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Joseph Hergenröther

Church historian and canonist, first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives, b. at Würzburg, 15 Sept., 1824; d. at Mehrerau (Bodensee), 3 Oct., 1890.

He was the second son of Johann Jacob Hergenröther, professor of medicine in the University of Würzburg. In 1842 Hergenröther completed with notable success his gymnasium course in his native town, and entered the University of Würzburg to take up a two-year course of philosophical studies, to which he added certain branches of theology. His historical tendencies exhibited themselves at this early age in a dramatic poem entitled "Papst Gregor VII" (Würzburg, 1841). Bishop von Stahl took a lively interest in the promising youth, and in 1844 sent him to the Collegium Germanicum at Rome, whither he had already sent Denzinger and Hettinger. Among his scholarly teachers were Perrone and Passaglia in doctrinal theology, Tomei in moral theology, Ballerini in church history, Patrizi in Scriptural exegesis, and Marzio in canon law. The political troubles of 1848 prevented the completion of his theological studies at Rome ; he was ordained to the priesthood 28 March of that year, and returned to Würzburg, where he pursued his ecclesiastical preparation for another year. In 1849 he was appointed chaplain at Zellingen, and for some time devoted himself with zeal to the duties of his office. In 1859 he stood successfully for the degree of doctor of theology before the University of Munich, and offered as his dissertation a treatise on the Trinitarian teaching of St. Gregory Nazianzen (Die Lehre von der göttlichen Dreieinigkeit nach d. heil. Gregor von Nazianz, Ratisbon, 1850). The brilliant qualities of the young doctor induced the theological faculty of Munich to offer him a place as instructor ( privatdozent ) in theology, which he accepted. Following ancient usage, he justified the confidence of the university by a printed thesis ( Habilitationschrift ) on the later Protestant theories of the origins of the Catholic Church (De catholicæ ecclesiæ primordiis recentiorum Protestantium systemata expenduntur, Ratisbon, 1851). Henceforth he devoted himself without reserve to his professional duties. In 1852 he was called to Würzburg, as professor extraordinary of canon law and church history ; after three years (1855) he was promoted to the full possession of that chair. To his other duties he added the teaching of patrology. In those years Würzburg rejoiced in the possession of such brilliant theologians as Hettinger, Denzinger, Hähnlein, and Hergenröther; their reputation spread far and wide the fame of this old Franconian school. Hergenröther was often honoured by election to the office of dean of his faculty, and occasionally to the University Senate; the latter office he never held after 1871, because of his opposition to Döllinger. For a similar reason he was never chosen to be rector of the university. Until 1869 Hergenröther was occupied as teacher and writer, chiefly with early Christian and Byzantine ecclesiastical history. The discovery (1851) of the Greek Christian text known as the Philosopho&úmena led him to examine its disputed authorship in a series of studies in the "Tübinger Theol. Quartalschrift" (1852) and in the supplementary volume (1856) to the first edition of the "Kirchenlexikon" of Wetzer and Welte. He again defended the authorship of Hippolytus in the "Œsterreichische Vierteljahrschrift f. kath. Theol." (1863).

Hergenröther was especially interested in the career of Photius and in the origins of the Greek Schism, and kept up continuous research in the principal libraries for manuscripts of the works of Photius, in order to exhibit the original materials in as perfect a text as could be established. This led to the publication (Ratisbon, 1857) of the work, "Photii Constantinopolitani Liber de Spiritus Sancti mystagogia". He contributed essays on the same work and on the "Amphilochia" of Photius to the "Tüb. Theol. Quartalschrift" (1858). In 1860 appeared at Paris the Migne edition of "Photius" (P. G., CI-CIV). It offered many textual emendations that were owing to Hergenröther, particularly in the "Amphilochia"; it was against his will that his earlier edition of the "Liber de Sp. Sancti mystagogia" was reprinted by Migne. When Pichler's work on the history of the separation of the Eastern and Western Churches appeared (Munich, 1864), Hergenröther was prepared to criticize it in the most thorough manner, which he did in a series of studies in a Würzburg theological periodical, the "Chilianeum" (1864-65), and in the "Archiv. f. kath. Kirchenrecht" (1864-65). The results of his twelve years of research in the history of the Greek Schism appeared finally in the classical work, "Photius Patriarch von Constantinopel, sein Leben, seine Schriften, und das griechische Schisma" (3 vols., Ratisbon, 1867-69). An additional volume bears the title: "Monumenta Græca ad Photium ejusque historiam pertinentia" (Ratisbon). In this monumental work it is difficult to say whether the palm belongs to the author's extensive knowledge of all the manuscript material, to his profound erudition, or to his calm objective attitude. Krumbacher, the historian of Byzantine literature , says that the work cannot be surpassed. In these volumes Hergenröther laid here in minute detail the origins of the Byzantine Church, its development since the fourth century, and after the death of Photius until the unfortunate completion of the schism in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

While professor of canon law at Würzburg, Hergenröther published several important historico-canonical essays on such subjects as early ecclesiastical reordinations (Ester, Vierteljahrsch. f. kath. Theol., 1862), the canonical relations of the various rites in the Catholic Church (Archiv f. kath. Kirchenrecht, 1862), the politico-ecclesiastical relations of Spain and the Holy See (ibid., 1863-66), and the canon law of the Greeks to the end of the ninth century (ibid., 1870). His interest in the ecclesiastical vicissitudes of his own day was manifested by valuable essays on the States of the Church after the French Revolution (Hist.-polit. Blätter, 1859), spirit of the age ( Zeitgeist ) and papal sovereignty (Der Katholik, 1861), and the Franco-Sardinian Treaty (Frankfort, 1865). Among his historico-apologetic essays we may count his treatises on the modern errors condemned by the Holy See in the Encyclical (Syllabus) of 8 Dec., 1864 (in the Chilianeum, 1865), the veneration of the Blessed Virgin in the first ten centuries of the Christian Era (Münster, 1870). He was a regular contributor of similar but briefer articles to the Würzburg periodicals, "Die katholische Wochenschrift" and the "Chilianeum". Hergenröther was constantly engaged in attempting to develop a genuine Catholic sentiment and truly Christian life among the faithful. He preached frequently, and was always a welcome speaker at the general assemblies of the German Catholic associations ( Vereine; 1863-77). For the Fulda meeting of the Prussian bishops (1870) he prepared an exhaustive historical study on the spoliation of the Papal States, in which he developed at length the arguments for the temporal power of the papacy.

Together with other Catholics of prudence and insight, Hergenröther deplored the attitude that certain Catholic theologians assumed from about 1860, in particular that of the celebrated historian Döllinger. The latter's work "Kirche und Kirchen, Papsttum und Kirchenstaat" (1861) was criticized by Hergenröther in "Der Katholik". At the Munich meeting of Catholic savants (1863), Hergenröther was one of the eight who sent in a written protest against the opening discourse of Döllinger on the past and present of Catholic theology. Among the other signers were Heinrich Moufang von Schäzler, Haffner, Philipps, Hettinger, and Scheeben. Hergenröther was soon called on to answer the pamphlet of Dr. Michelis, "Kirche oder Partei? Ein offenes u. freies Wort an den deutschen Episkopat" (Church or Faction? A Frank Address to the German Episcopate), in which this writer attacked violently the "Mainz" and the "Roman" theologians. Hergenröther's answer appeared in the "Chilianeum" (1865) under the title of "Kirche u. nicht Partei. Eine Antwort auf die jüngste Broschüre des Herrn Dr. Fr. Michelis" (Church and not Faction: an Answer to the latest Brochure of Dr. Michelis). In the same review (1863) Hergenröther had written a critical account of the latest efforts of Western Catholics for ecclesiastical reunion with the Oriental Churches.

The opening of the Vatican Council (1870) brought to a head the domestic conflict in Germany. Hergenröther was the foremost defender of the council and its decrees ; as early as 1868 he had been appointed, with Hettinger, consultor for the preparation of the council's work and had taken up his residence at Rome. His inexhaustible knowledge of ecclesiastical history, canon law, and Catholic dogma made him a valuable co-labourer in the many careful and detailed preliminary meetings of the council commission. In the meantime he prepared, with Hettinger, and published in the "Chilianeum" (1869) a memorial of the theological faculty of Würzburg in reply to five questions, submitted by the Bavarian Government, concerning the approaching council. He also publsihed (Der Katholik, 1871) another outlined memorial concerning the Vatican Council, in reply to eleven questions submitted by the Bavarian Minister of Worship to the theological and law faculties of Würzburg. This memorial, though projected, was never formally called for by the Government. The oppositon to the Vatican Council reached its acme in the notorious work, "Der Papst und das Concil", by "Janus" ( Döllinger ). In the same year (1869) Hergenröther prepared his "Anti-Janus", an historico-theological critique (Freiburg, 1870). He also publsihed a number of small brochures in favour of the council and against Döllinger, e.g. "Die Irrthümer logischer Censor" (Freiburg, 1870), and a critique of Dr. Döllinger's declaration of 28 March, 1871 (Freiburg, 1871). His pen was also active in the "Historisch-politische Blätter", where he published (1870) a series of articles on the "Allgemeine Zeitung" and its letters from the council, on papal infallibility before the Vatican Council , and on ancient Gallicans and modern Appellants. In 1871 he published the solid study "Das unfehlbare Lehrant des Papstes" [The Infallible Magisterium (teaching office) of the pope, Passau, 1871]. These grave and exhausting labours were crowned and partially summarized by a new work, "Katholische Kirche u. christlicher Staat in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung u. in Beziehung auf die Gegenwart" (The Catholic Church and the Christian State, in their historical development and their relations to the present), together with an "Anti-Janus vindicatus" (Freiburg, 1872, 2nd annotated ed., Freiburg, 1876). The former is a thesaurus of information concerning politico-ecclesiastical conflicts of the past, and is marked throughout by an uncompromising Catholic tone. It was translated into Italian (Pavia, 1877) and into English (London, 1876; Baltimore, 1889).

The friends and disciples of Hergenröther had often urged him to compose a manual of ecclesiastical history, but the labours of the Vatican Council had left him no time for such a task; moreover, he had been considering an extensive work on Church and State in the eighteenth century. He yielded, however, to the general desire, and published his "Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte" (Manual of General Church History ) in the "theological Library " of Herder (Freiburg, 1876). A second annotated edition appeared in 1879; in 1880 a third volume was added, containing the notes and documentary evidence. This work was then and remains yet unsurpassed for abundance of information, accuracy of narrative, and manifold sources of historical proof. A third edition appeared (1884-86), in which the notes are no longer printed apart, but accompany the text. The writer of this article is the editor of a fourth edition (3 vols., Freiburg, 1902-1909). When it was proposed to bring out a new edition of the "Kirchenlexikon" of Wetzer and Welte, Hergenröther was naturally suggested as the savant most capable of executing this gigantic task. He accepted it, but was compelled to abandon it when scarcely begun; his elevation to the dignity of cardinal with the obligation of a Roman residence, left him no freedom for the enterprise. The first volume contains many articles from his pen, some of them quite lengthy. He was unable to do as much for the other volumes–in all there are eighty-seven articles signed by him. Other minor literary tasks consumed his spare hours in the last period of his life at Würzburg. The various subjects were Pius IX (Würzburg, 1876); Athanasius the Great (Cologne, 1876); Cardinal Maury in "Katholische Studien" (Würzburg, 1878); a short history of the popes (Würzburg, 1878); the vow of poverty among the Oriental monks in "Archiv f. kath. Kirchenrecht" (1877); the canonical significance of nomination (ibid., 1878). Hergenröther's solid and important works in the departments of church history and canon law, and his firm attitude on the great ecclesiastical questions of the day, won for him the confidence of all the bishops and Catholic scholars of Germany. In 1877 Pius IX had recognized his services to the Vatican Council and the ecclesiastical sciences by making him a domestic prelate. When Leo XIII detmined to open the Vatican Archives to the scholars of the world, he found in him the savant to whom he might safely entrust the practical execution of this generous act. Hergenröther was made Cardinal-Deacon of San Nicolò in Carcere, 12 May, 1879, to the great joy of all German, and particularly Bavarian, Catholics. At a later date he was transferred to Santa Maria in Via Lata. He was also appointed Cardinal-Prefect of the Apostolic Archives, a new office, which he was the first to fill, and in which he was charged with the establishment of research work in the Vatican Archives and the systematizing, on scientific lines, of scholarly work amid these rich treasures. That he executed the views of Leo XIII in a satisfactory and even generous manner, is acknowledged by the numerous historical workers who have laboured in the archives since 1879. Hergenröther was also a member of several Roman congregations (Index, Studies, and Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs), and protector of several religious institutes. He undertook, moreover, to edit the official correspondence (Regesta) of Leo X, a rather thankless task, and one of great difficulty, because of the exceedingly bad handwriting of that day. He was efficiently aided by his younger brother, Franz Hergenröther, who had accompanied him to Rome. Before his death the cardinal published eight parts or fasciculi of this extensive work, "Leonis X Pont. Maximi Regesta ", Vol. I (Freiburg, 1884-85). A small part of the second volume was brought out (Freiburg, 1891) by his brother and fellow-editor, since which time the publication has ceased by reason of the latter's return to Würzburg as canon capitular of the cathedral.

Despite the grave burdens that now weighed upon him, Cardinal Hergenröther undertook another work of the most exacting nature, the continuation of Hefele's "History of the Councils", two volumes of which he published before his death (vol. VIII, Freiburg, 1887; vol. IX, 1890). The latter volume contains the preliminary history of the Council of Trent and is also a history of the Lutheran Reformation. He suffered much in the last years of his life, as the result of an apoplectic attack which crippled him grievously though it did not affect the brightness and vigour of his intellect. He was able to keep up his literary labours to the day of his death. During the summer vacation of 1880 he took up his residence in the Cistercian Abbey of Mehrerau (on the Bodensee) the hospitality of which he had more than once enjoyed. In this secluded spot he met with another apoplectic stroke, and died. He was laid to rest in the church of the abbey. In 1897 a suitable monument was erected to his memory by his friends, and dedicated (25 March).

More Volume: J 331

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Jáuregui, Juan de

A Spanish painter and poet, born at Seville c. 1570, or, according to some, as late as 1583; ...

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Jíbaro Indians

Jíbaro (Spanish orthography) "forest man", i.e. native. An important tribal group of ...

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Jörg, Joseph Edmund

Historian and politician, b. 23 Dec., 1819 at Immenstadt (Ahgau); d. at Landshut, 18 Nov., 1901. ...

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Ja 49

Jaén

(GIENNENSIS) Diocese in Southern Spain. The city of Jaén, capital of the province of ...

Jaca, Diocese of

( Also JACCA; Latin JACCENSIS). Located in the Spanish province of Huesca. Jaca, the chief ...

Jackson, Henry Moore

Knight, born in Grenada, 1849; died in London, 29 August, 1908. The youngest son of the Anglican ...

Jacob

The son of Isaac and Rebecca, third great patriarch of the chosen people, and the immediate ...

Jacob of Jüterbogk

(In the world BENEDICT STOLZENHAGEN). Theologian and canonist, born of poor parents near ...

Jacobus de Teramo

(AB ANCHARANO), belonging to the family of Palladini, canonist and bishop, born in 1349 at ...

Jacopo de Voragine, Blessed

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Jacopone da Todi

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Jacotot, Joseph

French educator, b. at Dijon, March, 1770; d. at Paris, 30 July, 1840. He studied in the college ...

Jacques de Vitry

Historian of the crusades, cardinal Bishop of Acre, later of Tusculum, b. at Vitry-sur-Seine, ...

Jacquier, François

French mathematician and physicist, born at Vitry-le-Francois, 7 June, 1711; died at Rome, 3 ...

Jaenbert

(Jaenberht, Janbriht, Janibert, Jambert, Lambert, Lanbriht, Genegberht.) Thirteenth ...

Jaffa

A titular see in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The city of Jaffa is very ancient. Even before ...

Jaffna, Diocese of

(JAFFNENSIS.) Situated in the northern portion of Ceylon, Jaffna comprises the northern and ...

Jainism

A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in ...

Jamaica

The largest of the British West Indian islands, is situated in the Caribbean Sea, between latitude ...

Jamay, Denis

Franciscan, missionary, date and place of birth unknown; died in France, 1625; an important ...

James of Brescia

Theologian of the fifteenth century. He entered the Dominican Order at Brescia, his native ...

James of Edessa

A celebrated Syrian writer, b. most likely in A.D. 633; d. 5 June, 708. He was a native of the ...

James of Sarugh

A writer of the Syrian Church "the flute of the Holy Spirit and the harp of the believing ...

James of the Marches, Saint

Franciscan, b. of a poor family named Gangala, at Monteprandone, Italy, 1391; d. at Naples, 28 ...

James Primadicci

(Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

James the Greater, Saint

( Hebrew Yakob ; Septuagint Iakob ; N.T. Greek Iakobos ; a favourite name among the later ...

James the Less, Saint

THE IDENTITY OF JAMES The name "James" in the New Testament is borne by several: James, the ...

James Thompson, Blessed

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

James, Epistle of Saint

The questions concerning this epistle are treated in the following order: I. Author and ...

Janauschek, Leopold

Cistercian, born at Brünn, Moravia, 13 October, 1827; died 23 July, 1898, at Baden, near ...

Jandel, Alexandre Vincent

General of the Dominican order, born at Gerbevilliers (Lorraine), 18 July, 1810; died at Rome, ...

Jane Frances de Chantal, Saint

Born at Dijon, France, 28 January, 1572; died at the Visitation Convent Moulins, 13 December, ...

Janner, Ferdinand

Theologian, born at Hirschau, in the Upper Palatinate (Bavaria), 4 Feb., 1836; died 1 November, ...

Janow, Matthew of

A medieval ecclesiastical author, born in the fourteenth century in Bohemia ; died at ...

Jansen, Cornelius

( Also Jansens, Janssen, Janssenius or Jansenius Gandaviensis). Exegete, born at Hulst, ...

Jansenius and Jansenism

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Janssen, Arnold

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Janssen, Johann

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Janssens, Abraham

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Janssens, Johann Hermann

Catholic theologian, b. at Maeseyck, Belgium, 7 Dec., 1783; d. at Engis, 23 May, 1853. After ...

Januarius, Saint

Martyr, Bishop of Beneventum. St. Januarius is believed to have suffered in the ...

Japan

AREA AND POPULATION Japan, called in the language of the country Nihon or Nippon (Land of the ...

Japanese Martyrs

There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the ...

Jarcke, Karl Ernst

Born 10 November, 1801, at Danzig, Prussia ; died 27 December, 1852, at Vienna. He belonged to a ...

Jaricot, Pauline-Marie

Foundress of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith and the Association of the Living ...

Jarlath, Saint

Patron of the Archdiocese of Tuam , born in Connaught about 445; died 26 December, ( al. , 11 ...

Jaro

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Jarric, Pierre de

Missionary writer, born at Toulouse in 1566; d. at Saintes, 2 March, 1617. He entered the ...

Jason

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Jassus

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Jassy

(Jassiensis). Diocese in Rumania. The town of Jassy stands in a very fertile plain on the ...

Javouhey, Venerable Anne-Marie

Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, born at Chamblanc, Diocese of Dijon, 11 ...

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Je 59

Jealousy

Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...

Jean de La Bruyère

Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of ...

Jean Eudes, Blessed

French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...

Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney, Saint

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...

Jean-Gabriel Perboyre, Blessed

Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

Jeanne de Valois, Saint

Queen and foundress of the Order of the Annonciades, b. 1464; d. at Bourges, 4 Feb., 1505. ...

Jeaurat, Edmond

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Jedburgh

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Jehoshaphat

( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...

Jehoshaphat, Valley of

(JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...

Jehovah

The proper name of God in the Old Testament ; hence the Jews called it the name by ...

Jehu

The derivation of the name is uncertain. By some it is translated " Yahweh is he". I. J EHU ...

Jemez Pueblo

An Indian pueblo situated upon the north bank of the river of the same name about twenty miles ...

Jeningen, Venerable Philipp

Born at Eichstätt, Bavaria, 5 January, 1642;d, at Ellwangen, 8 February, 1704. Entering the ...

Jenks, Silvester

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Jennings, Sir Patrick Alfred

An Australian statesman, b. at Newry, Ireland, 1831; d. July, 1897. He received his education, ...

Jephte

One of the judges of Israel. The story of Jephte is narrated in chapters xi and xii of the Book ...

Jeremias

[Hebrew Irmeyah; often in the paragogic form Irmeyahu, especially in the Book of ...

Jeremias the Prophet

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Jericho

Three cities of this name have successively occupied sites in the same neighbourhood. I. A ...

Jeroboam

(Septuagint `Ieroboám ), name of two Israelitish kings. (1) J EROBOAM I was the ...

Jerome Emiliani, Saint

Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...

Jerome, Saint

Born at Stridon, a town on the confines of Dalmatia and Pannonia, about the year 340-2; died at ...

Jerusalem (71-1099)

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Jerusalem (After 1291)

(1) Political History The Latin dominion over Jerusalem really came to an end on 2 October, ...

Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71)

This article treats of the "City of God", the political and religious centre of the People of ...

Jerusalem, Assizes of

The signification of the word assizes in this connection is derived from the French verb ...

Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291)

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...

Jerusalem, Liturgy of

The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...

Jesi

(ÆSINA) Diocese in the Province of Ancona, Italy, immediately subject to the Holy ...

Jesu Dulcis Memoria

A poem ranging from forty two to fifty three stanzas (in various manuscripts ), to form the three ...

Jesuit Apologetic

The accusations brought against the Society have been exceptional for their frequency and ...

Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression

(1) St. Ignatius Loyola (19 April 1541-31 July, 1556). The society spread rapidly, and at the ...

Jesuit's Bark

(C HINA B ARK ; C INCHONA ; C ORTEX C HINÆ ; P ERUVIAN B ARK ). Jesuit's ...

Jesuits, Distinguished

Saints Ignatius Loyola ; Francis Xavier ; Francis Borgia ; Stanislaus Kostka; Alfonso ...

Jesuits, History of the (1773-1814)

The execution of the Brief of Suppression having been largely left to local bishops, there was ...

Jesuits, History of the (1814-1912)

Pius VII had resolved to restore the Society during his captivity in France ; and after his ...

Jesuits, History of the (pre-1750)

Italy The history of the Jesuits in Italy was generally very peaceful. The only serious ...

Jesuits, Suppression of the (1750-1773)

The Suppression is the most difficult part of the history of the Society. Having enjoyed very high ...

Jesuits, The

(Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...

Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy Childhood of

(1) A congregation founded in 1835 in the Diocese of Fréjus, for the education of girls ...

Jesus Christ

Origin of the Name of Jesus In this article, we shall consider the two words -- "Jesus" and ...

Jesus Christ, Character of

The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most ...

Jesus Christ, Chronology of the Life of

In the following paragraphs we shall endeavour to establish the absolute and relative chronology ...

Jesus Christ, Devotion to the Heart of

The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...

Jesus Christ, Early Historical Documents on

The historical documents referring to Christ's life and work may be divided into three classes: ...

Jesus Christ, Genealogy of

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...

Jesus Christ, Holy Name of

We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...

Jesus Christ, Knowledge of

" Knowledge of Jesus Christ," as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know ...

Jesus Christ, Origin of the Name of

In this article, we shall consider the two words which compose the Sacred Name. JESUS The word ...

Jesus Christ, Resurrection of

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...

Jesus Mary, Religious of

The Congregation of the Religious of Jesus Mary was founded at Lyons, France, in October, 1818, by ...

Jesus, Daughters of

Founded at Kermaria, in the Diocese of Vannes , France, in 1834, for the care of the sick poor, ...

Jesus, The Society of

(Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...

Jewish Calendar

Days From the remotest time to the present the Israelites have computed the day ( yôm ...

Jewish Tribe

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

Jews (as a Religion)

At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...

Jews, History of the

( Yehúd`m; Ioudaismos ). Of the two terms, Jews and Judaism , the former denotes ...

Jezabel

( Septuagint, 'Iezabél, ). Wife of Achab, King of Israel. She was the daughter of ...

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Jo 163

Joachim of Flora

Cistercian abbot and mystic; b. at Celico, near Cosenza, Italy, c. 1132; d. at San Giovanni in ...

Joachim, Saint

Joachim (whose name means Yahweh prepares ), was the father of the Blessed Virgin Mary. If we ...

Joan of Arc, Saint

In French Jeanne d'Arc ; by her contemporaries commonly known as la Pucelle (the Maid). ...

Joan, Popess

The fable about a female pope, who afterwards bore the name of Johanna (Joan), is first noticed ...

Joanna of Portugal, Blessed

Born at Lisbon, 16 February, 1452; died at Aveiro, 12 may, 1490; the daughter of Alfonso V, King ...

Joannes de Sacrobosco

(John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...

Job

One of the books of the Old Testament , and the chief personage in it. In this article it is ...

Jocelin

Cistercian monk and Bishop of Glasgow ; d. at Melrose Abbey in 1199. On 22 April, 1170, ...

Jocelin de Brakelond

An English chronicler, of the late twelfth century. He was the monk of Bury St. Edmund's ...

Jocelin of Wells

(Or JOSCELINE) Bishop of Bath and Wells (JOCELINUS THOTEMAN), d. 19 Nov., 1242. He was ...

Joel

The son of Phatuel, and second in the list of the twelve Minor Prophets. Nothing is known of his ...

Joest, Jan

(V AN K ALKAR ). Otherwise JAN JOOST VAN CALCKER. Dutch painter, b. at Calcker, or ...

Jogues, Saint Isaac

French missionary, born at Orléans, France, 10 January, 1607; martyred at Ossernenon, ...

John and Cyrus, Saints

Celebrated martyrs of the Coptic Church, surnamed thaumatourgoi anargyroi because they healed ...

John and Paul, Saints

Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

John Baptist de la Salle, Saint

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...

John Baptist de Rossi, Saint

(De Rubeis). Born at Voltaggio in the Diocese of Genoa, 22 February, 1698; died at Rome, 23 ...

John Beche, Blessed

( Alias THOMAS MARSHALL). English Benedictine abbot and martyr ; date of birth unknown; ...

John Berchmans, Saint

Born at Diest in Brabant, 13 March, 1599; died at Rome, 13 August, 1621. His parents watched ...

John Bosco, Saint

( Or St. John Bosco; Don Bosco.) Founder of the Salesian Society. Born of poor parents in ...

John Boste, Saint

(Or JOHN BOAST.) Priest and martyr, b. of good Catholic family at Dufton, in Westmoreland, ...

John Britton, Venerable

(Or Bretton). A layman and martyr, of all ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in ...

John Buckley, Venerable

( Alias John Jones; alias John Griffith; in religion, Godfrey Maurice). Priest and martyr, ...

John Cantius, Saint

Born at Kenty, near Oswiecim, Diocese of Krakow, Poland, 1412 (or 1403); died at Krakow, 1473, ...

John Capistran, Saint

Born at Capistrano, in the Diocese of Sulmona, Italy, 1385; died 23 October, 1456. His father had ...

John Chrysostom, Saint

( Chrysostomos , "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). Doctor of the ...

John Climacus, Saint

Also surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, and THE SINAITA, b. doubtlessly in Syria, about 525; d. on Mount ...

John Colombini, Blessed

Founder of the Congregation of Jesuati; b. at Siena, Upper Italy, about 1300; d. on the way to ...

John Cornelius and Companions, Venerable

John Cornelius (called also Mohun) was born of Irish parents at Bodmin, in Cornwall, on the ...

John Damascene, Saint

Born at Damascus, about 676; died some time between 754 and 787. The only extant life of the ...

John de Britto, Blessed

Martyr ; born in Lisbon, 1 March, 1647, and was brought up in court; martyred in India 11 ...

John Felton, Blessed

Martyr, date and place of birth unknown, was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 8 ...

John Fisher, Saint

Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, and martyr ; born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1459 ...

John Forest, Blessed

Born in 1471, presumably at Oxford, where his surname was then not unknown; suffered 22 May, ...

John Francis Regis, Saint

Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...

John Hambley, Venerable

English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...

John I, Pope Saint

Died at Ravenna on 18 or 19 May (according to the most popular calculation), 526. A Tuscan by ...

John II, Pope

(533-535). The date of the birth of this pope is not known. He was a Roman and the son of ...

John III, Pope

(561-574). A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574. He was of a distinguished family, ...

John Ingram, Venerable

English martyr, born at Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, in 1565; executed at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 ...

John IV, Pope

(640-642). A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. The ...

John IX, Pope

(898-900). Not only is the date of John's birth unknown, but the date of his election as ...

John Joseph of the Cross, Saint

Born on the Island of Ischia, Southern Italy, 1654; d. 5 March, 1739. From his earliest years ...

John Larke, Blessed

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

John Malalas

A Monophysite Byzantine chronicler of the sixth century, born at Antioch where he spent most if ...

John Nelson, Blessed

English Jesuit martyr, b. at Skelton, four miles from York, in 1534; d. at Tyburn, 3 February, ...

John Nepomucene, Saint

Born at Nepomuk about 1340; died 20 March, 1393. The controversy concerning the identity of John ...

John of Antioch

There are four persons commonly known by this name. I John, Patriarch of Antioch ...

John of Avila, Blessed

Apostolic preacher of Andalusia and author, b. at Almodóvar del Campo, a small town in ...

John of Beverley, Saint

Bishop of Hexham and afterwards of York; b. at Harpham, in the East Riding of Yorkshire; d. at ...

John of Biclaro

(Johannes Biclariensis.) Chronicler, born in Portugal, probably about the middle of the sixth ...

John of Cornwall

(JOHANNES CORNUBIENSIS, JOHANNES DE SANCTO GERMANO). John of Cornwall lived about 1176. He was ...

John of Ephesus

(Also known as JOHN OF ASIA). The earliest, and a very famous, Syriac historian. He was born ...

John of Fécamp

(Also known as JEANNELIN on account of his diminutive stature). Ascetic writer, b. near Ravenna ...

John of Falkenberg

Author, b. at Falkenberg, Pomerania, Prussia, date unknown; d. about 1418 in Italy &151; ...

John of Fermo, Blessed

More often called JOHN OF LA VERNA, from his long sojourn on that holy mountain, b. at Fermo ...

John of Genoa

(Often called Balbi, or de Balbis.) Grammarian; born at Genoa, date unknown; died there ...

John of God, Saint

Born at Montemor o Novo, Portugal, 8 March, 1495, of devout Christian parents ; died at ...

John of Hauteville

Moralist and satirical poet of the twelfth century (flourished about 1184). Little is known of his ...

John of Janduno

An Averroistic philosopher, theologian, and political writer of the fourteenth century. John of ...

John of Montecorvino

A Franciscan and founder of the Catholic mission in China, b. at Montecorvino in Southern ...

John of Montesono

Theologian and controversialist, born at Monzón, Spain ; dates of birth and death ...

John of Nikiû

An Egyptian chronicler who flourished in the latter part of the seventh century. The little we ...

John of Paris

( Called also Quidort and de Soardis). Theologian and controversialist; born at Paris, ...

John of Parma, Blessed

Minister General of the Friars Minor (1247-1257), b. at Parma about 1209; d. at Camerino 19 ...

John of Ragusa

(Sometimes confounded with John of Segovia ). A Dominican theologian, president of the ...

John of Roquetaillade (de Rupescissa)

Franciscan alchemist, date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1362. After pursuing the ...

John of Rupella

Franciscan theologian, b. at La Rochelle (Rupella), towards the end of the twelfth century; d. ...

John of Sahagun, Saint

Hermit, b. 1419, at Sahagún (or San Fagondez) in the Kingdom of Leon, in Spain ; d. 11 ...

John of Saint Thomas

(Family name John Poinsot), theologian, born at Lisbon, 9 June, 1589; died at Fraga, Spain, 17 ...

John of Salisbury

(JOHANNES DE SARESBERIA, surnamed PARVUS). Born about 1115; died 1180; a distinguished ...

John of Segovia

A Spanish theologian, b. at Segovia towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. probably in ...

John of the Cross, Saint

Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b. at ...

John of Victring

(JOHANNES VICTORENSIS or DE VICTORIA). Chronicler, b. probably between 1270 and 1280; d. at ...

John of Winterthur

(Johannes Vitoduranus.) Historian, born about 1300 at Winterthur (Switzerland); died ...

John Parvus

Called in his day, JEHAN PETIT or LE PETIT. A French theologian and professor in the ...

John Payne, Blessed

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

John Rigby, Saint

English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

John Roberts, Saint

First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

John Rochester, Blessed

Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

John Sarkander, Blessed

Martyr of the seal of confession, born at Skotschau in Austrian Silesia, 20 Dec., 1576; died at ...

John Scholasticus

( ho Scholastikos ; also called J OHN OF A NTIOCH ) Patriarch of Constantinople (J OHN ...

John Shert, Blessed

A native of Cheshire; took the degree of B.A. at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1566. Successively ...

John Stone, Blessed

English martyr, executed at the Dane-John, Canterbury, probably in December, 1539, for denying ...

John Story, Blessed

( Or Storey.) Martyr ; born 1504; died at Tyburn, 1 June, 1571. He was educated at ...

John Talaia

Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (481-482) at the time of the Monophysite troubles. He had ...

John the Almsgiver, Saint

(JOANNES ELEEMOSYNARIUS; JOANNES MISERICORS). Patriarch of Alexandria (606-16), b. at Amathus ...

John the Baptist, Saint

The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are ...

John the Deacon

(J OHANNES D IACONUS ). Among the writers of the Middle Ages who bear this name, four ...

John the Evangelist, Saint

I. New Testament Accounts II. The Alleged Presbyter John III. The Later Accounts of John IV. Feasts ...

John the Faster

( ‘o nesteutés, jejunator ) Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), ...

John the Silent, Saint

(Hesychastes, Silentiarius). Bishop of Colonia, in Armenia, b. at Nicopolis, Armenia, 8 ...

John Twenge, Saint

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

John V, Pope

(685-686). A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 ...

John VI, Pope

(701-705). A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705. He ascended the ...

John VII, Pope

(705-707). The year of his birth is unknown; d. 18 October, 707. Few particulars of his life ...

John VIII, Pope

(Reigned 872-82) A Roman and the son of Gundus. He seems to have been born in the first ...

John X, Pope

Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928. First a deacon, he became ...

John XI, Pope

Date of birth unknown, became pope in 931; d. 936. He was the son of Marozia by her first ...

John XII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64. The younger Alberic, after the downfall of his mother, ...

John XIII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972. After the death of John XII ...

John XIV, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 984. After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, ...

John XIX (XX), Pope

Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032. After the death of the last patricius of the House of Crescentius, ...

John XV (XVI), Pope

Enthroned 985; d. April, 996. After John XIV had been removed by force, the usurper, Boniface ...

John XVI (XVII)

Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013. After the death of John XV, Bruno, a relative of Otto ...

John XVII (XVIII), Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003. When Sylvester II died on 12 May, 1003, there was no ...

John XVIII (XIX), Pope

Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009. He was the son of a Roman ...

John XXI (XX), Pope

Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277. The son ...

John XXII, Pope

(JACQUES D'EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 ...

John XXIII

Antipope of the Pisan party (1400-15), b. about 1370; d. 22 November, 1419. Cardinal Baldassare ...

John, Epistles of

Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. The subject will ...

John, Gospel of

This subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Contents and Scheme of the ...

Johnson, Blessed Robert

Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

Johnson, Blessed Thomas

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Johnson, Lionel Pigot

Born at Broadstairs on the Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; died 4 Oct., 1902. He was the youngest ...

Johnston, Richard Malcolm

Educator, author, b. 8 March, 1822, at Powellton, Georgia, U.S.A.; d. at Baltimore, Maryland, 23 ...

Joinville, Jean, Sire de

Seneschal of Champagne, historian, b. in 1225; d. at Joinville, 1317. His family held an ...

Joliet, Louis

(Or JOLLIET). Louis Joliet, a discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, ...

Joliette

(JOLIETTENSIS). Diocese created by Pius X , 27 January, 1904 by division of the Archdiocese ...

Jolly, Philipp Johann Gustav von

German physicist, born at Mannheim, 26 September, 1809; died at Munich, 24 December, 1884. His ...

Jonas

The fifth of the Minor Prophets. The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the ...

Jonas of Bobbio

(Or Jonas of Susa ) Monk and hagiographer, b. about the close of the sixth century at ...

Jonas of Orléans

Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, born in Aquitaine; died in 843 or 844. From 818, when he ...

Jonathan

(Hebrew, " Yahweh hath given", cf. Theodore; Septuagint 'Ionáthan .) Name of several ...

Jones, Inigo

A famous English architect, b. 15 July, 1573, in London ; d. 21 June, 1652, and was buried in ...

Jones, Venerable Edward

Priest and martyr, b. in the Diocese of St. Asaph, Wales, date unknown; d. in London, 6 May ...

Jordan, The

(In Hebrew Yâdên, from the root Yârâd, to descend). The difference ...

Jordanis

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...

Jordanus of Giano

(DE JANO). Italian Minorite, b. at Giano in the Valley of Spoleto, c. 1195; d. after 1262. ...

Jornandes

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...

Josaphat

( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...

Josaphat and Barlaam

The principal characters of a legend of Christian antiquity, which was a favourite subject of ...

Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...

Josaphat, Valley of

(JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...

Joseph

The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes ...

Joseph Calasanctius of the Mother of God, Pious Workers of Saint

Founded at Vienna, 24 November, 1889, by Father Anton Maria Schwartz for all works of charity, ...

Joseph Calasanctius, Saint

Called in religion "a Matre Dei", founder of the Piarists, b. 11 Sept., 1556, at the castle of ...

Joseph II

(1741-90). German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and ...

Joseph of Arimathea

All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels. He was born ...

Joseph of Cupertino, Saint

Mystic, born 17 June, 1603; died at Osimo 18 September, 1663; feast, 18 September. Joseph ...

Joseph of Exeter

(JOSEPHUS ISCANUS.) A twelfth-century Latin poet; b. at Exeter, England. About 1180 he went ...

Joseph of Issachar

A man of the tribe of Issachar, and the father of Igal who was one of the spies sent by Moses ...

Joseph of Leonessa, Saint

In the world named Eufranio Desiderio; born in 1556 at Leonessa in Umbria; died 4 February, ...

Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, Saint

This organization began its labours in 1871, when four young priests from Mill Hill were put in ...

Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, Saint

(Mill Hill, London, N.W.) A society of priests and laymen whose object is to labour for ...

Joseph, Saint

Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ . LIFE Sources ...

Joseph, Sisters of Saint

CONGREGATION OF THE SISTERS OF ST. JOSEPH Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. ...

Josephites

(Sons of St. Joseph) A congregation devoted to the Christian education of youth, founded in ...

Josephus, Flavius

Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem ; died about 101. He belonged to a distinguished ...

Joshua

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...

Josias

(J OSIAH – Hebrew for " Yahweh supports"; Septuagint 'Iosías ). A pious ...

Josue

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...

Joubert, Joseph

French philosopher ; b. at Martignac (Dordogne), 7 May, 1754, d. at Villeneuve-le-Roi (Yonne), 4 ...

Jouffroy, Claude-François-Dorothée de

M ARQUIS d' A BBANS . Mechanician, b. at Abbans, near Besançon, 30 Sept., 1751; d. ...

Jouffroy, Jean de

French prelate and statesman; b. at Luxeuil (Franche-Comté) about 1412; d. at the priory ...

Jouin, Louis

Linguist, philosopher, author, b. at Berlin, 14 June, 1818, d. at New York, 10 June, 1899. He ...

Jouvancy, Joseph de

(JOSEPHUS JUVENCIUS). Poet, pedagogue, philologist, and historian, b. at Paris, 14 September, ...

Jouvenet, Jean

Surnamed T HE G REAT . French painter, b. at Rouen in 1644, d. at Paris, 5 April, 1717. ...

Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de

(Also written JOVE-LLANOS). Spanish statesman and man of letters, at Gijon, Asturias, 5 Jan., ...

Jovianus, Flavius Claudius

Roman Emperor, 363-4. After the death of Julian the Apostate (26 June, 363), the army making ...

Jovinianus

An opponent of Christian asceticism in the fourth century, condemned as a heretic (390). Our ...

Jovius, Paulus

(GIOVIO). Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552. Having ...

Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de

Born in 1563 and not, as is mistakenly stated in the "Biographic Michaud ", in 1567; died at ...

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Ju 57

Juan Bautista de Toledo

An eminent Spanish sculptor and architect; b. at Madrid (date not known); d. there 19 May, ...

Jubilate Sunday

The third Sunday after Easter, being so named from the first word of the Introit at Mass ...

Jubilee, Holy Year of

The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew)

According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that ...

Jubilees, Book of

( ta Iobelaia ). An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and ...

Juda

The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the ...

Judaism

At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...

Judaizers

(From Greek Ioudaizo , to adopt Jewish customs -- Esther 8:17 ; Galatians 2:14 ). A ...

Judas Iscariot

The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master . The name Judas ( Ioudas ) is the Greek form of ...

Judas Machabeus

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...

Judde, Claude

French preacher and spiritual father; born at Rouen, about 20 December, 1661; died at Paris, ...

Jude, Epistle of Saint

The present subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Author and the ...

Judea

Like the adjective Ioudaios , the noun Ioudaia comes from the Aramæan Iehûdai ...

Judge, Ecclesiastical

(J UDEX E CCLESIASTICUS ) An ecclesiastical person who possesses ecclesiastical ...

Judges, The Book of

The seventh book of the Old Testament , second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon. I. ...

Judgment, Divine

This subject will be treated under two heads: I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively ...

Judgment, General

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Judgment, Last

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Judgment, Particular

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

Judica Sunday

Name given to the fifth Sunday of Lent, and derived from the first words of the Introit of ...

Judith, Book of

HISTORY Nabuchodonosor, King of Nineveh, sends his general Holofernes to subdue the Jews. The ...

Julia Billiart, Saint

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

Julian and Basilissa, Saints

Husband and wife; died at Antioch or, more probably, at Antinoe, in the reign of Diocletian, ...

Julian of Eclanum

Born about 386; died in Sicily, 454; the most learned among the leaders of the Pelagian ...

Julian of Speyer

Often called J ULIANUS T EUTONICUS . A famous composer, poet, and historian of the ...

Julian the Apostate

(FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS). Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, ...

Juliana Falconieri, Saint

Born in 1270; died 12 June, 1341. Juliana belonged to the noble Florentine family of Falconieri. ...

Juliana of Liège, Saint

Nun, b. at Retinnes, near Liège, Belgium, 1193; d. at Fosses, 5 April, 1258. At the age ...

Juliana of Norwich

English mystic of the fourteenth century, author or recipient of the vision contained in the book ...

Juliana, Saint

Suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution. Both the Latin and Greek Churches mention ...

Julie Billiart, Saint

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

Juliopolis

Titular see in the province of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicaea. The city was founded under ...

Julitta and Quiricus

Martyred under Diocletian. The names of these two martyrs, who in the early Church enjoyed a ...

Julius Africanus

(c. 160-c. 240; the full name is Sextus Iulius Africanus, Greek Sextos Ioulios Aphrikanos ). ...

Julius I, Pope Saint

(337-352). The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for ...

Julius II, Pope

(GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE). Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 ...

Julius III, Pope

(GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE). Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555. ...

Jumièges, Abbey of

Jumièges, situated on the north bank of the Seine, between Duclair and Caudebec, in ...

Junípero Serra

Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, ...

Jungmann, Bernard

A dogmatic theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Münster in Westphalia, 1 ...

Jungmann, Josef

Born 12 Nov., 1830, at Münster, Westphalia ; died at Innsbruck, 25 Nov., 1885. In 1850 he ...

Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical

The right to guide and rule the Church of God. The subject is here treated under the following ...

Jus Spolii

(RIGHT OF SPOIL; also called JUS EXUVIARUM and RAPITE CAPITE) Jus Spolii, a claim, exercised in ...

Jussieu, De

Name of five French botanists. (1) ANTOINE DE JUSSIEU, physician and botanist, b. at Lyons, ...

Juste

The name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors, whose real name was Betti, ...

Justice

Justice is here taken in its ordinary and proper sense to signify the most important of the ...

Justification

(Latin justificatio ; Greek dikaiosis .) A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the ...

Justin de Jacobis, Blessed

Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis, h. at San Fele, Province of ...

Justin Martyr, Saint

Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about ...

Justina and Cyprian, Saints

Christians of Antioch who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian at ...

Justinian I

Roman Emperor (527-65) Flavius Anicius Julianus Justinianus was born about 483 at Tauresium ...

Justiniani, Benedetto

(GIUSTINIANI). Theological and Biblical writer, born at Genoa, about the year 1550; died at ...

Justiniani, Nicholas

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...

Justinianopolis

A titular see of Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebaste. This see is better known in history ...

Justus, Saint

Fourth Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 627 (?). For the particulars of his life we are almost ...

Juvencus, C. Vettius Aquilinus

Christian Latin poet of the fourth century. Of his life we know only what St. Jerome tells us ...

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