, of which one-half belonged to the Society of Friends and one-fourth resided in Philadelphia. In 1703 the counties composing the State of Delaware were separated from Pennsylvania. It was not until after the colonial period that the present boundaries of Pennsylvania were settled. Claims were made for portions of the present area of the state on the north, west, and south. Under the charter granted to Connecticut by Charles II, in 1662, the dominion of that colony was extended westward to the South Sea or Pacific Ocean. Although the territory of New York intervened between Connecticut and the present border of Pennsylvania, claim was made by Connecticut to territory now included in Pennsylvania between the fortieth and forty-first parallels of north latitude, and in 1769 a Connecticut company founded a settlement in the valley of Wyoming, and until 1782 the claim of sovereignty was maintained. It was finally settled against Connecticut in favour of Pennsylvania by a commission appointed by mutual agreement of the two states after trial and argument. The controversy between Maryland and Pennsylvania was finally settled in 1774. Lord Baltimore, the founder of Maryland, claimed that the boundaries of his grant extended above the present position of Philadelphia. On the other hand, Penn's contention, if allowed, would have extended the southern limit of Pennsylvania to a point that would have far overlapped the present boundary of Maryland. A litigation in Chancery eventually resulted in a settlement of the boundaries as they now exist. Previous to this final settlement, in the year 1763, Mason and Dixon, two English astronomers, surveyed the western boundary of Delaware and subsequently carried a line westward for the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland, setting up a mile-stone at every fifth mile with the arms of the Penn family on the north and Baltimore on the south, intermediate miles being marked with stones having P on one side and M on the other. This line was carried beyond the western extremity of Maryland, and thus it passed into history as marking the line between the northern and southern sections of the whole United States . The difficulty with the western boundary of the state on the Virginia border was settled in 1779 by a commission appointed by the two states. That portion which borders upon Lake Erie, known as the Erie triangle, belonged to New York and Massachusetts. By them it was ceded to the United States , and in 1792 bought from them by Pennsylvania for $151,640. The effect of the settlement of these boundaries was very far-reaching, for if the Connecticut, Maryland, and Virginia claims had been decided adversely to Pennsylvania, there would have been left but a narrow strip of land westward of Philadelphia and eastward of Pittsburg.

Pennsylvania was the scene of some of the most interesting and important events of the French and Indian War during the colonial period, notably the defeat of Braddock at the ford of the Monongahela about seven miles from Fort Duquesne, now the site of Pittsburg. It suffered much from Indian depredations on the western borders. During the early colonial period the mild dealings of the Quakers who controlled the province saved Pennsylvania from many of the ills that befell other colonies from the attacks of the aborigines. Prior to the French and Indian War, the Indians, who had been treated with careful consideration by Penn, were outraged at the unfairness and trickery practiced by one of his successors in obtaining title to land extending, on the eastern border of the state, to the region of the Delaware Water Gap, and known as "The Walking Purchase". This, added to the harsh treatment of the frontier settlers, who were for the most part North-of-Ireland immigrants (locally known as Scotch-Irish), resulted in bloody and persistent Indian wars which spread terror throughout the colony and were ended only after several campaigns. The defeat of the Indians by Bouquet and Forbes, and the destruction of the French stronghold, Fort Duquesne, broke the power of the Indians, and the colony was not troubled with them again until the Revolutionary War, when their alliance with the British resulted in the massacre of Wyoming.

When the contest with Great Britain arose, Philadelphia, the chief city of the American Colonies, was chosen as the place for assembling the first Continental Congress. There the Declaration of Independence was drafted and promulgated, and after the Revolution the Government of the United States was seated there until the year 1800, when Washington was made the capital. Philadelphia remained the capital of the state under the Constitution of 1776 until 1812, when it was replaced by Harrisburg. The Convention which drafted the Constitution of the United States assembled at Philadelphia in May 1787, and presented the draft to Congress on 17 September. On the following day it was submitted to the Assembly of the State of Pennsylvania, by which body the Constitution was ratified on 12 December of the same year, Pennsylvania being the second to approve it. Again, Pennsylvania was the first state to respond to the appeal of President Lincoln for troops at the outbreak of the Civil War. Regiments were sent by Governor Curtin to the garrison at Washington and were largely effective in preventing that city from being captured by the Confederate forces after the first battle of Bull Run. In 1863 General Lee invaded the state, coming from the South by way of the Shenandoah Valley, and was signally defeated in a three days' battle on the 1st, 2d, and 3rd of July at Gettysburg by the Union army under General George G. Meade. This battle has been recognized as the most important in the Civil War, as the success of the Confederate forces would have imperilled Philadelphia and New York and might have led to the final triumph of the Confederacy.

II. ETHNOLOGY AND DENOMINATIONAL STATISTICS

It has been said of Pennsylvania that no other American colony had "such a mixture of languages, nationalities and religions. Dutch, Swedes, English, Germans, Scotch-Irish and Welsh ; Quakers, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Tunkers and Moravians all had a share in creating it" (Fisher). The eastern part of the state, especially the counties immediately adjoining Philadelphia, was settled by a homogeneous population principally of English descent, though there was a large German community near Philadelphia at Germantown. Westward, the County of Lancaster was largely settled by Germans, who brought with them a special knowledge of, and aptitude for, agriculture, with the result that a naturally rich county became one of the most productive in the United States especially of tobacco and cereals. There is also a large German population in Berks County, where a dialect of the German language is very generally spoken. The first German settlements were made by the Tunkers, now known as Dunkers, or Dunkards, between 1720 and 1729. They were followed by the Schwenkfelders, from the Rhine Valley, Alsatia, Suabia, Saxony, and the Palatinate. Members of the Lutheran Reformed Congregations came between 1730 and 1740. The Moravians settled Bethlehem in 1739, and the so-called Scotch-Irish immigrants from the North of Ireland, settled in Lehigh, Bucks, and Lancaster Counties, and in the Cumberland Valley, between 1700 and 1750. The Welsh came to Pennsylvania previous to 1682, and were the most numerous class of immigrants up to that date. They were assigned a tract of land west of the Schuylkill River, known as "the Welsh Tract", where to this day their geographical names remain.

In 1906 the population of Pennsylvania was the second in size among the states of the Union, being estimated at 6,928,515. Of these 2,977,022 (or 43 percent) were church members: 1,717,037 Protestants, and 1,214,734 Catholics. The latest census of Catholics (1910) for the entire state shows 1,494,766, of whom 38,235 were coloured. The Protestant denominations in 1906 were divided as follows: Methodists, 363,443; Lutherans, 335,643; Presbyterians, 322,542; Reformed, 181,350; Baptists, 141,694; Episcopalians, 99,021; United Brethren, 55,571; all others, 217,773. The first Protestant Episcopal church (Christ Church ) was built in Philadelphia in 1695. Pennsylvania is the second state in the Union in the number of church members and first in the number of church organizations. The value of church property is $173,605,141, being 13 percent of all the property in the state. Of the entire population in 1906, 57 percent professed no religion as against 67.2 percent in 1900. The largest immigration from Ireland to the United States, following the famine of 1847-49, added greatly to the Catholic population of Pennsylvania, which has shown a steady increase. Of recent years missions have been established for the special benefit of the coloured people of Philadelphia, where two churches are now especially devoted to these missions.

III. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

A. Population

The United States Census of 1910 gives the population of Pennsylvania as 7,665,111 (a little more than 181.57 to the square mile). Of this number 1,549,008 belonged to Philadelphia and 533,905 to Pittsburg. Thus Philadelphia had maintained its position as the third city of the United States in population, while Pittsburg (with the accession of Allegheny, incorporated with it since the Census of 1900) stood eighth. The Census of 1910 shows an increase of more than 21.62 percent in the population of the state during the first decade of the twentieth century. The Census report of the foreign-born white and of the coloured population for 1910 (respectively 982,543 and 156,845 in 1900) had not become accessible when this article was prepared. The German and Irish elements exceed by far all other nationalities among the foreign born. In 1910 the largest cities in the state, after Philadelphia and Pittsburg, were Harrisburg, the capital (pop. 64,186), Scranton (129,867), Reading (96,071), Wilkes-Barre (67,105), and Johnstown (55,482). Pennsylvania is entitled to thirty-two representatives in the Congress of the United States and thirty-four votes in the Presidential Electoral College. With the exception of a few cities, the distribution of the population is less dense than in most of the Eastern States. A comparatively small proportion of the population is engaged in agriculture, mining and manufacturing being the principal industries.

B. Material Resources

Until 1880 Pennsylvania was pre-eminent as the lumber state, but its activity in this industry has since been far exceeded in the Southern and North-Western States. In 1900 about 2,313,267 million feet of lumber were cut in Pennsylvania -- about one-half of the output of the State of Michigan. In the last ten years the output has decreased. The estimated product for the year 1907 amounted to $31,251,817, at the rate of $18.02 per million feet. Efforts towards conservation and systematic forestry have of late years received considerable impetus. The state is extremely rich in coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, slate, and limestones. Anthracite coal was discovered in Pennsylvania as early as 1768, and the first regular shipments were made in 1820. The anthracite coal fields in the eastern portions of the state are about 500 square miles in area, while the bituminous coal and petroleum fields of the western and north-central sections cover about 9000 square miles. The United States Conservation Commission estimated, in 1910, that there were 117,593,000,000 tons of coal in Pennsylvania. The total output of bituminous coal in 1907 for the Pennsylvanian mines was 149,759,089 American tons (of 2000 lbs. each); of anthracite, 86,279,719 Am. tons; so that the state contributed in that year very nearly 50 percent of the whole output of coal of the United States. In the following year (1908), owing to the general depression in industries, Pennsylvania produced only 118,313,525 tons of bituminous coal. The first oil well in Pennsylvania was discovered in 1860, and in the next following thirty years the state produced 1,006,000,000 barrels of petroleum. The state stands first in the production of coke, the output being normally more than half that of all the United States. The output of pig iron for 1908 was 6,973,621 gross tons, or 43.8 percent of the entire product of the United States, valued at $110,987,346 (about £22,197,468). The first Bessemer steel rails were rolled at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in 1867. The annual product of iron and steel manufactures is over $200,000,000; they employ 54,000 persons, whose earnings amount to $34,000,000. Pennsylvania also stands first in the production of slate and limestone, contributing two-thirds of the whole output of slate of the United States . It ranks third in the production of sandstone. The total value of its output of quarried stone in 1908 was $4,000,000.

As a manufacturing state, Pennsylvania stands second in the United States. In 1904 it had an invested capital of $1,990,836,988 in manufactures, employing 763,282 wage earners receiving $367,960,890 per annum and producing $1,955,551,332 in value of finished goods, including, besides iron and steel, textiles of various kinds, knitted goods, felt, etc. In 1908 there were 3848 industrial establishments with a total capital of $1,126,406,558, employing 756,600 wage earners, of whom 126,000 were women. This state leads among the Middle States in cotton and exceeds all of the United States in woollen manufactures. The first company to spin yarn by machinery was founded at Philadelphia in 1775. A sale of prints and linens took place in 1789. In 1850 Philadelphia was the leading city of the world in the number of its textile works. In 1899 there were 813 cotton and woollen factories, producing a value of $116,850,782. In 1907, 157 silk plants produced a value of $52,780,830. The agricultural wealth of the state is also considerable, although only 28 percent of its land is under cultivation. The leading crops are hay, corn, oats, wheat, potatoes, and tobacco, aggregating for the year 1908 a value of $166,173,000. The value of farm animals in 1908 was $145,803,000. The dairy industry in that year, aside from the milk product, was valued at $41,250,000, while tobacco amounted to $3,948,134.

C. Communications

In 1827 the first railroad in the state, nine miles in length, was opened between Mauch Chunk and Summit Hill. In 1842 the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad penetrated the coal regions, and in 1854 the Pennsylvania Railroad between Pittsburg and Philadelphia was opened for traffic. Pennsylvania has 22.96 miles of track for every hundred miles of area. The total assessment of steam railroads operating any portions of their lines within the state is $4,686,281,066 -- one-third of the assets of all the railroads of the United States. The total earnings for the year ending 13 November, 1908, of the railroads of Pennsylvania subject to taxation were $824,213,593. During that year there were 262,570,546 passengers carried and 81,454,385,026 mile-tons of freight. The street railways show a total capitalization of $484,545,694.

IV. EDUCATION

A. General

The common school system of education is universal throughout the Commonwealth in every county, township, borough, and city. Each constitutes a separate school district, and new districts are formed as required under the direction of the Court of Quarter Sessions. School directors are elected annually in each district, two qualified citizens being chosen for a term of three years, there being six directors in all. School directors receive no pay, but are exempt from military duty and from serving in any borough or township office. They must hold at least one meeting in every three months and such other meetings as the circumstances of the district may require. It is their duty to establish a sufficient number of common schools for the education of every individual over the age of six years and under the age of twenty-one in their respective districts. They appoint all teachers, fix their salaries, and dismiss them for cause; direct what branches of learning are to be taught in each school, and what books to be used; suspend or expel pupils for cause. They report to the county superintendent, setting forth the number and situation of the schools in their districts, the character of the teachers, amount of taxes, etc. Where land cannot be obtained for schools by agreement of the parties, school directors may enter and occupy such land as they deem fit not exceeding one acre. Free evening schools must be kept open on the application of twenty or more pupils or their parents, for the teaching of orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, and other branches to pupils who are unable to attend the day schools, for a term of not less than four months in each year. Twenty days' actual teaching constitutes one school month. Schools are closed on Saturdays and legal holidays. High schools may be established in districts having a population of over 5000.

In Penn's charter it was provided that the Government and councils should erect and order all public schools, and before Penn there had been a school taught by Swedes. In 1706 land to the extent of 60,000 acres was set aside for the support of schools. The Constitution of 1790 required the Legislature to provide by law for the establishment of schools throughout the state in such manner that the poor might be taught gratis. The University of Pennsylvania dates from the year 1740. The report of the superintendent of education for the year 1908 shows the number of schools to have been 33,171, taught by 7488 male and 26,525 female teachers, the number of pupils amounting to 1,231,200 and in daily attendance 951,670. The total expenditure for school purposes for that year was more than $34,000,000; the estimated value of school property exceeded $90,000,000. There were in that year thirteen normal schools, seven theological seminaries, three medical colleges, one veterinary college, one college of pharmacy, four dental schools, two law schools, thirty-five colleges and universities, employing 1914 instructors, with an attendance of 12,211 male and 3189 female students.

B. Catholic

Prior to the Revolution, and for some years after it, Philadelphia was the largest city, and St. Mary's the largest Catholic parish in the United States. A parochial school was established in that parish in 1782. This was an English school. Subsequently German schools were established at Goshenhoppen, Berks County, at Lancaster, Hanover, and other places under the auspices of the German Jesuits. In Western Pennsylvania the first Catholic school was established at Sportsman's Hall, Westmoreland County, some time after 1787, where subsequently the Benedictines built St. Vincent's Abbey and College, the motherhouse of this religious order in the United States. Father Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin established a Catholic colony in Cambria County in 1799 and in 1800 opened a school at Loretto. The first Catholic church at Pittsburg was built in 1811, and in 1828 a community of the Order of St. Clare, coming from Belgium, established a convent and academy. In 1835 the sisters took charge of the dayschools at Pittsburg and opened an academy for more advanced pupils. They opened a school at Harrisburg in 1828; one at McSherrytown in 1830; one at Pottsville in 1836. The Catholic educational system has been gradually developed since that date until now, in all the dioceses of Pennsylvania, there is a carefully graded system of parochial schools, there being in attendance in the various dioceses 225,224 pupils, who are taught by 2896 religious and lay teachers in 443 schools, irrespective of those who are instructed in the various orphan asylums and charitable institutions of the different dioceses. The course of instruction is graded in the Diocese of Philadelphia, covering Christian doctrine, English, penmanship, arithmetic, algebra, geography, history, civil government, vocal music (including Gregorian ), drawing, elementary science. Institutions for higher education are, with a few exceptions, in the hands of the teaching orders and are not an integral part of the parochial school system. The cost of maintenance of the Catholic educational system is defrayed by voluntary contributions.

V. RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS

A. Development of the Church

The State of Pennsylvania historically coincides with the ecclesiastical Province of Philadelphia, composed of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia and the five suffragan Dioceses of Pittsburg, Erie, Harrisburg, Scranton, and Altoona. (See the special articles on these dioceses respectively.) The Catholic population in Pennsylvania owes its existence mainly to early immigration from Ireland and Germany, though of recent years many Poles, Hungarians, and Italians have swelled its numbers. The first Catholic resident of Philadelphia, a German, came with Daniel Pastorius, the founder of Germantown, in 1683. In 1685 J. Gray, of London, having obtained a grant of land, settled in Pennsylvania, where he changed his name to John Tatham. In 1690 he was appointed Governor of West Jersey, but was unable to take oath of allegiance to William and Mary. He seems to have been a friend of William Penn. The first priest who can be accurately traced in Pennsylvania was the Reverend John Pierron , of Canada, who in 1673-74 made a tour through Maryland, Virginia, and New England.

The orderly history of the Church in Pennsylvania begins in 1720, when the Rev. Joseph Wheaton, S.J., formed the first parish. The first church, St. Joseph's, was begun in 1733. Its congregation consisted of 22 Irish and 15 Germans, and in 1787 its membership had increased to about 3000. In 1727 there came to Philadelphia 1155 Irish besides their servants. Later in the same year 5600 arrived, and 5655 in 1729. This migration resulted from the unjust laws which were then afflicting the Catholics and Dissenters in Ireland. The same laws drove from the North of Ireland, between 1700 and 1750, some 200,000 Presbyterians, most of whom came to America, and largely to Pennsylvania. In 1771, when Richard Penn succeeded John Penn, in the government of Pennsylvania, the Catholics of Philadelphia, through their rector, the Rev. Robert Harding, presented their congratulations, which were most cordially received. When the Revolution broke out, the comparatively small body of Catholic inhabitants furnished a number of men who attained distinction in the military, naval, or political service, among them being Commodore John Barry, Thomas Fitzsimmons, Stephen Moylan, and George Meade. In 1780, on the occasion of the Requiem Mass for Don Juan de Miralles, the Spanish agent in Philadelphia, Congress assisted in a body together with several general officers and distinguished citizens. After the surrender at Yorktown a Mass of thanksgiving was celebrated in St. Mary's Church, a chaplain of the French Ambassador preaching the sermon.

Prior to the Revolution, as early as 1768, the German Catholics of Philadelphia had obtained property upon which subsequently was erected Holy Trinity Church, which was afterwards incorporated and, in 1789, dedicated. St. Mary's Church, from which Holy Trinity was an offshoot, was dedicated in 1788. The clergy of the United States was reinforced by a body of French priests who arrived at Philadelphia in 1792 and were distributed among various American churches. In 1793 a large number of fugitives came from the French Islands of the West Indies, and it was supposed that an epidemic of yellow fever which broke out soon after was brought by them. All the ministers of the various denominations zealously attended the sick, and many fell victims, including two of the Catholic clergy.

In 1788 Very Rev. John Carroll was elected Bishop of Baltimore with jurisdiction over all the American churches, including Philadelphia. He was consecrated on the 15th of August, 1790, at Lullworth, Dorchester, England.

In 1808 the Diocese of Philadelphia was separated from that of Baltimore (then ruled by Bishop John Carroll ), the Dioceses of New York, Boston, and Bardstown being created at the same time. Michael Egan became the first Bishop of Philadelphia, the diocese included the entire State of Pennsylvania and the western and southern parts of New Jersey. In 1843 the Diocese of Pittsburg was established, and took away from Philadelphia a number of the western counties of the state. In 1853 the Diocese of Erie was erected out of the Diocese of Pittsburg, and in the same year the jurisdiction of Philadelphia over a part of New Jersey was transferred to the Diocese of Newark . In 1868 the two Dioceses of Scranton and Harrisburg were created, Philadelphia being left with Carbon, Chester, Delaware, Lehigh, Montgomery, Northampton, and Schuylkill. In 1901 the Diocese of Altoona was constituted out of the Harrisburg territory together with part of that of Pittsburg. In 1875 Philadelphia was made a metropolitan see, Bishop Wood being appointed Archbishop. The first Provincial Council was held on 23 May, 1880.

B. Laws Relating to Religion

By the Constitution of Pennsylvania (Art. I., Sec. 3) it is declared that "All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences ; no man can of right be compelled to attend, erect or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent ; no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience, and no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishments or modes of worship". It has been held, however, that Christianity is a part of the common law of Pennsylvania; not Christianity founded on any particular tenets, but Christianity with liberty of conscience to all men (11 S. & R., 394; 26 Pa., 342; 2 How., 199). This liberty does not include the right to carry out every scheme claimed to be part of a religious system. Thus, a Municipal Ordinance forbidding the use of drums by a religious body in the streets of a city is valid (11 Pa., 335). The constitution further provides that "no person who acknowledges the being of a God and a future state of rewards and punishments shall, on account of his religious sentiments, be disqualified to hold any office or place of trust or profit under this commonwealth" (Sec. 4). Therefore, the exclusion of a Sister of Charity from employment as a teacher in the public schools, because she is a Roman Catholic, would be unlawful (164 Pa., 629); now, however, she cannot teach while wearing her religious garb. An Act of Assembly prohibiting the transaction of worldly business on Sunday does not encroach upon the liberty of conscience. It is therefore constitutional. Until a recent Act of Assembly, witnesses in Court were required to believe in a Supreme Being, although their religious opinions were not such as are generally accepted by orthodox Christians. Now, however, it is not necessary that witnesses should have any belief in the existence of a God, their credibility being a question for the jury.

By an Act of Assembly blasphemy and profanity in the use of the names of the Almighty, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, or the Scriptures of Truth, are criminal offences. This is a re-enactment of a provincial law as old as 1700. The sessions of the Legislature are opened with prayer. Christmas Day and Good Friday are among the legal holidays. Five or more persons may form a church corporation for the support of public worship. All churches, meeting houses, or other regular places of stated worship, with the grounds thereto annexed necessary for the occupancy and enjoyment of the same, all burial grounds not used or held for private or corporate profit, together with certain other specified kinds of property devoted to education and benevolence, are exempted from taxation of all sorts. Marriage cannot be solemnized without a licence. Under the Act of 1700, all marriages not forbidden by the law of God are encouraged; but the parents or guardians shall, if conveniently they can, be first consulted, and the parties' freedom from all engagements established. Under the Act of 24 June, 1901 (P. L. 579, Sec. 1), the marriage of first cousins is prohibited, and such marriages are void. The subsequent marriage of parents legitimizes their children under the Act of 14 May, 1857. (P. L., 507, Sec. 1.) Since the Act of 11 April, 1848, all property belonging to women before marriage or accruing to them afterwards shall continue as their separate property after marriage. But a woman may not become accommodation indorser, maker, guarantor, or surety for another, nor may she execute or acknowledge a deed or writing, etc., of her real estate unless her husband joins in such mortgage or conveyance (Act of 8 June, 1893). The separate earnings of a married woman are under her separate control and not liable for the debts or obligations of her husband. Under certain circumstances, a married woman may bring a suit without the intervention of a trustee, but husband and wife cannot sue one another. A married woman may loan money to, and take security from, her husband. A husband is not liable for the wife's debts incurred before her marriage. Absolute divorces may be granted for impotence, bigamy, adultery, cruelty, desertion, force, fraud, or coercion, and for conviction of forgery or infamous crime. The plaintiff must reside within the state for at least one whole year previous to the filing of the petition. A person divorced for adultery cannot marry the paramour during the life of the former husband or wife. Divorces from bed and board are allowed for practically the same causes as absolute divorces. Marriages may be annulled for the usual causes, but proceedings must be taken under the Divorce Acts.

A Board of Public Charities, consisting of five commissioners, is appointed by the governor with the duty of visiting all charitable and correctional institutions at least once a year, examining the returns of the several cities, counties, wards, boroughs, and townships in relation to the support of paupers and in relation to births, deaths, and marriages, and make an annual report as to the causes and best treatment of pauperism, crime, disease, and insanity, together with all desirable information concerning the industrial and material interests of the commonwealth bearing upon these subjects. They have the power of examining the various charitable, reformatory, and correctional institutions, including the city and county jails, prisons, and almshouses, and are required to submit an annual report to the Legislature. Institutions seeking state aid are expected to give notice to the Board, which is to inquire carefully into the grounds for the request and report its conclusions to the Legislature. Before any county prison or almshouse shall be erected the plans must be submitted to the Board.

Prisoners confined in any prison, reformatory, or other institution have the privilege of practising the religion of their choice, and are at liberty to procure the services of any minister connected with any religious denomination in the state, providing such service shall be personal and not interfere with the established order of the religious service in the institution. Established services shall not be of a sectarian character. By an Act of Assembly passed in 1903, the active or visiting committee of any society, existing for the purpose of visiting and instructing prisoners, are constituted official visitors of jails and penitentiaries, and are permitted under reasonable rules and regulations to make visits accordingly.

Intoxicating liquors cannot lawfully be sold in Pennsylvania except under a licence granted by the Court of Quarter Sessions. The sale of liquor on Sunday is forbidden. It is a misdemeanor for any person engaged in the sale or manufacture of intoxicating liquors to employ an intemperate person to assist in such manufacture or sale, or by gift or sale to furnish liquor to anyone known to be of intemperate habits, or

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Pápago Indians

An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock, speaking a dialect of the Pima language and ...

Pázmány, Peter

A famous Hungarian ecclesiastic of the seventeenth century; died 19 March, 1637. He was born of ...

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Pérez de Hita, Ginés

Spanish writer, born at Murcia. Little is known of his life except that he lived during the ...

Périgueux

(PETROCORICENSIS) Comprises the Department of Dordogne and is suffragan to the Archbishopric of ...

Pétau, Denis

(DIONYSIUS PETAVIUS) One of the most distinguished theologians of the seventeenth century, ...

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Pacandus

Titular see, recorded under "Pacanden." Among the titular sees in the official list of the Curia ...

Pacca, Bartolommeo

Cardinal, scholar, and statesman, b. at Benevento, 27 Dec., 1756; d. at Rome, 19 Feb., 1844; ...

Pachomius, Saint

Died about 346. The main facts of his life will be found in MONASTICISM (Section II: Eastern ...

Pachtler, George Michael

Controversial and educational writer, b. at Mergentheim, Wurtemberg, 14 Sept., 1825; d. at ...

Pacificus

A disciple of St. Francis of Assisi, born probably near Ascoli, Italy, in the second half of ...

Pacificus of Ceredano, Blessed

(Also known as Pacificus of Novara, or Novariensis ). Born 1420 at Cerano, in the Diocese ...

Pacificus of San Severino, Saint

Born at San Severino, in the parents died soon after his confirmation when three years old; he ...

Pacioli, Lucas

(Paciuolo.) Mathematician, born at Borgo San Sepolco, Tuscany, toward the middle of the ...

Paderborn

(Paderbornensis) Suffragan diocese of Cologne, includes: the District of Minden, ...

Padilla, Juan de

Friar Minor, protomartyr of the United States of America , member of the Andalusian province, ...

Padua

(Patavina) Diocese in northern Italy. The city is situated on a fertile plain and is ...

Padua, University of

The University of Padua dates, according to some anonymous chronicles (Muratori, "Rer. Ital. ...

Paganism

Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, ...

Pagano, Mario

Jurisconsult and man of letters, born in Brienza, Province of Salerno, 8 Dec., 1748; died at ...

Page, Venerable Anthony

English martyr, born at Harrow-on-the-Hill, Middlesex, 1571; died at York, 20 or 30 April, 1593. ...

Pagi, Antoine

French ecclesiastical historian. Born 31 March, 1624, at Rognes in the Department of ...

Pagi, François

French ecclesiastical historian, nephew of Antoine Pagi. Born 7 September, 1654, at Lambesc in ...

Pagnino, Santes

(Or XANTES) A Dominican, born 1470 at Lucca, Tuscany ; died 24 Aug., 1541, at Lyons, one of ...

Painting, Religious

Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. From the time of the ...

Pakawá Indians

(Also written Pacoá) One of a group of cognate tribes, hence designated the ...

Palæography

( palaia , "ancient", graphe , "writing") The art of deciphering ancient writing in ...

Palæontology

( logos ton palaion onton ) Palæ ontology, or the science of fossils, deals with ...

Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de

Bishop of La Puebla de Los Angeles, b. at Fitero in Navarre, 24 June, 1600; d. at Osma in ...

Palasor, Venerable Thomas

( Or Palliser). English martyr, born at Ellerton-upon-Swale, parish of Catterick, North ...

Palatinate, Rhenish

( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

Palatini

( Latin palatium , palace) The designation, primarily, of certain high officials in the ...

Palawan

Prefecture Apostolic in the Philippine Islands ; comprises Palawan, Cuyo, Culion, Twahig, and ...

Palencia

(PALENTINA) This Diocese comprises the civil provinces of Palencia, Santander, Valladolid, ...

Paleopolis

(Palæopolis) A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The history of this ...

Paleotti, Gabriele

Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna. Born at Bologna, 4 October, 1522; died at Rome, 22 July, ...

Palermo

Archdiocese of Palermo (Panormitana), in Sicily. The city is built on an inlet of the ...

Palermo, University of

The Convent of St. Dominic of Palermo may be considered the nucleus of the future University of ...

Palestrina

(PBÆNESTINENSIS) The town of Palestrina, in the province of Rome, central Italy, is the ...

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da

The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time, born at Palestrina (ancient ...

Paley, Frederick Apthorp

Classical scholar, born at Easingwold near York, 14 Jan., 1815; died at Bournemouth, 9 December, ...

Pall

A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque ...

Pall, Funeral

A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

Palladio, Andrea

Italian architect, born at Vicenza 1508; died at Venice, 19 August, 1580. There is a tradition ...

Palladius

( Palladios ) Born in Galatia, 368; died probably before 431. The identity of the author of ...

Palladius, Saint

First bishop sent by Pope Celestine to Ireland (431). The chronicle of the contemporary St. ...

Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza

A cardinal, born 28 Nov., 1607; died 5 June, 1667. Descended from the line of Parma of the ...

Pallium

Form and Use of the Modern Pallium The modern pallium is a circular band about two inches wide, ...

Pallotti, Vincent Mary

The founder of the Pious Society of Missions , born at Rome, 21 April, 1798 [other sources say ...

Palm in Christian Symbolism

In pre-Christian times the palm was regarded as a symbol of victory (Aulus Gellius, "Noct. Att.", ...

Palm Sunday

The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week, a Sunday of the highest rank, ...

Palma Vecchio

(JACOPO NIGRETI) Born at Serinalta near Bergamo, about 1480; d. at Venice, 30 July 1528. ...

Palmer, William

Born at Mixbury, Oxfordshire, 12 July, 1811; died at Rome, 4 April, 1879; the elder brother of ...

Palmieri, Domenico

A theologian, born at Piacenza, Italy, 4 July, 1829; died in Rome, 29 May, 1909. He studied in ...

Palmieri, Luigi

Physicist and meteorologist, b. at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy, 22 April, 1807; d. in Naples, 9 ...

Palmyra

Titular metropolitan see in Phoenicia Secunda. Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:18 ) built Palmira (A. V. ...

Palou, Francisco

A Friar Minor, born at Palma, Island of Majorca, about 1722; died in 1789 or 1790. He entered the ...

Paltus

A titular see and suffragan of Seleucia Pieria in Syria Prima. The town was founded by a ...

Paludanus, Peter

(PETRUS DE PALUDE) A theologian and archbishop, born in the County of Bresse, Savoy, about ...

Pamelius

(Jacques de Joigny De Pamele). Belgian theologian, born at Bruges, Flanders, 13 May, 1536; ...

Pamiers

(APAMÆA) A Diocese comprising the Department of Ariège, and suffragan of ...

Pammachius, Saint

Roman senator, d. about 409. In youth he frequented the schools of rehetoric with St. Jerome. In ...

Pamphilus of Cæsarea, Saint

Martyred 309. Eusebius's life of Pamphilus is lost, but from his "Martyrs of Palestine" we ...

Pamplona

(PAMPILONENSIS) This Diocese comprises almost all of Navarre and part of Guipuzcoa. This ...

Panama

Located in Central America, occupies the Isthmus of Panama, or Darien, which extends east and west ...

Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints

The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

Pandects

(PANDECTÆ, or DIGESTA) This part of Justinian's compilation was his most important ...

Pandulph

A papal legate and Bishop of Norwich, died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1226. He is commonly but ...

Panemotichus

A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. Panemotichus coined money during the ...

Pange Lingua Gloriosi

The opening words of two hymns celebrating respectively the Passion and the Blessed Sacrament. ...

Panigarola, Francesco

A preacher and controversialist, Bishop of Asti, born at Milan, 6 Feb., 1548; died at Asti, 31 ...

Pannartz, Arnold

See also KONRAD SWEYNHEIM . Both printers; Pannartz died about 1476, Sweinheim in 1477. ...

Pano Indians

A former important mission tribe on the middle Ucayali River, Peru, being the principal of a group ...

Panopolis

A titular see, suffragan of Antinoe in Thebais Prima; the ancient Apu or Khimmin which the ...

Panpsychism

(Greek pan , all; psyche , soul ) Panpsychism is a philosophical theory which holds ...

Pantænus

Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180 ( Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, x), still ...

Pantaleon, Saint

Martyr, died about 305. According to legend he was the son of a rich pagan, Eustorgius of ...

Pantheism

(From Greek pan , all; theos , god). The view according to which God and the world are ...

Panvinio, Onofrio

Historian and archaeologist, born at Verona, 23 February, 1530; died at Palermo, 7 April, 1568. ...

Panzani, Gregorio

Bishop of Mileto, died early in 1662. He was a secular priest of Arezzo, having left the ...

Paoli, Venerable Angelo

Born at Argigliano, Tuscany, 1 Sept., 1642; died at Rome, 17 January, 1720. The son of Angelo ...

Papacy, The

This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of ...

Papal Arbitration

An institution almost coeval with the papacy itself. The principle of arbitration presupposes ...

Papal Elections

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Papal Mint

The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

Papal Rescripts

( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

Papal States

( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...

Paphnutius

I The most celebrated personage of this name was bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the ...

Paphos

A titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. There were two towns of this name, Old Paphos ...

Papias, Saint

Bishop of Hierapolis (close to Laodicea and Coloss Colossae aelig; in the valley of the ...

Papiensis, Bernardus

An Italian canonist of the thirteenth century; died 18 Sept., 1213. He was born at Pavia, ...

Papini, Nicholas

An historian, born at San Giovanni Valdarno, between Florence and Arezzo, about 1751; died at ...

Parætonium

Parætonium, a titular see of Lybia Secunda or Inferior (i.e. Marmarica), suffragan of ...

Paré, Ambroise

French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, department of Maine, 1517; died 20 ...

Parœcopolis

A titular see of Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (III, 13, ...

Para du Phanjas, François

Writer, b. at the castle of Phanja Champsaur, Basses-Alpes, 1724; d. at Paris, 1797. After his ...

Parables

The word parable (Hebrew mashal ; Syrian mathla , Greek parabole ) signifies in general ...

Parabolani

paraboloi, parabalanoi The members of a brotherhood who in the Early Church voluntarily ...

Paracelsus, Theophrastus

Celebrated physician and reformer of therapeutics, b. at the Sihlbrücke, near Einsiedeln, ...

Paraclete

Paraclete, Comforter (L. Consolator ; Greek parakletos ), an appellation of the Holy Ghost. ...

Paradise, Terrestrial

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Paraguay

One of the inland republics of South America, separated from Spain and constituted as an ...

Parahyba

(PARAHYBENESIS) Located in the State of Parahyba, Brazil, suffragan of Bahia, founded 27 ...

Paralipomenon, Books of

( Paraleipomenon ; Libri Paralipomenon ). Two books of the Bible containing a summary of ...

Parallelism

The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Either ...

Parallelism, Psycho-Physical

A doctrine which states that the relation between mental processes, on the one hand, and ...

Paralus

A titular see, suffragan of Cabasa in Ægyptus Secunda. One of the seven mouths of the ...

Paraná

(PARANENSIS) Suffragan of Buenos Aires, in Argentina until recently, comprised two civil ...

Parasceve

(Gr. paraskevé ); seems to have supplanted the older term prosábbaton , used ...

Paray-le-Monial

A town of five thousand inhabitants in the Department of Sâone-Loire, Diocese of Autun , ...

Pardies, Ignace-Gaston

French scientist, b. at Pau, 5 Sept., 1636; d. of fever contracted whilst ministering to the ...

Pardons of Brittany

Pardon, from the Latin perdonare , — assimilated in form to donum , a gift, middle ...

Paredes, Blessed Mary Anne de

Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

Pareja, Francisco

Missionary, probably born at Auñon in the Diocese of Toledo, Spain, date unknown; died ...

Parents

( Latin parere , to beget) I. DUTIES OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR CHILDREN In the old pagan ...

Parenzo-Pola

(PARENTINA-POLENSIS) The little town of Parenzo is picturesquely situated on a promontory ...

Parini, Giuseppe

Italian poet, born at Bosisio, 23 May, 1729; died at Milan, 15 Aug., 1799. Parini was early ...

Paris

ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS (PARIBIENSIS) See also UNIVERSITY OF PARIS . Paris comprises the ...

Paris Commune, Martyrs of the

The secular priests and the religious who were murdered in Paris, in May 1871, on account of ...

Paris, Alexis-Paulin

Philologist, born at Avenay, Marne, France, 25 March, 1800; died 13 Feb., 1881. Having finished ...

Paris, Gaston-Bruno-Paulin

A French philologist, son of Paulin, born at Avenay (Marne), 9 August, 1839; died at Cannes, 6 ...

Paris, Matthew

Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1200; d. 1259. There seems no reason to infer from the ...

Paris, University of

See also ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS . Origin and Early Organization Three schools were especially ...

Parish

(Latin par&ligcia, parochia , Greek paroikia , a group of neighbouring dwellings). I. ...

Parium

Titular see, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontus. The Acts of the martyr St. Onesiphorus ...

Park, Abbey of the

Located half a mile south of Louvain, Belgium, founded in 1129 by Duke Godfrey, surnamed ...

Parkinson, Anthony

An historian, born in England, 1667; died there 30 January, 1728. In 1692 he was appointed ...

Parlais

A titular see of Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. As a Roman colony it was called Julia Augusta ...

Parlatore, Filippo

Italian botanist, b. at Palermo, 8 Aug., 1816; d. at Florence, 9 Sept., 1877, a devout and ...

Parma

Located in central Italy. The city is situated on the river of the same name, an affluent of the ...

Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin

An agriculturist, born at Montdidier, 17 August, 1737; died in Paris, 13 Dec., 1813. Left an orphan ...

Parmigiano, Il

(THE PARMESAN) The current name of FRANCESCO MAZZUOLA, MAZZOLA, MAZZUOLI, or MAZZOLI, Italian ...

Parnassus

A titular see in Cappadocia Secunda, suffragan of Mocessus. Situated between Ancyra and ...

Parochial Mass

The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

Parochial Missions, Catholic

This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

Parrenin, Dominique

Born at Russey, near Besançon, 1 Sept., 1665; died at Pekin, 29 Sept., 1741. He entered ...

Parsis

(PARSEES). A small community in India, adherents of the Zoroastrian religion and originally ...

Particular Judgment

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

Partnership

Partnership, an unincorporated association of two or more persons, known as partners, having for ...

Paruta, Paolo

Venetian historian and statesman, born at Venice, 14 May, 1540; died there, 6 Dec., 1598. Of a ...

Pascal Baylon, Saint

Born at Torre-Hermosa, in the Kingdom of Aragon, 24 May, 1540, on the Feast of Pentecost, called ...

Pascal, Blaise

Born at Clermont-Ferrand, 19 June 1623; died in Paris, 19 August 1662. He was the son of Etienne ...

Pasch

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

Paschal Candle

The blessing of the "paschal candle ", which is a column of wax of exceptional size, usually ...

Paschal I, Pope

(817-824) The date of his birth is unknown; he died in April, May, or June, 824. He was the ...

Paschal II, Pope

(RAINERIUS). Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 ...

Paschal III (Antipope)

(GUIDO OF CREMA) The second antipope in the time of Alexander III. He was elected in 1164 ...

Paschal Lamb

A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

Paschal Tide

I. LITURGICAL ASPECT The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost are called by the older ...

Paschasius Radbertus, Saint

Theologian, b. at Soissons, 786; d. in the Monastery of Corbie, c. 860 (the date 865 is ...

Paschasius, Saint

A deacon of the Roman Church about 500; died after 511. Almost all that is known of Paschasius ...

Passaglia, Carlo

Born at Lucca, 9 May, 1812; died at Turin, 12 March, 1887. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Passau

(PASSAVIENSIS) Located in Bavaria, suffragan of Munich-Freising, including within its ...

Passerat, Joseph, Venerable

Born 30 April, 1772, at Joinville, France ; died 30 October, 1858. The difficulties he had to ...

Passignano, Domenico

(known as IL CRESTI, or IL PASSIGNANO, Cresti being his family name) A Venetian painter, ...

Passion Music

Precisely when, in the development of the liturgy, the history of the Passion of Our Lord ...

Passion of Christ, Commemoration of the

A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima. Its object is the devout remembrance and honour ...

Passion of Jesus Christ

See also THE PASSION OF CHRIST IN THE GOSPELS . The sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated ...

Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels

See also DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF CHRIST . We have in the Gospels four separate accounts ...

Passion Offices

The recitation of these offices, called also Of the Instruments of the Passion, was first granted ...

Passion Plays

The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle ...

Passion Sunday

The fifth Sunday of Lent, a Sunday of the first class, not permitting the celebration of any ...

Passionei, Domenico

A cardinal, theologian, born at Fossombrone, 2 Dec., 1682; died 5 July, 1761. Educated in the ...

Passionists

The full title of the Passionist institute is: The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most ...

Passions

By passions we are to understand here motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend ...

Passiontide

The two weeks between Passion Sunday and Easter. The last week is Holy Week, while the first ...

Passos

(Or, more fully, Santos Passos ) The Portuguese name locally used to designate certain ...

Passover

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

Pasteur, Louis

Chemist, founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics; born ...

Pasto, Diocese of

(PASTENSIS, PASTOPOLITANA). A Colombian see, suffragan of Popayan, from which it was separated ...

Pastor

This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls ( cura animarum ), that is, who is ...

Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus)

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Pastoral Staff

(Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...

Pastoral Theology

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Pastoureaux, Crusade of the

One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. ...

Patagonia

Patagonia is the name given to the southernmost extremity of South America. Its boundary on the ...

Patara

Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, formerly a large cornmercial town, opposite Rhodes. ...

Paten

The eucharistic vessel known as the paten is a small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon ...

Patenson, Venerable William

Venerable William Patenson, English martyr , born in Yorkshire or Durham ; died at Tyburn, 22 ...

Pater Noster

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Pathology, Mental

This subject will be considered under the following headings: I. Localization of Mental ...

Patmore, Coventry

One of the major poets of the nineteenth century, in spite of the small bulk of his verse, born at ...

Patmos

A small volcanic island in the Ægean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, to the south of Samos ...

Patras

A metropolitan see in Achaia. It was one of the twelve ancient cities of Achaia, built near ...

Patriarch

The word patriarch as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version, where ...

Patriarch and Patriarchate

Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. ...

Patrician Brothers

(Or BROTHERS OF SAINT PATRICK). This Brotherhood was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Daniel ...

Patrick's Purgatory, Saint

Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

Patrick, Saint

Apostle of Ireland, born at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, in Scotland, in the year 387; died at ...

Patrizi, Francis Xavier

Jesuit exegete, b. at Rome, 19 June, 1797; d. there 23 April, 1881. He was the eldest son and ...

Patrology

Patrology, the study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church, has more commonly been known ...

Patron and Patronage

I By the right of patronage ( ius patronatus ) is understood a determinate sum of rights ...

Patron Saints

A patron is one who has been assigned by a venerable tradition, or chosen by election, as a ...

Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the

It was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 6 May, 1679, for all the ...

Patti, Diocese of

(PACTENSIS) Patti, in the Province of Messina (Sicily), on the western shore of the gulf of ...

Paul and John, Saints

Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

Paul I, Pope

(757-67) Date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 28 June, 767. He was a brother of Stephen II. ...

Paul II, Pope

(PIETRO BARBO) Born at Venice, 1417; elected 30 August, 1464; died 26 July, 1471; son of ...

Paul III, Pope

(A LESSANDRO F ARNESE ). Born at Rome or Canino, 29 Feb., 1468; elected, 12 Oct., 1534; ...

Paul IV, Pope

(G IOVANNI P IETRO C ARAFFA ). Born near Benevento, 28 June, 1476; elected 23 May, ...

Paul of Burgos

(PAUL DE SANTA MARIA; Jewish name, SOLOMON HA-LEVI) A Spanish archbishop, lord chancellor and ...

Paul of Middelburg

A scientist and bishop, born in 1446 at Middelburg, the ancient capital of the province of ...

Paul of Samosata

Bishop of Antioch. Several synods, probably three, were held against him about 264-66. St. ...

Paul of the Cross, Saint

Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775. ...

Paul the Deacon

(Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

Paul the Hermit, Saint

There are three important versions of the Life of St. Paul: (1) the Latin version ( H ) of St. ...

Paul the Simple, Saint

The story of Paul, as Palladius heard it from men who had known St. Anthony, was as follows: ...

Paul V, Pope

(CAMILLO BORGHESE). Born at Rome, 17 Sept., 1550; elected 16 May, 1605; died 28 Jan., 1621. ...

Paul, Saint

I. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS A. Apocryphal Acts of St. Paul Professor Schmidt has published a ...

Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint

( San Paolo fuori le mura ). An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the ...

Paula, Saint

Born in Rome, 347; died at Bethlehem, 404. She belonged to one of the first families of Rome. ...

Pauli, Johannes

Born about 1455; died after 1530 in the monastery at Thann in Alsace. What little is known of ...

Paulicians

A dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. The origin of the name ...

Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo

(PHILIP WESDIN). Missionary and Orientalist, b. at Hoff in Lower Austria, 25 Apr., 1748; d. ...

Paulinus II, Saint

Born at Premariacco, near Cividale, Italy, about 730-40; died 802. Born probably of a Roman ...

Paulinus of Pella

Christian poet of the fifth century; b. at Pella in Macedonia, but of a Bordelaise family. He ...

Paulinus, Saint

Archbishop of York, died at Rochester, 10 October, 644. He was a Roman monk in St. Andrew's ...

Paulinus, Saint

(Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus). Born at Bordeaux about 354; died 22 June, 431. He ...

Paulist Fathers

Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

Paulists

From the time that the abode and virtues of St. Paul the first hermit were revealed to St. ...

Paulus Diaconus

(Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

Paulus Venetus

Theologian of the Hermits of the Order of Saint Augustine, born according to the chroniclers of ...

Pavia

(PAPIA) Located in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It is situated in a fertile plain; the city is ...

Pavia, University of

Pavia was, even in Roman times, a literary centre (Ennodius); as the capital of the Lombard ...

Pavillon, Nicolas

Bishop of Alet, b. at Paris 1597; d. at Alet, 1677. He joined the community of St-Lazare, ...

Pax

(Osculatorium, Tabula Pacis, Lapis Pacis). A tablet to be kissed. The primitive usage in the ...

Pax in the Liturgy

Pax vobis (or vobiscum ), like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum ), ...

Payeras, Mariano

Born 10 Oct., 1769, at Inca, Island of Majorca; died 28 April, 1823. He received the habit of St. ...

Payne, Blessed John

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

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Pe 170

Peña, Francisco

(PEGNA) A canonist, born at Villaroya de los Pinares, near Saragossa, about 1540; died at ...

Peñalver y Cardenas, Luis Ignatius

Bishop of New Orleans, Archbishop of Guatemala, son of a wealthy and noble family ; born ...

Peace Congresses

I. EARLY HISTORY The genesis of the idea of a meeting of representatives of different nations ...

Peace of the Church

This is the designation usually applied to the condition of the Church after the publication at ...

Peasants, War of the (1524-25)

A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany, the causes of which are disputed as a ...

Peba Indians

(Or Peva ) The principal of a small group of cognate tribes, comprising the Peba proper, ...

Pecham, John

(PECCHAM) Archbishop of Canterbury, born about 1240; died 6 December, 1292. His birthplace ...

Pecock, Reginald

(PEACOCK) Bishop of Chichester, born in North Wales about 1395; died at Thorney Abbey about ...

Pectoral

("Pectoral of judgment"). The original meaning of the Hebrew term has been lost, and little ...

Pectorale

( Crux Pectoralis ). The name of the cross used by the pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, ...

Pectorius of Autun

The name with which the important document frequently known as the Inscription of Autun ...

Pednelissus

(Petnelissus). A titular see in Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. In ancient times ...

Pedro de Cordova

Born at Cordova, Andalusia, Spain, about 1460; died on the Island of Santo Domingo, 1525. He ...

Pelagia

The name of several saints. The old Syrian martyrology gives the feast of a St. Pelagia of ...

Pelagius and Pelagianism

Pelagianism received its name from Pelagius and designates a heresy of the fifth century, which ...

Pelagius I, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died 3 March, 561, was a Roman of noble family ; his father, John, seems ...

Pelagius II, Pope

The date of whose birth is unknown, seemingly a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, as his ...

Pelargus, Ambrose

Theologian, born at Nidda, Hesse, about 1488; died at Trier, 1557. Stork (Greek Pelargon , ...

Pelisson-Fontanier, Paul

French writer, born at Béziers in 1624 of Protestant parents ; died at Versailles, 7 ...

Pella

A titular see and suffragan of Scythopolis in Palaestina Secunda. According to Stephanus ...

Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph

Born in Paris, 22 March, 1788; died there, 19 July, 1842. His father, Bertrand Pelletier, a ...

Pellico, Silvio

Italian author and patriot, born at Saluzzio, Italy, 24 June, 1788; died at Turin 31 Jan., ...

Pellissier, Guillaume

(PELLICIER) Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, about 1490; died at the castle of Montferraud, ...

Pelotas

(PELOTASENSIS) Located in Brazil, suffragan to Porto Alegre. By a decree of Pius X, dated ...

Pelouze, Théophile-Jules

Scientist, b. at Valognes, La Manche, 26 Feb., 1807; d. in Paris, 31 May or 1 June, 1867. He began ...

Peltrie, Madeleine de la

née CHAUVIGNY A French noblewoman, and foundress, born at Caen, 1603; died at Quebec, ...

Pelusium

A titular metropolitan see of Augustamnica Prima in Egypt, mentioned in Ezech., xxx, 15 sq., ...

Pembroke

(PEMBROKIENSIS) A suffragan of Ottawa, in Canada. The town of Pembroke has a beautiful ...

Penal Laws

This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

Penance (as a Virtue)

Penance ( poenitentia ) designates (1) a virtue ; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a ...

Penance, Sacrament of

Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

Pendleton, Henry

Controversialist, born at Manchester ; died in London, September, 1557; educated at Brasenose ...

Penelakut Indians

A small tribe of Salishan stock, speaking a dialect of the Cowichan language and occupying a ...

Penitentes, Los Hermanos

(The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

Penitential Canons

Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins. ...

Penitential Orders

A general name for religious congregations whose members are bound to perform extraordinary works ...

Penitents, Confraternities of

Congregations, with statutes prescribing various penitential works, such as fasting, the use of ...

Penne and Atri, Diocese of

(Pennensis et Atriensis). Penne is a city in the Province of Teramo, in the Abruzzi, central ...

Pennsylvania

One of the thirteen original United States of America , lies between 39° 43' and 42° 15' ...

Penobscot Indians

The principal tribe of the famous Abnaki confederacy of Maine, and the only one still keeping its ...

Pension, Ecclesiastical

The right to a certain sum of money to be paid yearly out of the revenues of a church or ...

Pentacomia

A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Areopolis or Rabbah. It was never a residential see; ...

Pentapolis

The word, occurring in Wisdom, x, 6, designates the region where stood the five cities ( pente, ...

Pentateuch

Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

Pentecost

A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

Pentecost (Jewish Feast)

The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. The term, adopted from the ...

Peoria

(PEORIENSIS). Diocese comprising that part of Central Illinois south of the Counties of ...

Peoria Indians

A principal tribe of the confederated Illinois Indians (q.v.) having their chief residence, in the ...

Pepin the Short

Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King ...

Peppergrass, Paul

Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass", born in ...

Perboyre, Blessed Jean-Gabriel

Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

Percy, Blessed Thomas

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Percy, John

( alias JOHN FISHER) Born at Holmeside, Durham, 27 Sep., 1569; died at London, 3 Dec., ...

Peregrinus

The canons of Priscillian, prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul in many (chiefly Spanish) ...

Pereira, Benedict

(PEREYRA, PERERA, PERERIUS) Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, born about 1535, at Ruzafa, ...

Perez, Juan

Died before 1513. At one time he held the office of contador or accountant to the Queen of ...

Perfection, Christian and Religious

A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect ...

Pergamus

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus. This city was situated on the banks of the Selinus. It was ...

Perge

Titular metropolitan see in Pamphylia Secunda. Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was ...

Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista

Born at Naples, 3 Jan., 1710; d. 16 March, 1736, at Pozzuoli, near Naples. This young man of ...

Pericui Indians

A rude and savage tribe, of unknown linguistic affinity, formerly occupying the extreme southern ...

Periodi

(P ETRI ) The name under which the Pseudo-Clementine writings are quoted by Epiphanius, ...

Periodical Literature, Catholic

The invention of printing, besides exerting a great influence on literature in general and on ...

Perjury

(Latin per , through and jurare , to swear) Perjury is the crime of taking a false oath. ...

Permaneder, Franz Michael

Canonist, b. at Traunstein, Bavaria, 12 Aug., 1794; d. at Ratisbon, 10 Oct., 1862. He studied ...

Pernter, Joseph Maria

Scientist, b. at Neumark, Tyrol, 15 March, 1848; d. at Arco, 20 Dec., 1908. He entered the ...

Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints

Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

Perpetual Adoration

A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed ...

Perpetual Adoration, Religious of

(Belgium) A congregation with simple vows, founded at Brussels, 1857, by Anna de Meeus, ...

Perpetual Adoration, Religious of the

A contemplative religious congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer (d. 1546), at ...

Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the

(Quimper, France ). An institute of nuns devoted to perpetual adoration of the Blessed ...

Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament

(Sacramentines.) Anton Le Quien, b. in Paris, 23 Feb., 1601, the founder of the first order ...

Perpetual Help, Our Lady of

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Perpetual Help, Our Lady of, Sisters of

A congregation founded in the parish of St. Damien, Bellechasse, P.Q., Canada, 28 August, 1892, ...

Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Perpetuus, Saint

Eighth Bishop of Tours, d. 1 January, or 8 December, 490, or 8 April, 491. He was a member of ...

Perpignan, Diocese of

(Perpinianum.) Comprises the Department of Pyrénées Orientales; created by the ...

Perpignan, University of

Peter IV of Aragon (1327-87), having conquered (1344) the town of Perpignan and reunited to his ...

Perraud, Adolphe

Cardinal and academician; b. at Lyons, France, 7 Feb., 1828; d. 18 Feb., 1906. He had a ...

Perrault, Charles

Writer, b. in Paris, 12 Jan., 1628; d. 16 May, 1703. His first literary attempts were a parody of ...

Perrault, Claude

Born at Paris, 1613; died there, 1688. He built the main eastern façade of the Louvre, ...

Perreyve, Henri

Born at Paris, 11 April, 1831; died there 18 June, 1865. His father was professor at the ...

Perrone, Giovanni

Jesuit theologian, b. at Chieri, Italy, 11 March, 1794; d. at Rome, 28 Aug., 1876. After studying ...

Perry, Stephen Joseph

Born in London, August, 1833; d. 27 Dec. 1889. He belonged to a well-known Catholic family. His ...

Persecution

GENERAL Persecution may be defined in general as the unlawful coercion of another's liberty or ...

Persecutions, Coptic

(ACCORDING TO GREEK AND LATIN SOURCES) During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria ...

Perseverance, Final

( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

Persia

The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Both Medes ...

Persian Rite

Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...

Persico, Ignatius

A cardinal, born 30 Jan., 1823, at Naples, Italy ; died 7 Dec., 1896. He entered the Capuchin ...

Person

The Latin word persona was originally used to denote the mask worn by an actor. From this it ...

Person, Ecclesiastical

In its etymological sense this expression signifies every person who forms a part of the external ...

Personality

It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of ...

Persons, Robert

(Also, but less correctly, P ARSONS ) Jesuit, b., at Nether Stowey, Somerset, 24 June, 1546; ...

Perth

(PERTHENSIS) Located in Western Australia, suffragan to Adelaide; bounded on the north by ...

Pertinax, Publius Helvius

Roman Emperor (31 Dec., 192), b. at Alba Pompeia, in Luguria, 1 August, 126; d. at Rome 28 ...

Peru

A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, ...

Perugia

(PERUSINA) Located in Umbria, Central Italy. The city is situated on a hill on the right of ...

Perugia, University of

One of the "free" universities of Italy, was erected into a studium generale on 8 Sept., 1308, ...

Perugino

(PIETRO VANNUCCI) An Italian painter, founder of the Umbrian school, born at Città ...

Peruzzi, Baldassare

An architect and painter, born at Siena, 7 March, 1481; died at Rome, 6 Jan., 1537. He derived ...

Pesaro

(PESAURENSIS) Located in central Italy. The city is situated at the mouth of the river ...

Pescennius Niger

Emperor of Rome (193-194). He was a native of central Italy, and during the reigns of Marcus ...

Pesch, Tilman

A Jesuit philosopher, b. at Cologne, 1 Feb., 1836; d. at Valkenberg, Holland, 18 Oct., 1899. He ...

Pescia

(PISCIENSIS) Diocese in Tuscany, Italy, on the Rivers Pescia Maggiore and Pescia Minore, ...

Pessimism

I. A TEMPER OF MIND In popular language the term pessimist is applied to persons who ...

Pessinus

( Pessinous .) A titular see of Galatia Secunda. Pessinonte, on the southern slope of Mt. ...

Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, one of the greatest pioneers of modern education, born at Zurich, ...

Peter Baptist, Saint, and Twenty-Five Companions

Died at Nagasaki, 5 Feb., 1597. In 1593 while negotiations were pending between the Emperor of ...

Peter Canisius, Blessed

(Kannees, Kanys, probably also De Hondt). Born at Nimwegen in the Netherlands, 8 May, 1521; ...

Peter Cantor

Theologian, b. probably at Gisberoi near Beauvais, France ; d. at Long Pont Abbey, 22 Sept., ...

Peter Cellensis

(PETER DE LA CELLE). Bishop of Chartres, b. of noble parentage in Champagne; d. at Chartres, ...

Peter Chrysologus, Saint

Born at Imola, 406; died there, 450. His biography, first written by Agnellus (Liber pontificalis ...

Peter Claver, Saint

The son of a Catalonian farmer, was born at Verdu, in 1581; he died 8 September, 1654. He ...

Peter Comestor

Theological writer, b. at Troyes, date unknown; d. at Paris about 1178. He was first attached ...

Peter Damian, Saint

(Or Damiani). Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, b. at Ravenna "five years ...

Peter de Blois

A statesman and theologian, born at Blois about 1130; died about 1203. He appears to have ...

Peter de Honestis

Born at Ravenna about 1049; died, 29 March, 1119. Among his ancestors was the great St. Romuald, ...

Peter de Regalado, Saint

(REGALATUS) A Friar Minor and reformer, born at Valladolid, 1390; died at Aguilera, 30 ...

Peter de Vinea

(DE VINEIS, DELLA VIGNA) Born at Capua about 1190; died 1249. Peter's legal learning and the ...

Peter Faber, Saint

Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

Peter Fourier, Saint

Known as LE BON PÈRE DE MATTAINCOURT, born at Mirecourt, Lorraine, 30 Nov., 1565 died at ...

Peter Fullo

Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

Peter Gonzalez, Saint

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

Peter Igneus, Blessed

(Peter Aldobrandini.) An Italian monk of the Benedictine congregation of the ...

Peter Lombard

Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

Peter Mongus

( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

Peter Nolasco, Saint

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

Peter of Alcántara, Saint

Born at Alcántara, Spain, 1499; died 18 Oct., 1562. His father, Peter Garavita, was the ...

Peter of Alexandria, Saint

Became Bishop of Alexandria in 300; martyred Nov., 311. According to Philip of Sidetes he ...

Peter of Aquila

(SCOTELLUS). Friar Minor , theologian and bishop, b. at Aquila in the Abruzzi, Italy, towards ...

Peter of Arbues, Saint

(Correctly, PETER ARBUES). Born in 1441 (or 1442); died 17 Sept., 1485. His father, a ...

Peter of Auvergne

A philosopher and theologian ; died after 1310. He was a canon of Paris ; some biographers ...

Peter of Bergamo

(ALMADURA) A theologian, date of birth unknown; died at Placentia, in 1482. He entered the ...

Peter of Montboissier, Blessed

(Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

Peter of Poitiers

A French scholastic theologian, born at Poitiers or in its neighbourhood about 1130; died in ...

Peter of Sebaste, Saint

Bishop, b. about 340; d. 391. He belonged to the richly blest family of Basil and Emmelia of ...

Peter of Verona, Saint

Born at Verona, 1206; died near Milan, 6 April, 1252. His parents were adherents of the ...

Peter Snow, Venerable

English martyr, suffered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or near Ripon and arrived at the ...

Peter the Hermit

Born at Amiens about 1050; d. at the monastery of Neufmoutier (Liège), in 1115. His ...

Peter Urseolus, Saint

(Orseolo) Born at Rivo alto, Province of Udina, 928; at Cuxa, 10 January, 987 (997 is less ...

Peter, Basilica of Saint

TOPOGRAPHY The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the ...

Peter, Chair of

Under this head will be treated: I. The annual Feast of the Chair of Peter ( Cathedra Petri ) at ...

Peter, Saint

The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads: I. Until the ...

Peter, Saint, Epistles of

These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. Recipients, ...

Peter, Sarah

Philanthropist, b. at Chillicothe, Ohio, U.S.A. 10 May, 1800; d. at Cincinnati, 6 Feb., 1877. Her ...

Peter, Tomb of Saint

The history of the relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul is one which is involved in ...

Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint

The print version of the C ATHOLIC E NCYCLOPEDIA contains two articles on this saint. We ...

Peterborough

(PETERBOROUGHENSIS) Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada, comprises the Counties of ...

Peterspence

Peterspence, otherwise known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Romescot", is the name traditionally given to ...

Peterssen, Gerlac

(GERLACUS PETRI) Born at Deventer, 1377 or 1378; died 18 Nov., 1411. He entered the ...

Petinessus

(PITNISUS) A titular see in Galatia Secunda (Salutaris). This city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

Petit-Didier, Matthieu

A Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Saint-Nicolas-du-Port in ...

Petitions to the Holy See

I. MODE OF PETITIONING Faculties, indults, dispensations, and other favours, the granting of ...

Petra

Titular metropolitan see of Palæstina Tertia. Under the name of Sela (the rock) this ...

Petrarch, Francesco

Italian poet and humanist, b. at Arezzo, 20 July, 1304; d. at Arquá, 19 July, 1374. His ...

Petre, Family of

The Petres are one of those staunch and constant families, which have played a great part in the ...

Petrobrusians

Heretics of the twelfth century so named from their founder Peter of Bruys. Our information ...

Petronilla, Saint

Virgin, probably martyred at Rome at the end of the first century. Almost all the sixth- and ...

Petronius, Saint

Bishop of Bologna, date of birth unknown; died before 450. The only certain historical ...

Petropolis

(Petropolitanensis). Diocese in the Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, erected 11 Feb., ...

Petrus Alfonsus

A converted Jew and controversialist, born at Huesca, in the former Kingdom of Aragon, 1062; ...

Petrus Bernardinus

Florentine heretic ; born at Florence about 1475; died 1502. His parents were common folk, and ...

Petrus de Natalibus

Bishop; author of a collection of lives of the saints; date of birth unknown; d. between 1400 and ...

Petrus Diaconus

The name of several men of note in ecclesiastical history and literature. (1) One of the ...

Petun Nation

One of the three great divisions of the Huron Indians, the other two being the Hurons proper, and ...

Peuerbach, George von

(Also Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius) Austrian astronomer, b. at Peuerbach near Linz, 30 May, ...

Peutinger, Conrad

An antiquarian and humanist, born at Augsburg, 14 Oct., 1465; died 28 Dec., 1547. As a young ...

Peyto, William

(P ETO, P ETOW ). Cardinal ; d. 1558 or 1559. Though his parentage was long unknown, it is ...

Pez

(1) BERNHARD An historian, born 22 February, 1683, at Ybbs near Melk ; died 27 March, 1735, at ...

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Pf 5

Pfanner, Franz

An abbot, born at Langen, Vorarlberg, Austria, 1825; died at Emmaus, South Africa, 24 May, ...

Pfefferkorn, Johannes

A baptized Jew, b. probably at Nuremberg, 1469; d. at Cologne, between 1521 and 1524. In 1505, ...

Pfister, Adolf

An educationist, born at Hechingen in Hohenzollern, 26 Sept., 1810; died at Ober-Dischingen in ...

Pflug, Julius Von

The last Catholic Bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, born at Eythra, near Leipzig, 1499; died at Zeits, ...

Pforta

A former Cistercian monastery (1137-1540), near Naumburg on the Saale in the Prussian province ...

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Ph 44

Phœnicia

Phœnicia is a narrow strip of land, about one hundred and fifty miles long and thirty miles ...

Phacusa

A titular see and suffragan of Pelusium, in Augustamnica Prima. Ptolemy (IV, v, 24) makes it ...

Pharao

(Prah, Par‘o, or, after a vowel, Phar‘o ; Greek Pharaó ; Latin Pharao). ...

Pharbætus

Titular see and suffragan of Leontopolis, in Augustamnica Secunda. This name is merely the ...

Pharisees

A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into ...

Pharsalus

Titular see and suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. The city is mentioned for the first time after ...

Phaselis

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. The city was a Doric colony on the Pamphylian Gulf. ...

Phasga

(A.V. Pisgah ). Whether the word in Hebrew is a proper or a common noun is not clear; ...

Phenomenalism

Phenomenalism ( phainomenon ) literally means any system of thought that has to do with ...

Philadelphia (Lydia)

A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardes. The city was founded by Philadelphus, King of ...

Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

(PHILADELPHIENSIS) A diocese established in 1808; made an archdiocese, 12 Feb., 1875, ...

Philanthropinism

The system of education educed from the ideas of Rousseau and of the German "Enlightenment", ...

Philastrius, Saint

Bishop of Brescia, died before 397. He was one of the bishops present at a synod held in ...

Philemon

A citizen of Coloss Colossæ, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the ...

Philip II

King of Spain, only son of the Emperor Charles V, and Isabella of Portugal, b. at Valladolid, 21 ...

Philip II (Augustus)

King of France, born 22 or 25 August, 1165; died at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Louis VII ...

Philip IV

Surnamed Le Bel (the Fair) King of France, b. at Fontainebleau, 1268; d. there, 29 Nov., 1314; ...

Philip of Jesus, Saint

Born in Mexico, date unknown; died at Nagasaki early in February, 1597. Though unusually ...

Philip of the Blessed Trinity

(ESPRIT JULIEN). Discalced Carmelite, theologian, born at Malaucene, near Avignon, 1603; died ...

Philip Romolo Neri, Saint

THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...

Philip the Apostle, Saint

Like the brothers, Peter and Andrew, Philip was a native of Bethsaida on Lake Genesareth ( John ...

Philip the Arabian

(Philippus) Emperor of Rome (244-249), the son of an Arab sheik, born in Bosra. He rose ...

Philippi

(Greek Phílippoi , Latin Philippi ). Philippi was a Macedonian town, on the ...

Philippi

A titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. As early as the sixth century B. C. we learn of a ...

Philippians, Epistle to the

I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER ( See also PHILIPPI ). The Philippians, ...

Philippine Islands

Situation and Area The Philippine Islands lie between 116° 40' and 126° and 34' E. long., ...

Philippopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Secunda. The city was founded by Philip of Macedon in 342 ...

Philippopolis

Titular see in Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Its bishop, Hormisdas, was present at the Council ...

Philips, Peter

(Also known as PETRUS PHILIPPUS, PIETRO PHILLIPO.) Born in England about 1560; date and place ...

Philistines

( Septuagint phylistieim in the Pentateuch and Josue, elsewhere allophyloi , ...

Phillip, Robert

Priest, d. at Paris, 4 Jan., 1647. He was descended from the Scottish family of Phillip of ...

Phillips, George

A canonist, born at Königsberg, 6 Sept., 1804; died at Vienna, 6 September, 1872, was the son ...

Philo Judæus

Born about 25 B.C. . His family, of a sacerdotal line, was one of the most powerful of the ...

Philomelium

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. According to ancient writers Philomelium was ...

Philomena, Saint

On 25 May, 1802, during the quest for the graves of Roman martyrs in the Catacomb of Priscilla, ...

Philosophy

I. Definition of Philosophy . II. Division of Philosophy . III. The Principal Systematic ...

Philoxenus

(AKHSENAYA) OF MABBOGH. Born at Tahal, in the Persian province of Beth-Garmai in the second ...

Phocæa

A titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The town of Phocæa was founded in the ...

Photinus

A heretic of the fourth century, a Galatian and deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra ...

Photius of Constantinople

Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b. at ...

Phylacteries

( Phulachterion — safeguard, amulet, or charm). The word occurs only once in the New ...

Physics, History of

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. A Glance at Ancient Physics; II. ...

Physiocrats

( physis , nature, kratein , rule) A school of writers on political and economic ...

Physiologus

An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous ...

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Pi 89

Piacenza

DIOCESE OF PIACENZA (PLACENTINENSIS) Piacenza is a diocese in Emilia, central Italy. The city ...

Pianô Carpine, Giovanni da

Born at Pian di Carpine (now called della Magione), near Perugia, Umbria, 1182; died probably in ...

Pianciani, Giambattista

Scientist, b. at Spoleto, 27 Oct., 1784; d. at Rome, 23 March, 1862. He entered the Society of ...

Piatto Cardinalizio

An allowance granted by the pope to cardinals residing in curia or otherwise employed by ...

Piatus of Mons

(Secular name, JEAN-JOSEPH LOISEAUX), b. 5 Aug., 1815; d. in the Monastery of Ste. Claire, ...

Piauhy

(DE PIAUHY, PIAHUNENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the State of ...

Piazza Armerina

(PLATIENSIS) Located in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily. The city of Piazza Armerina is ...

Piazzi, Giuseppe

Astronomer, b. at Ponte in Valtellina, 16 July, 1746; d. at Naples, 22 July, 1826. He took the ...

Pibush, John

English martyr, born at Thirsk, Yorkshire; died at St Thomas's Waterings, Camberwell, 18 February, ...

Picard, Jean

Astronomer, b. at La Flêche, 21 July, 1620; d. at Paris, 12 Oct., 1682. He was a priest ...

Piccolomini, Alessandro

Littérateur, philosopher, astronomer, b. 13 June, 1508; d. 12 March, 1578. He passed his ...

Piccolomini-Ammannati, Jacopo

A cardinal, born in the Villa Basilica near Lucca, 1422; died at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 10 ...

Pichler

A renowned Austrian family of gem-cutters who lived and died in Italy. ANTONIO (JOHANN ...

Pichler, Vitus

Distinguished canonist and controversial writer, b. at Grosberghofen, 24 May, 1670; d. at Munich, ...

Pickering, Ven. Thomas

Lay brother and martyr, a member of an old Westmoreland family, b. c. 1621; executed at Tyburn, ...

Piconio, Bernadine a

(HENRI BERNARDINE DE PICQUIGNY) Born at Picquigny, Picardy, 1633; died in Paris, 8 December, ...

Picquet, François

A celebrated Sulpician missionary in Canada, b. at Bourg, Bresse, France, 4 Dec., 1708; d. at ...

Picture Bibles

In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement ...

Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Domine

The sixth quatrain of Adoro Te Devote , sometimes used as a separate hymn at Benediction of ...

Pie, Louis-Edouard-Désiré

Cardinal, born at Pontgouin, Diocese of Chartres, 1815; died at Angoulême, 1880. He studied ...

Pieck, Saint Nicholas

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

Piedmont

( Italian Piemonte ). A part compartimento of northern Italy, bounded on the north by ...

Piel, Peter

A pioneer in the movement for reform of church music, b. at Kessewick, near Bonn, 12 Aug., 1835; ...

Pierius

A priest and probably head master of the catechetical school at Alexandria conjointly with ...

Pierre de Castelnau, Blessed

Born in the Diocese of Montpellier , Languedoc, now Department of Hérault, France ; died ...

Pierre de Maricourt

Surnamed PETER THE PILGRIM ( Petrus Peregrinus ) A physician of the Middle Ages. Under the ...

Pierron, Jean

A missionary, born at Dun-sur-Meuse, France, 28 Sept., 1631; date and place of death unknown. He ...

Pierson, Philippe

Born at Ath, Hainaut (Belgium), 4 January, 1642; died at Lorette, Quebec, 1688. At the age of ...

Pietism

Pietism is a movement within the ranks of Protestantism, originating in the reaction against the ...

Pighius, Albert

A theologian, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Kampen, Overyssel, Holland, about 1490; ...

Pignatelli, Venerable Giuseppe Maria

Born 27 December, 1737, in Saragossa, Spain ; died 11 November, 1811. His family was of ...

Pike, William

Martyr, born in Dorsetshire; died at Dorchester, dec., 1591. He was a joiner, and lived at West ...

Pilar, Nuestra Señora del

"Our Lady of the Pillar", a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a ...

Pilate, Pontius

After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

Pilchard, Venerable Thomas

( Or PILCHER). Martyr, born at Battle, Sussex, 1557; died at Dorchester, 21 March 1586-7. ...

Pileolus

( zucca , head). The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is ...

Pilgrimage of Grace

The name given to the religious rising in the north of England, 1536. The cause of this great ...

Pilgrimages

(Middle English, pilgrime, Old French, pelegrin, derived from Latin peregrinum, supposed ...

Piligrim

Bishop of Passau, date of birth unknown; died 20 May, 991. He was educated at the ...

Pillar of Cloud/Fire

(P ILLAR OF F IRE ). A cloud which accompanied the Israelites during their wandering. It ...

Pima Indians

An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and its affluent, the ...

Pinar del Rio

(Pinetensis ad Flumen) Located in Cuba, erected by the Brief "Actum præclare" of Leo ...

Pinara

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Pinara was one of the chief cities of the Lycian ...

Pindemonte, Ippolito

An Italian poet of noble birth, born at Verona, 13 Nov., 1753; died there, 18 Nov., 1828. He ...

Pineda, John de

Born in Seville, 1558; died there, 27 Jan., 1637. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1572, ...

Pinerolo

(PINEROLIENSIS) Located in the province of Turin, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, suffragan of ...

Pingré, Alexandre Guy

Born in Paris 11 September, 1711; died 1 May, 1796. He was educated in Senlis at the college ...

Pinna da Encarnaçao, Mattheus

A writer and theologian, born at Rio de Janeiro, 23 Aug., 1687; died there, 18 Dec., 1764. On 3 ...

Pinto, Fernão Mendes

A Portuguese traveller, born at Montemor-o-Velho near Coimbra, c. 1509; died at Almada near ...

Pinturicchio

(BERNARDINO DI BETTO, surnamed PINTURICCHIO) Born at Verona, about 1454; died at Siena, 11 ...

Pinzón, Martín Alonso

Spanish navigator and companion of Columbus on his first voyage to the New World, b. at Palos ...

Piombo, Sebastiano del

More correctly known as S EBASTIANO L UCIANI . Venetian portrait painter, b. at Venice, ...

Pionius, Saint

Martyred at Smyrna, 12 March, 250. Pionius, with Sabina and Asclepiades, was arrested on 23 ...

Pious Fund of the Californias, The

(Fondo Piadoso de las Californias) The Pious Fund of the Californias had its origin, in 1697, ...

Pious Society of Missions, The

Founded by Ven. Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835. The members of the society are generally called ...

Piranesi, Giambattista

An Italian etcher and engraver, b. at Venice, 1720; d. in Rome, 9 Nov., 1778. His uncle ...

Pirhing, Ernricus

Born at Sigarthin, near Passau, 1606; died between 1678 and 1681. At the age of twenty-two he ...

Pirkheimer

Charitas Pirkheimer Abbess of the Convent of St. Clara, of the Poor Clares, in Nuremberg, and ...

Piro Indians

A tribe of considerable importance, ranging by water for a distance of three hundred miles along ...

Pisa

ARCHDIOCESE OF PISA (PISÆ) Archdiocese in Tuscany, central Italy. The city is situated ...

Pisa, Council of

Preliminaries. The great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of ...

Pisa, University of

In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law ; prominent ...

Pisano, Andrea

Or ANDREA DA PISA (the name by which Andrea da Pontadera is known). An Italian sculptor and ...

Pisano, Niccola

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

Piscataway Indians

A tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock formerly occupying the peninsula of lower Maryland ...

Piscina

(Latin from piscis, a fish, fish-pond, pool or basin, called also sacrarium, thalassicon, or ...

Pise, Charles Constantine

Priest, poet, and prose writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, 22 Nov., 1801; d. at Brooklyn, New ...

Pisidia

A country in the southwestern part of Asia Minor, between the high Phrygian tableland and the ...

Pistoia and Prato

(PISTORIENSIS ET PRATENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence. The city of Pistoia is ...

Pistoia, Synod of

Held 18 to 28 September, 1786, by Scipio de’ Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. It marks ...

Pistorius, Johann

A controversialist and historian, born at Nidda in Hesse, 14 February, 1546; died at Freiburg, 18 ...

Pithou, Pierre

A writer, born at Troyes, 1 Nov. 1539; died at Nogent-sur-Seine, 1 Nov., 1596. His father, a ...

Pitoni, Joseph

A musician, born at Rieti, Perugia, Italy, 18 March, 1657; died at Rome, 1 Feb., 1743, and ...

Pitra, Jean-Baptiste-François

Cardinal, famous archeologist and theologian, b. 1 August, 1812, at Champforgeuil in the ...

Pitts, John

Born at Alton, Hampshire, 1560; died at Liverdun, Lorraine, 17 Oct., 1616. He was educated at ...

Pittsburgh

DIOCESE OF PITTSBURG/PITTSBURGH (PITTSBURGENSIS). Suffragan of Philadelphia, in the United ...

Pityus

A titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. Pityus was a large and ...

Pius I, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; pope from about 140 to about 154. According to the earliest list of the ...

Pius II, Pope

(Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini). Born at Corsignano, near Siena, 18 Oct., 1405; elected 19 ...

Pius III, Pope

(Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini). B. at Siena, 29 May, 1439; elected 22 Sept., 1503; d. in ...

Pius IV, Pope

(Giovanni Angelo Medici). B. 31 March, 1499, at Milan ; elected 26 December, 1559; d. in ...

Pius IX, Pope

(G IOVANNI M ARIA M ASTAI -F ERRETTI ). Pope from 1846-78; born at Sinigaglia, 13 May, ...

Pius V, Pope Saint

(MICHELE GHISLERI). Born at Bosco, near Alexandria, Lombardy, 17 Jan., 1504 elected 7 Jan., ...

Pius VI, Pope

(G IOVANNI A NGELICO B RASCHI ). Born at Cesena, 27 December, 1717; elected 15 ...

Pius VII, Pope

(B ARNABA C HIARAMONTI ). Born at Cesena in the Pontifical States, 14 August, 1740; ...

Pius VIII, Pope

(Francesco Xaverio Castiglione). B. at Cingoli, 20 Nov., 1761; elected 31 March, 1829; d. 1 ...

Pius X, Pope Saint

(Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto). Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His ...

Piusverein

The name given to Catholic associations in various countries of Europe. I. THE PIUS ...

Pizarro, Francisco

Born in Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain, probably in 1471; died at Lima, Peru, 26 June, 1541. He ...

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Pl 27

Placidus, Saint

St. Placidus, disciple of St. Benedict, the son of the patrician Tertullus, was brought as a ...

Plagues of Egypt

Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharao's obstinacy and force him to let ...

Plain Chant

By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of ...

Plantaganet, Henry Beaufort

Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, born c. 1377; died at Westminster, 11 April, 1447. He was the ...

Plantin, Christophe

Book-binder and publisher of Antwerp, b. 1514, at or near Tours ( France ); d. 1 July, 1589, at ...

Plants in the Bible

When Moses spoke to the people about the Land of Promise, he described it as a "land of hills ...

Plasencia

(PLACENTINA) Plasencia comprises the civil provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and ...

Plateau, Joseph-Antoine

Belgian physicist, b. at Brussels, 14 Oct., 1801; d. at Ghent, 15 Sept., 1883. His father, a ...

Platina, Bartolomeo

Originally named S ACCHI, b. at Piadena, near Mantua, in 1421; d. at Rome, 1481. He first ...

Plato and Platonism

I. LIFE OF PLATO Plato ( Platon , "the broad shouldered") was born at Athens in 428 or 427 ...

Play, Pierre-Guillaume-Frédéric Le

A French economist, born at La Rivière (Calvados), 11 April, 1806; died at Paris, 5 ...

Plegmund

Archbishop of Canterbury, died 2 August, 914. He was a Mercian, and spent his early life near ...

Plenarium

A book of formulae and texts. Plenarium or Plenarius ( Liber ) is any book that contains ...

Plenary Council

A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. The word itself, derived from ...

Plessis, Joseph-Octave

Bishop of Quebec, born at Montreal, 3 March, 1763; died at Quebec, 4 Dec., 1822. He studied ...

Plethon, Georgius Gemistus

Born in Constantinople about 1355, died in the Peloponnesus, 1450. Out of veneration for Plato ...

Plock

(PLOCENSIS) Located in Russian Poland, suffragan of Warsaw, includes the district of Plock ...

Plowden, Charles

Born at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 1743; died at Jougne, Doubs, France, 13 June, 1821. He was ...

Plowden, Edmund

Born 1517-8; died in London, 6 Feb., 1584-5. Son of Humphrey Plowden of Plowden Hall, Shropshire, ...

Plowden, Francis

Son of William Plowden of Plowden Hall, b. at Shropshire, 8 June, 1749; d. at Paris, 4 Jan., ...

Plowden, Robert

Elder brother of Charles, born 27 January, 1740; died at Wappenbury, 27 June, 1823. He entered ...

Plowden, Thomas

( Alias Salisbury). Born in Oxfordshire, England, 1594; died in London, 13 Feb., 1664; ...

Plowden, Thomas Percy

Born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, England, 1672; died at Watten, 21 Sept., 1745; joined the Society ...

Plumier, Charles

(botanical abbreviation, Plum .) A French botanist, born at Marseilles, 20 April, 1646; ...

Plunket, Blessed Oliver

[ Editor's Note: St. Oliver Plunkett was canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 10, 1975.] ...

Pluscarden Priory

Founded in 1230 by Alexander III , King of Scotland, six miles from Elgin, Morayshire, for ...

Plymouth

(PLYMUTHENSIS, PLYMUTHÆ) Plymouth consists of the County of Dorset, which formed a ...

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Pn 1

Pneumatomachi (Macedonians)

(Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

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Po 120

Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament

Since the Bible is divinely inspired, and thus becomes the "written word" of God, many devout ...

Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco

An Italian humanist and historian; born at Terranuova, near Arezzo, in 1380; died at Florence, ...

Poggio Mirteto

DIOCESE OF POGGIO MIRTETO (MANDELENSIS) Diocese in the province of Perugia, central Italy. The ...

Pogla

( ta Pogla ) Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda. Pogla is mentioned only by Ptolemy, V, 5, ...

Poitiers

D IOCESE OF P OITIERS (P ICTAVENSIS ) The Diocese of Poitiers includes the Departments of ...

Poland

I. GEOGRAPHY The western part of the Sarmatian Plain together with the northern slopes of the ...

Polding, John Bede

Archbishop of Sydney, born at Liverpool, 18 Oct., 1794; died at Sydney, 16 March, 1877. In 1805 ...

Pole, Blessed Margaret

Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

Pole, Reginald

Cardinal, b. at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England, in March, 1500; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Polemonium

Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. At the mouth of the Sidenus, ...

Poleni, Giovanni

Marquess, physicist, and antiquarian; b. at Venice, 23 Aug., 1683; d. at Padua, 14 Nov., 1761; ...

Poles in the United States

Causes of Immigration There is good foundation for the tradition that a Pole, John of Kolno (a ...

Policastro

DIOCESE OF POLICASTRO (POLICASTRENSIS) Diocese in the province of Salerno, Southern Italy. The ...

Polignac, Melchior de

Cardinal, diplomatist, and writer, b. of an ancient family of Auvergne, at Le Puy, France, 11 ...

Polish Literature

The subject will be divided, for convenience of treatment, into historical periods. First ...

Politi, Lancelot

(In religion AMBROSIUS CATHARINUS) Born at Siena, 1483; died at Naples, 1553. At sixteen he ...

Politian

(ANGIOLO DE 'AMBROSINI DA MONTE PULCIANO) An Italian Humanist, born at Monte Pulciano in 1454; ...

Political Economy, Science of

S CIENCE OF P OLITICAL E CONOMY (E CONOMICS ). I. DEFINITIONS Political economy (Greek, ...

Pollajuolo, Antonio and Piero Benci

Antonio and Piero Benci Pollajuolo derived their surname, according to Florentine custom, from ...

Polo, Marco

Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

Polybotus

A titular see in Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. This town is mentioned only in the ...

Polycarp, Saint

Martyr (A.D. 69-155). Our chief sources of information concerning St. Polycarp are: (1) the ...

Polycarpus

The title of a canonical collection in eight books composed in Italy by Cardinal Gregorius. It is ...

Polyglot Bibles

The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcalá (in Latin ...

Polystylum

A titular see of Macedonia Secunda, suffragan of Philippi. When Philippi was made a ...

Polytheism

The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. See the various articles on national ...

Pomaria

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsarea. It is north of Tlemcen (capital of an arrondissement ...

Pombal, Marquis de

S EBASTIâO J OSÉ DE C ARVALHO E M ELLO The son of a country gentleman of ...

Pomerania

A Prussian province on the Baltic Sea situated on both banks of the River Oder, divided into ...

Pompeiopolis

A titular see in Paphlagonia. The ancient name of the town is unknown; it may have been ...

Pomponazzi, Pietro

(POMPONATIUS, also known as PERETTO on account of his small stature) A philosopher and ...

Ponce de León, Juan

Explorer, born at San Servas in the province of Campos, 1460; died in Cuba, 1521. He was ...

Ponce, John

A philosopher and theologian, born at Cork, 1603, died at Paris, 1670. At an early age he went ...

Poncet, Joseph Anthony de la Rivière

Missionary; b. at Paris, 17 May, 1610; d. at Martinique, 18 June, 1675. He entered the Jesuit ...

Pondicherry

(PONDICHERIANA OR PUDICHERIANA) Located in India, it is bounded on the east by the Bay of ...

Pontefract Priory

Located in Yorkshire, England, a Cluniac monastery dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, founded ...

Pontian, Pope Saint

Dates of birth and death unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 145) gives Rome ...

Pontifical Colleges

In earlier times there existed in Europe outside of the city of Rome a large number of ...

Pontifical Decorations

Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other ...

Pontifical Mass

Pontifical Mass is the solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the ...

Pontificale

( Pontificale Romanum ). A liturgical book which contains the rites for the performance ...

Pontificalia

(PONTIFICALS). The collective name given for convenience sake to those insignia of the ...

Pontigny, Abbey of

Second daughter of Cîteaux, was situated on the banks of the Serain, present Diocese of ...

Pontius Carbonell

Born at Barcelona, c. ú died c. 1320. Pontius and Carbonell are names frequently met with ...

Pontius Pilate

After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

Pontus

In ancient times, Pontus was the name of the north-eastern province of Asia Minor , a long ...

Pools in Scripture

In the English Bibles, the word "pool" stands for three Hebrew words: (1) 'agam means properly ...

Poona

(PUNENSIS) Diocese in India, comprises that portion of the Bombay Presidency which lies on ...

Poor Brothers of St. Francis Seraphicus

A congregation of lay brothers of the Third Order of St. Francis, instituted for charitable ...

Poor Catholics

( Pauperes Catholici ) A religious mendicant order, organized in 1208, to reunite the ...

Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the

A congregation founded at Aachen in 1844 for the support and education of poor, orphan, and ...

Poor Clares

(POOR LADIES, SISTERS OF ST. CLARE) The Second Order of St. Francis. The subject will be treated ...

Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ

A community founded by Catherine Kasper, a native of Dernbach, Germany. She was born 26 May, 1820, ...

Poor Handmaids of the Mother of God

A religious congregation founded in 1808 by Mother Mary Magdalen Taylor in conjunction with ...

Poor Laws

Poor Laws are those legal enactments which have been made at various periods of the world's ...

Poor, Care of, by the Church

I. OBJECTS, HISTORY, AND ORGANIZATION A. The care of the poor is a branch of charity. In the ...

Poor, Little Sisters of the

An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded at St Servan, Brittany, 1839, through the ...

Poor, Sisters of the, of St. Francis

A Congregation, founded by the Venerable Mother Frances Schervier at Aachen in the year 1845, ...

Popayán

(POPAYANENSIS) Popayán lies approximately between 1º 20' and 3º 2' north ...

Pope, Alexander

Poet, son of Alexander Pope and his second wife, Edith Turner, b. in London, England, 22 May, ...

Pope, The

( Ecclesiastical Latin papa from Greek papas , a variant of pappas father, in classical ...

Popes, Chronological Lists of the

See also POPE, LIST OF POPES, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. The historical lists ...

Popes, Election of the

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Popes, List of

See also POPE, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76) ...

Poppo, Saint

Abbot, born 977; died at Marchiennes, 25 January, 1048. He belonged to a noble family of ...

Popular Devotions

Devotion, in the language of ascetical writers, denotes a certain ardour of affection in the ...

Population, Theories of

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio

Italian painter, b. at Pordenone, 1483; d. at Ferrara, January, 1539. He is occasionally referred ...

Pordenone, Ordric of

A Franciscan missionary of a Czech family named Mattiussi, born at Villanova near Pordenone, ...

Pormort, Ven. Thomas

English martyr, b. at Hull about 1559; d. at St. Paul's Churchyard, 20 Feb., 1592. He was probably ...

Porphyreon

Titular see, suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima. It is described in the "Notitia Episcopatuum" ...

Porphyrius, Saint

Bishop of Gaza in Palestine, b. at Thessalonica about 347; d. at Gaza, 26 February, 420. ...

Porrecta, Serafino

Family name Capponi, called a Porrecta from the place of birth, theologian, b. 1536; d. at Bologna, ...

Port Augusta

(PORTAUGUSTANA) This diocese is a suffragan of Adelaide, South Australia, created in ...

Port Louis

(PORTUS LUDOVICI) This diocese comprises the islands of Mauritius, Rodriguez, Chagos, and ...

Port of Spain

(PORTUS HISPANIÆ) An archiepiscopal and metropolitan see, including the Islands of ...

Port Victoria

(PORTUS VICTORIÆ SEYCHELLARUM.) Port Victoria comprises the Seychelles Islands in the ...

Port-au-Prince

(PORTUS PRINCIPIS) This archdiocese comprises the western part of the Republic of Haiti. Its ...

Port-Royal

A celebrated Benedictine abbey which profoundly influenced the religious and literary life of ...

Porta, Carlo

Poet, b. at Milan in 1775; d. there 5 January, 1821; educated by the Jesuits at Monza and ...

Porta, Giacomo della

Architect and sculptor, b. at Porlizza on Lake Lugano 1541; d. 1604. He was a pupil of ...

Portable Altar

A portable altar consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to ...

Portalegre

Suffragan diocese of Lisbon, Portugal, established by Pope Julius III in 1550. Its first ...

Porter

(Also called DOORKEEPER. From ostiarius , Latin ostium , a door.) Porter denoted among ...

Porter, George

Archbishop of Bombay, b. 1825 at Exeter, England ; d. at Bombay, 28 September, 1889. Of ...

Portiuncula

(PORZIONCULA or PORZIUNCOLA). A town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from ...

Portland

Diocese in the State of Maine ; suffragan of Boston ; established by Pius IX, 8 Dec., 1854. ...

Porto Alegre

(PORTALEGRENSIS) Located in Eastern Brazil. Porto Alegre, the capital and chief port of the ...

Porto Alegre

(PORTALEGREN) Porto Alegre comprises the southern part of the State of Minas Geraes, and part ...

Porto and Santa-Rufina

(PORTUENSIS ET SANCTÆ RUFINÆ) This diocese was formed from the union of two ...

Porto Rico

(PUERTO RICO) The smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles, rectangular in shape, ...

Portoviejo

(PORTUS VETERIS). A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Quito, Republic of Ecuador. It was ...

Portraits of the Apostles

The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of ...

Portsmouth

(PORTUS MAGNUS, or PORTEMUTHENSIS) This diocese was created by a Brief of Leo XIII , ...

Portugal

I. GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Portugal is situated on the west of the Iberian ...

Portuguese East Africa

Portuguese East Africa consists of the Province of Mozambique. Portuguese activity on that ...

Portuguese Literature

The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the lingua rustica spoken in the countries ...

Portuguese West Africa

The name usually given to the Province of Angola. It has a coast line of 1015 miles from the ...

Positivism

Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. As ...

Possenti, Blessed Gabriel

Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

Possession, Demonical

( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, EXORCIST.) Man is in various ways subject to the ...

Possevinus, Antonius

Theologian and papal envoy, b. at Mantua in 1533 or 1534; d. at Ferrara, 26 Feb., 1611. At ...

Possidius, Saint

Bishop of Calama in Numidia, author of a short life of St. Augustine and of an indiculus or ...

Postcommunion

The Communion act finishes the essential Eucharistic service. Justin Martyr (I Apol., lxv-lxvi) ...

Postgate, Nicholas

English martyr, b. at Kirkdale House, Egton, Yorkshire, in 1596 or 1597; d. at York, 7 August, ...

Postulant

Postulancy is a preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. ...

Postulation

( Latin postulare, to request) A postulation is a petition presented to a competent ...

Potawatomi Indians

An important tribe of Algonquin linguistic stock, closely related dialectically to the Ojibwa ...

Pothier, Robert Joseph

A celebrated French lawyer, b. at Orléans, 9 January, 1699; d. there, 2 March, 1772. His ...

Pouget, Jean-François-Albert du

Marquis de Nadaillac, b. in 1817; d. at Rougemont, Cloyes, 1 October, 1904; the scion of an old ...

Pounde, Thomas

Lay brother, b. at Beaumond (or Belmony), Farlington, Hampshire, 29 May, 1538; d. there, 26 Feb., ...

Poussin, Nicolas

French painter, b. at Les Andelys near Rouen in 1594; d. at Rome, 19 November, 1666. His early ...

Poverty

I. THE MORAL DOCTRINE OF POVERTY Jesus Christ did not condemn the possession of worldly goods, or ...

Poverty and Pauperism

See also CARE OF THE POOR BY THE CHURCH In a legal and technical sense, pauperism denotes the ...

Powel, Philip

( alias M ORGAN, alias P ROSSER ) Martyr, b. at Tralon, Brecknockshire, 2 Feb., 1594; d. ...

Powell, Blessed Edward

With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

Poynter, William

Born 20 May, 1762, at Petersfield, Hants; died 26 Nov., 1827, in London. He was educated at the ...

Pozzo, Andreas

(P UTEUS ) Italian painter and architect of the Baroque period, b. at Trent, 1642; d. at ...

Pozzuoli

(PUTEOLANA) The city of Pozzuoli in the province of Naples, southern Italy, on the gulf of ...

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Pr 155

Prémare, Joseph Henri Marie de

Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare, missionary and sinologist, born at Cherbourg, 17 July, 1666; ...

Prémontré, Abbey of

Located about twelve miles west of Laon, Department of Aisne, France ; founded by St. Norbert. ...

Prüm

A former Benedictine abbey in Lorraine, now in the Diocese of Trier, founded by a Frankish ...

Prades, Jean-Martin de

A theologian, born about 1720 at Castelsarrasin ( Diocese of Montauban ), died in 1782 at ...

Prado, Jerome de

Exegete, b. at Baeza in Spain, 1547; d. at Rome, 13 Jan., 1595. He entered the Society of ...

Praelatus Nullius

(i.e. Dioceseos) A prelate who exercises quasi-episcopal jurisdiction in a territory not ...

Pragmatic Sanction

( pragmatica sanctio , lex , jussio , also pragmatica or pragmaticum ) Pragmatic ...

Pragmatism

Pragmatism, as a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical ...

Prague

(PRAGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bohemia. From about the middle of the sixth century Slavonic ...

Prague, University of

The University of Prague was founded by Charles IV with the consent of the Estates on the model ...

Praxeas

An early anti- Montanist, is known to us only by Tertullian's book "Adversus Praxean". His name ...

Praxedes and Pudentiana

Martyrs of an unknown era. The seventh-century itineraries to the graves of the Roman martyrs ...

Pray Brethren

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

Pray, George

Abbot, canon, librarian of the University library of Buda, and important Hungarian historian, b. ...

Prayer

(Greek euchesthai , Latin precari , French prier , to plead, to beg, to ask earnestly). ...

Prayer of Christ, Feast of the

This feast occurs on the Tuesday after Septuagesima (double major). Its object is to ...

Prayer of Quiet

The Prayer of Quiet is regarded by all writers on mystical theology as one of the degrees of ...

Prayer, Lord's

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Prayer-Books

By "prayer-books" usage generally understands a collection of forms of prayer intended for ...

Prayers for the Dead

This subject will be treated under the following three heads: I. General Statement and Proof of ...

Preacher Apostolic

A dignitary of the pontifical household. As a regular function, under special Regulations, this ...

Preachers, Order of

As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we ...

Preadamites

The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Strictly speaking, the expression ought to be ...

Prebend

The right of a member of a chapter to his share in the revenues of the cathedral ; also the ...

Precaria

( Preces , prayers ). A precaria is a contract granting to a petitioner the use and ...

Precedence

( Latin præcedere , to go before another). Precedence signifies the right to enjoy ...

Precentor

(Latin Præcentor , from præ , before- cantor singer). A word describing ...

Precept

( Precept: From the Latin præceptum from præcipere , to command). Precept , ...

Precious Blood

The blood of our Divine Saviour. Jesus, at the Last Supper, ascribes to it the same life-giving ...

Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the Most

Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most

An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions ...

Precious Blood, Congregations of the

I. BERNADINES OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence, founded by ...

Precious Blood, Feast of the Most

For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

Precipiano, Humbert-Guillaume de, Count

Born at Besançon, 1626; died at Brussels, 7 June, 1711. Having studied the classics at ...

Preconization

(Latin præconizare , to publish, from præco , herald, public crier) This word ...

Predestinarianism

Predestinarianism is a heresy not unfrequently met with in the course of the centuries which ...

Predestination

Predestination ( Latin prœ , destinare ), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine ...

Preface

( Latin Præfatio ). The first part of the Eucharistic prayers ( Anaphora or Canon) in ...

Prefect Apostolic

( Latin prœfectus, one put over or in charge of something) During the last few ...

Prefecture Apostolic (Supplemental List)

(SUPPLEMENTAL LIST) An account is here given of the prefectures Apostolic that have been ...

Prelate

Real Prelate, the incumbent of a prelature, i.e., of an ecclesiastical office with special and ...

Premonstratensian Canons

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies ...

Presbytery

The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy was known in antiquity by various names, ...

Prescription

(Latin prœ , before, and scribere , to write, in later legal Latin involving the idea ...

Prescription in Civil Jurisprudence

Prescription "in some form and under some name" is said to have existed as a part of the municipal ...

Presence of God

Doctrinal All solid devotion and devotional practices must be founded upon the truths of ...

Presence, Real

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Presentation Brothers

In the early part of the nineteenth century when the Penal Laws were relaxed, and the ban which ...

Presentation of Mary, Congregation of the

This congregation, devoted to the education of young girls, was founded in 1796 at Theuyts, ...

Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

The Protoevangel of James, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, and ...

Presentation, Feast of the

Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin (Greek Hypapante ), Feast of the Presentation of ...

Presentation, Order of the

An Order founded at Cork, Ireland, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle (see below). In 1775 she entered with ...

Presentation, Religious Congregations of the

(1) Daughters of the Presentation , founded in 1627 by Nicolas Sanguin (b. 1580; d. 1653), ...

Presentation, Right of

Out of gratitude for the foundation or endowment of churches and benefices, the Church grants ...

Prester John

Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. FIRST STAGE The mythical journey to Rome of a ...

Preston, Thomas

( Alias R OGER W IDDRINGTON ). Benedictine, d. in the Clink prison, 5 April, 1640. He ...

Preston, Thomas Scott

The Vicar-General of New York, prothonotary Apostolic, chancellor, distinguished convert, ...

Presumption

(Latin praesumere , "to take before", "to take for granted"). Presumption is here ...

Presumption

(IN CANON LAW) A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn ...

Pretorium

This name is derived from the Latin prætorium, in later Greek tò ...

Pride

Pride is the excessive love of one's own excellence. It is ordinarily accounted one of the seven ...

Priene

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The foundation of the town of Priene dates ...

Priest

This word (etymologically "elder", from presbyteros , presbyter ) has taken the meaning of ...

Priest, Assistant

The assistant priest ( presbyter assistens , anciently called capellanus ) is the first and ...

Priest, High

The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

Priesthood

The word priest (Germ. Priester ; Fr. prêtre ; Ital. prete ) is derived from the ...

Priestly Perseverance, Association of

A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese. ...

Priests' Communion League

An association of priests established at Rome on 20 July, 1906, in the Church of San ...

Priests' Eucharistic League

I. Object The Priests' Eucharistic League (Confraternitas sacerdotalis adorationis Sanctissimi ...

Priests, Confraternities of

Three confraternities of priests -- the Apostolic Union, the Priests' Eucharistic League, ...

Primacy

(Latin primatus, primus , first). The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as ...

Primadicci, James

(Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

Primate

(Lat. primas, from primus, "first"). In the Western Church a primate is a bishop ...

Prime

I. THE NAME The name Prime ( prima hora ) belongs with those of Terce, Sext, None, to the ...

Primer, The

The common English name for a book of devotions which from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century ...

Primicerius

(Etymologically primus in cera , sc. in tabula cerata , the first in a list of a class of ...

Primus and Felician, Saints

Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

Prince Albert, Diocese of

A suffragan see of St. Boniface, Manitoba, in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Originally ...

Prior

A monastic superior. In the Rule of St. Benedict the term prior occurs several times, but ...

Prioress

(Priorissa, Praeposita). A superioress in a monastic community for women. The term prioress ...

Priory

A monastery whose superior is a prior. The Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Carthusians, ...

Prisca, Saint

She was a martyr of the Roman Church, whose dates are unknown. The name Prisca or Priscilla ...

Priscianus

Latin grammarian, born at Caesarea (Mauretania) , taught at Constantinople under Anastatius I ...

Priscilla and Aquila

( Or Prisca.) Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome (Aquila was a native of Pontus ) in the ...

Priscillianism

This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic - ...

Prisons

I. IN ANCIENT TIMES Many jurisconsults and Scriptural interpreters include imprisonment among ...

Prisons, Ecclesiastical

It is plain from many decrees in the "Corpus Juris Canonici" that the Church has claimed and ...

Privilege

( Latin, privilegium , like priva lex ) Privilege is a permanent concession made by a ...

Privileged Altar

An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic ...

Privileges, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical privileges are exceptions to the Law made in favour of the clergy or in favour ...

Proba, Faltonia

A Christian poetess of the fourth century. The name Faltonia is doubtful and is apparently due ...

Probabilism

Probabilism is the moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the ...

Probus, Marcus Aurelius

Roman Emperor, 276-82, raised to the throne by the army in Syria to succeed Tacitus. Of humble ...

Probus, Tarachus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Processional Cross

A processional cross is simply a crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and ...

Processional, Roman

Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

Processions

Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every ...

Processus and Martinian, Saints

The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

Proclus, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople. Saint Proclus died in 446 or 447. Proclus came to the fore in the ...

Proconnesus

(PRŒCONNESUS) A titular see in Hellespont. Proconnesus was the name of an island ...

Procopius of Caesarea

Byzantine historian, b. in the latter years of the fifth century at Caesarea in Palestine , d. ...

Procter, Adelaide Anne

Poetess and philanthropist, b. in London, England, 30 October, 1825; d. in London, 2 February, ...

Procurator

A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. There are ...

Profession, Religious

HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

Promise, Divine

The term promise in Holy Writ both in its nominal and verbal form embraces not only promises ...

Promotor Fidei

(P ROMOTER OF THE F AITH ). An official of the Roman Congregation of Rites. The office ...

Promulgation

( Latin promulgare, to make known, to post in public). I. PROMULGATION IN GENERAL This is the ...

Proof

Proof is the establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. ...

Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of

The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide , whose official title is "sacra congregatio ...

Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the

This society is an international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of ...

Property

I. NOTION OF PROPERTY The proprietor or owner of a thing, in the current acceptation of the word, ...

Property, Ecclesiastical

Abstract Right of Ownership That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal ...

Property, Ecclesiastical, in the United States

The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed (tit. IX, cap. i, n. 264): "We must hold, ...

Prophecy

As the term is used in mystical theology , it applies both to the prophecies of canonical ...

Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess

I. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT A. Introduction Yahweh had forbidden Israel all kinds of oracles in ...

Proprium

The Proprium de tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum form in the present liturgy the two ...

Proschko, Franz Isidor

A well-known Austrian author, born at Hohenfurt, Bohemia, 2 April, 1816; died at Vienna, 6 ...

Prose or Sequence

I. DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Sequence ( Sequentia )–or, more accurately as ...

Proselyte

( proselytos , stranger or newcomer; Vulgate, advena ). The English term "proselyte" ...

Proske, Karl

Born at Grobing in Upper Silesia, 11 Feb., 1794; died 20 Dec., 1861. He took his degree as Doctor ...

Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro

The first sure date in the life of Prosper is that of his letter to St. Augustine written ...

Protasius and Gervasius, Saints

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

Protector, Altar

A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the ...

Protectorate of Missions

The right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an infidel country with regard to ...

Protectories

The institutions for the shelter and training of the young, designed to afford neglected or ...

Protestant Episcopal Church

The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

Protestantism

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.: I. Origin of the Name. II. ...

Prothonotary Apostolic

A member of the highest college of prelates in the Roman Curia, and also of the honorary ...

Protocol

The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries, e.g., mention of the reign, ...

Protopope

A priest of higher rank in the Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, corresponding in ...

Protus and Hyacinth, Saints

Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

Prout, Father

The name by which the Rev. Francis Sylvester Mahony (O'Mahony), author of "The Bells of ...

Provancher, Léon Abel

Naturalist, b. 10 March, 1820, in the parish of Béconcourt, Nicolet county, Province of ...

Proverbs, Book of

One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the ...

Providence, Congregations of (I)

Founded at Paris, by Madame Polaillon (Marie de Lumague), a devout widow. In 1643 Madame ...

Providence, Congregations of (II)

(St. Mary-of-the-Woods) Among the teaching religious orders that originated in France at ...

Providence, Congregations of (III)

SISTERS OF CHARITY The Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, known also as Sisters of ...

Providence, Congregations of (IV)

Founded at Turin in 1834 by the Marchesa Julia Falletti de Barolo for the care of children and ...

Providence, Congregations of (V)

SISTERS OF THE INSTITUTE OF CHARITY An offshoot from the Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, ...

Providence, Diocese of

(PROVIDENTIENSIS) Co-extensive with the State of Rhode Island . When erected (17 Feb., 1872) ...

Providence, Divine

( Latin, Providentia ; Greek, pronoia ). Providence in general, or foresight, is a ...

Province, Ecclesiastical

The name given to an ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an ...

Provincial

An officer acting under the superior general of a religious order, and exercising a general ...

Provincial Council

A deliberative assembly of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province, summoned and presided ...

Provision, Canonical

Canonical Provision is a term signifying regular induction into a benefice, comprising three ...

Provisors, Statute of

The English statute usually so designated is the 25th of Edward III, St. 4 (1350-1), otherwise ...

Provost

(Latin, prœpositus; French, prévôt; German, Probst ) Anciently (St. ...

Prudence

(Latin prudentia , contracted from providentia , seeing ahead). One of the four ...

Prudentius

(GALINDO) A Bishop of Troyes, born in Spain ; died at Troyes on 6 April, 861; celebrated ...

Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens

A Christian poet, born in the Tarraconensis, Northern Spain, 348; died probably in Spain, ...

Prusias ad Hypium

Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in the Honoriad. Memnon, the historian, says that Prusias ...

Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia at the present time covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 ...

Przemysl

(PREMISLIENSIS) Latin see in Galicia, suffragan of Lemberg. After conquering Halicz and ...

Przemysl, Sambor, and Sanok

(PREMISLIENSIS, SAMBORIENSIS, ET SANOCHIENSIS) A Græco-Ruthenian Uniat diocese of ...

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Ps 7

Psalms

The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" ( Kethubhim or Hagiographa ...

Psalms, Alphabetic

Alphabetic psalms are so called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, ...

Psalterium

The Psalterium, or Book of the Psalms, only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed ...

Psaume, Nicholas

(also PSAULME, PREAUME, Latin PSALMÆUS) Bishop of Verdun, born at Chaumont-sur-Aire in ...

Psellus, Michael

( Michael ho Psellos ), Byzantine statesman, scholar, and author, born apparently at ...

Psychology

(Greek psyche, logos ; Latin psychologia; French psychologie; German Seelenkunde ) In ...

Psychotherapy

(from the Greek psyche , "mind", and therapeuo , "I cure") Psychotherapy is that ...

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Pt 3

Ptolemais

Ptolemais, a titular see in Egypt, metropolis of Thebais Secunda. Ptolemais owes its name to ...

Ptolemais

(SAINT-JEAN D'ACRE) Ptolemais, a titular metropolis in Phoenicia Prima, or Maritima. The ...

Ptolemy the Gnostic

A heretic of the second century and personal disciple of Valentinus. He was probably still ...

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Pu 31

Public Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

Public Honesty (Decency)

A diriment matrimonial impediment consisting in a relationship, which arises from a valid ...

Publican

Publican , in the Gospels, is derived from the publicanus of the Vulgate, and signifies a ...

Pueblo Indians

NAME From the Spanish word meaning "village" or "town". A term used collectively to designate ...

Puget, Pierre

A painter, sculptor, architect, and naval constructor, born at Marseilles, 31 Oct., 1622; died ...

Pugh, George Ellis

A jurist and statesman, born at Cincinnati, Ohio., 28 November, 1822; died there, 19 July, 1876. ...

Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore

Architect and archeologist, born in London, 1 March, 1812; died at Ramsgate, 14 September, 1852; ...

Puiseux, Victor-Alexandre

French mathematician and astronomer, b. 16 April, 1820, at Argenteuil (Seine-et-Oise); d. 9 ...

Pulaski, Casimir

Patriot and soldier, b. at Winiary, Poland, 4 March, 1748; d. on the Wasp, in the harbour of ...

Pulati

(The Diocese of Pulati: Pulatensis or Polatinensis ). The ancient Pulati in Albania no ...

Pulcheria, Saint

Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire, eldest daughter of the Emperor Arcadius, b. 19 Jan., 399; d. ...

Pulci, Luigi

An Italian poet, born at Florence, 15 Aug., 1432; died at Padua in 1484. The Pulci gave many ...

Pullen, Robert

(POLENIUS, PULLAN, PULLEIN, PULLENUS, PULLY, LA POULE) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Died 1147 (?). ...

Pullus, Robert

(PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

Pulpit

( Latin pulpitum , a stage or scaffold) An elevated stand to preach on. To elucidate the ...

Punishment, Capital

The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The ...

Puno

DIOCESE OF PUNO (PUNIENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima in Peru. Its jurisdiction ...

Purcell, John Baptist

Archbishop of Cincinnati, born at Mallow, Ireland, 26 Feb., 1800; died at the convent of the ...

Purgative Way

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Purgatorial Societies

Pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to ...

Purgatory

The subject is treated under these heads: I. Catholic Doctrine II. Errors III. Proofs IV. Duration ...

Purgatory, St. Patrick's

Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

Purim

(P HURIM ). The origin of the name is disputed: some derive it from the Persian pure ...

Puritans

One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is ...

Pusey and Puseyism

Edward Bouverie Pusey, born at Pusey House, Berkshire, 22 Aug., 1800; died at Ascot Priory, ...

Pustet

The name of a family of well-known Catholic publishers. The original home of the Pustets was ...

Putative Marriage

Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

Puteanus, Erycius

(ERRIJCK DE PUT) Born at Venloo, in Dutch Limbourg, 4 Nov., 1574; died at Louvain, 17 Sept., ...

Putzer, Joseph

Theologian and canonist, b. at Rodaneck, Tyrol, 4 March, 1836; d. at Ilchester, Md., 15 May, ...

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre

French painter, b. at Lyons, 14 Dec., 1824; d. at Paris, 24 Oct., 1898. Through his father ...

Puyallup Indians

An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly holding the territory along the river of ...

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Pyrker, Johann Ladislaus von Oberwart

(FELSÖ-EÖR) He was born at Langh near Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, 2 Nov., 1772; died ...

Pyrrhonism

Pyrrhonism is a system of scepticism, the founder of which was Pyrrho, a Greek philosopher, ...

Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism

Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician and founder of the Pythagorean school, ...

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