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Deluge

Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the following passages of Sacred Scripture : Wisdom 10:4 ; 14:6-7 ; Eccliasticus 16:8 , 44:17-19 ; Isaiah 54:9 ; Matthew 24:37-39 ; Luke 17:26-27 ; Hebrews 11:7 ; 1 Peter 3:20-21 ; 2 Peter 2:5 . In the present article we shall consider:

I. The Biblical Account;
II. Its Historicity;
III. The Universality of the Flood;
IV. Collateral Questions.

I. BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE DELUGE

The Book of Genesis gives the following brief account of the Deluge: God sees the wickedness of men, and determines to destroy them excepting Noah and his family (vi, 1-8). He reveals his decree to Noah and instructs him how he may save himself and the seed of all animal life by means of an ark to be built according to certain dimensions (vi, 9-22). Seven days before the Flood, God commands the patriarch to enter the ark (vii, 1-5). Noah completes his entrance into the ark on the very day on which the Flood begins; the rain falls for forty days and nights; all living things outside the ark are destroyed; the waters prevail upon the earth a hundred and fifty days (vii, 6-24). The waters decrease, the earth dries up; Noah ascertains its condition by means of a raven and a dove sent out from the ark (viii, 1-14). Noah obeys the Divine command to leave the ark, builds an altar, offers sacrifice, makes a covenant with God, and begins to be a husbandman (ix, 1-27).

Simple as this account seems to be, the Biblical critics maintain that it is a mosaic made up of two Flood stories, differing in authorship and in contents. They assign one to the Yahwistic writer usually designated by the letter J; the other, to the post-exilic priestly writer generally known as P. According to Kautzsch, the sections vi, 1-8; vii, 1-5, 7-10, 12, 16b-17, 22-23; viii, 2b-3a, 6-12, 13b, 20-22; ix, 18-27, belong to J, while P claims vi, 9-22; vii, 6, 11, 13-16a, 18-21; vii, 24-viii, 2a; viii, 3b-5, 13a, 14-19; ix, 1-17. This division of the text is based on the following grounds:

  • J uses the divine name Yahweh, P employs Elohim ;
  • J and P narrate the same series of events;
  • J and P differ in language;
  • J and P disagree in their statements.
  • The composite character of the Flood story does not conflict with its Mosaic authorship. The most conservative Bible student will grant that Moses was not an eye-witness of the Deluge. Prescinding from Divine revelation, he must have derived his information about the event either from tradition or from written documents. If Biblical criticism has succeeded in restoring the main sources utilized by Moses in his history of the Flood, it has rendered a most signal service to exegesis. Happily we are in the position to be able to control the value of the critical conclusions by means of the Babylonian or Akkadian account of the Deluge. Without delaying over its form as contained in the fragments of Berosus which are of comparatively recent date, we find that the version given in a cuneiform inscription on tablets preserved in the British Museum, and first deciphered by George Smith in 1872, contains a combination of the P and J elements of the Flood story. This version is said by experts to date back at least to about 3000 B. C. It is certain, therefore, that the so-called P and J documents reconstructed by the critics were combined long before the Biblical text was put in writing. This fact is confirmed by a Deluge story contained in Scheil's recently discovered fragment, which cannot be dated much later than 2140 B. C. Critics can no longer deny the existence of a Flood tradition similar to the history contained in the Book of Genesis, antedating our Biblical account. In order to uphold their division of the inspired text into the so-called J and P documents, they maintain that the Akkadian story was copied partially in the J and partially in the P documents, and that the Biblical "Redactor" reunited these two partial accounts into one. This series of assumptions, however, is at best an awkward attempt to explain away a fact which stands in the way of their theory. But we are prepared to admit the critical division of the Flood account in spite of its disagreement with the results of recent discoveries, if the critical arguments are really cogent.

    (1) We are told the J uses the Divine name Yahweh, while P employs Elohim. But the following considerations must be kept in mind : First, we are hardly sufficiently sure of the use of the Divine names in the primitive inspired text to build a solid argument on their occurrence in the present text-form. Secondly, in the present text-form Elohim occurs twice in the Yahwistic document, vi, 2, and vii, 9. Thirdly, six passages in the section vii, 16-viii, 20, are assigned to the Yahwistic writer, though the name Yahweh does not occur once. Fourthly, the variation of the Divine names in the Deluge story can be explained satisfactorily without resorting to the violent measure of dividing up the text between two distinct writers.

    (2) It is alleged that J and P report the same events. If we examine the two documents as reconstructed by the critics, in the light of this contention, we find that they are fragmentary and that they do not contain two series of events. J passes from God's determination to destroy the world (vi, 1-8) to the Divine command that Noah should enter the ark without telling him where to find or how to procure an ark (vii, 1-5). Noah builds an altar and offers burnt offerings without leaving the ark (viii, 20). P does not inform us of the real nature of the corruption of all flesh (vi, 9-12); he knows of God's order to save the animals, but knows nothing of God's command concerning Noah and his family (vi, 17-22; vii, 13); even eleven months after the beginning of the Flood and two months after the appearance of the tops of the mountains, he knows of no attempt on the part of Noah to ascertain the condition of the earth (viii, 13 sq.); finally, he gives no ethical motive for the Divine blessing bestowed on Noah (ix, 1, sqq.). The critics are aware of these gaps in the two documents, and explain them by supposing that the "Redactor", who had the original Flood stories before him, did not insert their complete text into the Biblical account. But if the "Redactor" omitted certain parts of the original documents in order to avoid repetitions, why did he not omit the repetitions discovered by the critics? Or are we to assume that he introduced certain repetitions, while he carefully avoided others? Is it not more likely that he considered the repetitions alleged by the critics as mere rhetorical devices, as recapitulary transitions, e.g. (vi, 9-12). or gradations (vii, 17-20; vii, 21-23), or amplifications (vii, 7, 13-16a)?

    (3) J and P are said to differ in language; but the critical division being what it is, it would be strange if the two documents did not differ in language. The sections which contain chronological, systematic, and scientific material are attributed to P, the rest is left to J. Is it surprising that J does not describe the measurements of the ark, seeing that the critics do not give him any ark to describe? Or is it remarkable that P lacks the poetic style found in J's description of the raven and the dove, seeing that no section is assigned to him, which would admit such a treatment? The care with which only set subjects and determined expressions are assigned to J and P respectively is well illustrated by the fact that in spite of their minute dissection of the Flood story, the critics must remove part of vi, 7; vii, 3, 7, 17, 22, 23; ix, 18, 22, 23, 26; and the whole of vii, 8, 9, from the J document, and part of vi, 17; vii, 6; ix, 4, from the P document, in order not to allow inconsistencies in their sources.

    (4) Finally, J and P are said to disagree with regard to the animals to be taken into the ark, as to the duration of the flood, and as to God's behaviour towards man after the Flood. In vi, 19, indeed, P records God's command, "thou shalt bring two of a sort into the ark"; but is it inconsistent with this, if 120 years later, when Noah is about to enter the ark, J relates the more accurate Divine specification, "of all clean beasts take seven and seven ... but of the beasts that are not clean two and two" (vii, 2, 3)? It cannot be said that the fulfilment shows that only two of every kind were taken into the ark; both vii 9 and vii, 15, 16, read "two and two... male and female ", so that they express couples fit for generation rather than any absolute number. The discrepancy as to chronology between J and P is more artificial than true ; there is no inconsistency in the chronology of the Biblical account of the Flood, so that the discrepancy between the documents, if there be one, is of critical manufacture. Besides, a simple reading of the J document taken separately will show that its chronology is not satisfactory. Finally, if in ix, 15, P knows of a Divine covenant which according to J is the result of the self-deliberation of Yahweh in consequence of the patriarch's sacrifice (viii, 21-22), the two documents are rather supplementary than contradictory; J supplies the ethical motive for God's action as described by P.

    II. HISTORICITY OF THE BIBLICAL DELUGE ACCOUNT

    It has been contended that the Flood story of the Bible and the Flood legends of other peoples, looked at from a merely historical point of view, stand on a similar footing, the Biblical account being a mere late variant of one of them. And on inquiring into their origin, we find that four theories have been advanced:

  • The Flood story is a mere product of fancy. This theory contradicts the analogy of similar legends among all peoples.
  • The Deluge story is by others considered as a nature-myth, representing the phenomena of winter, which in Babylonia especially is the time of rain. This nature-myth again is by some writers believed to have grown out of an archaic ether-myth, according to which the sun was imagined as a man voyaging on a boat in the heavenly ocean. The fact that the sea was to be found on the earth, not in heaven, and the damage wrought by the incessant winter-rain and the inundation of great rivers, transferred the myth from heaven to earth, changing the ether-myth into a nature-myth. But this theory, too, neglects the numerous Flood stories existing among many nations, which do not lend themselves to a similar explanation.
  • Connected with the preceding theory is the explanation which makes the Deluge story a cosmogonic fable. It has been seen that the hero rescued in the ship must have been the sun-god (cf. the ether-myth). Thus the Deluge becomes ultimately a variant of the Babylonian creation-myth. It is for this reason that the mythological text published by Peiser calls the time of the Deluge "the year of the great serpent". For this "great serpent" is the personified ocean which on old Babylonian maps encircles Babylonia, just as leviathan is the world-encircling ocean personified as a serpent; it is the same monster which is a central figure in the Creation story. We need not add that this theory too leaves the great bulk of the existing Flood traditions unexplained.
  • It has been inferred from the improbability of the preceding theories, that the Flood story must be a poetical or legendary presentation of some natural occurrence. Furthermore, it is maintained that the immediate basis of the legend is a local disturbance. It may have been a great inundation caused by an overflow of the Tigris and Euphrates, or the incursion of a tidal wave resulting from an earthquake south of the mouth of the two rivers. But however terrible the ruin wrought by such inundations may be, this theory does not account for the universality of the Flood tradition, unless we suppose that the ruin affected the ancestors of all human races.
  • Thus far we have considered the Biblical Flood story from a merely historical point of view. But the student who believes in the inspiration of the Sacred Scriptures and admits the value of tradition in their exegesis can hardly rest satisfied with the results thus far obtained. It will not even be enough to grant that the ancient Flood legend became the vehicle of religious and spiritual truth by means of a divinely guided religious feeling and insight of the inspired writer. The Deluge is referred to in several passages of Scripture as a historical fact; the writings of the Fathers consider the event in the same light, and this view of the subject is confirmed by the numerous variants under which the Flood tradition lives in the most distant nations of the earth.

    (a) The following are some of the New Testament passages which imply that the Deluge was a real historical event: "And as in the days of Noah, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For as in the days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, even till that day in which Noah entered into the ark, and they knew not. till the flood came, and took them all away; so also shall the coming of the Son of man be" ( Matthew 24:37-39 ). In these words Christ regards the Flood with its circumstances as being not less real than the last days will be of which He speaks in the passage. The same view concerning the Flood, Christ implies in Luke, xvii, 26-27. In the Epistle to the Hebrews (xi, 7) the inspired writer is not less clear about the historicity of the Flood: "By faith, Noah having received an answer concerning those things which as yet were not seen, moved with fear, framed the ark for the saving of his house, by the which he condemned the world; and was instituted heir of the justice which is by faith." St. Peter ( 1 Peter 3:20 ) too refers to the ark and the Flood as historical facts: "When they waited for the patience of God in the days of Noah, when the ark was a building: wherein a few, that is, eight souls, were saved by water". He returns to the same teaching in II Peter, ii, 5. We might appeal to Is., liv, 9; Nah., i, 8; Ezech., xiv, 14; Ecclus., xliv, 18 sq.; Ps. xxviii, 10; xxxi, 6; but what has been said sufficiently shows that the Bible urges the historicity of the Deluge story.

    (b) As to the view of Christian tradition , it suffices to appeal here to the words of Father Zorell who maintains that the Bible story concerning the Flood has never been explained or understood in any but a truly historical sense by any Catholic writer (cf. Hagen, Lexicon Biblicum). It would be useless labour and would exceed the scope of the present article to enumerate the long list of Fathers and Scholastic theologians who have touched upon the question. The few stray discordant voices belonging to the last fifteen or twenty years are simply drowned in this unanimous chorus of Christian tradition.

    (c) The historicity of the Biblical Flood account is confirmed by the tradition existing in all places and at all times as to the occurrence of a similar catastrophe. F. von Schwarz (Sintfluth und Völkerwanderungen, pp. 8-18) enumerates sixty-three such Flood stories which are in his opinion independent of the Biblical account. R. Andree (Die Flutsagen ethnographisch betrachtet) discusses eighty-eight different Flood stories, and considers sixty-two of them as independent of the Chaldee and Hebrew tradition. Moreover, these stories extend through all the races of the earth excepting the African ; these are excepted, not because it is certain that they do not possess any Flood traditions, but because their traditions have not as yet been sufficiently investigated. Lenormant pronounces the Flood story as the most universal tradition in the history of primitive man, and Franz Delitzsch was of opinion that we might as well consider the history of Alexander the Great a myth, as to call the Flood tradition a fable. It would, indeed, be a greater miracle than that of the Deluge itself, if the various and different conditions surrounding the several nations of the earth had produced among them a tradition substantially identical. Opposite causes would have produced the same effect.

    III. UNIVERSALITY OF THE DELUGE

    The Biblical account ascribes some kind of a universality to the Flood. But it may have been geographically universal, or it may have been only anthropologically universal. In other words, the Flood may have covered the whole earth, or it may have destroyed all men, covering only a certain part of the earth. Till about the seventeenth century, it was generally believed that the Deluge had been geographically universal, and this opinion is defended even in our days by some conservative scholars (cf. Kaulen in Kirchenlexikon). But two hundred years of theological and scientific study devoted to the question have thrown so much light on it that we may now defend the following conclusions:

    (1) The geographical universality of the Deluge may be safely abandoned.

    Neither Sacred Scripture nor universal ecclesiastical tradition, nor again scientific considerations, render it advisable to adhere to the opinion that the Flood covered the whole surface of the earth.

    (a) The words of the original text, rendered "earth" in our version, signify "land" as well as "earth"; in fact, "land" appears to have been their primary meaning, and this meaning fits in admirably with Gen., iv, v, and Gen., x; why not adhere to this meaning also in Gen., vi-ix, or the Flood story. Why not read, the waters "filled all on the face of the land", "all flesh was destroyed that moved in the land", "all things wherein there is the breath of life in the land died", "all the high mountains under the whole heaven (corresponding to the land) were covered"? The primary meaning of the inspired text urges therefore a universality of the flood covering the whole land or region in which Noah lived, but not the whole earth.

    (b) As to the cogency of the proof from tradition for the geographical universality of the Flood, it must be remembered that very few of the Fathers touched upon this question ex professo . Among those who do so there are some who restrict the Deluge to certain parts of the earth's surface without incurring the blame of offending against tradition.

    • The earthly paradise, e.g., was exempted by many, irrespective of its location on the top of a high mountain or elsewhere;
    • the same must be said of the place in which Mathusala must have lived during the Flood according to the Septuagint reading;
    • St. Augustine knows of writers who exempted the mountain Olympus from the Flood, though he himself does not agree with them;
    • Pseudo-Justin hesitatingly rejects the opinion of those who restrict the Flood to the parts of the earth actually inhabited by men;
    • Cajetan revived the opinion that the Flood did not cover Olympus and other high mountains, believing that Genesis spoke only of the mountains under the aerial heaven ;
    • Tostatus sees a figure of speech in the expression of the Bible which implies the universality of the Flood; at any rate, he exempts the earthly Paradise from the Deluge, since Henoch had to be saved.
    If the Fathers had considered the universality of the Flood as part of the body of ecclesiastical tradition , or of the deposit of faith, they would have defended it more vigorously. It is true that the Congregation of the Index condemned Vossius's treatise "De Septuaginta Interpretibus" in which he defended, among other doctrines, the view that the Flood covered only the inhabited part of the earth; but theologians of great weight maintained that the work was condemned on account of its Protestant author, and not on account of its doctrine.

    (c) There are also certain scientific considerations which oppose the view that the Flood was geographically universal. Not that science opposes any difficulty insuperable to the power of God ; but it draws attention to a number of most extraordinary, if not miraculous phenomena involved in the admission of a geographically universal Deluge.

    • First, no such geological traces can be found as ought to have been left by a universal Deluge; for the catastrophe connected with the beginning of the ice-age, or the geological deluge, must not be connected with the Biblical.
    • Secondly, the amount of water required by a universal Deluge, as described in the Bible , cannot be accounted for by the data furnished in the Biblical account. If the surface of the earth, in round numbers, amounts to 510,000,000 square kilometres, and if the elevation of the highest mountains reaches about 9000 metres, the water required by the Biblical Flood, if it be universal, amounts to about 4,600,000,000 cubic kilometres. Now, a forty days' rain, ten times more copious than the most violent rainfall known to us, will raise the level of the sea only about 800 metres; since the height to be attained is about 9000 metres, there is still a gap to be filled by unknown sources amounting to a height of more than 8000 metres, in order to raise the water to the level of the greatest mountains.
    • Thirdly, if the Biblical Deluge was geographically universal, the sea water and the fresh water would mix to such an extent that neither the marine animals nor the fresh-water animals could have lived in the mixture without a miracle.
    • Fourthly, there are serious difficulties connected with the animals in the ark, if the Flood was geographically universal: How were they brought to Noah from the remote regions of the earth in which they lived? How could eight persons take care of such an array of beasts? Where did they obtain the food necessary for all the animals? How could the arctic animals live with those of the torrid zone for a whole year and under the same roof?
    No Catholic commentator will repudiate an explanation merely for fear of having to admit a miracle ; but no Catholic has a right to admit Biblical miracles which are not well attested either by Scripture or tradition. What is more, there are traces in the Biblical Flood story which favour a limited extent of the catastrophe: Noah could have known the geographical universality of the Deluge only by revelation ; still the Biblical account appears to have been written by an eye-witness. If the Flood had been universal, the water would have had to fall from the height of the mountains in India to the level of those in Armenia on which the ark rested, i.e. about 11,500 feet, within the space of a few days. The fact that the dove is said to have found "the waters . . . upon the whole earth", and that Noah "saw that the face of the earth was dried", leaves the impression that the inspired writer uses the word "earth" in the restricted sense of "land". Attention has been drawn also to the "bough of an olive tree, with green leaves" carried by the dove in her mouth on her second return to the ark. (2) The Deluge must have been anthropologically universal, i.e. it must have destroyed the whole human race.

    After limiting the extent of the Flood to a part of the earth, we naturally ask whether any men lived outside the region covered by its waters. It has been maintained that not all men can have perished in the Flood for the following reasons: Tribes which certainly sprang from Noah were preceded in their earliest settlements by other tribes whose origin is unknown to us: the Dravidic tribes preceded the Aryans in India ; the proto-Medians preceded the Medians; the Akkadians preceded the Cushites and Semites in Chaldea; the Chanaanites were preceded in Palestine by other races. Besides, the oldest Egyptian monuments present the Negro race just as we find it today, so that even at that remote age, it was wholly different from the Caucasian race. Again, the languages of the races springing from Noah are said to be in a state of development different from that in which we find the languages of the peoples of unknown origin. Finally, the Biblical account of the Flood is said to admit a restriction of its anthropological universality as readily as a limitation of its geographical completeness; for if "land" be substituted in our translation for earth, the Book of Genesis speaks only of the men inhabiting a certain district, and not of the men of the whole earth, as being the victims of the waters. Considerations like these have induced several Catholic writers to regard as quite tenable the opinion that the Deluge did not destroy all men outside the ark.

    But if the reason advanced for limiting the Flood to a certain part of the human race be duly examined, they are found to be more specious than true. The above scientific arguments do not favour a partial destruction of the human race absolutely, but only in so far as the uninterrupted existence of the various races in question gives them more time for the racial development and the historical data that have to be harmonized with the text of Genesis. Those who urge these arguments grant, therefore, implicitly that the allowance of a proper length of time will explain the facts on which their arguments are based. As there is nothing in the teaching of the Bible preventing us from assigning the Flood to a much earlier date than has usually been done, the difficulties urged on the part of science against the anthropological universality of the Flood may be easily evaded. Nor can the distribution of the nations as described in the tenth chapter of Genesis be appealed to, seeing that this section does not enumerate all races of the earth, but confines itself probably to the Caucasian.

    Science, therefore, may demand an early date for the Deluge, but it does not necessitate a limitation of the Flood to certain parts of the human race. The question, whether all men perished in the Deluge, must be decided by the teaching of the Bible , and of its authoritative interpreter. As to the teachings of the Bible , the passage which deals ex professo with the Flood ( Genesis 6 - 9 ), if taken by itself, may be interpreted of a partial destruction of man ; it insists on the fact that all inhabitants of the "land", not of the "earth", died in the waters of the Deluge, and it does not explicitly tell us whether all men lived in the "land". It may also be granted, that of the passages which refer incidentally to the flood, Wis., x, 4; xiv, 6; Ecclus., xliv, 17 sqq., and Matt., xxiv, 37 sqq., may be explained, more or less satisfactorily, of a partial destruction of the human race by the inundation of the Deluge; but no one can deny that the prima facie meaning of I Peter, iii, 20 sq., II Peter, ii, 4-9, and II Peter, iii, 5 sqq., refers to the death of all men not contained in the ark. The explanations of these passages, offered by the opponents of the anthropological universality of the Deluge, are hardly sufficient to remove all reasonable doubt. We turn, therefore, to authority in order to arrive at a final settlement of the question. Here we are confronted, in brief, with the following facts: Up to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the belief in the anthropological universality of the Deluge was general. Moreover, the Fathers regarded the ark and the Flood as types of baptism and of the Church ; this view they entertained not as a private opinion, but as a development of the doctrine contained in I Peter, iii, 20 sq. Hence, the typical character of both ark and Flood belongs to the "matters of faith and morals " in which the Tridentine and the Vatican Councils oblige all Catholics to follow the interpretation of the Church.

    IV. COLLATERAL QUESTIONS

    These may be reduced to the time of the Deluge, its place, and its natural causes.

    (1) Time of the Deluge

    Genesis places the Deluge in the six-hundredth year of Noah ; the Masoretic text assigns it to the year 1656 after the creation, the Samaritan to 1307, the Septuagint to 2242, Flavius Josephus to 2256. Again, the Masoretic text places it in B. C. 2350 (Klaproth) or 2253 (Lüken), the Samaritan in 2903, the Septuagint in 3134. According to the ancient traditions (Lüken), the Assyrians placed the Deluge in 2234 B. C. or 2316, the Greeks in 2300, the Egyptians in 2600, the Phoenicians in 2700, the Mexicans in 2900, the Indians in 3100, the Chinese in 2297, while the Armenians assigned the building of the Tower of Babel to about 2200 B. C. But as we have seen, we must be prepared to assign earlier dates to these events.

    (2) Place of the Flood

    The Bible teaches only that the ark rested on a mountain in Armenia. Hence the Flood must have occurred in a place whence the ark could be carried towards this mountain. The Babylonian tradition places the Deluge in the lower valley of the Tigris and Euphrates.

    (3) Natural Causes of the Flood

    Scripture assigns as the causes of the Deluge the heavy forty days' rains, the breaking up of the fountains of the great deep, and the opening of the flood-gates of heaven. This does not exclude the opinion that certain natural forces were at play in the catastrophe. It has been suggested that the axis of the earth was shifted on account of the earth's collision with a comet, or that powerful volcanic eruptions raised new mountains in the sea, or that an earthquake caused a tidal wave to overrun certain portions of the dry land. Thus, Süss speaks of the frequency of earthquakes and of storms in the Gulf of Persia ; but this would enclose the Flood within too narrow limits both of space and of time. Another conjecture has been proposed by von Schwartz. He supposes that an inland Mongolian sea, in size about equal to the Mediterranean, situated at a height of about 6000 feet above the level of the ocean and 5000 feet above the surrounding Aralo-Caspian plain, at the time of an earthquake broke through one of its walls, and sent its 3,000,000 cubic kilometres of water into the region north of Persia, Armenia, and the Caucasus, covering the whole plain, until the waters were drained by way of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean into the Atlantic Ocean. Here we have the breaking of the bonds of the great deep, we have an outflow of water lasting for several months, and we find that the ark must have been carried westward by the general drift of the waters till it rested on the mountains of Armenia. But not to mention the improbability of the supposition urged by several scientists, we do not understand why the tops of the mountains should not have been visible even after the mooring of the ark. A number of other hypotheses have been proposed in order to explain by natural causes the phenomena implied in the Biblical account of the Deluge, but thus far they have not satisfied the various details given in the Book of Genesis.

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    Irish author and translator from Spanish and German, born in 1814; died at Maddermarket, ...

    Damão

    DIOCESE OF DAMÃO (DAMAU, DAMAUN) Suffragan to Goa, and situated in Portugese India ...

    Damaraland

    The middle part of the German colony, German Southwest Africa, between 19° and 23° S. ...

    Damascus

    Damascus, in Syria, is one of the oldest cities in the world. According to Flavius Josephus it ...

    Damasus I, Saint, Pope

    Born about 304; died 11 December, 384. His father, Antonius, was probably a Spaniards ; the name ...

    Damasus II, Pope

    (Previously called POPPO) A native of Bavaria and the third German to be elevated to the See ...

    Damberger, Joseph Ferdinand

    Church historian, born 1 March, 1795, at Passau, Bavaria ; died 1 April, 1859, at ...

    Damian and Cosmas, Saints

    Early Christian physicians and martyrs whose feast is celebrated on 27 September. They were ...

    Damien, Father (Joseph de Veuster)

    Missionary priest, born at Tremeloo, Belgium, 3 January 1840; died at Molokai, Hawaii, 15 ...

    Damietta

    (Greek Tamiathis , Arabic Doumiât ). An Egyptian titular see for the Latins and ...

    Dan

    ( Hebrew dn , Sept. Dán ),–(1) The fifth son of Jacob, being the elder of the two ...

    Danaba

    A titular see of Phænicia Secunda. Danaba is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, xv, 24) as a town in ...

    Dance of Death

    (French, Dance Macabre , German Todtentanz ) The "Dance of Death" was originally a ...

    Dancing

    The origin of dancing is to be sought in the natural tendency to employ gesture either to ...

    Dandolo, Enrico

    Doge of Venice from 1192 to 1205; died, aged about a hundred years, in 1205. He belonged to one ...

    Daniel

    The hero and traditional author of the book which bears his name. This name ( Hebrew dnyal ...

    Daniel and Companions, Saint

    Friars Minor and martyrs ; dates of birth unknown; died 10 October, 1227. The martyrdom of ...

    Daniel of Winchester

    (Danihel), Bishop of the West Saxons, and ruler of the See of Winchester from 705 to 744; died ...

    Daniel, Anthony

    Huron missionary, born at Dieppe, in Normandy, 27 May 1601, slain by the Iroquois at Teanaostae, ...

    Daniel, Book of

    In the Hebrew Bible, and in most recent Protestant versions, the Book of Daniel is limited to ...

    Daniel, Charles

    Born 31 December, 1818, at Beauvais, France ; died 1 January, 1893, at Paris. He joined the ...

    Daniel, Gabriel

    Historian and controversialist, born at Rouen, France, 8 Feb., 1649; died at Paris, 23 June, ...

    Daniel, John

    Born 1745; died in Paris, 3 October, 1823; son of Edward Daniel of Durton, Lancashire, and ...

    Dansara

    A titular see in Osrhoene. Stephanus Byzantius mentions Dansara as a town near Edessa (Orfa). ...

    Dante Alighieri

    Italian poet, born at Florence, 1265; died at Ravenna, Italy, 14 September, 1321. His own ...

    Danti, Ignazio

    Mathematician and cosmographer, b. at Perugia, Italy, 1537; d. at Alatri, 19 Oct., 1586. As a ...

    Danti, Vincenzo

    Sculptor, brother of Ignazio, b. at Perugia, 1530; d. 24 May, 1576. He also enjoyed some ...

    Dantine, Maurus

    Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, and chronologist, born at Gourieux near Namur, ...

    Darboy, Georges

    Archbishop of Paris and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Fayl-Billot, near Langres, 1813; ...

    Dardanus

    A titular see in the province of Hellespont, suffragan of Cyzicus. Four or five bishops are ...

    Dardel, Jean

    Friar Minor of the French province of the order, chronicler of Armenia in the fourteenth century, ...

    Darerca, Saint

    St. Darerca, of Ireland, a sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her history, and ...

    Dareste de la Chavanne, Antoine-Elisabeth

    Historian and professor, b. in Paris, 25 October, 1820; d. at Lucenay-lès-Aix, 6 August, ...

    Darius and Chrysanthus, Saints

    Roman martyrs, buried on the Via Salaria Nova, and whose tombs, according to the testimony of ...

    Darnis

    A metropolitan titular see of Libya, in Egypt. Ptolemy (IV, 4, 2; 5; 6) and Ammian. Marcell., ...

    Darras, Joseph-Epiphane

    Church historian, b. at Troyes, France, 1825; d. at Paris, Nov. 8, 1878. He completed his ...

    Darrell, William

    Theologian, b. 1651, in Buckinghamshire, England ; d. 28 Feb., 1721, at St. Omer's, France. ...

    Dates and Dating

    In classical Latin even before the time of Christ it was usual for correspondents to indicate ...

    Daubrée, Gabriel-Auguste

    French geologist, b. at Metz, 25 June, 1814; d. at Paris, 29 May, 1896. He studied mining ...

    Daulia

    A titular see of Greece. Daulis, later Daulia, Dauleion, often Diauleia, even Davalia, was a ...

    Daumer, Georg Friedrich

    German poet and philosopher, b. at Nuremberg, 5 March, 1800; d. at Wurzburg, 14 December, 1875. ...

    Davenport

    DIOCESE OF DAVENPORT (DAVENPORTENSIS) The Diocese of Davenport, erected 8 May, 1881, embraces ...

    Davenport, Christopher

    Also known as FRANCISCUS À SANCTA CLARA and sometimes by the alias of FRANCIS HUNT and ...

    David of Augsburg

    (DE AUGUSTA). Medieval German mystic, b. probably at Augsburg, Bavaria, early in the ...

    David of Dinant

    A pantheistic philosopher who lived in the first decades of the thirteenth century. Very little ...

    David Scotus

    A medieval Irish chronicler, date of birth unknown; d. 1139. Early in the twelfth century ...

    David, Armand

    Missionary priest and zoologist, b. 1826; d. 1900. He entered the Congregation of the Mission ...

    David, Gheeraert

    Son of John David, painter and illuminator, b. at Oudewater, South Holland, c. 1450, d. 13 ...

    David, King

    In the Bible the name David is borne only by the second king of Israel, the great-grandson of ...

    David, Saint

    (DEGUI, DEWI). Bishop and Confessor, patron of Wales. He is usually represented standing on ...

    Davies, Venerable William

    Martyr, one of the most illustrious of the priests who suffered under Queen Elizabeth, b. in ...

    Dawson, Æneas McDonnell

    Author, b. in Scotland, 30 July, 1810; d. in Ottawa, Canada, 29 Dec., 1894. He studied at the ...

    Dax, Diocese of

    An ancient French diocese which was suppressed by the Concordat of 1801, its territory now ...

    Day of Atonement

    ( Hebrew Yom Hakkippurim . Vulgate, Dies Expiationum , and Dies Propitiationis — ...

    Day, George

    Bishop of Chichester ; b. in Shropshire, England, c. 1501; d. 2 August, 1556. He was graduated ...

    Day, John Charles, Sir

    Jurist, b. near Bath, England, 1826; d. 13 June, 1908, at Newbury. He was educated at Rome and ...

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    De 133

    De L'Orme, Philibert

    Celebrated architect of the French Renaissance, born at Lyons, c. 1515 or a little later; died at ...

    De La Croix, Charles

    Missionary, b. at Hoorbeke-St-Corneille, Belgium, 28 Oct., 1792; d. at Ghent, 20 Aug., 1869. He ...

    De Lisle, Ambrose Lisle March Phillipps

    Born 17 March, 1809; died 5 March, 1878. He was the son of Charles March Phillipps of Garendon ...

    De Paul University

    DePaul University, Chicago, is the outgrowth of St. Vincent's College, which opened in Sept., ...

    De Profundis

    ("Out of the depths"). First words of Psalm 129. The author of this Psalm is unknown; it was ...

    De Rossi, Giovanni Battista

    A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman ...

    De Smet, Pierre-Jean

    Missionary among the North American Indians , b. at Termonde (Dendermonde), Belgium, 30 Jan., ...

    De Soto, Hernando

    Explorer and conqueror, born at Villanueva de la Serena, Badajoz, Spain, 1496 or 1500; died on the ...

    De Vere, Aubrey Thomas Hunt

    Poet, critic, and essayist, b. at Curragh Chase, County Limerick, Ireland, 10 January, 1814; died ...

    Deaconesses

    We cannot be sure that any formal recognition of deaconesses as an institution of consecrated ...

    Deacons

    The name deacon ( diakonos ) means only minister or servant, and is employed in this sense ...

    Dead Sea

    The name given to the lake that lies on the south-eastern border of Palestine. The Old Testament ...

    Dead, Prayers for the

    This subject will be treated under the following three heads: I. General Statement and Proof of ...

    Deaf, Education of the

    Education essentially includes the process of encouraging, strengthening, and guiding the ...

    Dean

    (Gk. déka , ten; Latin decanus ). One of the principal administrative officials of ...

    Dean, William, Venerable

    Born in Yorkshire, England, date uncertain, martyred 28 August, 1588. He studied at Reims and ...

    Dease, Thomas

    Born in Ireland, 1568; died at Galway, 1651. He sprang from an ancient Irish family at one ...

    Death Penalty

    The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The ...

    Death, Dance of

    (French, Dance Macabre , German Todtentanz ) The "Dance of Death" was originally a ...

    Death, Preparation for

    The basic preparation for death When should a priest be called? Winding up our earthly affairs ...

    Debbora

    Prophetess and judge: she was the wife of Lapidoth and was endowed by God with prophetic gifts ...

    Debt

    ( debitum ) That which is owed or due to another; in general, anything which one person is ...

    Decalogue

    (Greek deka , ten and logos , word). The term employed to designate the collection of ...

    Decapolis

    (From Greek Deka , ten, and polis , city) Decapolis is the name given in the Bible and ...

    Dechamps, Adolphe

    Belgian statesman and publicist, brother of Cardinal Dechamps, born at Melle near Ghent, 17 ...

    Dechamps, Victor Augustin Isidore

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin, and Primate of Belgium ; born at Melle near Ghent 6 Dec., ...

    Decius

    (C AIUS M ESSIUS Q UINTUS T RAJANUS D ECIUS ). Roman Emperor 249-251. He was born, ...

    Decker, Hans

    A German sculptor of the middle of the fifteenth century. Very little is recorded concerning ...

    Declaration, The Royal

    This is the name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in ...

    Decorations, Pontifical

    Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other ...

    Decree

    ( Latin decretum , from decerno , I judge). In a general sense, an order or law made by a ...

    Decretals, Papal

    I. DEFINITION AND EARLY HISTORY (1) In the wide sense of the term decretalis (i.e. epistola ...

    Dedication

    A term which, though sometimes used of persons who are consecrated to God's service, is more ...

    Dedication, Feast of the

    Also called the Feast of the Machabees and Feast of Lights ( Josephus and Talmudic ...

    Deduction

    ( Latin de ducere , to lead, draw out, derive from; especially, the function of deriving truth ...

    Deer, Abbey of

    A once famous Scotch monastery. According to the Celtic legend St. Columcille, his disciple ...

    Defender of the Matrimonial Tie

    ( Defensor matrimonii ) The Defender of the Matrimonial Tie is an official whose duty is to ...

    Definitions, Theological

    The Vatican Council (Sess. iv, cap. iv) solemnly taught the doctrine of papal infallibility ...

    Definitor (in Canon Law)

    An official in secular deaneries and in certain religious orders. Among regulars, a definitor is ...

    Definitors (in Religious Orders)

    Generally speaking, the governing council of an order. Bergier describes them as those chosen to ...

    Deger, Ernst

    Historical painter, born in Bockenem, Hanover, 15 April, 1809; died in Düsseldorf, 27 ...

    Degradation

    ( Latin degradatio ). A canonical penalty by which an ecclesiastic is entirely and ...

    Deharbe, Joseph

    Theologian, catechist, b. at Straburg, Alsace, 11 April, 1800; d. at Maria-Laach, 8 November, ...

    Dei gratia; Dei et Apostolicæ Sedis gratia

    ( By the grace of God; By the grace of God and the Apostolic See ) A formulæ added ...

    Deicolus, Saint

    (DICHUIL) Elder brother of St. Gall, b. in Leinster, Ireland, c. 530; d. at Lure, France, 18 ...

    Deism

    ( Latin Deus , God ). The term used to denote certain doctrines apparent in a tendency ...

    Deity

    ( French déité ; Late Latin deitas ; Latin deue , divus , "the divine ...

    Delacroix, Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène

    French painter, b. at Charenton-St-Maurice, near Paris, 26 April, 1798; d. 13 August, 1863. He was ...

    Delaroche, Hippolyte

    (Known also as P AUL ) Painter, born at Paris, 17 July, 1797; died 4 November, 1856. A pupil ...

    Delatores

    ( Latin for DENOUNCERS) A term used by the Synod of Elvira (c. 306) to stigmatize those ...

    Delaware

    Delaware, one of the original thirteen of the United States of America. It lies between ...

    Delaware Indians

    An important tribal confederacy of Algonquian stock originally holding the basin of the Delaware ...

    Delcus

    A titular see of Thrace, suffragan of Philippopolis. The Greek name of the place was Delkos or ...

    Delegation

    ( Latin delegare ) A delegation is the commission to another of jurisdiction, which is to be ...

    Delfau, François

    Theologian, born 1637 at Montel in Auvergne, France ; died 13 Oct., 1676, at Landevenec in ...

    Delfino, Pietro

    A theologian, born at Venice in 1444; died 16 Jan., 1525. He entered the Camaldolese ...

    Delilah

    (Or Dalila ). Samson, sometime after his exploit at Gaza ( Judges 16:1-3 ), " loved a ...

    Delille, Jacques

    French abbé and litterateur , born at Aigueperse, 22 June, 1738; died at Paris, 1 May, ...

    Delisle, Guillaume

    Reformer of cartography, born 28 February, 1675, in Paris ; died there 25 January, 1726. His ...

    Delphine, Blessed

    A member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born in Provence, France, in 1284; died 26 ...

    Delrio, Martin Anton

    Scholar, statesman, Jesuit theologian, born at Antwerp, 17 May, 1551; died at Louvain, 19 ...

    Delta of the Nile, Prefecture Apostolic of the

    The Prefecture Apostolic of the Delta of the Nile is situated in the north of Egypt and ...

    Deluge

    Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the ...

    Demers, Modeste

    An apostle of the Pacific Coast of North America, and the first Catholic missionary among most ...

    Demetrius

    The name of two Syrian kings mentioned in the Old Testament and two other persons in the ...

    Demetrius, Saint

    Bishop of Alexandria from 188 to 231. Julius Africanus, who visited Alexandria in the time of ...

    Demiurge

    The word means literally a public worker, demioergós, demiourgós, and was ...

    Democracy, Christian

    In Christian Democracy , the name and the reality have two very different histories, and ...

    Demon

    (Greek daimon and daimonion , Latin daemonium ). In Scripture and in Catholic ...

    Demoniacs

    ( See also DEMONOLOGY, EXORCISM, EXORCIST, POSSESSION.) (Greek daimonikos, daimonizomenos, ...

    Demonology

    As the name sufficiently indicates, demonology is the science or doctrine concerning demons. ...

    Dempster, Thomas

    Savant, professor, author; b., as he himself states at Cliftbog, Scotland, 23 August, 1579; d. at ...

    Denaut, Pierre

    Tenth Bishop of Quebec, b. at Montreal, 20 July, 1743; d. at Longueuil in 1806. After studying ...

    Denifle, Heinrich Seuse

    ( Baptized JOSEPH.) Paleographer and historian, born at Imst in the Austrian Tyrol, 16 Jan., ...

    Denis, Johann Nepomuk Cosmas Michael

    Bibliographer and poet, b. at Schärding, Bavaria, 27 September, 1729; d. at Vienna, 29 ...

    Denis, Joseph

    ( Baptized JACQUES). Born 6 November, 1657, at Three Rivers , Canada ; died 25 January, ...

    Denis, Saint

    Bishop of Paris, and martyr. Born in Italy, nothing is definitely known of the time or place, ...

    Denman, William

    Publisher, b. in Edinburgh, Scotland, 17 March, 1784; d. in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 12 ...

    Denmark

    ( Latin Dania ). This kingdom had formerly a much larger extent than at present. It once ...

    Denonville, Seigneur and Marquis de

    (JACQUES-RENE DE BRISAY, SEIGNEUR AND MARQUIS DE DENONVILLE) Born in 1638 at Denonville in the ...

    Dens, Peter

    Theologian, b. at Boom, near Antwerp, Belgium, 12 September, 1690; d. at Mechlin, 15 February, ...

    Denunciation

    Denunciation ( Latin denunciare) is making known the crime of another to one who is his ...

    Denver

    (D ENVERIENSIS ). A suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fé, erected in 1887 and ...

    Denys the Carthusian

    (D ENYS VAN L EEUWEN, also L EUW or L IEUWE ). Born in 1402 in that part of the ...

    Denza, Francesco

    Italian meteorologist and astronomer, b. at Naples, 7 June, 1834; d. at Rome, 14 December, 1894. ...

    Denzinger, Heinrich Joseph Dominicus

    One of the leading theologians of the modern Catholic German school and author of the ...

    Deo Gratias

    ("Thanks be to God "). An old liturgical formula of the Latin Church to give thanks to God ...

    Deposition

    A deposition is an ecclesiastical vindictive penalty by which a cleric is forever deprived of ...

    Deprés, Josquin

    Diminutive of "Joseph"; latinized Josquinus Pratensis . Born probably c. 1450 at ...

    Derbe

    A titular see of Lycaonia, Asia Minor. This city was the fortress of a famous leader of ...

    Dereser, Anton

    (Known also as THADDAEUS A S. ADAMO). Born at Fahr in Franconia, 3 February, 1757; died at ...

    Derogation

    (Latin derogatio ). The partial revocation of a law, as opposed to abrogation or the ...

    Derry

    DIOCESE OF DERRY (DERRIENSIS). Includes nearly all the County Derry, part of Donegal, and a ...

    Derry, School of

    This was the first foundation of St. Columba, the great Apostle of Scotland, and one of the three ...

    Desains, Paul-Quentin

    Physicist, b. at St-Quentin, France, 12 July, 1817; d. at Paris, 3 May, 1885. He made his literary ...

    Desault, Pierre-Joseph

    Surgeon and anatomist, b. at Magny-Vernois a small town of Franche-Comté, France, in ...

    Descartes, René

    (Renatus Cartesius), philosopher and scientist, born at La Haye France, 31 March, 1596; died at ...

    Deschamps, Eustache

    Also called M OREL , on account of his dark complexion; b. at Vertus in Champagne between 1338 ...

    Deschamps, Nicolas

    Polemical writer, born at Villefranche (Rhône), France, 1797; died at Aix-en-Provence, ...

    Desclée, Henri and Jules

    Henri (1830-); Jules (1828-1911). Natives of Belgium, founders of a monastery and a ...

    Desecration

    Desecration is the loss of that peculiar quality of sacredness, which inheres in places and ...

    Desert

    The Hebrew words translated in the Douay Version of the Bible by "desert" or "wilderness", and ...

    Desertion

    The culpable abandonment of a state, of a stable situation, the obligations of which one had ...

    Deshon, George

    Priest of the Congregation (or Institute) of St. Paul the Apostle , b. at New London, Conn., ...

    Desiderius

    (DAUFERIUS or DAUFAR). Born in 1026 or 1027 of a non-regnant branch of the Lombard dukes of ...

    Desiderius of Cahors, Saint

    Bishop, b. at Obrege (perhaps Antobroges, name of a Gaulish tribe), on the frontier of the ...

    Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin, Jean

    A French dramatist and novelist, born in Paris, 1595, died there, 1676. Early in life he held ...

    Desolation, The Abomination of

    The importance of this Scriptural expression is chiefly derived from the fact that in Matthew ...

    Despair

    (Latin desperare , to be hopeless.) Despair, ethically regarded, is the voluntary and ...

    Despretz, César-Mansuète

    Chemist and physicist, b. at Lessines, Belgium, 11 May, 1798; d. at Paris, 11 May, 1863. He ...

    Desservants

    The name of a class of French parish priests. Under the old regime, a priest who performed the ...

    Desurmont, Achille

    Ascetical writer, b. at Tourcoing, France, 23 Dec., 1828; d. 23 July, 1898. He attended first the ...

    Determinism

    Determinism is a name employed by writers, especially since J. Stuart Mill, to denote the ...

    Detré, William

    Missionary, b. in France in 1668, d. in South America, at an advanced age, date uncertain. ...

    Detraction

    (From Latin detrahere , to take away). Detraction is the unjust damaging of another's good ...

    Detroit

    (Detroitensis) Diocese established 8 March, 1838, comprises the counties of the lower ...

    Deus in Adjutorium Meum Intende

    "Deus in adjutorium meum intende," with the response: "Domine ad adjuvandum me festina," first ...

    Deusdedit, Cardinal

    Born at Todi, Italy ; died between 1097 and 1100. He was a friend of St. Gregory VII and ...

    Deusdedit, Pope Saint

    (Adeodatus I). Date of birth unknown; consecrated pope, 19 October (13 November), 615; d. 8 ...

    Deusdedit, Saint

    A native of Wessex, England, whose Saxon name was Frithona, and of whose early life nothing is ...

    Deuteronomy

    This term occurs in Deuteronomy 17:18 and Joshua 8:32 , and is the title of one of the five ...

    Deutinger, Martin

    Philosopher and religious writer, b. in Langenpreising, Bavaria, 24 March, 1815; d. at ...

    Devas, Charles Stanton

    Political economist, b. at Woodside, Old Windsor, England, of Protestant parents, 26 August, ...

    Devereux, John C.

    Born at his father's farm, The Leap, near Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford, Ireland, 5 Aug., 1774; died ...

    Devereux, Nicholas

    Born near Enniscorthy, Ireland, 7 June, 1791; died at Utica, New York, 29 Dec., 1855, was the ...

    Devil

    (Greek diabolos ; Latin diabolus ). The name commonly given to the fallen angels, who are ...

    Devil Worship

    The meaning of this compound term is sufficiently obvious, for all must be familiar with the ...

    Devil's Advocate

    ("Advocate of the Devil" or "Devil's Advocate"). A popular title given to one of the most ...

    Devolution

    ( Latin devolutio from devolvere ) Devolution is the right of an ecclesiastical ...

    Devoti, Giovani

    Canonist, born at Rome, 11 July, 1744; died there 18 Sept., 1820. At the age of twenty he ...

    Devotions, Popular

    Devotion, in the language of ascetical writers, denotes a certain ardour of affection in the ...

    Deymann, Clementine

    Born at Klein-Stavern, Oldenburg, Germany, 24 June, 1844; died at Phoenix, Arizona, U. S. A., 4 ...

    Deza, Diego

    Theologian, archbishop, patron of Christopher Columbus, b. at Toro, 1444; d. 1523. Entering the ...

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    Dh 1

    Dhuoda

    Wife of Bernard, Duke of Septimania. The only source of information on her life is her "Liber ...

    × Close

    Di 100

    Diaconicum

    (Greek diakonikon ) The Diaconicum in the Greek Church is the liturgical book specifying ...

    Diakovár

    (Croatian, Djakovo ). See of the Bishop of the united Dioceses of Bosnia or ...

    Dialectic

    [Greek dialektike ( techne or methodos ), the dialectic art or method, from dialegomai ...

    Diamantina

    DIOCESE OF DIAMANTINA (ADAMANTINA). Located in the north of the State of Minas Geraes, Brazil, ...

    Diana, Antonino

    Moral theologian, born of a noble family at Palermo, Sicily, in 1586; died at Rome, 20 July, ...

    Diano

    (D IANENSIS ) Diocese and small city in the province of Salermo, Italy ; the ancient ...

    Diario Romano

    ( Italian for "Roman Daybook") A booklet published annually at Rome, with papal ...

    Diarmaid, Saint

    Born in Ireland, date unknown; d. in 851 or 852. He was made Archbishop of Armagh in 834, but ...

    Dias, Bartolomeu

    A famous Portuguese navigator of the fifteenth century, discoverer of the Cape of Good Hope; ...

    Diaspora

    (Or DISPERSION). Diaspora was the name given to the countries (outside of Palestine) through ...

    Dibon

    A titular see in Palæstina Tertia. Dîbîn (Septuagint, Daibon or Debon ) ...

    Dicastillo, Juan de

    Theologian, b. of Spanish parents at Naples, 28 December, 1584; d. at Ingolstadt 6 March, 1653. ...

    Dicconson, Edward

    Titular Bishop of Malla, or Mallus, Vicar Apostolic of the English Northern District; b. 30 ...

    Diceto, Ralph de

    Dean of St. Paul's, London, and chronicler. The name "Dicetum" cannot be correctly connected with ...

    Dichu, Saint

    The son of an Ulster chieftain, was the first convert of St. Patrick in Ireland. Born in the ...

    Dicuil

    Irish monk and geographer, b. in the second half of the eighth century; date of death ...

    Didache

    (D OCTRINE OF THE T WELVE A POSTLES ) A short treatise which was accounted by some of the ...

    Didacus, Saint

    [Spanish = San Diego .] Lay brother of the Order of Friars Minor, date of birth uncertain; ...

    Didascalia Apostolorum

    A treatise which pretends to have been written by the Apostles at the time of the Council of ...

    Didon, Henri

    Preacher, writer, and educator, b. 17 March, 1840, at Touvet (Isère), France ; d. 13 ...

    Didot

    Name of a family of French printers and publishers. François Didot Son of Denis Didot, ...

    Didron, Adolphe-Napoleon

    Also called Didron aîné ; archaeologist; together with Viollet-le-Duc and Caumont, ...

    Didymus the Blind

    Didymus the Blind, of Alexandria, b. about 310 or 313; d. about 395 or 398, at the age of ...

    Diego y Moreno, Francisco Garcia

    First bishop of California, b. 17 Sept., 1785, at Lagos in the state of Jalisco, Mexico; d. 30 ...

    Diekamp, Wilhelm

    Historian, b. at Geldern, 13 May, 1854; d. at Rome, 25 Dec., 1885. Soon after his birth the ...

    Diemoth

    Diemoth, an old German word for the present "Demuth", the English " humility ", was the name of ...

    Diepenbeeck, Abraham van

    An erudite and accomplished painter of the Flemish School, b. at Bois-le-Duc in the ...

    Diepenbrock, Melchior, Baron von

    Cardinal and Prince-Bishop of Breslau, b. 6 January, 1798, at Boeholt in Westphalia ; d. at the ...

    Dieringer, Franz Xaver

    Catholic theologian, b. 22 August, 1811, at Rangeningen (Hohenzollern-Hechingen); d. 8 September, ...

    Dies Irae

    This name by which the sequence in requiem Masses is commonly known. They are the opening words of ...

    Dietenberger, Johann

    Theologian, b. about 1475 at Frankfort-on-the-Main, d. 4 Sept., 1537, at Mainz. He was educated ...

    Diether of Isenburg

    Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, b. about 1412; d. 7 May, 1482, at Aschaffenburg. He studied at ...

    Dietrich von Nieheim

    (N IEM ). Born in the Diocese of Paderborn , between 1338 and 1340; d. at Maastricht, 22 ...

    Digby, George

    Second Earl of Bristol, b. at Madrid, Spain, where his father, the first earl, was ambassador, ...

    Digby, Kenelm Henry

    Miscellaneous writer, b. in Ireland, 1800; d. at Kensington, Middlesex, England, 22 March, 1880. ...

    Digby, Sir Everard

    Born 16 May, 1578, died 30 Jan., 1606. Everard Digby, whose father bore the same Christian name ...

    Digby, Sir Kenelm

    Physicist, naval commander and diplomatist, b. at Gayhurst (Goathurst), Buckinghamshire, England, ...

    Digne

    (D INIA ; D INIENSIS ) Diocese comprising the entire department of the Basses Alpes; ...

    Dignitary, Ecclesiastical

    An Ecclesiastical Dignitary is a member of a chapter, cathedral or collegiate, possessed not only ...

    Dijon

    The Diocese of Dijon comprises the entire department of Côte-d'Or and is a suffragan of ...

    Dillingen, University of

    Located in Swabia, a district of Bavaria. Its founder was Cardinal Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, ...

    Dillon, Arthur-Richard

    A French prelate, b. at St-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, 1721; d. in London, 1806. The fifth son ...

    Dimissorial Letters

    ( Latin litteræ dimissoriales , from dimittere ), letters given by an ecclesiastical ...

    Dingley, Ven. Sir Thomas

    Martyr, prior of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, found guilty of high treason 28 April, ...

    Dinooth, Saint

    (DINOTHUS, DUNAWD, DUNOD). Founder and first Abbot of Bangor Iscoed (Flintshire); flourished ...

    Diocaesarea

    (SEPPHORIS) (1) A titular see in Palestina Secunda. Diocaesarea is a later name of the town ...

    Diocesan Chancery

    That branch of administration which handles all written documents used in the official government ...

    Diocese

    ( Latin diœcesis) A Diocese is the territory or churches subject to the jurisdiction of ...

    Diocese (Supplemental List)

    Pope Pius X, recognizing how necessary it is for the Church to develop in proportion to the ...

    Dioclea

    A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor . Diocleia is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, ii, 23), where ...

    Diocletian

    (V ALERIUS D IOCLETIANUS ). Roman Emperor and persecutor of the Church, born of parents ...

    Diocletianopolis

    A titular see of Palaestina Prima. This city is mentioned by Hierocles (Synecdemus, 719, 2), ...

    Diodorus of Tarsus

    Date of birth uncertain; d. about A.D. 392. He was of noble family, probably of Antioch. St. Basil ...

    Diognetus, Epistle to

    (EPISTOLA AD DIOGNETUM). This beautiful little apology for Christianity is cited by no ...

    Dionysias

    A titular see in Arabia. This city, which figures in the "Synecdemos" of Hierocles (723, 3) and ...

    Dionysius Exiguus

    The surname E XIGUUS , or "The Little", adopted probably in self-deprecation and not because he ...

    Dionysius of Alexandria

    (Bishop from 247-8 to 264-5.) Called "the Great" by Eusebius, St. Basil, and others, was ...

    Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite

    By "Dionysius the Areopagite" is usually understood the judge of the Areopagus who, as related in ...

    Dionysius, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 26 or 27 December, 268. During the pontificate of Pope Stephen ...

    Dionysius, Saint

    Bishop of Corinth about 170. The date is fixed by the fact that he wrote to Pope Soter (c. ...

    Dioscorus

    Antipope, b. at Alexandria, date unknown; d. 14 October, 530. Originally a deacon of the ...

    Dioscorus

    (Also written Dioscorus; Dioscurus from the analogy of Dioscuri ). Bishop of Alexandria ...

    Diplomatics, Papal

    The word diplomatics , following a Continental usage which long ago found recognition in ...

    Diptych

    (Or diptychon , Greek diptychon from dis , twice and ptyssein , to fold). A ...

    Direction, Spiritual

    In the technical sense of the term, spiritual direction is that function of the sacred ministry by ...

    Directories, Catholic

    The ecclesiastical sense of the word directory , as will be shown later, has become curiously ...

    Discalced

    ( Latin dis , without, and calceus , shoe). A term applied to those religious congregations ...

    Discernment of Spirits

    All moral conduct may be summed up in the rule: avoid evil and do good. In the language of ...

    Disciple

    This term is commonly applied to one who is learning any art or science from one distinguished by ...

    Disciples of Christ

    A sect founded in the United States of America by Alexander Campbell. Although the largest ...

    Discipline of the Secret

    (Latin Disciplina Arcani ; German Arcandisciplin ). A theological term used to express ...

    Discipline, Ecclesiastical

    Etymologically the word discipline signifies the formation of one who places himself at school ...

    Discussions, Religious

    (CONFERENCES, DISPUTATIONS, DEBATES) Religious discussions, as contradistinguished from ...

    Disibod, Saint

    Irish bishop and patron of Disenberg (Disibodenberg), born c. 619; died 8 July, 700. His life was ...

    Disparity of Cult

    ( Disparitas Cultus ) A diriment impediment introduced by the Church to safeguard the ...

    Disparity of Worship

    ( Disparitas Cultus ) A diriment impediment introduced by the Church to safeguard the ...

    Dispensation

    ( Latin dispensatio ) Dispensation is an act whereby in a particular case a lawful superior ...

    Dispersion of the Apostles

    ( Latin Divisio Apostolorum ), a feast in commemoration of the missionary work of the Twelve ...

    Dissen, Heinrich von

    Born 18 Oct., 1415, at Osnabrück, in Westphalia ; died at Cologne, 26 Nov., 1484. After ...

    Dissentis, Abbey of

    A Benedictine monastery in the Canton Grisons in eastern Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of ...

    Distraction

    Distraction ( Latin distrahere , to draw away, hence to distract) is here considered in so far ...

    Distributions

    Distributions (from Lat. distribuere ), canonically termed disturbtiones quotidianae , are ...

    Dithmar

    (Thietmar). Bishop of Merseburg and medieval chronicler, b. 25 July, 975; d. 1 Dec., 1018.He ...

    Dives

    (Latin for rich ). The word is not used in the Bible as a proper noun; but in the Middle ...

    Divination

    The seeking after knowledge of future or hidden things by inadequate means. The means being ...

    Divine Attributes

    In order to form a more systematic idea of God, and as far as possible, to unfold the ...

    Divine Charity, Daughters of

    Founded at Vienna, 21 November, 1868, by Franziska Lechner (d. 1894) on the Rule of St. ...

    Divine Charity, Sisters of

    Founded at Besançon, in 1799, by a Vincentian Sister, and modelled on the Sisters of ...

    Divine Charity, Society of

    (SOCIETAS DIVINAE CHARITATIS). Founded at Maria-Martental near Kaisersesch, in 1903 by Josepth ...

    Divine Compassion, Institute of the

    Founded in the City of New York, USA, by the Rt. Rev. Thomas Stanislaus Preston. On 8 September ...

    Divine Nature and Attributes, The

    I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...

    Divine Office

    ("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

    Divine Providence, Sisters of

    I. SISTERS OF THE DIVINE PROVIDENCE OF ST. VINCENT DE PAUL Founded at Molsheim, in Diocese of ...

    Divine Redeemer, Daughters of the

    Motherhouse at Oedenburg, Hungary ; founded in 1863 from the Daughters of the Divine Saviour of ...

    Divine Savior, Society of the

    Founded at Rome, 8 Dec., 1881, by Johann Baptist Jordan (b. 1848 at Gartweil im Breisgau), ...

    Divine Word, Society of the

    (S OCIETAS V ERBI D IVINI ) The first German Catholic missionary society established. ...

    Divisch, Procopius

    Premonstratensian, b. at Senftenberg, Bohemia, 26 March, 1698; d. at Prenditz, Moravia, 21 ...

    Divorce (in Civil Jurisprudence)

    Divorce is defined in jurisprudence as "the dissolution or partial suspension by the law of ...

    Divorce (in Moral Theology)

    See also DIVORCE IN CIVIL JURISPRUDENCE . The term divorce ( divortium , from ...

    Dixon, Joseph

    Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland, born at Coalisland, Co. Tyrone, in 1806; died at Armagh, 29 ...

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    Dl 1

    Dlugosz, Jan

    ( Latin LONGINUS). An eminent medieval Polish historian, b. at Brzeznica, 1415; d. 19 May, ...

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    Do 85

    Dobmayer, Marian

    A distinguished Benedictine theologian, born 24 October, 1753, at Schwandorf, Bavaria ; died 21 ...

    Dobrizhoffer, Martin

    Missionary, b. in Graz, Styria, 7 Sept., 1717; d. in Vienna, 17 July 1791. He became a Jesuit ...

    Docetæ

    (Greek Doketai .) A heretical sect dating back to Apostolic times. Their name is ...

    Docimium

    A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor. This city, as appears from its coins where the ...

    Doctor

    ( Latin docere , to teach) The title of an authorized teacher. In this general sense the term ...

    Doctors of the Church

    ( Latin Doctores Ecclesiae ) -- Certain ecclesiastical writers have received this title on ...

    Doctors, Surnames of Famous

    It was customary in the Middle Ages to designate the more celebrated among the doctors by ...

    Doctrine of Addai

    ( Latin Doctrina Addoei ). A Syriac document which relates the legend of the conversion ...

    Doctrine, Christian

    Taken in the sense of "the act of teaching" and "the knowledge imparted by teaching", this term ...

    Dogma

    I. DEFINITION The word dogma (Gr. dogma from dokein ) signifies, in the writings of the ...

    Dogmatic Fact

    (1) Definition By a dogmatic fact , in wider sense, is meant any fact connected with a dogma ...

    Dogmatic Theology

    Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

    Dogmatic Theology, History of

    The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

    Dolbeau, Jean

    Recollect friar, born in the Province of Anjou, France, 12 March, 1586; died at ...

    Dolci, Carlo

    Painter, born in Florence, Italy, 25 May, 1616; died 17 January, 1686. The grandson of a ...

    Doliche

    A titular see of Commagene (Augusto-Euphratesia). It was a small city on the road from ...

    Dolman, Charles

    Publisher and bookseller, b. at Monmouth, England, 20 Sept., 1807; d. in Paris, 31 December, ...

    Dolores Mission

    (Or Mission San Francisco De Asis De Los Dolores) In point of time the sixth in the chain of ...

    Dolphin

    ( Latin delphinus ). The use of the dolphin as a Christian symbol is connected with the ...

    Dome

    ( Latin domus , a house). An architectural term often used synonymously with cupola. ...

    Domenech, Emmanuel-Henri-Dieudonne

    Abbé, missionary and author, b. at Lyons, France, 4 November, 1826; d. in France, June, ...

    Domenechino

    Properly DOMENICO ZAMPIERI. An Italian painter, born in Bologna, 21 Oct., 1581; died in ...

    Domesday Book

    The name given to the record of the great survey of England made by order of William the ...

    Domicile

    ( Latin jus domicilii , right of habitation, residence). The canon law has no independent ...

    Dominic of Prussia

    A Carthusian monk and ascetical writer, born in Poland, 1382; died at the monastery of St. ...

    Dominic of the Mother of God

    (Called in secular life D OMENICO B ARBERI ) A member of the Passionist Congregation and ...

    Dominic, Saint

    Founder of the Order of Preachers , commonly known as the Dominican Order ; born at Calaroga, ...

    Dominical Letter

    A device adopted from the Romans by the old chronologers to aid them in finding the day of the ...

    Dominican Republic

    (SAN DOMINGO, SANTO DOMINGO). The Dominican Republic is the eastern, and much larger ...

    Dominicans

    As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we ...

    Dominici, Blessed Giovanni

    (BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...

    Dominis, Marco Antonio de

    Dalmatian ecclesiastic, apostate, and man of science, b. on the island of Arbe, off the coast ...

    Dominus Vobiscum

    An ancient form of devout salutation, incorporated in the liturgy of the Church, where it is ...

    Domitian

    (T ITUS F LAVIUS D OMITIANUS ). Roman emperor and persecutor of the Church, son of ...

    Domitilla and Pancratius, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints

    The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

    Domitiopolis

    A titular see of Isauria in Asia Minor. The former name of this city is unknown; it was called ...

    Domnus Apostolicus

    (DOMINUS APOSTOLICUS) A title applied to the pope, which was in most frequent use between the ...

    Don Bosco

    ( Or St. John Bosco; Don Bosco.) Founder of the Salesian Society. Born of poor parents in ...

    Donahoe, Patrick

    Publisher, born at Munnery, County Cavan, Ireland, 17 March, 1811; died at Boston, U.S.A., 18 ...

    Donatello Di Betto Bardi

    (DONATO DI NICOLÒ DI BETTO BARDI) One of the great Tuscan sculptors of the ...

    Donation (in Canon Law)

    (IN CANON LAW) Donation , the gratuitous transfer to another of some right or thing. When it ...

    Donation (in Civil Law)

    (IN CIVIL JURISPRUDENCE) Donation, the gratuitous transfer, or gift ( Latin donatio ), of ...

    Donation of Constantine

    ( Latin, Donatio Constantini ). By this name is understood, since the end of the Middle ...

    Donatists

    The Donatist schism in Africa began in 311 and flourished just one hundred years, until the ...

    Donatus of Fiesole

    Irish teacher and poet, Bishop of Fiesole, about 829-876. In an ancient collection of the ...

    Donders, Peter

    Missionary among the lepers, b. at Tilburg in Holland, 27 Oct., 1807; d. 14 Jan., 1887. He ...

    Dongan, Thomas

    Second Earl of Limerick, b. 1634, at Castletown Kildrought, now Celbridge, County Kildare, ...

    Donlevy, Andrew

    Educator, b. in 1694, probably in Sligo, Ireland ; date and place of death uncertain. Little ...

    Donnan, Saint

    There were apparently three or four saints of this name who flourished about the seventh century. ...

    Donner, Georg Raphael

    Austrian sculptor, b. at Essling, Austria, 25 May, 1692; d. at Vienna, 15 February, 1741. It is ...

    Donnet, Ferdinand-François-Auguste

    A French cardinal, b. at Bourg-Argental (Loire), 1795; d. at Bordeaux, 1882. He studied in the ...

    Donoso Cortés, Juan Francesco Maria de la Saludad

    Marquess of Valdegamas, author and diplomat, born 6 May, 1809, at Valle de la Serena in the ...

    Donus, Pope

    (Or D OMNUS ). Son of a Roman called Mauricius; he was consecrated Bishop of Rome 2 Nov., ...

    Doorkeeper

    (Also called DOORKEEPER. From ostiarius , Latin ostium , a door.) Porter denoted among ...

    Doré, Pierre

    (AURATUS) Controversialist, b. at Orléans about 1500; d. at Paris, 19 May, 1559. He ...

    Dora

    A titular see of Palestina Prima. The name ( Dôr ) in Semitic languages means ...

    Dorchester, Abbey of

    Founded in 1140 by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, for Canons of the Order of St. Augustine (or ...

    Doria, Andrea

    Genoese admiral and statesman, b. at Oneglia, Italy, 1468; d. at Genoa, 1560. His family ...

    Dorman, Thomas

    Theologian, b. at Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, England, date uncertain; d. at Tournai, 1572 or ...

    Dornin, Bernard

    First publisher in the United States of distinctively Catholic books, b. in Ireland, 1761; d. ...

    Dorothea, Saint

    (1) Virgin and martyr, suffered during the persecution of Diocletian, 6 February, 311, at ...

    Dorsey, Anne Hanson

    Novelist, born at Georgetown, District of Columbia, U.S.A. 1815; died at Washington, 26 ...

    Dorylaeum

    A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, in Asia Minor. This city already existed under the kings ...

    Dositheans

    Followers of Dositheus, a Samaritan who formed a Gnostic - Judaistic sect, previous to Simon ...

    Dosquet, Pierre-Herman

    Fourth Bishop of Quebec, b. at Liège, Flanders, 1691; d. at Paris, 1777. He studied at ...

    Dossi, Giovanni

    Actually named GIOVANNI DI NICOLO DI LUTERO, but also called Dosso Dossi. An Italian painter, ...

    Dotti, Blessed Andrea

    Born 1256, in Borgo San Sepolero, Tuscany, Italy ; d. there 31 August, 1315. He was of noble ...

    Douai

    (Town and University of Douai) (D OUAY, D OWAY ) The town of Douai, in the department of ...

    Douay Bible

    The original Douay Version, which is the foundation on which nearly all English Catholic ...

    Double Altar

    An altar having a double front constructed in such a manner that Mass may be celebrated on ...

    Double Monasteries

    Religious houses comprising communities of both men and women, dwelling in contiguous ...

    Doubt

    (Latin dubium, Greek aporí, French doute, German Zweifel ). A state in which the ...

    Douglas, Gavin

    Scottish prelate and poet, born about 1474; died 1522; he was the third son of Archibald, Fifth ...

    Doutreleau, Stephen

    Missionary, born in France, 11 October, 1693; date of death uncertain. He became a Jesuit ...

    Dove

    (Latin columba ). In Christian antiquity the dove appears as a symbol and as a Eucharistic ...

    Dowdall, George

    Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Drogheda, County Louth, Ireland, in 1487; d. at London, 15 August, ...

    Dowdall, James

    Martyr, date of birth unknown; executed for his faith at Exeter, England, 20 September, 1600. ...

    Dower

    ( Latin doarium ; French douaire ) A provision for support during life accorded by law ...

    Dower, Religious

    ( Latin dos religiosa ). Because of its analogy with the dower that a woman brings to ...

    Down and Connor

    Diocese of Down and Connor (Dunensis et Connorensis) A line drawn from Whitehouse on Belfast ...

    Downside Abbey

    Near Bath, Somersetshire, England, was founded at Douai, Flanders, under the patronage of ...

    Doxology

    In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...

    Doyle, James Warren

    Irish bishop ; b. near New Ross, County Wexford, Ireland, 1786; d. at Carlow, 1834. He belonged ...

    Doyle, John

    Born in Dublin, Ireland, 1797; died in London, 2 January, 1868; English portrait-painter and ...

    Doyle, Richard

    English artist and caricaturist, b. in London, September, 1824; d. there 11 December, 1883. The ...

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    Dr 26

    Drach, David Paul

    Convert from Judaism, b. at Strasburg, 6 March, 1791; d. end of January, 1868, at Rome. ...

    Drachma

    (Gr. drachmé ), a Greek silver coin. The Greeks derived the word from drássomai, ...

    Dracontius, Blossius Æmilius

    A Christian poet of the fifth century. Dracontius belonged to a distinguished family of ...

    Drane, Augusta Theodosia

    In religion MOTHER FRANCIS RAPHAEL, O.S.D.; b. at Bromley near London, in 1823; d. at Stone, ...

    Dreams, Interpretation of

    There is in sleep something mysterious which seems, from the earliest times, to have impressed ...

    Drechsel, Jeremias

    ( Also Drexelius or Drexel.) Ascetic writer, b. at Augsburg, 15 August, 1581; entered the ...

    Dresden

    The capital of the Kingdom of Saxony and the residence of the royal family, is situated on both ...

    Dreves, Lebrecht Blücher

    Poet, b. at Hamburg, Germany, 12 September, 1816; d. at Feldkirch, 19 Dec., 1870. The famous ...

    Drevet Family, The

    The Drevets were the leading portrait engravers of France for over a hundred years. Their fame ...

    Drexel, Francis Anthony

    Banker, b. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 20 June, 1824; d. there 15 Feb., 1885. He was the oldest son ...

    Drexel, Jeremias

    ( Also Drexelius or Drexel.) Ascetic writer, b. at Augsburg, 15 August, 1581; entered the ...

    Drey, Johann Sebastian von

    A professor of theology at the University of Tübingen, born 16 Oct., 1777, at Killingen, in ...

    Dromore

    (DROMORENSIS, and in ancient documents DRUMORENSIS) Dromore is one of the eight suffragans of ...

    Drostan, Saint

    (DRUSTAN, DUSTAN, THROSTAN) A Scottish abbot who flourished about A.D. 600. All that is ...

    Droste-Vischering, Clemens August von

    Archbishop of Cologne, born 21 Jan., 1773, at Münster, Germany ; died 19 Oct., 1845, in ...

    Druidism

    The etymology of this word from the Greek drous , "oak", has been a favorite one since the ...

    Druillettes, Gabriel

    (Or DREUILLETS) Missionary, b. in France, 29 September, 1610; d. at Quebec, 8 April, 1681. ...

    Drumgoole, John C.

    Priest and philanthropist, b. at Granard, Co. Longford, Ireland, 15 August, 1816; d. in New ...

    Drury, Robert

    Martyr (1567-1607), was born of a good Buckinghamshire family and was received into the ...

    Drusilla

    Drusilla, daughter of Herod Agrippa I , was six years of age at the time of her father's death ...

    Drusipara

    A titular see in Thracia Prima. Nothing is known of the ancient history of this town, which, ...

    Druys, Jean

    ( Latin DRUSIUS) Thirtieth Abbot of Parc near Louvain, Belgium, b. at Cumptich, near ...

    Druzbicki, Gaspar

    Ascetic writer, b. at Sierady in Poland, 1589; entered the Society of Jesus, 20 August 1609; d. ...

    Druzes

    Small Mohammedan sect in Syria, notorious for their opposition to the Marionites, a Catholic ...

    Dryburgh Abbey

    A monastery belonging to the canons of the Premonstratensian Order (Norbertine or White ...

    Dryden, John

    Poet, dramatist, critic, and translator; b. 9 August, 1631, at Oldwinkle All Saints, ...

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    Du 62

    Du Cange, Charles Dufresne

    Historian and philologist, b. at Amiens, France, 18 Dec., 1610; d. at Paris, 1688. His father, ...

    Du Coudray, Philippe-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Tronson

    Soldier, b. at Reims, France, 8 September, 1738; d. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 11 September, ...

    Du Lhut Daniel Greysolon, Sieur

    (DULUTH). Born at Saint-Germain-en-Laye about 1640; died at Montreal, 26 Feb., 1710. He first ...

    Dualism

    (From Latin duo , two). Like most other philosophical terms, has been employed in different ...

    Dublin

    (DUBLINIUM; DUBLINENSIS). Archdiocese ; occupies about sixty miles of the middle eastern coast ...

    Dubois, Guillaume

    A French cardinal and statesman, born at Brive, in Limousin, 1656; died at Versailles, 1723. ...

    Dubois, Jean-Antoine

    French missionary in India, b. in 1765 at St. Remèze (Ardèche); d. in Paris, 17 ...

    Dubois, John

    Third Bishop of New York, educator and missionary, b. in Paris, 24 August, 1764; d. in New ...

    Dubourg, Louis-Guillaume-Valentin

    Second Bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas, Bishop of Montauban, Archbishop of ...

    Dubric, Saint

    (DYFRIG, DUBRICIUS) Bishop and confessor, one of the greatest of Welsh saints ; d. 612. He ...

    Dubuque

    Archdiocese of Dubuque (Dubuquensis), established, 28 July, 1837, created an archbishopric, ...

    Duc, Fronton du

    (Called in Latin Ducæus.) A French theologian and Jesuit, b. at Bordeaux in 1558; ...

    Duccio di Buoninsegna

    Painter, and founder of the Sienese School, b. about 1255 or 1260, place not known; d. 3 August, ...

    Duchesne, Philippine-Rose

    Founder in America of the first houses of the society of the Sacred Heart, born at Grenoble, ...

    Duckett, John, Venerable

    A Martyr, probably a grandson of Venerable James Duckett , born at Underwinder, in the parish ...

    Duckett, Ven. James

    Martyr, b. at Gilfortrigs in the parish of Skelsmergh in Westmoreland, England, date uncertain, ...

    Ducrue, Francis Bennon

    Missionary in Mexico, b. at Munich, Bavaria. of French parents, 10 June 1721; d. there 30 March, ...

    Dudik, Beda Franciscus

    Moravian historian, b. at Kojetein near Kremsier, Moravia, 29 January, 1815; d. as abbot and ...

    Duel

    ( Duellum , old form of bellum ). This word, as used both in the ecclesiastical and ...

    Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan

    Politician and author, b. at Monaghan, Ireland, 12 April, 1816; d. at Nice, France, 9 Feb., ...

    Duhamel, Jean-Baptiste

    A French scientist, philosopher, and theologian, b. at Vire, Normandy (now in the department of ...

    Dulia

    (Greek doulia ; Latin servitus ), a theological term signifying the honour paid to the ...

    Duluth

    DIOCESE OF DULUTH (DULUTHENSIS) Diocese, established 3 Oct., 1889, suffragan of the ...

    Dumas, Jean-Baptiste

    Distinguished French chemist and senator, b. at Alais, department of Gard, 14 July, 1800; d. at ...

    Dumetz, Francisco

    Date of birth unknown; died 14 Jan., 1811. He was a native of Mallorca (Majorca), Spain, where he ...

    Dumont, Hubert-André

    Belgian geologist, b. at Liège, 15 Feb., 1809; d. in the same city, 28 Feb., 1857. When ...

    Dumoulin, Charles

    (Or DUMOLIN; latinized MOLINAEUS). French jurist, b. at Paris in 1500; d. there 27 December, ...

    Dunbar, William

    Scottish poet, sometimes styled the " Chaucer of Scotland ", born c. 1460; died c. 1520(?). He ...

    Dunchadh, Saint

    (DUNICHAD, DUNCAD, DONATUS) Confessor, Abbot of Iona ; date of b. unknown, d. in 717. He ...

    Dundrennan, Abbey of

    In Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland ; a Cistercian house founded in 1142 by King David I and ...

    Dunedin

    (DUNEDINENSIS) Dunedin comprises the provincial district of Otago (including the Otago part, ...

    Dunfermline, Abbey of

    In the south-west of Fife, Scotland. Founded by King Malcolm Canmore and his queen, Margaret, ...

    Dungal

    Irish monk, teacher, astronomer, and poet who flourished about 820. He is mentioned in 811 as an ...

    Dunin, Martin von

    Archbishop of Gnesen and Posen, born 11 Nov., 1774, in the village of Wat near the city of Rawa, ...

    Dunkeld

    (DUNKELDENSIS) Located in Scotland, constituted, as far back as the middle of the ninth ...

    Dunkers

    ( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

    Duns Scotus, Blessed John

    Surnamed DOCTOR SUBTILIS, died 8 November, 1308; he was the founder and leader of the famous ...

    Dunstan, Saint

    Archbishop and confessor, and one of the greatest saints of the Anglo-Saxon Church ; b. near ...

    Dupanloup, Félix-Antoine-Philibert

    Bishop of Orléans, France, b. at Saint-Félix; Savoie, 2 June, 1802; d. at ...

    Duperron, Jacques-Davy

    A theologian and diplomat, born 25 Nov., 1556, at St-Lô (Normandy), France ; died 5 ...

    Dupin, Louis Ellies

    (also DU PIN) A theologian, born 17 June, 1657, of a noble family in Normandy ; died 6 ...

    Dupin, Pierre-Charles-François

    Known as BARON CHARLES DUPIN. A French mathematician and economist, b. at Varzy, ...

    Duponceau, Peter Stephen

    A jurist and linguist, b. at St-Martin de Ré, France 3 June, 1760; d. at Philadelphia, ...

    Dupré, Giovanni

    Sculptor, b. of remote French ancestry at Siena, 1 Mar., 1817; d. at Florence, 10 Jan., 1882. ...

    Duprat, Antoine & Guillaume

    (1) Antoine Duprat Chancellor of France and Cardinal, b. at Issoire in Auvergne, 17 January, ...

    Dupuytren, Baron Guillaume

    French anatomist and surgeon, born 6 October, 1777, at Pierre-Buffière, a small town in ...

    Duquesnoy, François

    (Called also FRANÇOIS FLAMAND, and in Italy IL FLAMINGO). Born at Brussels, Belgium, ...

    Duran, Narcisco

    Born 16 December, 1776, at Castellon de Ampurias, Catalonia, Spain ; died 1 June, 1846. He ...

    Durand Ursin

    A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. 20 May, 1682, at Tours ; d. 31 Aug., 1771, at ...

    Durandus of Saint-Pourçain

    Philosopher and theologian, b. at Saint-Pourçain, Auvergne France ; d. 13 September, ...

    Durandus of Troarn

    French Benedictine and ecclesiastical writer, b. about 1012, at Le Neubourg near Evreux ; d. ...

    Durandus, William

    (Also: Duranti or Durantis). Canonist and one of the most important medieval liturgical writers; ...

    Durandus, William, the Younger

    Died 1328, canonist, nephew of the famous ritualist and canonist of the same name (with whom he is ...

    Durango

    (DURANGUM) Archdiocese located in north-western Mexico. The see was created 28 Sept., 1620, ...

    Durazzo

    ARCHDIOCESE OF DURAZZO (DYRRACHIENSIS). The Archdiocese of Durazzo in Albania, situated on the ...

    Durbin, Elisha John

    The "Patriarch-priest of Kentucky ", born 1 February, 1800, in Madison County, in that State, of ...

    Durham

    Ancient Catholic Diocese of Durham (Dunelmensis). This diocese holds a unique position among ...

    Durham Rite

    The earliest document giving an account of liturgical services in the Diocese of Durham is the ...

    Durrow, School of

    ( Irish Dairmagh , Plain of the Oaks) The Durrow is delightfully situated in the King's ...

    Duty

    The definition of the term duty given by lexicographers is: "something that is due", ...

    Duvergier de Hauranne, Jean

    (Or D U V ERGER ), J EAN ; also called S AINT -C YRAN from an abbey he held in ...

    Duvernay, Ludger

    A French-Canadian journalist and patriot, born at Verchères, Quebec, 22 January, 1799; ...

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    Dw 1

    Dwight, Thomas

    Anatomist, b. at Boston, 1843; d. at Nahant, 8 Sept., 1911. The son of Thomas Dwight and of Mary ...

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    Dy 4

    Dyck, Antoon (Anthonis) Van

    Usually known as S IR A NTHONY V AN D YCK . Flemish portrait-painter, b. at Antwerp, ...

    Dymoke, Robert

    Confessor of the Faith, date of birth uncertain; d. at Lincoln, England, 11 Sept., 1580. He ...

    Dymphna, Saint

    (Also known as Dympna and Dimpna). Virgin and martyr. The earliest historical account of ...

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