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Poland

I. GEOGRAPHY

The western part of the Sarmatian Plain together with the northern slopes of the Carpathians, i.e., the territory included between lat. 46° and 59° N., and between long. 32° and 53° E. of Ferro, with an area of about 435,200 square miles (twice as large as Germany ), constituted the former Kingdom of Poland. Very likely Poland received its name on account of its extensive plains (in Polish the word for "field", or "plain", is pole ), which are the characteristic feature of its topography. As an independent country (i.e., until the year 1772), Poland was bounded on the north by the Baltic Sea, on the east by the Russian Empire, on the south by the dominions of the Tatars and Hungary, on the west by Bohemia and Prussia. The rivers of Poland flow either to the north and west, and empty into the Baltic, or flow south into the Black Sea. The rivers that empty into the Baltic are the Oder, Vistula, Niemen, and the western Düna; those that empty into the Black Sea are the Dniester, Boh (Bug), and Dnieper. The climate is universally temperate, and the four seasons are sharply defined. The chief industry has always been agriculture, and little account has ever been made of either commerce or manufactures, although the country was situated on the direct line of communication between Europe and Asia.

The various divisions, by the union of which the Kingdom of Poland was formed, still bear their original names. They are: (1) Great Poland, in the basin of the Warthe. Cities: Gnesen, Posen on the Warthe; (2) Kujavia, north of Great Poland, at the foot of the Baltic ridge to the left of the Vistula. City: Bromberg; (3) Little Poland, the basin of the upper and middle Vistula. Cities: Cracow, Sandomir, Czenstochowa, Radom; (4) Silesia, at the headwaters of the Vistula and on the upper Oder, belonged to Poland only until the year 1335. Capital: Breslau ; (5) Masovia, in the basin of the middle Vistula. Capital: Warsaw ; (6) Pomerania, between the Baltic Sea, the Vistula and Netze. Cities: Kolberg and Danzig; (7) Prussia, originally the country between the Baltic, the Vistula, the Niemen and the Drewenz. Cities: Thorn, Marienburg, and Königsberg; (8) Podlachia, on the rivers Narew, and Bug. City: Bjelsk; (9) Polesia, in the valley of the Pripet. City: Pinsk; (10) Volhynia in the basin of the rivers Styr, Horyn, and Slucz. Cities: Vladimir and Kamenetz; (11) Red Russia, on the Dniester, San, Bug, and Prut. Cities: Sanok, Przemysl, Lemberg, and Kolomyia; (12) Podolia, in the basin of the Strypa, Seret., Sbrucz, and upper Boh. Cities: Kamenetz, on the Smotrycz, Mohileff, on the Dniester, Buczacz; (13) The Ukraine, east of the Dniester in the basin of the Bug and Dnieper. Cities: Kieff, Zhitomir, Poltava, Oczakow, and Cherson; (14) White Russia, on the upper Dnieper, Düna, and Niemen. Cities: Minsk, Vitebsk, and Polotsk; (15) Lithuania, on the middle Niemen, extending to the Düna. Cities: Vilna, Grodno, Kovno; (16) Samland, to the right of the lower Niemen. City: Worme; (17) Courland, on the Gulf of Riga, with the city of Mitau, belonged to Poland only indirectly; (18) Livonia, on the Gulf of Riga, and Esthonia, on the Gulf of Finland, belonged to Poland for a short time only.

Poland was, for the most part, populated by Poles; after the union of Lithuania with Poland were added Ruthenians and Tatars, and furthermore, though in no considerable numbers, Jews, Germans, Armenians, Gipsies, and Letts. As a matter of fact, the Poles inhabited the whole of Great Poland, Little Poland, and a part of Lithuania, as well as part of the Ruthenian territory. Moreover, the nobility, the urban population, and the upper and better educated classes in general throughout the whole country were either Poles or thoroughly Polonized. The total population was generally given as nine millions. The Ruthenians inhabited the eastern (White and Red Russia ), and the south-eastern provinces (Red Russia and the Ukraine). The Lithuanians formed the bulk of the population in Samland and the waywodeships of Wilna and Troki. A political distinction was made between "Crown Poland" and Lithuania. These two divisions, which united after 1569, differed more particularly in that each country had its own officials. After 1569, also, the designation "Republic of Poland" became customary to denote not any definite polity, but a league of states (Lithuania and Crown Poland). Crown Poland was called a kingdom; Lithuania, a grand-duchy. In 1772, 1793, and 1795 the territory of Poland was divided among the three adjoining states: Lithuania and Little Russia were given to Russia ; the purely Polish territories, to Prussia and Austria. The new boundary between these states was formed by the Pilica and the Bug. Thus Russia received 8500 square miles and 6,500,000 inhabitants; Prussia, 2700 square miles and 3,000,000 inhabitants; Austria, 2100 square miles and 4,275,000 inhabitants.

Napoleon took from Prussia the Polish territories annexed in 1793 and 1795 and out of them formed what he called the Duchy of Warsaw. New territorial changes were effected by the Congress of Vienna : Prussia received a part of the Duchy of Warsaw as the Grand duchy of Posen; Russia received the rest of the Duchy of Warsaw as a separate Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland); Austria retained the territories previously acquired, under the name of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Galicia now has a population of more than seven millions, of whom somewhat less than four millions are Poles, and 3,074,000, Ruthenians. Grouped according to religion there are 3,350,000 Catholics of the Latin Rite, 3,104,000 Greek Uniats, and 811,000 Jews.

The San, a tributary of the Vistula, divides Galicia into an eastern and western part. The latter is occupied by the Poles, the former by the Ruthenians, though there are also many Poles. For administrative purposes Galicia is divided into seventy-nine districts. The intellectual centre of the country is Cracow (150,000 inhabitants), but the actual capital is Lemberg (250,000 inhabitants). There are two universities, one at Cracow and one at Lemberg, one polytechnic institute at Lemberg, and one commercial academy in each of these two cities. In the Polish provinces belonging to Prussia there are approximately four million Poles. In Silesia they constitute two-thirds of the population; they are also found on the Baltic and in the provinces of East and West Prussia, being most numerous (more than 1,500,000) in the Grand duchy of Posen. The capital, Posen, numbers about 150,000 inhabitants. Among the Poles the Catholic religion predominates. The Poles under Russian rule are found chiefly in Congress Poland; also, in small numbers, in Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and the Ukraine. The total probably amounts to nine millions. The capital of Russian Poland is Warsaw, with 800,000 inhabitants. The Greek Uniat Bishopric of Chelm (Kholm), situated within the boundaries of the Kingdom of Poland, was compelled by force to accept the schism in 1875; however, since 1905, a large majority of the former Uniats have returned to the Catholic Church.

II. POLITICAL HISTORY

At the period when the authentic history of Poland begins, the Germans had already become the most powerful nation of Europe, and their kings sought to extend their dominion to the Slavic tribes beyond the Elbe. The latter were very soon partly exterminated, partly subjugated. The eastern boundary of Germany was advanced as far as the Oder; beyond this was Polish territory. But the German armies did not halt there; in the neighbourhood of where Frankfort now stands they crossed the Oder and attacked the Polish strongholds. Mieszko, the Polish ruler of Posen (962-92), acknowledged the German Emperor as his lord paramount, promising to pay a yearly tribute, and upon demand to aid him with an armed force. In 963 Mieszko bound himself and his people to embrace Christianity. Christian missionaries were at once sent to Poland; the first bishopric was that of Posen, which was placed under the supervision of the German archbishop at Magdeburg. This was the first contact of the Poles with European civilization. From Germany and Bohemia numerous missionaries entered the country to baptize the people, while from all the Western countries came immigrants and monks, and convents began to be built. The spread of Christianity was greatly furthered by the two wives of Prince Mieszko: first, Dabrowska, a sister of the King of Bohemia, and then Oda, formerly a nun whom Mieszko had married after the death of Dabrowska. Prince Mieszko considered himself a vassal of the pope, and as such paid him tribute. From this time on, the Church contributes so much to the national development that it will be impossible to trace intelligently the political history of Poland without at the same time following its ecclesiastical development.

Poland had hardly begun to play a part in history when it acquired extraordinary power. This was in the reign of the famous Boleslaw Chrobry (992-1025), the eldest son of the first Polish ruler. His dominions included all the lands from the Baltic to the country beyond the Carpathians, and from the River Oder to the provinces beyond the Vistula. He had at his command, ready for instant service, a well-equipped army of 20,000 men. In spite of his great power, Boleslaw continued to pay the customary tribute to Germany. By his discreet diplomacy he was successful in obtaining the consent of the pope, as well as of the German emperor, to the erection of an archiepiscopal see at Gnesen, and thus the Polish Church was relieved of its dependence upon German archbishops. To emphasize Poland's independence of Germany, Boleslaw assumed the title of king, being crowned by the newly created archbishop of Gnesen in 1024. The clergy in Poland were at that time exclusively of foreign birth; intimate relations between them and the people were therefore impossible. The latter did not become enthusiastic about the new religion, nor yet did they return to paganism, for severe penalties, such as knocking out the teeth for violating the precept of fasting, maintained obedience to the clergy among the people.

After the death of Chrobry disaster befell the Poles. Their neighbours attacked them on all sides. The son of Boleslaw, Mieczyslaw II (1025-34), unable to cope with his enemies, yielded allegiance to the emperor and lost the title of king. After his death there was an interregnum (1034-40) marked by a series of violent revolutions. Hosts of rebellious peasants traversed the country from end to end, furiously attacked castles, churches, and convents, and murdered noblemen and ecclesiastics. In Masovia paganism was re-established. Casimir, a son of Mieczyslaw II, surnamed the Restorer, recovered the reins of government, with the aid of Henry VIII , restored law and order, and rooted out idolatry. At his death the sovereignty devolved upon his son, Boleslaw II, Smialy (1058-79). This ruler was favoured by fortune in his warlike undertakings. His success at last led him to enter upon a conflict with the emperor. Conditions at the time were favourable to his securing political independence. The Emperor Henry IV was engaged in a struggle for supremacy with Pope Gregory VII, who allied himself with the vassal princes hostile to the emperor, among them Boleslaw Smialy, to whom he sent the kingly crown. Poland revolted from the empire, and the Polish Church began a reform in accordance with Gregory's decrees. By the leading nobles Boleslaw was thoroughly hated as a despot; the masses of the people murmured under the burden of incessant wars ; the clergy opposed the energetic reformation of the Church, which the king was carrying on, their opposition being particularly directed against Gregory's decree enforcing the celibacy of the clergy. The dissatisfied elements rose and placed themselves under the protection of Bohemia, Bishop Stanislaw even placed the king under the ban of the Church, while the king declared the bishop guilty of high treason for allying himself with Bohemia and the emperor. The king's sentence was terribly executed at Cracow, where the bishop was done to death and hewn in pieces. In the civil war which ensued Boleslaw was worsted and compelled to take refuge in Hungary.

After his death Poland had to pass through severe and protracted struggles to maintain its independence. Towards the end of the eleventh century its power was broken by the Bohemians and Germans, and it was once more reduced to the condition of an insignificant principality, under the incompetent Wladislaw Herman (1081-1101). At this period the clergy constituted the only educated class of the entire population, but they were foreigners, and the natives joined their ranks but slowly. At all events they are entitled to extraordinary credit for the diffusion of learning in Poland. The convents were at that time the centres of learning; the monks taught the people improved methods of cultivating the soil, and built inns and hospitals. During the whole of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Poland was in a most unfortunate condition. Boleslaw III, Krzywousty (1112-39), at his death divided the country into principalities, which were bequeathed to his sons as hereditary possessions. The eldest son was to receive the territory of Cracow, with his capital at Cracow, and to be the overlord of the whole country. In course of time the other sons again divided their lands among their children, and thus Poland was split up into smaller and smaller principalities -- a process which proved fatal. The overlords were unable to effect permanent reforms; Wladislaw II (1139-46), Boleslaw the Curly-haired (1146-73), Mieczyslaw the Old (1173-77), Casimir II the Just (1177-94), Mieczyslaw the Old (supreme for the second time, 1194-1202), Wladislaw III (1202-06). The only spiritual bond that held the dismembered parts of Poland together was the Church. With this in mind Leszek the Wise (1206-27) increased popular respect for the clergy by giving them the right to elect their bishops, and territorial jurisdiction over church lands. His brother, Prince Conrad of Masovia, about this time summoned the knights of the Teutonic Order. The heathen tribes on the borders of Poland -- Jazygians, Lithuanians, and Prussians -- were constantly making predatory incursions into the country. The Prussians, who had settled east of the Vistula, were active in these raids.

To put an end to this state of things a knightly order established by Germans in Palestine was summoned by Conrad for the conquest and Christianization of Prussia. These Knights of the Cross, so called from the black cross upon their white cloaks, established themselves on the Vistula in 1228. They were also known as the Teutonic Knights (Deutschen Ritter). In a short time they exterminated the Prussians, to replace whom German colonists were brought into the land, forming a powerful state controlled by the order, a state of strictly German character, which soon directed its attacks against Poland. The condition of Poland, meanwhile, was disastrously affected by another cause: it was subdivided into about thirty small states, and the supreme princes, Henry I the Bearded (1232-38), Henry II the Pious (1238-41), Boleslaw (1243-79), Leszek the Black (1279-88), Henry Probus (1288-90), Przemyslaw II (1290-95), and Waclaw II (1290-1305), could find no remedy for the evil. Moreover, in the years 1241 and 1259 the Tatars invaded the country, completely devastated it, and carried off vast multitudes into captivity. The territories thus depopulated were then occupied by well organized colonies from Germany. In the early thirteenth and late fourteenth centuries these colonists became possessed with a desire to seize the sovereign power in the State, weakened as it was by sub-division. But the magnates of Poland decided to oppose this scheme resolutely. The clergy issued instructions at synods against the admission of Germans to church benefices, the church being the only power that could supply any means of firm national organization. The Archbishop of Gnesen was the supreme religious head of all the Polish principalities. The clergy of the time, having been for fully a century native Poles, cultivated the Polish language in the churches and schools. It was among the clergy that the opposition to the German influence first took form. Above all, it was the clergy who took active measures to bring about the union of the various divisions of Poland into one great kingdom.

Circumstances favoured this plan. For during this period of incessant civil wars, Tatar invasions, famine, contagious diseases, conflagrations, and floods, the piety of the common people was remarkable. Never before or after was the number of hermits and pilgrims so large, never was the building of convents carried on so extensively. Princes, princesses, nobles, and knights entered the various orders; large sums of money were given for religious foundations. To this period belong the Polish saints whom the Church has recognized. The clergy gained extraordinary influence. In the convent-schools singing and preaching was henceforth carried on in the Polish language. Germans were not admitted to the higher dignities of the Church. At the same time the Polish clergy prepared to bring about a union of the several states into which the country was divided. This was accomplished after many years of war by the energetic prince Wladislaw, surnamed the Short (1305-33). He determined, furthermore, to have himself crowned king. After receiving the kingly crown from the pope, he crowned himself in the city of Cracow (1320). His whole reign was spent in warfare ; in a way, he restored Poland and preserved it from foreign domination. His son and successor, Casimir the Great (1333-70), undertook to restore order in the internal affairs of the realm, demoralized by a century of almost uninterrupted warfare. He promoted agriculture, the trades, and commerce; he built fortresses and cities, constructed highways, drained marshes, founded villages, extended popular education, defended the laws made them known to the people by collecting them into a code (1347), established a supreme court at Cracow (1366), and offered a refuge in Poland to the Jews, who were then everywhere persecuted. He also founded a university at Cracow (1364) and organized a militia. When he inherited the Principality of Halicz (Galicia), a part of Little Russia, he brought this district to a high degree of prosperity by his policies. Casimir died without issue, and with him the Piast dynasty became extinct.

During Casimir's reign the clergy, on account of their services in bringing about the unification of the kingdom, gained extraordinary popularity, all the more because they were the only educated element of the nation. There were seven religious orders: Benedictines, Templars, Cistercians, Dominicans, Franciscans, Lateran Canons, and Præmonstratensians. Libraries and schools were to be found only in the convents, where, also, the poor, the sick, and the crippled received comfort and help. Besides promoting religion, some of the convents, especially those of the Cistercians, sought to promote agriculture by clearing forests, laying out gardens, and introducing new varieties of fruits, etc. The Cistercians employed the lay members attached to their order in manual labour, under strict regulations, in their fields, gardens and workshops. The Norbertine, Cistercian, Dominican, Franciscan, and Benedictine nuns devoted themselves more particularly to the education of girls. Laymen despised learning as something unworthy of them. On the other hand, the clergy only unwillingly admitted laymen into their schools, which they regarded as preparatory institutions for those intending to take orders. The first schools were established by the Benedictines at Tyniec, but as early as the thirteenth century this order, composed for the most part of foreign-born members, ceased teaching. The secular clergy established schools in the cathedral, collegiate, and parish churches.

While Casimir still lived the nobility elected as his successor Louis, King of Hungary (1370-82), who assumed the regency without opposition immediately after Casimir's death. Under him the relations existing between the people and the Crown underwent substantial changes. Louis had no sons, only daughters, and he was anxious that one of these should occupy the Throne of Poland. With this object in view he began to treat with the Polish nobles. The nobles assented to his plan and in return received numerous privileges. Thereafter there was bargaining and haggling with each new king, a course which finally resulted in the complete limitation of the royal power. On the other hand, the despotism of the aristocracy increased in proportion as the power of the kings declined, greatly to the detriment of the other estates of the realm. Louis was succeeded, after much hesitation on her part, by Queen Hedwig (Jadwiga), in the year 1384. The Poles urged her marriage to Jagiello, or Jagellon, the Prince of Lithuania, but on condition that he and all his people should embrace Christianity. As soon as Jagiello had accepted this proposal and had been baptized, he was crowned King of Poland (1386-1434) -- on the strength of being the consort of Queen Hedwig. Soon after the close of the coronation festivities at Cracow a large body of ecclesiastics crossed into Lithuania, where, after a short resistance on the part of the heathen priests, the people were baptized in vast multitudes. One of the most important tasks of the united kingdom of Poland and Lithuania was the final reckoning with the Teutonic Knights , whose power still threatened both countries. In 1409 began a war which was signalized by the crushing defeat of the order at Tannenberg-Grnfelde. The battle of Tannenberg broke for all time the power of the order, and placed Poland among the great powers of Europe. Until then Poland had been looked upon as a semi-civilized country, where the natives were little better than savages, and culture was represented by the German clergy and colonists. With the battle at Tannenberg this period of disrepute was at an end.

The influence of the Polish clergy was still further increased after the union of Poland and Lithuania. The royal chancery was administered by clerics. The clergy now (1413-16) caused the adoption of a whole series of enactments against heresy with especially severe provisions against apostates. In the general synods, in which the Polish clergy had formerly been classed as German, its representatives in the course of time received even greater attention, and the candidacy of Polish church dignitaries for the papal Throne was considered in all seriousness. Polish ecclesiastics brought it about that the adherents of the Eastern Schism in the Province of Halicz (Galicia) made their submission to the Holy See at Florence in 1439. Jagiello's son Wladislaw (1434-44) in the year 1440 accepted the Hungarian Crown also, in order that, with the united forces of the two kingdoms, he might successfully resist the power of the Turks. He gained a brilliant victory over the Turks (1443), but, continuing the war at the pope's instance, in spite of the treaty of peace, met with disaster, and fell in the battle of Varna. His successors, Casimir the Jagellon (1447-92), John Albert (1492-1501), and Alexander (1501-06), wrought for the welfare of the State with varying success. The son of Alexander, Sigismund I (1506-48), sought to consolidate his military power and replenish his treasury. He succeeded in redeeming the mortgaged estates of the Crown, but could not obtain the consent of the nobility to the formation of a standing army and the payment of regular taxes. Sigismund also carried on several wars -- with the Russians, the Tatars, and the Wallachians. In his reign, too, the secularization of the domains of the Teutonic order took place. The grand master, Albert, with the whole chapter and a majority of the knights, abjured their allegiance to the emperor, and adopted Lutheranism, an example followed by a large part of the Prussian nobility and all the commonalty. At the same time the land which had heretofore belonged to the order was proclaimed as a secular Prussian principality. Poland, desirous of continuing its suzerainty over Prussia, sanctioned these changes (1525), on condition, however, that Albert should swear allegiance to the Polish king. Albert accepted these terms, and Prussia accordingly became a fief of the Jagellons.

Towards the end of Sigismund's reign, between 1530 and 1540, a powerful tendency towards reform in religious matters manifested itself throughout Poland. This reform was indeed necessary. At the close of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century the clergy were thoroughly depraved. As a memorial, presented to the papal nuncio by the better elements, proves, the bishops were concerned only about the attainment of new dignities and the collection of their revenues; they oppressed the labourers on church lands, keeping them at work even on Sundays and holy days; the priests were uneducated and in many cases were only half-grown youths; the clergy were venal; monks dressed in silken robes often shared in the carousals of the nobility. The nobles envied the flourishing estates of the clergy. Thus a fruitful soil was provided for the spread of heresies in Poland. The spread of Hussite doctrines was not arrested until as late as 1500. The aristocracy, especially the younger members, who had attended foreign universities, now began to turn more and more to Calvinism, because this religion gave laymen a voice in matters affecting the church. Complete freedom of speech and belief was introduced. From all sides the Reformers, driven from other countries on account of their teachings, migrated to Poland, bringing with them a multiplicity of sects. The depraved clergy were unable to maintain their supremacy. Zebrzydowski, Bishop of Cracow, was wont to say openly: "You may believe in what you will, provided you pay me the tithe ". Moreover, many of the clergy married. The aristocracy regarded the new doctrines as an advance upon the old, drove the Catholic priests from the villages, substituted Protestant preachers, and ordered their dependents to attend the Calvinistic or Hussite devotions. But the common people opposed this propaganda.

The Reformation failed in Poland; but it stimulated the intellectual activity of the Poles and contributed very largely to the creation of a national Polish literature in place of the hitherto prevalent Latin literature. The sectarians were compelled to employ the vernacular in their addresses, if their teachings were to be effective with the masses. The Reformation gained momentum and growth especially after the death of Sigismund I, when his son Sigismund Augustus (1548-72) succeeded him. There was at the time much discussion as to convoking a national synod and establishing a national Church, independent of Rome. The representatives of various denominations in 1550 demanded the abolition of the ecclesiastical courts and complete religious liberty; they furthermore proposed the confiscation of church lands, the permission of marriage to the clergy, and communion in both kinds. But the king would not consent to these demands. The diet even passed stringent laws against the Protestant agitators, placing them on the footing of persons guilty of high treason. Nevertheless a decree was issued forbidding the payment of any and all tribute to the pope ; at the same time the ecclesiastical courts were deprived of jurisdiction in cases of heresy, and the civil power was no longer obliged to execute their sentences. The heretics, however, did not gain complete equality of rights under the law. This curtailment of their liberty was because the sects were at variance with one another and because, furthermore, the Reformation was hardly more than a matter of fashion with the magnates, while the gentry and common people remained true to the Church ; so that the heretics were unable to secure a majority in any part of Poland.

Still the number of Catholic churches converted to Protestant uses amounted to 240 in Great Poland and more than 400 in Little Poland, in addition to which the various sects had built 80 new churches, while in Lithuania, where Calvinism was particularly prevalent, there were 320 Reformed churches . As many as 2000 families of the nobility had abandoned the Faith. But the Protestants, although a very considerable portion of the population, were rendered incapable of successful effort by endless dissensions, while the Catholics, led by Hosius, Bishop of Ermland, sought to strengthen their position more and more. The latter took advantage of all the blunders committed by the sectarians, organized the better part of the Polish clergy, and with great energy carried into effect the reforming decrees of the Council of Trent. Furthermore, the Catholics adopted all that was good in the policy of the heretics. Polish works no longer appeared in Latin but in Polish, and it was even decided to translate the Holy Scripture into Polish. In the field of science the Jesuits also developed great activity after the year 1595. As a result of these measures, the dissidents steadily lost ground; the Senate and the Diet were exclusively Catholic. The plan of creating a national Church lost ground, and at last was entirely abandoned (1570).

Sigismund Augustus endeavoured to bring the nations under his sway into closer relations with one another, and he succeeded in effecting the union of Poland with Little Russia and Lithuania at the Diet of Lublin (1569), after which these three countries formed what was called the Republic (see above, under 1). With Sigismund the House of Jagiello came to an end. After his death the Archbishop of Gnesen, Primate of Poland, assumed the reins of government during the interregnum. As early as the reign of Sigismund the Old, the nobility had secured a fundamental law in virtue of which the king was to be elected not by the Senate but by the entire nobility. After the death of Sigismund the nobles elected Henry of Valois king (1574). But after five months, upon receiving news of his brother's death, he secretly left Poland to assume the Crown of France. Stephen Bathori, Prince of Transylvania, was next chosen king. His wise administration (1576-86) had many good results, more particularly in extending the boundaries of the kingdom. After his death the Swedish prince, Sigismund III, of the House of Vasa (1587-1632) was elected. This king was one of the most zealous champions of Catholicism. His main object was, besides completely checking the propaganda of the Reformation, to give Poland a stable form of government. In the very first years of his reign Catholicism gained considerably. At this time, also, the Jesuits came into Poland in larger numbers and very soon made their influence felt among the entire population. Their schools, founded at enormous expense of energy and capital, were soon more numerously attended than the schools of the heretics. Jesuit confessors and chaplains became indispensable in great families, with the result that the nobles gradually returned to Catholicism. Among the masses the Jesuits enjoyed great esteem as preachers and also because of their self-sacrifice in the time of the plague. Lastly, they pointed out to the nobility the exalted mission of Poland as a bulwark against the Turks and Muscovites. After the influence of the heretics in Poland had been destroyed, the Society of Jesus resolved to reclaim from the Greek schism the millions of inhabitants of Little Russia. To these efforts of the Jesuits must be ascribed the important reunion of the Ruthenian bishops with Rome in 1596. Ecclesiastically, the Polish dominions were at this time divided into two Latin archbishoprics with fifteen suffragan dioceses, while the Uniat Greeks had three archbishoprics with five bishoprics. The schismatical Greeks had the same number of archbishoprics (Metropolia), besides four bishoprics.

Under Sigismund III Poland waged wars of self-defence with Sweden, Russia, the Tatars, and the Turks. Poland's power at that time was so great that the Russian boyars requested a Polish prince, the son of Sigismund III, to be their ruler; but the king refused his consent. Sigismund transferred the royal residence from Cracow to Warsaw. After his death the nobility elected Wladislaw IV king (1632-48). Towards the end of this reign the warlike Cossacks, a tribe of Little Russia on the River Dnieper in the Ukraine, who defended the southeastern frontier of Poland against the Turks and Tatars, revolted, joined forces with the Tatars, and with their combined armies inflicted a severe defeat upon the Poles. But even worse times were in store for Poland under the succeeding rulers, John Casimir (1648-68) and Michael Chorybut Wisniowiecki (1669-73). The Cossacks and Tatars made terrible ravages on the eastern frontiers of Poland. Then the Swedes, under Charles Gustavus, conquered (1665) almost the whole of Poland; King Casimir was compelled to flee to Silesia. After that the Russians invaded the country and occupied Kieff, Smolensk, Polotsk, and Vilna. In the autumn of 1655 the State, as such, ceased to exist. Lithuania and the Ukraine were under the power of the Czar; Poland had been conquered by the Swedes ; Prussia was occupied by the Brandenburgers. No one dared offer any resistance. But when the Paulite monks of Czenstochau repelled an attack of 2000 Swedish troops, the spirit of the nobles and magnates revived. The clergy made this a religious war, the victory of Czenstochowa was ascribed to the intercession of the Blessed Virgin, whose gracious image was venerated in that convent ; she was proclaimed "Queen of the Crown of Poland", and John Casimir, at Lemberg (1656), devoutly placed himself and the entire kingdom under her protection. In the event, the Swedes were soon routed. The wars almost simultaneously conducted against Lutheran Swedes, the schismatic Muscovites, and Mohammedan Tatars intimately associated Catholicism with patriotism in the minds of the Poles. "For Faith and Fatherland" became their watchword.

Overwhelmed by so many reverses, John Casimir abdicated in 1668. He was succeeded by Michael Wisniowiecki, during whose reign anarchy steadily increased. The Cossacks and Tatars again invaded Poland, as did a large army of Turks. The latter were defeated, however, by Sobieski, at Chotin, when barely 4000 out of 10,000 escaped death. In gratitude for this glorious achievement the nation, after the death of Wisniowiecki, elected John Sobieski king (1674-96). An excellent general and pious Christian knight, Sobieski, immediately after his accession to the throne, entered upon a struggle with the Turks. He aimed at the complete annihilation of the Turkish power, and for this purpose zealously endeavoured to combine the Christian Powers against the Turks ; he also entered into a defensive and offensive alliance with the German Emperor. When the grand vizier, Kara Mustafa, at the head of about 200,000 men, had crossed the German frontier and was besieging Vienna, Sobieski with a Polish army hastened to its relief, united his forces with the emperor's, and utterly defeated the Turks (1683). This campaign was the beginning of a series of struggles between Poland and Turkey in which the latter was finally worsted. Under Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, Sobieski's immediate successor (1697-1733), Poland began to decline. Charles XII, King of Sweden, invaded Poland and occupied the most important cities. The Elector of Brandenburg, a former vassal of Poland, took advantage of the internal dissensions to make himself King of Prussia with the consent of Augustus II, thereby increasing the number of Poland's enemies by the addition of a powerful neighbour. Charles XII deposed Augustus II, and a new king, Stanislaus Leszczynski (1704-09), was elected by the nobility. Civil war followed, and the Swedes and Russians took advantage of it to plunder the country, pillaging churches and convents, and outraging the clergy. Augustus II resumed the throne under the protection of Russian troops, and Leszczynski fled to France.

From that time on Russia constantly interfered in the internal affairs of Poland. The next king, Augustus III, of Saxony (1733-63), was chosen through the influence of Russia. The political parties of Poland endeavoured to introduce reforms, but Russia and Prussia were able to thwart them. The king promoted learning and popular education ; he was inspired with the best intentions but was weak towards Russia. From the very beginning Russia had the partition of Poland in view, and for that reason fomented discord among the Poles, as did Prussia, especially by stirring up the magnates and the heretics. As early as 1733 the Diet deprived non-Catholics of political and civil rights, and Russia made use of this fact to stir up open revolt. The question of equal rights for dissidents was discussed, it is true, at one session of the Diet, but in 1766 the protest of the papal nuncio resulted in the rejection of the proposed change. At the same time a keen agitation was carried on against even the slightest concession in favour of non-Catholics. The latter, together with some of the aristocracy, who were dissatisfied with the abrogation of several aristocratic prerogatives, altogether 80,000 in number, placed themselves under the protection of Russia, with the express declaration that they regarded the Empress Catherine II as protectress of Poland, binding themselves to use their efforts towards securing equal rights for the dissidents, and not to change the Polish laws without the consent of Russia. But the patriotic elements could not submit to so disgraceful a dependence on Russia : they combined, in the Confederation of Bar (in Podolia), in defence of the Catholic Faith and the rights of independence under republican institutions. At the same time, through the efforts of the Carmelite monk Marcus, the religious brotherhood of the Knights of the Holy Cross was organized.

The confederation, therefore, was of a religious character : it desired, on the one hand, to free Poland from its dependence on Russia, on the other to reject the demands of the dissidents. After it had declared an interregnum, the king's Polish regiments and the Russian forces took the field against it. The confederation had hardly been dispersed when Austria, Russia, and Prussia occupied the Polish frontier provinces (altogether about 3800 square miles with more than four million inhabitants). The manifesto of occupation set forth as reasons for the partition: the increasing anarchy in the republic; the necessity of protecting the neighbouring states against this lawlessness; the necessity of readjusting conditions in Poland in harmony with the views and interests of its neighbours. Prussia received West Prussia and Ermland ; White Russia fell to Russia ; Galicia was given to Austria. In the countries thus annexed each state began to pursue its own policies. In White Russia there were many Ruthenian Uniats: the Russian government at once took active measures to sever their union with Rome, and bring them into the schism. The parishes of the Uniats were suppressed, and their property confiscated. A systematic course of oppression compelled them to adopt the schism. Austria and Prussia, in their turn, sought to repress the Polish national spirit; in particular, colonization of Polish territory with German colonists was begun systematically, and on a vast scale. The Poles were excluded from all official positions, which were now filled by Germans imported for that purpose in large numbers. The state schools became wholly German.

Such treatment by the neighbouring states roused all Poland to energetic action, so as to prevent a second partition. The Poles now learned the value of popular education, and their ablest men zealously applied themselves to improve the schools. The Four Years Diet (so called because its deliberations lasted four years without interruption) busied itself with reform, on 3 May, 1791, the Constitution was proclaimed. According to this fundamental law the Catholic remained the dominant religion, but the dissidents were granted complete civil equality and the protection of the law. The new ordinances curbed licentiousness, and thus caused dissatisfaction, especially among the higher nobility, who formed the Confederation of Targowitz for the purpose of annulling the Constitution which had just been granted, and called Russian troops to their assistance. The king sided with this deluded faction. Thus Russia and Prussia had another opportunity of making annexations; once more they both seized large tracts of Polish territory and thus was consummated the second partition of Poland (1793). The Poles, resolved to defend their independence, rose, under the leadership of Tadeusz Kosciuszko , against

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Pápago Indians

An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock, speaking a dialect of the Pima language and ...

Pázmány, Peter

A famous Hungarian ecclesiastic of the seventeenth century; died 19 March, 1637. He was born of ...

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Pérez de Hita, Ginés

Spanish writer, born at Murcia. Little is known of his life except that he lived during the ...

Périgueux

(PETROCORICENSIS) Comprises the Department of Dordogne and is suffragan to the Archbishopric of ...

Pétau, Denis

(DIONYSIUS PETAVIUS) One of the most distinguished theologians of the seventeenth century, ...

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Pacandus

Titular see, recorded under "Pacanden." Among the titular sees in the official list of the Curia ...

Pacca, Bartolommeo

Cardinal, scholar, and statesman, b. at Benevento, 27 Dec., 1756; d. at Rome, 19 Feb., 1844; ...

Pachomius, Saint

Died about 346. The main facts of his life will be found in MONASTICISM (Section II: Eastern ...

Pachtler, George Michael

Controversial and educational writer, b. at Mergentheim, Wurtemberg, 14 Sept., 1825; d. at ...

Pacificus

A disciple of St. Francis of Assisi, born probably near Ascoli, Italy, in the second half of ...

Pacificus of Ceredano, Blessed

(Also known as Pacificus of Novara, or Novariensis ). Born 1420 at Cerano, in the Diocese ...

Pacificus of San Severino, Saint

Born at San Severino, in the parents died soon after his confirmation when three years old; he ...

Pacioli, Lucas

(Paciuolo.) Mathematician, born at Borgo San Sepolco, Tuscany, toward the middle of the ...

Paderborn

(Paderbornensis) Suffragan diocese of Cologne, includes: the District of Minden, ...

Padilla, Juan de

Friar Minor, protomartyr of the United States of America , member of the Andalusian province, ...

Padua

(Patavina) Diocese in northern Italy. The city is situated on a fertile plain and is ...

Padua, University of

The University of Padua dates, according to some anonymous chronicles (Muratori, "Rer. Ital. ...

Paganism

Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, ...

Pagano, Mario

Jurisconsult and man of letters, born in Brienza, Province of Salerno, 8 Dec., 1748; died at ...

Page, Venerable Anthony

English martyr, born at Harrow-on-the-Hill, Middlesex, 1571; died at York, 20 or 30 April, 1593. ...

Pagi, Antoine

French ecclesiastical historian. Born 31 March, 1624, at Rognes in the Department of ...

Pagi, François

French ecclesiastical historian, nephew of Antoine Pagi. Born 7 September, 1654, at Lambesc in ...

Pagnino, Santes

(Or XANTES) A Dominican, born 1470 at Lucca, Tuscany ; died 24 Aug., 1541, at Lyons, one of ...

Painting, Religious

Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. From the time of the ...

Pakawá Indians

(Also written Pacoá) One of a group of cognate tribes, hence designated the ...

Palæography

( palaia , "ancient", graphe , "writing") The art of deciphering ancient writing in ...

Palæontology

( logos ton palaion onton ) Palæ ontology, or the science of fossils, deals with ...

Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de

Bishop of La Puebla de Los Angeles, b. at Fitero in Navarre, 24 June, 1600; d. at Osma in ...

Palasor, Venerable Thomas

( Or Palliser). English martyr, born at Ellerton-upon-Swale, parish of Catterick, North ...

Palatinate, Rhenish

( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

Palatini

( Latin palatium , palace) The designation, primarily, of certain high officials in the ...

Palawan

Prefecture Apostolic in the Philippine Islands ; comprises Palawan, Cuyo, Culion, Twahig, and ...

Palencia

(PALENTINA) This Diocese comprises the civil provinces of Palencia, Santander, Valladolid, ...

Paleopolis

(Palæopolis) A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The history of this ...

Paleotti, Gabriele

Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna. Born at Bologna, 4 October, 1522; died at Rome, 22 July, ...

Palermo

Archdiocese of Palermo (Panormitana), in Sicily. The city is built on an inlet of the ...

Palermo, University of

The Convent of St. Dominic of Palermo may be considered the nucleus of the future University of ...

Palestrina

(PBÆNESTINENSIS) The town of Palestrina, in the province of Rome, central Italy, is the ...

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da

The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time, born at Palestrina (ancient ...

Paley, Frederick Apthorp

Classical scholar, born at Easingwold near York, 14 Jan., 1815; died at Bournemouth, 9 December, ...

Pall

A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque ...

Pall, Funeral

A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

Palladio, Andrea

Italian architect, born at Vicenza 1508; died at Venice, 19 August, 1580. There is a tradition ...

Palladius

( Palladios ) Born in Galatia, 368; died probably before 431. The identity of the author of ...

Palladius, Saint

First bishop sent by Pope Celestine to Ireland (431). The chronicle of the contemporary St. ...

Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza

A cardinal, born 28 Nov., 1607; died 5 June, 1667. Descended from the line of Parma of the ...

Pallium

Form and Use of the Modern Pallium The modern pallium is a circular band about two inches wide, ...

Pallotti, Vincent Mary

The founder of the Pious Society of Missions , born at Rome, 21 April, 1798 [other sources say ...

Palm in Christian Symbolism

In pre-Christian times the palm was regarded as a symbol of victory (Aulus Gellius, "Noct. Att.", ...

Palm Sunday

The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week, a Sunday of the highest rank, ...

Palma Vecchio

(JACOPO NIGRETI) Born at Serinalta near Bergamo, about 1480; d. at Venice, 30 July 1528. ...

Palmer, William

Born at Mixbury, Oxfordshire, 12 July, 1811; died at Rome, 4 April, 1879; the elder brother of ...

Palmieri, Domenico

A theologian, born at Piacenza, Italy, 4 July, 1829; died in Rome, 29 May, 1909. He studied in ...

Palmieri, Luigi

Physicist and meteorologist, b. at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy, 22 April, 1807; d. in Naples, 9 ...

Palmyra

Titular metropolitan see in Phoenicia Secunda. Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:18 ) built Palmira (A. V. ...

Palou, Francisco

A Friar Minor, born at Palma, Island of Majorca, about 1722; died in 1789 or 1790. He entered the ...

Paltus

A titular see and suffragan of Seleucia Pieria in Syria Prima. The town was founded by a ...

Paludanus, Peter

(PETRUS DE PALUDE) A theologian and archbishop, born in the County of Bresse, Savoy, about ...

Pamelius

(Jacques de Joigny De Pamele). Belgian theologian, born at Bruges, Flanders, 13 May, 1536; ...

Pamiers

(APAMÆA) A Diocese comprising the Department of Ariège, and suffragan of ...

Pammachius, Saint

Roman senator, d. about 409. In youth he frequented the schools of rehetoric with St. Jerome. In ...

Pamphilus of Cæsarea, Saint

Martyred 309. Eusebius's life of Pamphilus is lost, but from his "Martyrs of Palestine" we ...

Pamplona

(PAMPILONENSIS) This Diocese comprises almost all of Navarre and part of Guipuzcoa. This ...

Panama

Located in Central America, occupies the Isthmus of Panama, or Darien, which extends east and west ...

Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints

The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

Pandects

(PANDECTÆ, or DIGESTA) This part of Justinian's compilation was his most important ...

Pandulph

A papal legate and Bishop of Norwich, died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1226. He is commonly but ...

Panemotichus

A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. Panemotichus coined money during the ...

Pange Lingua Gloriosi

The opening words of two hymns celebrating respectively the Passion and the Blessed Sacrament. ...

Panigarola, Francesco

A preacher and controversialist, Bishop of Asti, born at Milan, 6 Feb., 1548; died at Asti, 31 ...

Pannartz, Arnold

See also KONRAD SWEYNHEIM . Both printers; Pannartz died about 1476, Sweinheim in 1477. ...

Pano Indians

A former important mission tribe on the middle Ucayali River, Peru, being the principal of a group ...

Panopolis

A titular see, suffragan of Antinoe in Thebais Prima; the ancient Apu or Khimmin which the ...

Panpsychism

(Greek pan , all; psyche , soul ) Panpsychism is a philosophical theory which holds ...

Pantænus

Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180 ( Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, x), still ...

Pantaleon, Saint

Martyr, died about 305. According to legend he was the son of a rich pagan, Eustorgius of ...

Pantheism

(From Greek pan , all; theos , god). The view according to which God and the world are ...

Panvinio, Onofrio

Historian and archaeologist, born at Verona, 23 February, 1530; died at Palermo, 7 April, 1568. ...

Panzani, Gregorio

Bishop of Mileto, died early in 1662. He was a secular priest of Arezzo, having left the ...

Paoli, Venerable Angelo

Born at Argigliano, Tuscany, 1 Sept., 1642; died at Rome, 17 January, 1720. The son of Angelo ...

Papacy, The

This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of ...

Papal Arbitration

An institution almost coeval with the papacy itself. The principle of arbitration presupposes ...

Papal Elections

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Papal Mint

The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

Papal Rescripts

( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

Papal States

( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...

Paphnutius

I The most celebrated personage of this name was bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the ...

Paphos

A titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. There were two towns of this name, Old Paphos ...

Papias, Saint

Bishop of Hierapolis (close to Laodicea and Coloss Colossae aelig; in the valley of the ...

Papiensis, Bernardus

An Italian canonist of the thirteenth century; died 18 Sept., 1213. He was born at Pavia, ...

Papini, Nicholas

An historian, born at San Giovanni Valdarno, between Florence and Arezzo, about 1751; died at ...

Parætonium

Parætonium, a titular see of Lybia Secunda or Inferior (i.e. Marmarica), suffragan of ...

Paré, Ambroise

French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, department of Maine, 1517; died 20 ...

Parœcopolis

A titular see of Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (III, 13, ...

Para du Phanjas, François

Writer, b. at the castle of Phanja Champsaur, Basses-Alpes, 1724; d. at Paris, 1797. After his ...

Parables

The word parable (Hebrew mashal ; Syrian mathla , Greek parabole ) signifies in general ...

Parabolani

paraboloi, parabalanoi The members of a brotherhood who in the Early Church voluntarily ...

Paracelsus, Theophrastus

Celebrated physician and reformer of therapeutics, b. at the Sihlbrücke, near Einsiedeln, ...

Paraclete

Paraclete, Comforter (L. Consolator ; Greek parakletos ), an appellation of the Holy Ghost. ...

Paradise, Terrestrial

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Paraguay

One of the inland republics of South America, separated from Spain and constituted as an ...

Parahyba

(PARAHYBENESIS) Located in the State of Parahyba, Brazil, suffragan of Bahia, founded 27 ...

Paralipomenon, Books of

( Paraleipomenon ; Libri Paralipomenon ). Two books of the Bible containing a summary of ...

Parallelism

The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Either ...

Parallelism, Psycho-Physical

A doctrine which states that the relation between mental processes, on the one hand, and ...

Paralus

A titular see, suffragan of Cabasa in Ægyptus Secunda. One of the seven mouths of the ...

Paraná

(PARANENSIS) Suffragan of Buenos Aires, in Argentina until recently, comprised two civil ...

Parasceve

(Gr. paraskevé ); seems to have supplanted the older term prosábbaton , used ...

Paray-le-Monial

A town of five thousand inhabitants in the Department of Sâone-Loire, Diocese of Autun , ...

Pardies, Ignace-Gaston

French scientist, b. at Pau, 5 Sept., 1636; d. of fever contracted whilst ministering to the ...

Pardons of Brittany

Pardon, from the Latin perdonare , — assimilated in form to donum , a gift, middle ...

Paredes, Blessed Mary Anne de

Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

Pareja, Francisco

Missionary, probably born at Auñon in the Diocese of Toledo, Spain, date unknown; died ...

Parents

( Latin parere , to beget) I. DUTIES OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR CHILDREN In the old pagan ...

Parenzo-Pola

(PARENTINA-POLENSIS) The little town of Parenzo is picturesquely situated on a promontory ...

Parini, Giuseppe

Italian poet, born at Bosisio, 23 May, 1729; died at Milan, 15 Aug., 1799. Parini was early ...

Paris

ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS (PARIBIENSIS) See also UNIVERSITY OF PARIS . Paris comprises the ...

Paris Commune, Martyrs of the

The secular priests and the religious who were murdered in Paris, in May 1871, on account of ...

Paris, Alexis-Paulin

Philologist, born at Avenay, Marne, France, 25 March, 1800; died 13 Feb., 1881. Having finished ...

Paris, Gaston-Bruno-Paulin

A French philologist, son of Paulin, born at Avenay (Marne), 9 August, 1839; died at Cannes, 6 ...

Paris, Matthew

Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1200; d. 1259. There seems no reason to infer from the ...

Paris, University of

See also ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS . Origin and Early Organization Three schools were especially ...

Parish

(Latin par&ligcia, parochia , Greek paroikia , a group of neighbouring dwellings). I. ...

Parium

Titular see, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontus. The Acts of the martyr St. Onesiphorus ...

Park, Abbey of the

Located half a mile south of Louvain, Belgium, founded in 1129 by Duke Godfrey, surnamed ...

Parkinson, Anthony

An historian, born in England, 1667; died there 30 January, 1728. In 1692 he was appointed ...

Parlais

A titular see of Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. As a Roman colony it was called Julia Augusta ...

Parlatore, Filippo

Italian botanist, b. at Palermo, 8 Aug., 1816; d. at Florence, 9 Sept., 1877, a devout and ...

Parma

Located in central Italy. The city is situated on the river of the same name, an affluent of the ...

Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin

An agriculturist, born at Montdidier, 17 August, 1737; died in Paris, 13 Dec., 1813. Left an orphan ...

Parmigiano, Il

(THE PARMESAN) The current name of FRANCESCO MAZZUOLA, MAZZOLA, MAZZUOLI, or MAZZOLI, Italian ...

Parnassus

A titular see in Cappadocia Secunda, suffragan of Mocessus. Situated between Ancyra and ...

Parochial Mass

The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

Parochial Missions, Catholic

This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

Parrenin, Dominique

Born at Russey, near Besançon, 1 Sept., 1665; died at Pekin, 29 Sept., 1741. He entered ...

Parsis

(PARSEES). A small community in India, adherents of the Zoroastrian religion and originally ...

Particular Judgment

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

Partnership

Partnership, an unincorporated association of two or more persons, known as partners, having for ...

Paruta, Paolo

Venetian historian and statesman, born at Venice, 14 May, 1540; died there, 6 Dec., 1598. Of a ...

Pascal Baylon, Saint

Born at Torre-Hermosa, in the Kingdom of Aragon, 24 May, 1540, on the Feast of Pentecost, called ...

Pascal, Blaise

Born at Clermont-Ferrand, 19 June 1623; died in Paris, 19 August 1662. He was the son of Etienne ...

Pasch

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

Paschal Candle

The blessing of the "paschal candle ", which is a column of wax of exceptional size, usually ...

Paschal I, Pope

(817-824) The date of his birth is unknown; he died in April, May, or June, 824. He was the ...

Paschal II, Pope

(RAINERIUS). Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 ...

Paschal III (Antipope)

(GUIDO OF CREMA) The second antipope in the time of Alexander III. He was elected in 1164 ...

Paschal Lamb

A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

Paschal Tide

I. LITURGICAL ASPECT The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost are called by the older ...

Paschasius Radbertus, Saint

Theologian, b. at Soissons, 786; d. in the Monastery of Corbie, c. 860 (the date 865 is ...

Paschasius, Saint

A deacon of the Roman Church about 500; died after 511. Almost all that is known of Paschasius ...

Passaglia, Carlo

Born at Lucca, 9 May, 1812; died at Turin, 12 March, 1887. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Passau

(PASSAVIENSIS) Located in Bavaria, suffragan of Munich-Freising, including within its ...

Passerat, Joseph, Venerable

Born 30 April, 1772, at Joinville, France ; died 30 October, 1858. The difficulties he had to ...

Passignano, Domenico

(known as IL CRESTI, or IL PASSIGNANO, Cresti being his family name) A Venetian painter, ...

Passion Music

Precisely when, in the development of the liturgy, the history of the Passion of Our Lord ...

Passion of Christ, Commemoration of the

A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima. Its object is the devout remembrance and honour ...

Passion of Jesus Christ

See also THE PASSION OF CHRIST IN THE GOSPELS . The sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated ...

Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels

See also DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF CHRIST . We have in the Gospels four separate accounts ...

Passion Offices

The recitation of these offices, called also Of the Instruments of the Passion, was first granted ...

Passion Plays

The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle ...

Passion Sunday

The fifth Sunday of Lent, a Sunday of the first class, not permitting the celebration of any ...

Passionei, Domenico

A cardinal, theologian, born at Fossombrone, 2 Dec., 1682; died 5 July, 1761. Educated in the ...

Passionists

The full title of the Passionist institute is: The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most ...

Passions

By passions we are to understand here motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend ...

Passiontide

The two weeks between Passion Sunday and Easter. The last week is Holy Week, while the first ...

Passos

(Or, more fully, Santos Passos ) The Portuguese name locally used to designate certain ...

Passover

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

Pasteur, Louis

Chemist, founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics; born ...

Pasto, Diocese of

(PASTENSIS, PASTOPOLITANA). A Colombian see, suffragan of Popayan, from which it was separated ...

Pastor

This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls ( cura animarum ), that is, who is ...

Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus)

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Pastoral Staff

(Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...

Pastoral Theology

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Pastoureaux, Crusade of the

One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. ...

Patagonia

Patagonia is the name given to the southernmost extremity of South America. Its boundary on the ...

Patara

Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, formerly a large cornmercial town, opposite Rhodes. ...

Paten

The eucharistic vessel known as the paten is a small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon ...

Patenson, Venerable William

Venerable William Patenson, English martyr , born in Yorkshire or Durham ; died at Tyburn, 22 ...

Pater Noster

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Pathology, Mental

This subject will be considered under the following headings: I. Localization of Mental ...

Patmore, Coventry

One of the major poets of the nineteenth century, in spite of the small bulk of his verse, born at ...

Patmos

A small volcanic island in the Ægean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, to the south of Samos ...

Patras

A metropolitan see in Achaia. It was one of the twelve ancient cities of Achaia, built near ...

Patriarch

The word patriarch as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version, where ...

Patriarch and Patriarchate

Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. ...

Patrician Brothers

(Or BROTHERS OF SAINT PATRICK). This Brotherhood was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Daniel ...

Patrick's Purgatory, Saint

Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

Patrick, Saint

Apostle of Ireland, born at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, in Scotland, in the year 387; died at ...

Patrizi, Francis Xavier

Jesuit exegete, b. at Rome, 19 June, 1797; d. there 23 April, 1881. He was the eldest son and ...

Patrology

Patrology, the study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church, has more commonly been known ...

Patron and Patronage

I By the right of patronage ( ius patronatus ) is understood a determinate sum of rights ...

Patron Saints

A patron is one who has been assigned by a venerable tradition, or chosen by election, as a ...

Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the

It was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 6 May, 1679, for all the ...

Patti, Diocese of

(PACTENSIS) Patti, in the Province of Messina (Sicily), on the western shore of the gulf of ...

Paul and John, Saints

Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

Paul I, Pope

(757-67) Date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 28 June, 767. He was a brother of Stephen II. ...

Paul II, Pope

(PIETRO BARBO) Born at Venice, 1417; elected 30 August, 1464; died 26 July, 1471; son of ...

Paul III, Pope

(A LESSANDRO F ARNESE ). Born at Rome or Canino, 29 Feb., 1468; elected, 12 Oct., 1534; ...

Paul IV, Pope

(G IOVANNI P IETRO C ARAFFA ). Born near Benevento, 28 June, 1476; elected 23 May, ...

Paul of Burgos

(PAUL DE SANTA MARIA; Jewish name, SOLOMON HA-LEVI) A Spanish archbishop, lord chancellor and ...

Paul of Middelburg

A scientist and bishop, born in 1446 at Middelburg, the ancient capital of the province of ...

Paul of Samosata

Bishop of Antioch. Several synods, probably three, were held against him about 264-66. St. ...

Paul of the Cross, Saint

Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775. ...

Paul the Deacon

(Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

Paul the Hermit, Saint

There are three important versions of the Life of St. Paul: (1) the Latin version ( H ) of St. ...

Paul the Simple, Saint

The story of Paul, as Palladius heard it from men who had known St. Anthony, was as follows: ...

Paul V, Pope

(CAMILLO BORGHESE). Born at Rome, 17 Sept., 1550; elected 16 May, 1605; died 28 Jan., 1621. ...

Paul, Saint

I. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS A. Apocryphal Acts of St. Paul Professor Schmidt has published a ...

Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint

( San Paolo fuori le mura ). An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the ...

Paula, Saint

Born in Rome, 347; died at Bethlehem, 404. She belonged to one of the first families of Rome. ...

Pauli, Johannes

Born about 1455; died after 1530 in the monastery at Thann in Alsace. What little is known of ...

Paulicians

A dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. The origin of the name ...

Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo

(PHILIP WESDIN). Missionary and Orientalist, b. at Hoff in Lower Austria, 25 Apr., 1748; d. ...

Paulinus II, Saint

Born at Premariacco, near Cividale, Italy, about 730-40; died 802. Born probably of a Roman ...

Paulinus of Pella

Christian poet of the fifth century; b. at Pella in Macedonia, but of a Bordelaise family. He ...

Paulinus, Saint

Archbishop of York, died at Rochester, 10 October, 644. He was a Roman monk in St. Andrew's ...

Paulinus, Saint

(Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus). Born at Bordeaux about 354; died 22 June, 431. He ...

Paulist Fathers

Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

Paulists

From the time that the abode and virtues of St. Paul the first hermit were revealed to St. ...

Paulus Diaconus

(Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

Paulus Venetus

Theologian of the Hermits of the Order of Saint Augustine, born according to the chroniclers of ...

Pavia

(PAPIA) Located in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It is situated in a fertile plain; the city is ...

Pavia, University of

Pavia was, even in Roman times, a literary centre (Ennodius); as the capital of the Lombard ...

Pavillon, Nicolas

Bishop of Alet, b. at Paris 1597; d. at Alet, 1677. He joined the community of St-Lazare, ...

Pax

(Osculatorium, Tabula Pacis, Lapis Pacis). A tablet to be kissed. The primitive usage in the ...

Pax in the Liturgy

Pax vobis (or vobiscum ), like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum ), ...

Payeras, Mariano

Born 10 Oct., 1769, at Inca, Island of Majorca; died 28 April, 1823. He received the habit of St. ...

Payne, Blessed John

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

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Pe 170

Peña, Francisco

(PEGNA) A canonist, born at Villaroya de los Pinares, near Saragossa, about 1540; died at ...

Peñalver y Cardenas, Luis Ignatius

Bishop of New Orleans, Archbishop of Guatemala, son of a wealthy and noble family ; born ...

Peace Congresses

I. EARLY HISTORY The genesis of the idea of a meeting of representatives of different nations ...

Peace of the Church

This is the designation usually applied to the condition of the Church after the publication at ...

Peasants, War of the (1524-25)

A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany, the causes of which are disputed as a ...

Peba Indians

(Or Peva ) The principal of a small group of cognate tribes, comprising the Peba proper, ...

Pecham, John

(PECCHAM) Archbishop of Canterbury, born about 1240; died 6 December, 1292. His birthplace ...

Pecock, Reginald

(PEACOCK) Bishop of Chichester, born in North Wales about 1395; died at Thorney Abbey about ...

Pectoral

("Pectoral of judgment"). The original meaning of the Hebrew term has been lost, and little ...

Pectorale

( Crux Pectoralis ). The name of the cross used by the pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, ...

Pectorius of Autun

The name with which the important document frequently known as the Inscription of Autun ...

Pednelissus

(Petnelissus). A titular see in Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. In ancient times ...

Pedro de Cordova

Born at Cordova, Andalusia, Spain, about 1460; died on the Island of Santo Domingo, 1525. He ...

Pelagia

The name of several saints. The old Syrian martyrology gives the feast of a St. Pelagia of ...

Pelagius and Pelagianism

Pelagianism received its name from Pelagius and designates a heresy of the fifth century, which ...

Pelagius I, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died 3 March, 561, was a Roman of noble family ; his father, John, seems ...

Pelagius II, Pope

The date of whose birth is unknown, seemingly a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, as his ...

Pelargus, Ambrose

Theologian, born at Nidda, Hesse, about 1488; died at Trier, 1557. Stork (Greek Pelargon , ...

Pelisson-Fontanier, Paul

French writer, born at Béziers in 1624 of Protestant parents ; died at Versailles, 7 ...

Pella

A titular see and suffragan of Scythopolis in Palaestina Secunda. According to Stephanus ...

Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph

Born in Paris, 22 March, 1788; died there, 19 July, 1842. His father, Bertrand Pelletier, a ...

Pellico, Silvio

Italian author and patriot, born at Saluzzio, Italy, 24 June, 1788; died at Turin 31 Jan., ...

Pellissier, Guillaume

(PELLICIER) Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, about 1490; died at the castle of Montferraud, ...

Pelotas

(PELOTASENSIS) Located in Brazil, suffragan to Porto Alegre. By a decree of Pius X, dated ...

Pelouze, Théophile-Jules

Scientist, b. at Valognes, La Manche, 26 Feb., 1807; d. in Paris, 31 May or 1 June, 1867. He began ...

Peltrie, Madeleine de la

née CHAUVIGNY A French noblewoman, and foundress, born at Caen, 1603; died at Quebec, ...

Pelusium

A titular metropolitan see of Augustamnica Prima in Egypt, mentioned in Ezech., xxx, 15 sq., ...

Pembroke

(PEMBROKIENSIS) A suffragan of Ottawa, in Canada. The town of Pembroke has a beautiful ...

Penal Laws

This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

Penance (as a Virtue)

Penance ( poenitentia ) designates (1) a virtue ; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a ...

Penance, Sacrament of

Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

Pendleton, Henry

Controversialist, born at Manchester ; died in London, September, 1557; educated at Brasenose ...

Penelakut Indians

A small tribe of Salishan stock, speaking a dialect of the Cowichan language and occupying a ...

Penitentes, Los Hermanos

(The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

Penitential Canons

Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins. ...

Penitential Orders

A general name for religious congregations whose members are bound to perform extraordinary works ...

Penitents, Confraternities of

Congregations, with statutes prescribing various penitential works, such as fasting, the use of ...

Penne and Atri, Diocese of

(Pennensis et Atriensis). Penne is a city in the Province of Teramo, in the Abruzzi, central ...

Pennsylvania

One of the thirteen original United States of America , lies between 39° 43' and 42° 15' ...

Penobscot Indians

The principal tribe of the famous Abnaki confederacy of Maine, and the only one still keeping its ...

Pension, Ecclesiastical

The right to a certain sum of money to be paid yearly out of the revenues of a church or ...

Pentacomia

A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Areopolis or Rabbah. It was never a residential see; ...

Pentapolis

The word, occurring in Wisdom, x, 6, designates the region where stood the five cities ( pente, ...

Pentateuch

Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

Pentecost

A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

Pentecost (Jewish Feast)

The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. The term, adopted from the ...

Peoria

(PEORIENSIS). Diocese comprising that part of Central Illinois south of the Counties of ...

Peoria Indians

A principal tribe of the confederated Illinois Indians (q.v.) having their chief residence, in the ...

Pepin the Short

Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King ...

Peppergrass, Paul

Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass", born in ...

Perboyre, Blessed Jean-Gabriel

Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

Percy, Blessed Thomas

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Percy, John

( alias JOHN FISHER) Born at Holmeside, Durham, 27 Sep., 1569; died at London, 3 Dec., ...

Peregrinus

The canons of Priscillian, prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul in many (chiefly Spanish) ...

Pereira, Benedict

(PEREYRA, PERERA, PERERIUS) Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, born about 1535, at Ruzafa, ...

Perez, Juan

Died before 1513. At one time he held the office of contador or accountant to the Queen of ...

Perfection, Christian and Religious

A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect ...

Pergamus

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus. This city was situated on the banks of the Selinus. It was ...

Perge

Titular metropolitan see in Pamphylia Secunda. Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was ...

Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista

Born at Naples, 3 Jan., 1710; d. 16 March, 1736, at Pozzuoli, near Naples. This young man of ...

Pericui Indians

A rude and savage tribe, of unknown linguistic affinity, formerly occupying the extreme southern ...

Periodi

(P ETRI ) The name under which the Pseudo-Clementine writings are quoted by Epiphanius, ...

Periodical Literature, Catholic

The invention of printing, besides exerting a great influence on literature in general and on ...

Perjury

(Latin per , through and jurare , to swear) Perjury is the crime of taking a false oath. ...

Permaneder, Franz Michael

Canonist, b. at Traunstein, Bavaria, 12 Aug., 1794; d. at Ratisbon, 10 Oct., 1862. He studied ...

Pernter, Joseph Maria

Scientist, b. at Neumark, Tyrol, 15 March, 1848; d. at Arco, 20 Dec., 1908. He entered the ...

Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints

Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

Perpetual Adoration

A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed ...

Perpetual Adoration, Religious of

(Belgium) A congregation with simple vows, founded at Brussels, 1857, by Anna de Meeus, ...

Perpetual Adoration, Religious of the

A contemplative religious congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer (d. 1546), at ...

Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the

(Quimper, France ). An institute of nuns devoted to perpetual adoration of the Blessed ...

Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament

(Sacramentines.) Anton Le Quien, b. in Paris, 23 Feb., 1601, the founder of the first order ...

Perpetual Help, Our Lady of

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Perpetual Help, Our Lady of, Sisters of

A congregation founded in the parish of St. Damien, Bellechasse, P.Q., Canada, 28 August, 1892, ...

Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Perpetuus, Saint

Eighth Bishop of Tours, d. 1 January, or 8 December, 490, or 8 April, 491. He was a member of ...

Perpignan, Diocese of

(Perpinianum.) Comprises the Department of Pyrénées Orientales; created by the ...

Perpignan, University of

Peter IV of Aragon (1327-87), having conquered (1344) the town of Perpignan and reunited to his ...

Perraud, Adolphe

Cardinal and academician; b. at Lyons, France, 7 Feb., 1828; d. 18 Feb., 1906. He had a ...

Perrault, Charles

Writer, b. in Paris, 12 Jan., 1628; d. 16 May, 1703. His first literary attempts were a parody of ...

Perrault, Claude

Born at Paris, 1613; died there, 1688. He built the main eastern façade of the Louvre, ...

Perreyve, Henri

Born at Paris, 11 April, 1831; died there 18 June, 1865. His father was professor at the ...

Perrone, Giovanni

Jesuit theologian, b. at Chieri, Italy, 11 March, 1794; d. at Rome, 28 Aug., 1876. After studying ...

Perry, Stephen Joseph

Born in London, August, 1833; d. 27 Dec. 1889. He belonged to a well-known Catholic family. His ...

Persecution

GENERAL Persecution may be defined in general as the unlawful coercion of another's liberty or ...

Persecutions, Coptic

(ACCORDING TO GREEK AND LATIN SOURCES) During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria ...

Perseverance, Final

( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

Persia

The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Both Medes ...

Persian Rite

Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...

Persico, Ignatius

A cardinal, born 30 Jan., 1823, at Naples, Italy ; died 7 Dec., 1896. He entered the Capuchin ...

Person

The Latin word persona was originally used to denote the mask worn by an actor. From this it ...

Person, Ecclesiastical

In its etymological sense this expression signifies every person who forms a part of the external ...

Personality

It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of ...

Persons, Robert

(Also, but less correctly, P ARSONS ) Jesuit, b., at Nether Stowey, Somerset, 24 June, 1546; ...

Perth

(PERTHENSIS) Located in Western Australia, suffragan to Adelaide; bounded on the north by ...

Pertinax, Publius Helvius

Roman Emperor (31 Dec., 192), b. at Alba Pompeia, in Luguria, 1 August, 126; d. at Rome 28 ...

Peru

A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, ...

Perugia

(PERUSINA) Located in Umbria, Central Italy. The city is situated on a hill on the right of ...

Perugia, University of

One of the "free" universities of Italy, was erected into a studium generale on 8 Sept., 1308, ...

Perugino

(PIETRO VANNUCCI) An Italian painter, founder of the Umbrian school, born at Città ...

Peruzzi, Baldassare

An architect and painter, born at Siena, 7 March, 1481; died at Rome, 6 Jan., 1537. He derived ...

Pesaro

(PESAURENSIS) Located in central Italy. The city is situated at the mouth of the river ...

Pescennius Niger

Emperor of Rome (193-194). He was a native of central Italy, and during the reigns of Marcus ...

Pesch, Tilman

A Jesuit philosopher, b. at Cologne, 1 Feb., 1836; d. at Valkenberg, Holland, 18 Oct., 1899. He ...

Pescia

(PISCIENSIS) Diocese in Tuscany, Italy, on the Rivers Pescia Maggiore and Pescia Minore, ...

Pessimism

I. A TEMPER OF MIND In popular language the term pessimist is applied to persons who ...

Pessinus

( Pessinous .) A titular see of Galatia Secunda. Pessinonte, on the southern slope of Mt. ...

Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, one of the greatest pioneers of modern education, born at Zurich, ...

Peter Baptist, Saint, and Twenty-Five Companions

Died at Nagasaki, 5 Feb., 1597. In 1593 while negotiations were pending between the Emperor of ...

Peter Canisius, Blessed

(Kannees, Kanys, probably also De Hondt). Born at Nimwegen in the Netherlands, 8 May, 1521; ...

Peter Cantor

Theologian, b. probably at Gisberoi near Beauvais, France ; d. at Long Pont Abbey, 22 Sept., ...

Peter Cellensis

(PETER DE LA CELLE). Bishop of Chartres, b. of noble parentage in Champagne; d. at Chartres, ...

Peter Chrysologus, Saint

Born at Imola, 406; died there, 450. His biography, first written by Agnellus (Liber pontificalis ...

Peter Claver, Saint

The son of a Catalonian farmer, was born at Verdu, in 1581; he died 8 September, 1654. He ...

Peter Comestor

Theological writer, b. at Troyes, date unknown; d. at Paris about 1178. He was first attached ...

Peter Damian, Saint

(Or Damiani). Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, b. at Ravenna "five years ...

Peter de Blois

A statesman and theologian, born at Blois about 1130; died about 1203. He appears to have ...

Peter de Honestis

Born at Ravenna about 1049; died, 29 March, 1119. Among his ancestors was the great St. Romuald, ...

Peter de Regalado, Saint

(REGALATUS) A Friar Minor and reformer, born at Valladolid, 1390; died at Aguilera, 30 ...

Peter de Vinea

(DE VINEIS, DELLA VIGNA) Born at Capua about 1190; died 1249. Peter's legal learning and the ...

Peter Faber, Saint

Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

Peter Fourier, Saint

Known as LE BON PÈRE DE MATTAINCOURT, born at Mirecourt, Lorraine, 30 Nov., 1565 died at ...

Peter Fullo

Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

Peter Gonzalez, Saint

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

Peter Igneus, Blessed

(Peter Aldobrandini.) An Italian monk of the Benedictine congregation of the ...

Peter Lombard

Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

Peter Mongus

( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

Peter Nolasco, Saint

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

Peter of Alcántara, Saint

Born at Alcántara, Spain, 1499; died 18 Oct., 1562. His father, Peter Garavita, was the ...

Peter of Alexandria, Saint

Became Bishop of Alexandria in 300; martyred Nov., 311. According to Philip of Sidetes he ...

Peter of Aquila

(SCOTELLUS). Friar Minor , theologian and bishop, b. at Aquila in the Abruzzi, Italy, towards ...

Peter of Arbues, Saint

(Correctly, PETER ARBUES). Born in 1441 (or 1442); died 17 Sept., 1485. His father, a ...

Peter of Auvergne

A philosopher and theologian ; died after 1310. He was a canon of Paris ; some biographers ...

Peter of Bergamo

(ALMADURA) A theologian, date of birth unknown; died at Placentia, in 1482. He entered the ...

Peter of Montboissier, Blessed

(Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

Peter of Poitiers

A French scholastic theologian, born at Poitiers or in its neighbourhood about 1130; died in ...

Peter of Sebaste, Saint

Bishop, b. about 340; d. 391. He belonged to the richly blest family of Basil and Emmelia of ...

Peter of Verona, Saint

Born at Verona, 1206; died near Milan, 6 April, 1252. His parents were adherents of the ...

Peter Snow, Venerable

English martyr, suffered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or near Ripon and arrived at the ...

Peter the Hermit

Born at Amiens about 1050; d. at the monastery of Neufmoutier (Liège), in 1115. His ...

Peter Urseolus, Saint

(Orseolo) Born at Rivo alto, Province of Udina, 928; at Cuxa, 10 January, 987 (997 is less ...

Peter, Basilica of Saint

TOPOGRAPHY The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the ...

Peter, Chair of

Under this head will be treated: I. The annual Feast of the Chair of Peter ( Cathedra Petri ) at ...

Peter, Saint

The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads: I. Until the ...

Peter, Saint, Epistles of

These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. Recipients, ...

Peter, Sarah

Philanthropist, b. at Chillicothe, Ohio, U.S.A. 10 May, 1800; d. at Cincinnati, 6 Feb., 1877. Her ...

Peter, Tomb of Saint

The history of the relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul is one which is involved in ...

Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint

The print version of the C ATHOLIC E NCYCLOPEDIA contains two articles on this saint. We ...

Peterborough

(PETERBOROUGHENSIS) Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada, comprises the Counties of ...

Peterspence

Peterspence, otherwise known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Romescot", is the name traditionally given to ...

Peterssen, Gerlac

(GERLACUS PETRI) Born at Deventer, 1377 or 1378; died 18 Nov., 1411. He entered the ...

Petinessus

(PITNISUS) A titular see in Galatia Secunda (Salutaris). This city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

Petit-Didier, Matthieu

A Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Saint-Nicolas-du-Port in ...

Petitions to the Holy See

I. MODE OF PETITIONING Faculties, indults, dispensations, and other favours, the granting of ...

Petra

Titular metropolitan see of Palæstina Tertia. Under the name of Sela (the rock) this ...

Petrarch, Francesco

Italian poet and humanist, b. at Arezzo, 20 July, 1304; d. at Arquá, 19 July, 1374. His ...

Petre, Family of

The Petres are one of those staunch and constant families, which have played a great part in the ...

Petrobrusians

Heretics of the twelfth century so named from their founder Peter of Bruys. Our information ...

Petronilla, Saint

Virgin, probably martyred at Rome at the end of the first century. Almost all the sixth- and ...

Petronius, Saint

Bishop of Bologna, date of birth unknown; died before 450. The only certain historical ...

Petropolis

(Petropolitanensis). Diocese in the Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, erected 11 Feb., ...

Petrus Alfonsus

A converted Jew and controversialist, born at Huesca, in the former Kingdom of Aragon, 1062; ...

Petrus Bernardinus

Florentine heretic ; born at Florence about 1475; died 1502. His parents were common folk, and ...

Petrus de Natalibus

Bishop; author of a collection of lives of the saints; date of birth unknown; d. between 1400 and ...

Petrus Diaconus

The name of several men of note in ecclesiastical history and literature. (1) One of the ...

Petun Nation

One of the three great divisions of the Huron Indians, the other two being the Hurons proper, and ...

Peuerbach, George von

(Also Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius) Austrian astronomer, b. at Peuerbach near Linz, 30 May, ...

Peutinger, Conrad

An antiquarian and humanist, born at Augsburg, 14 Oct., 1465; died 28 Dec., 1547. As a young ...

Peyto, William

(P ETO, P ETOW ). Cardinal ; d. 1558 or 1559. Though his parentage was long unknown, it is ...

Pez

(1) BERNHARD An historian, born 22 February, 1683, at Ybbs near Melk ; died 27 March, 1735, at ...

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Pf 5

Pfanner, Franz

An abbot, born at Langen, Vorarlberg, Austria, 1825; died at Emmaus, South Africa, 24 May, ...

Pfefferkorn, Johannes

A baptized Jew, b. probably at Nuremberg, 1469; d. at Cologne, between 1521 and 1524. In 1505, ...

Pfister, Adolf

An educationist, born at Hechingen in Hohenzollern, 26 Sept., 1810; died at Ober-Dischingen in ...

Pflug, Julius Von

The last Catholic Bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, born at Eythra, near Leipzig, 1499; died at Zeits, ...

Pforta

A former Cistercian monastery (1137-1540), near Naumburg on the Saale in the Prussian province ...

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Ph 44

Phœnicia

Phœnicia is a narrow strip of land, about one hundred and fifty miles long and thirty miles ...

Phacusa

A titular see and suffragan of Pelusium, in Augustamnica Prima. Ptolemy (IV, v, 24) makes it ...

Pharao

(Prah, Par‘o, or, after a vowel, Phar‘o ; Greek Pharaó ; Latin Pharao). ...

Pharbætus

Titular see and suffragan of Leontopolis, in Augustamnica Secunda. This name is merely the ...

Pharisees

A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into ...

Pharsalus

Titular see and suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. The city is mentioned for the first time after ...

Phaselis

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. The city was a Doric colony on the Pamphylian Gulf. ...

Phasga

(A.V. Pisgah ). Whether the word in Hebrew is a proper or a common noun is not clear; ...

Phenomenalism

Phenomenalism ( phainomenon ) literally means any system of thought that has to do with ...

Philadelphia (Lydia)

A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardes. The city was founded by Philadelphus, King of ...

Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

(PHILADELPHIENSIS) A diocese established in 1808; made an archdiocese, 12 Feb., 1875, ...

Philanthropinism

The system of education educed from the ideas of Rousseau and of the German "Enlightenment", ...

Philastrius, Saint

Bishop of Brescia, died before 397. He was one of the bishops present at a synod held in ...

Philemon

A citizen of Coloss Colossæ, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the ...

Philip II

King of Spain, only son of the Emperor Charles V, and Isabella of Portugal, b. at Valladolid, 21 ...

Philip II (Augustus)

King of France, born 22 or 25 August, 1165; died at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Louis VII ...

Philip IV

Surnamed Le Bel (the Fair) King of France, b. at Fontainebleau, 1268; d. there, 29 Nov., 1314; ...

Philip of Jesus, Saint

Born in Mexico, date unknown; died at Nagasaki early in February, 1597. Though unusually ...

Philip of the Blessed Trinity

(ESPRIT JULIEN). Discalced Carmelite, theologian, born at Malaucene, near Avignon, 1603; died ...

Philip Romolo Neri, Saint

THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...

Philip the Apostle, Saint

Like the brothers, Peter and Andrew, Philip was a native of Bethsaida on Lake Genesareth ( John ...

Philip the Arabian

(Philippus) Emperor of Rome (244-249), the son of an Arab sheik, born in Bosra. He rose ...

Philippi

(Greek Phílippoi , Latin Philippi ). Philippi was a Macedonian town, on the ...

Philippi

A titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. As early as the sixth century B. C. we learn of a ...

Philippians, Epistle to the

I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER ( See also PHILIPPI ). The Philippians, ...

Philippine Islands

Situation and Area The Philippine Islands lie between 116° 40' and 126° and 34' E. long., ...

Philippopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Secunda. The city was founded by Philip of Macedon in 342 ...

Philippopolis

Titular see in Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Its bishop, Hormisdas, was present at the Council ...

Philips, Peter

(Also known as PETRUS PHILIPPUS, PIETRO PHILLIPO.) Born in England about 1560; date and place ...

Philistines

( Septuagint phylistieim in the Pentateuch and Josue, elsewhere allophyloi , ...

Phillip, Robert

Priest, d. at Paris, 4 Jan., 1647. He was descended from the Scottish family of Phillip of ...

Phillips, George

A canonist, born at Königsberg, 6 Sept., 1804; died at Vienna, 6 September, 1872, was the son ...

Philo Judæus

Born about 25 B.C. . His family, of a sacerdotal line, was one of the most powerful of the ...

Philomelium

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. According to ancient writers Philomelium was ...

Philomena, Saint

On 25 May, 1802, during the quest for the graves of Roman martyrs in the Catacomb of Priscilla, ...

Philosophy

I. Definition of Philosophy . II. Division of Philosophy . III. The Principal Systematic ...

Philoxenus

(AKHSENAYA) OF MABBOGH. Born at Tahal, in the Persian province of Beth-Garmai in the second ...

Phocæa

A titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The town of Phocæa was founded in the ...

Photinus

A heretic of the fourth century, a Galatian and deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra ...

Photius of Constantinople

Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b. at ...

Phylacteries

( Phulachterion — safeguard, amulet, or charm). The word occurs only once in the New ...

Physics, History of

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. A Glance at Ancient Physics; II. ...

Physiocrats

( physis , nature, kratein , rule) A school of writers on political and economic ...

Physiologus

An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous ...

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Pi 89

Piacenza

DIOCESE OF PIACENZA (PLACENTINENSIS) Piacenza is a diocese in Emilia, central Italy. The city ...

Pianô Carpine, Giovanni da

Born at Pian di Carpine (now called della Magione), near Perugia, Umbria, 1182; died probably in ...

Pianciani, Giambattista

Scientist, b. at Spoleto, 27 Oct., 1784; d. at Rome, 23 March, 1862. He entered the Society of ...

Piatto Cardinalizio

An allowance granted by the pope to cardinals residing in curia or otherwise employed by ...

Piatus of Mons

(Secular name, JEAN-JOSEPH LOISEAUX), b. 5 Aug., 1815; d. in the Monastery of Ste. Claire, ...

Piauhy

(DE PIAUHY, PIAHUNENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the State of ...

Piazza Armerina

(PLATIENSIS) Located in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily. The city of Piazza Armerina is ...

Piazzi, Giuseppe

Astronomer, b. at Ponte in Valtellina, 16 July, 1746; d. at Naples, 22 July, 1826. He took the ...

Pibush, John

English martyr, born at Thirsk, Yorkshire; died at St Thomas's Waterings, Camberwell, 18 February, ...

Picard, Jean

Astronomer, b. at La Flêche, 21 July, 1620; d. at Paris, 12 Oct., 1682. He was a priest ...

Piccolomini, Alessandro

Littérateur, philosopher, astronomer, b. 13 June, 1508; d. 12 March, 1578. He passed his ...

Piccolomini-Ammannati, Jacopo

A cardinal, born in the Villa Basilica near Lucca, 1422; died at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 10 ...

Pichler

A renowned Austrian family of gem-cutters who lived and died in Italy. ANTONIO (JOHANN ...

Pichler, Vitus

Distinguished canonist and controversial writer, b. at Grosberghofen, 24 May, 1670; d. at Munich, ...

Pickering, Ven. Thomas

Lay brother and martyr, a member of an old Westmoreland family, b. c. 1621; executed at Tyburn, ...

Piconio, Bernadine a

(HENRI BERNARDINE DE PICQUIGNY) Born at Picquigny, Picardy, 1633; died in Paris, 8 December, ...

Picquet, François

A celebrated Sulpician missionary in Canada, b. at Bourg, Bresse, France, 4 Dec., 1708; d. at ...

Picture Bibles

In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement ...

Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Domine

The sixth quatrain of Adoro Te Devote , sometimes used as a separate hymn at Benediction of ...

Pie, Louis-Edouard-Désiré

Cardinal, born at Pontgouin, Diocese of Chartres, 1815; died at Angoulême, 1880. He studied ...

Pieck, Saint Nicholas

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

Piedmont

( Italian Piemonte ). A part compartimento of northern Italy, bounded on the north by ...

Piel, Peter

A pioneer in the movement for reform of church music, b. at Kessewick, near Bonn, 12 Aug., 1835; ...

Pierius

A priest and probably head master of the catechetical school at Alexandria conjointly with ...

Pierre de Castelnau, Blessed

Born in the Diocese of Montpellier , Languedoc, now Department of Hérault, France ; died ...

Pierre de Maricourt

Surnamed PETER THE PILGRIM ( Petrus Peregrinus ) A physician of the Middle Ages. Under the ...

Pierron, Jean

A missionary, born at Dun-sur-Meuse, France, 28 Sept., 1631; date and place of death unknown. He ...

Pierson, Philippe

Born at Ath, Hainaut (Belgium), 4 January, 1642; died at Lorette, Quebec, 1688. At the age of ...

Pietism

Pietism is a movement within the ranks of Protestantism, originating in the reaction against the ...

Pighius, Albert

A theologian, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Kampen, Overyssel, Holland, about 1490; ...

Pignatelli, Venerable Giuseppe Maria

Born 27 December, 1737, in Saragossa, Spain ; died 11 November, 1811. His family was of ...

Pike, William

Martyr, born in Dorsetshire; died at Dorchester, dec., 1591. He was a joiner, and lived at West ...

Pilar, Nuestra Señora del

"Our Lady of the Pillar", a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a ...

Pilate, Pontius

After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

Pilchard, Venerable Thomas

( Or PILCHER). Martyr, born at Battle, Sussex, 1557; died at Dorchester, 21 March 1586-7. ...

Pileolus

( zucca , head). The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is ...

Pilgrimage of Grace

The name given to the religious rising in the north of England, 1536. The cause of this great ...

Pilgrimages

(Middle English, pilgrime, Old French, pelegrin, derived from Latin peregrinum, supposed ...

Piligrim

Bishop of Passau, date of birth unknown; died 20 May, 991. He was educated at the ...

Pillar of Cloud/Fire

(P ILLAR OF F IRE ). A cloud which accompanied the Israelites during their wandering. It ...

Pima Indians

An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and its affluent, the ...

Pinar del Rio

(Pinetensis ad Flumen) Located in Cuba, erected by the Brief "Actum præclare" of Leo ...

Pinara

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Pinara was one of the chief cities of the Lycian ...

Pindemonte, Ippolito

An Italian poet of noble birth, born at Verona, 13 Nov., 1753; died there, 18 Nov., 1828. He ...

Pineda, John de

Born in Seville, 1558; died there, 27 Jan., 1637. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1572, ...

Pinerolo

(PINEROLIENSIS) Located in the province of Turin, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, suffragan of ...

Pingré, Alexandre Guy

Born in Paris 11 September, 1711; died 1 May, 1796. He was educated in Senlis at the college ...

Pinna da Encarnaçao, Mattheus

A writer and theologian, born at Rio de Janeiro, 23 Aug., 1687; died there, 18 Dec., 1764. On 3 ...

Pinto, Fernão Mendes

A Portuguese traveller, born at Montemor-o-Velho near Coimbra, c. 1509; died at Almada near ...

Pinturicchio

(BERNARDINO DI BETTO, surnamed PINTURICCHIO) Born at Verona, about 1454; died at Siena, 11 ...

Pinzón, Martín Alonso

Spanish navigator and companion of Columbus on his first voyage to the New World, b. at Palos ...

Piombo, Sebastiano del

More correctly known as S EBASTIANO L UCIANI . Venetian portrait painter, b. at Venice, ...

Pionius, Saint

Martyred at Smyrna, 12 March, 250. Pionius, with Sabina and Asclepiades, was arrested on 23 ...

Pious Fund of the Californias, The

(Fondo Piadoso de las Californias) The Pious Fund of the Californias had its origin, in 1697, ...

Pious Society of Missions, The

Founded by Ven. Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835. The members of the society are generally called ...

Piranesi, Giambattista

An Italian etcher and engraver, b. at Venice, 1720; d. in Rome, 9 Nov., 1778. His uncle ...

Pirhing, Ernricus

Born at Sigarthin, near Passau, 1606; died between 1678 and 1681. At the age of twenty-two he ...

Pirkheimer

Charitas Pirkheimer Abbess of the Convent of St. Clara, of the Poor Clares, in Nuremberg, and ...

Piro Indians

A tribe of considerable importance, ranging by water for a distance of three hundred miles along ...

Pisa

ARCHDIOCESE OF PISA (PISÆ) Archdiocese in Tuscany, central Italy. The city is situated ...

Pisa, Council of

Preliminaries. The great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of ...

Pisa, University of

In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law ; prominent ...

Pisano, Andrea

Or ANDREA DA PISA (the name by which Andrea da Pontadera is known). An Italian sculptor and ...

Pisano, Niccola

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

Piscataway Indians

A tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock formerly occupying the peninsula of lower Maryland ...

Piscina

(Latin from piscis, a fish, fish-pond, pool or basin, called also sacrarium, thalassicon, or ...

Pise, Charles Constantine

Priest, poet, and prose writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, 22 Nov., 1801; d. at Brooklyn, New ...

Pisidia

A country in the southwestern part of Asia Minor, between the high Phrygian tableland and the ...

Pistoia and Prato

(PISTORIENSIS ET PRATENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence. The city of Pistoia is ...

Pistoia, Synod of

Held 18 to 28 September, 1786, by Scipio de’ Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. It marks ...

Pistorius, Johann

A controversialist and historian, born at Nidda in Hesse, 14 February, 1546; died at Freiburg, 18 ...

Pithou, Pierre

A writer, born at Troyes, 1 Nov. 1539; died at Nogent-sur-Seine, 1 Nov., 1596. His father, a ...

Pitoni, Joseph

A musician, born at Rieti, Perugia, Italy, 18 March, 1657; died at Rome, 1 Feb., 1743, and ...

Pitra, Jean-Baptiste-François

Cardinal, famous archeologist and theologian, b. 1 August, 1812, at Champforgeuil in the ...

Pitts, John

Born at Alton, Hampshire, 1560; died at Liverdun, Lorraine, 17 Oct., 1616. He was educated at ...

Pittsburgh

DIOCESE OF PITTSBURG/PITTSBURGH (PITTSBURGENSIS). Suffragan of Philadelphia, in the United ...

Pityus

A titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. Pityus was a large and ...

Pius I, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; pope from about 140 to about 154. According to the earliest list of the ...

Pius II, Pope

(Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini). Born at Corsignano, near Siena, 18 Oct., 1405; elected 19 ...

Pius III, Pope

(Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini). B. at Siena, 29 May, 1439; elected 22 Sept., 1503; d. in ...

Pius IV, Pope

(Giovanni Angelo Medici). B. 31 March, 1499, at Milan ; elected 26 December, 1559; d. in ...

Pius IX, Pope

(G IOVANNI M ARIA M ASTAI -F ERRETTI ). Pope from 1846-78; born at Sinigaglia, 13 May, ...

Pius V, Pope Saint

(MICHELE GHISLERI). Born at Bosco, near Alexandria, Lombardy, 17 Jan., 1504 elected 7 Jan., ...

Pius VI, Pope

(G IOVANNI A NGELICO B RASCHI ). Born at Cesena, 27 December, 1717; elected 15 ...

Pius VII, Pope

(B ARNABA C HIARAMONTI ). Born at Cesena in the Pontifical States, 14 August, 1740; ...

Pius VIII, Pope

(Francesco Xaverio Castiglione). B. at Cingoli, 20 Nov., 1761; elected 31 March, 1829; d. 1 ...

Pius X, Pope Saint

(Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto). Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His ...

Piusverein

The name given to Catholic associations in various countries of Europe. I. THE PIUS ...

Pizarro, Francisco

Born in Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain, probably in 1471; died at Lima, Peru, 26 June, 1541. He ...

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Pl 27

Placidus, Saint

St. Placidus, disciple of St. Benedict, the son of the patrician Tertullus, was brought as a ...

Plagues of Egypt

Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharao's obstinacy and force him to let ...

Plain Chant

By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of ...

Plantaganet, Henry Beaufort

Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, born c. 1377; died at Westminster, 11 April, 1447. He was the ...

Plantin, Christophe

Book-binder and publisher of Antwerp, b. 1514, at or near Tours ( France ); d. 1 July, 1589, at ...

Plants in the Bible

When Moses spoke to the people about the Land of Promise, he described it as a "land of hills ...

Plasencia

(PLACENTINA) Plasencia comprises the civil provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and ...

Plateau, Joseph-Antoine

Belgian physicist, b. at Brussels, 14 Oct., 1801; d. at Ghent, 15 Sept., 1883. His father, a ...

Platina, Bartolomeo

Originally named S ACCHI, b. at Piadena, near Mantua, in 1421; d. at Rome, 1481. He first ...

Plato and Platonism

I. LIFE OF PLATO Plato ( Platon , "the broad shouldered") was born at Athens in 428 or 427 ...

Play, Pierre-Guillaume-Frédéric Le

A French economist, born at La Rivière (Calvados), 11 April, 1806; died at Paris, 5 ...

Plegmund

Archbishop of Canterbury, died 2 August, 914. He was a Mercian, and spent his early life near ...

Plenarium

A book of formulae and texts. Plenarium or Plenarius ( Liber ) is any book that contains ...

Plenary Council

A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. The word itself, derived from ...

Plessis, Joseph-Octave

Bishop of Quebec, born at Montreal, 3 March, 1763; died at Quebec, 4 Dec., 1822. He studied ...

Plethon, Georgius Gemistus

Born in Constantinople about 1355, died in the Peloponnesus, 1450. Out of veneration for Plato ...

Plock

(PLOCENSIS) Located in Russian Poland, suffragan of Warsaw, includes the district of Plock ...

Plowden, Charles

Born at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 1743; died at Jougne, Doubs, France, 13 June, 1821. He was ...

Plowden, Edmund

Born 1517-8; died in London, 6 Feb., 1584-5. Son of Humphrey Plowden of Plowden Hall, Shropshire, ...

Plowden, Francis

Son of William Plowden of Plowden Hall, b. at Shropshire, 8 June, 1749; d. at Paris, 4 Jan., ...

Plowden, Robert

Elder brother of Charles, born 27 January, 1740; died at Wappenbury, 27 June, 1823. He entered ...

Plowden, Thomas

( Alias Salisbury). Born in Oxfordshire, England, 1594; died in London, 13 Feb., 1664; ...

Plowden, Thomas Percy

Born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, England, 1672; died at Watten, 21 Sept., 1745; joined the Society ...

Plumier, Charles

(botanical abbreviation, Plum .) A French botanist, born at Marseilles, 20 April, 1646; ...

Plunket, Blessed Oliver

[ Editor's Note: St. Oliver Plunkett was canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 10, 1975.] ...

Pluscarden Priory

Founded in 1230 by Alexander III , King of Scotland, six miles from Elgin, Morayshire, for ...

Plymouth

(PLYMUTHENSIS, PLYMUTHÆ) Plymouth consists of the County of Dorset, which formed a ...

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Pn 1

Pneumatomachi (Macedonians)

(Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

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Po 120

Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament

Since the Bible is divinely inspired, and thus becomes the "written word" of God, many devout ...

Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco

An Italian humanist and historian; born at Terranuova, near Arezzo, in 1380; died at Florence, ...

Poggio Mirteto

DIOCESE OF POGGIO MIRTETO (MANDELENSIS) Diocese in the province of Perugia, central Italy. The ...

Pogla

( ta Pogla ) Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda. Pogla is mentioned only by Ptolemy, V, 5, ...

Poitiers

D IOCESE OF P OITIERS (P ICTAVENSIS ) The Diocese of Poitiers includes the Departments of ...

Poland

I. GEOGRAPHY The western part of the Sarmatian Plain together with the northern slopes of the ...

Polding, John Bede

Archbishop of Sydney, born at Liverpool, 18 Oct., 1794; died at Sydney, 16 March, 1877. In 1805 ...

Pole, Blessed Margaret

Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

Pole, Reginald

Cardinal, b. at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England, in March, 1500; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Polemonium

Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. At the mouth of the Sidenus, ...

Poleni, Giovanni

Marquess, physicist, and antiquarian; b. at Venice, 23 Aug., 1683; d. at Padua, 14 Nov., 1761; ...

Poles in the United States

Causes of Immigration There is good foundation for the tradition that a Pole, John of Kolno (a ...

Policastro

DIOCESE OF POLICASTRO (POLICASTRENSIS) Diocese in the province of Salerno, Southern Italy. The ...

Polignac, Melchior de

Cardinal, diplomatist, and writer, b. of an ancient family of Auvergne, at Le Puy, France, 11 ...

Polish Literature

The subject will be divided, for convenience of treatment, into historical periods. First ...

Politi, Lancelot

(In religion AMBROSIUS CATHARINUS) Born at Siena, 1483; died at Naples, 1553. At sixteen he ...

Politian

(ANGIOLO DE 'AMBROSINI DA MONTE PULCIANO) An Italian Humanist, born at Monte Pulciano in 1454; ...

Political Economy, Science of

S CIENCE OF P OLITICAL E CONOMY (E CONOMICS ). I. DEFINITIONS Political economy (Greek, ...

Pollajuolo, Antonio and Piero Benci

Antonio and Piero Benci Pollajuolo derived their surname, according to Florentine custom, from ...

Polo, Marco

Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

Polybotus

A titular see in Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. This town is mentioned only in the ...

Polycarp, Saint

Martyr (A.D. 69-155). Our chief sources of information concerning St. Polycarp are: (1) the ...

Polycarpus

The title of a canonical collection in eight books composed in Italy by Cardinal Gregorius. It is ...

Polyglot Bibles

The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcalá (in Latin ...

Polystylum

A titular see of Macedonia Secunda, suffragan of Philippi. When Philippi was made a ...

Polytheism

The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. See the various articles on national ...

Pomaria

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsarea. It is north of Tlemcen (capital of an arrondissement ...

Pombal, Marquis de

S EBASTIâO J OSÉ DE C ARVALHO E M ELLO The son of a country gentleman of ...

Pomerania

A Prussian province on the Baltic Sea situated on both banks of the River Oder, divided into ...

Pompeiopolis

A titular see in Paphlagonia. The ancient name of the town is unknown; it may have been ...

Pomponazzi, Pietro

(POMPONATIUS, also known as PERETTO on account of his small stature) A philosopher and ...

Ponce de León, Juan

Explorer, born at San Servas in the province of Campos, 1460; died in Cuba, 1521. He was ...

Ponce, John

A philosopher and theologian, born at Cork, 1603, died at Paris, 1670. At an early age he went ...

Poncet, Joseph Anthony de la Rivière

Missionary; b. at Paris, 17 May, 1610; d. at Martinique, 18 June, 1675. He entered the Jesuit ...

Pondicherry

(PONDICHERIANA OR PUDICHERIANA) Located in India, it is bounded on the east by the Bay of ...

Pontefract Priory

Located in Yorkshire, England, a Cluniac monastery dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, founded ...

Pontian, Pope Saint

Dates of birth and death unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 145) gives Rome ...

Pontifical Colleges

In earlier times there existed in Europe outside of the city of Rome a large number of ...

Pontifical Decorations

Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other ...

Pontifical Mass

Pontifical Mass is the solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the ...

Pontificale

( Pontificale Romanum ). A liturgical book which contains the rites for the performance ...

Pontificalia

(PONTIFICALS). The collective name given for convenience sake to those insignia of the ...

Pontigny, Abbey of

Second daughter of Cîteaux, was situated on the banks of the Serain, present Diocese of ...

Pontius Carbonell

Born at Barcelona, c. ú died c. 1320. Pontius and Carbonell are names frequently met with ...

Pontius Pilate

After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

Pontus

In ancient times, Pontus was the name of the north-eastern province of Asia Minor , a long ...

Pools in Scripture

In the English Bibles, the word "pool" stands for three Hebrew words: (1) 'agam means properly ...

Poona

(PUNENSIS) Diocese in India, comprises that portion of the Bombay Presidency which lies on ...

Poor Brothers of St. Francis Seraphicus

A congregation of lay brothers of the Third Order of St. Francis, instituted for charitable ...

Poor Catholics

( Pauperes Catholici ) A religious mendicant order, organized in 1208, to reunite the ...

Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the

A congregation founded at Aachen in 1844 for the support and education of poor, orphan, and ...

Poor Clares

(POOR LADIES, SISTERS OF ST. CLARE) The Second Order of St. Francis. The subject will be treated ...

Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ

A community founded by Catherine Kasper, a native of Dernbach, Germany. She was born 26 May, 1820, ...

Poor Handmaids of the Mother of God

A religious congregation founded in 1808 by Mother Mary Magdalen Taylor in conjunction with ...

Poor Laws

Poor Laws are those legal enactments which have been made at various periods of the world's ...

Poor, Care of, by the Church

I. OBJECTS, HISTORY, AND ORGANIZATION A. The care of the poor is a branch of charity. In the ...

Poor, Little Sisters of the

An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded at St Servan, Brittany, 1839, through the ...

Poor, Sisters of the, of St. Francis

A Congregation, founded by the Venerable Mother Frances Schervier at Aachen in the year 1845, ...

Popayán

(POPAYANENSIS) Popayán lies approximately between 1º 20' and 3º 2' north ...

Pope, Alexander

Poet, son of Alexander Pope and his second wife, Edith Turner, b. in London, England, 22 May, ...

Pope, The

( Ecclesiastical Latin papa from Greek papas , a variant of pappas father, in classical ...

Popes, Chronological Lists of the

See also POPE, LIST OF POPES, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. The historical lists ...

Popes, Election of the

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Popes, List of

See also POPE, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76) ...

Poppo, Saint

Abbot, born 977; died at Marchiennes, 25 January, 1048. He belonged to a noble family of ...

Popular Devotions

Devotion, in the language of ascetical writers, denotes a certain ardour of affection in the ...

Population, Theories of

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio

Italian painter, b. at Pordenone, 1483; d. at Ferrara, January, 1539. He is occasionally referred ...

Pordenone, Ordric of

A Franciscan missionary of a Czech family named Mattiussi, born at Villanova near Pordenone, ...

Pormort, Ven. Thomas

English martyr, b. at Hull about 1559; d. at St. Paul's Churchyard, 20 Feb., 1592. He was probably ...

Porphyreon

Titular see, suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima. It is described in the "Notitia Episcopatuum" ...

Porphyrius, Saint

Bishop of Gaza in Palestine, b. at Thessalonica about 347; d. at Gaza, 26 February, 420. ...

Porrecta, Serafino

Family name Capponi, called a Porrecta from the place of birth, theologian, b. 1536; d. at Bologna, ...

Port Augusta

(PORTAUGUSTANA) This diocese is a suffragan of Adelaide, South Australia, created in ...

Port Louis

(PORTUS LUDOVICI) This diocese comprises the islands of Mauritius, Rodriguez, Chagos, and ...

Port of Spain

(PORTUS HISPANIÆ) An archiepiscopal and metropolitan see, including the Islands of ...

Port Victoria

(PORTUS VICTORIÆ SEYCHELLARUM.) Port Victoria comprises the Seychelles Islands in the ...

Port-au-Prince

(PORTUS PRINCIPIS) This archdiocese comprises the western part of the Republic of Haiti. Its ...

Port-Royal

A celebrated Benedictine abbey which profoundly influenced the religious and literary life of ...

Porta, Carlo

Poet, b. at Milan in 1775; d. there 5 January, 1821; educated by the Jesuits at Monza and ...

Porta, Giacomo della

Architect and sculptor, b. at Porlizza on Lake Lugano 1541; d. 1604. He was a pupil of ...

Portable Altar

A portable altar consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to ...

Portalegre

Suffragan diocese of Lisbon, Portugal, established by Pope Julius III in 1550. Its first ...

Porter

(Also called DOORKEEPER. From ostiarius , Latin ostium , a door.) Porter denoted among ...

Porter, George

Archbishop of Bombay, b. 1825 at Exeter, England ; d. at Bombay, 28 September, 1889. Of ...

Portiuncula

(PORZIONCULA or PORZIUNCOLA). A town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from ...

Portland

Diocese in the State of Maine ; suffragan of Boston ; established by Pius IX, 8 Dec., 1854. ...

Porto Alegre

(PORTALEGRENSIS) Located in Eastern Brazil. Porto Alegre, the capital and chief port of the ...

Porto Alegre

(PORTALEGREN) Porto Alegre comprises the southern part of the State of Minas Geraes, and part ...

Porto and Santa-Rufina

(PORTUENSIS ET SANCTÆ RUFINÆ) This diocese was formed from the union of two ...

Porto Rico

(PUERTO RICO) The smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles, rectangular in shape, ...

Portoviejo

(PORTUS VETERIS). A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Quito, Republic of Ecuador. It was ...

Portraits of the Apostles

The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of ...

Portsmouth

(PORTUS MAGNUS, or PORTEMUTHENSIS) This diocese was created by a Brief of Leo XIII , ...

Portugal

I. GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Portugal is situated on the west of the Iberian ...

Portuguese East Africa

Portuguese East Africa consists of the Province of Mozambique. Portuguese activity on that ...

Portuguese Literature

The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the lingua rustica spoken in the countries ...

Portuguese West Africa

The name usually given to the Province of Angola. It has a coast line of 1015 miles from the ...

Positivism

Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. As ...

Possenti, Blessed Gabriel

Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

Possession, Demonical

( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, EXORCIST.) Man is in various ways subject to the ...

Possevinus, Antonius

Theologian and papal envoy, b. at Mantua in 1533 or 1534; d. at Ferrara, 26 Feb., 1611. At ...

Possidius, Saint

Bishop of Calama in Numidia, author of a short life of St. Augustine and of an indiculus or ...

Postcommunion

The Communion act finishes the essential Eucharistic service. Justin Martyr (I Apol., lxv-lxvi) ...

Postgate, Nicholas

English martyr, b. at Kirkdale House, Egton, Yorkshire, in 1596 or 1597; d. at York, 7 August, ...

Postulant

Postulancy is a preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. ...

Postulation

( Latin postulare, to request) A postulation is a petition presented to a competent ...

Potawatomi Indians

An important tribe of Algonquin linguistic stock, closely related dialectically to the Ojibwa ...

Pothier, Robert Joseph

A celebrated French lawyer, b. at Orléans, 9 January, 1699; d. there, 2 March, 1772. His ...

Pouget, Jean-François-Albert du

Marquis de Nadaillac, b. in 1817; d. at Rougemont, Cloyes, 1 October, 1904; the scion of an old ...

Pounde, Thomas

Lay brother, b. at Beaumond (or Belmony), Farlington, Hampshire, 29 May, 1538; d. there, 26 Feb., ...

Poussin, Nicolas

French painter, b. at Les Andelys near Rouen in 1594; d. at Rome, 19 November, 1666. His early ...

Poverty

I. THE MORAL DOCTRINE OF POVERTY Jesus Christ did not condemn the possession of worldly goods, or ...

Poverty and Pauperism

See also CARE OF THE POOR BY THE CHURCH In a legal and technical sense, pauperism denotes the ...

Powel, Philip

( alias M ORGAN, alias P ROSSER ) Martyr, b. at Tralon, Brecknockshire, 2 Feb., 1594; d. ...

Powell, Blessed Edward

With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

Poynter, William

Born 20 May, 1762, at Petersfield, Hants; died 26 Nov., 1827, in London. He was educated at the ...

Pozzo, Andreas

(P UTEUS ) Italian painter and architect of the Baroque period, b. at Trent, 1642; d. at ...

Pozzuoli

(PUTEOLANA) The city of Pozzuoli in the province of Naples, southern Italy, on the gulf of ...

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Pr 155

Prémare, Joseph Henri Marie de

Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare, missionary and sinologist, born at Cherbourg, 17 July, 1666; ...

Prémontré, Abbey of

Located about twelve miles west of Laon, Department of Aisne, France ; founded by St. Norbert. ...

Prüm

A former Benedictine abbey in Lorraine, now in the Diocese of Trier, founded by a Frankish ...

Prades, Jean-Martin de

A theologian, born about 1720 at Castelsarrasin ( Diocese of Montauban ), died in 1782 at ...

Prado, Jerome de

Exegete, b. at Baeza in Spain, 1547; d. at Rome, 13 Jan., 1595. He entered the Society of ...

Praelatus Nullius

(i.e. Dioceseos) A prelate who exercises quasi-episcopal jurisdiction in a territory not ...

Pragmatic Sanction

( pragmatica sanctio , lex , jussio , also pragmatica or pragmaticum ) Pragmatic ...

Pragmatism

Pragmatism, as a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical ...

Prague

(PRAGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bohemia. From about the middle of the sixth century Slavonic ...

Prague, University of

The University of Prague was founded by Charles IV with the consent of the Estates on the model ...

Praxeas

An early anti- Montanist, is known to us only by Tertullian's book "Adversus Praxean". His name ...

Praxedes and Pudentiana

Martyrs of an unknown era. The seventh-century itineraries to the graves of the Roman martyrs ...

Pray Brethren

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

Pray, George

Abbot, canon, librarian of the University library of Buda, and important Hungarian historian, b. ...

Prayer

(Greek euchesthai , Latin precari , French prier , to plead, to beg, to ask earnestly). ...

Prayer of Christ, Feast of the

This feast occurs on the Tuesday after Septuagesima (double major). Its object is to ...

Prayer of Quiet

The Prayer of Quiet is regarded by all writers on mystical theology as one of the degrees of ...

Prayer, Lord's

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Prayer-Books

By "prayer-books" usage generally understands a collection of forms of prayer intended for ...

Prayers for the Dead

This subject will be treated under the following three heads: I. General Statement and Proof of ...

Preacher Apostolic

A dignitary of the pontifical household. As a regular function, under special Regulations, this ...

Preachers, Order of

As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we ...

Preadamites

The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Strictly speaking, the expression ought to be ...

Prebend

The right of a member of a chapter to his share in the revenues of the cathedral ; also the ...

Precaria

( Preces , prayers ). A precaria is a contract granting to a petitioner the use and ...

Precedence

( Latin præcedere , to go before another). Precedence signifies the right to enjoy ...

Precentor

(Latin Præcentor , from præ , before- cantor singer). A word describing ...

Precept

( Precept: From the Latin præceptum from præcipere , to command). Precept , ...

Precious Blood

The blood of our Divine Saviour. Jesus, at the Last Supper, ascribes to it the same life-giving ...

Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the Most

Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most

An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions ...

Precious Blood, Congregations of the

I. BERNADINES OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence, founded by ...

Precious Blood, Feast of the Most

For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

Precipiano, Humbert-Guillaume de, Count

Born at Besançon, 1626; died at Brussels, 7 June, 1711. Having studied the classics at ...

Preconization

(Latin præconizare , to publish, from præco , herald, public crier) This word ...

Predestinarianism

Predestinarianism is a heresy not unfrequently met with in the course of the centuries which ...

Predestination

Predestination ( Latin prœ , destinare ), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine ...

Preface

( Latin Præfatio ). The first part of the Eucharistic prayers ( Anaphora or Canon) in ...

Prefect Apostolic

( Latin prœfectus, one put over or in charge of something) During the last few ...

Prefecture Apostolic (Supplemental List)

(SUPPLEMENTAL LIST) An account is here given of the prefectures Apostolic that have been ...

Prelate

Real Prelate, the incumbent of a prelature, i.e., of an ecclesiastical office with special and ...

Premonstratensian Canons

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies ...

Presbytery

The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy was known in antiquity by various names, ...

Prescription

(Latin prœ , before, and scribere , to write, in later legal Latin involving the idea ...

Prescription in Civil Jurisprudence

Prescription "in some form and under some name" is said to have existed as a part of the municipal ...

Presence of God

Doctrinal All solid devotion and devotional practices must be founded upon the truths of ...

Presence, Real

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Presentation Brothers

In the early part of the nineteenth century when the Penal Laws were relaxed, and the ban which ...

Presentation of Mary, Congregation of the

This congregation, devoted to the education of young girls, was founded in 1796 at Theuyts, ...

Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

The Protoevangel of James, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, and ...

Presentation, Feast of the

Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin (Greek Hypapante ), Feast of the Presentation of ...

Presentation, Order of the

An Order founded at Cork, Ireland, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle (see below). In 1775 she entered with ...

Presentation, Religious Congregations of the

(1) Daughters of the Presentation , founded in 1627 by Nicolas Sanguin (b. 1580; d. 1653), ...

Presentation, Right of

Out of gratitude for the foundation or endowment of churches and benefices, the Church grants ...

Prester John

Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. FIRST STAGE The mythical journey to Rome of a ...

Preston, Thomas

( Alias R OGER W IDDRINGTON ). Benedictine, d. in the Clink prison, 5 April, 1640. He ...

Preston, Thomas Scott

The Vicar-General of New York, prothonotary Apostolic, chancellor, distinguished convert, ...

Presumption

(Latin praesumere , "to take before", "to take for granted"). Presumption is here ...

Presumption

(IN CANON LAW) A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn ...

Pretorium

This name is derived from the Latin prætorium, in later Greek tò ...

Pride

Pride is the excessive love of one's own excellence. It is ordinarily accounted one of the seven ...

Priene

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The foundation of the town of Priene dates ...

Priest

This word (etymologically "elder", from presbyteros , presbyter ) has taken the meaning of ...

Priest, Assistant

The assistant priest ( presbyter assistens , anciently called capellanus ) is the first and ...

Priest, High

The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

Priesthood

The word priest (Germ. Priester ; Fr. prêtre ; Ital. prete ) is derived from the ...

Priestly Perseverance, Association of

A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese. ...

Priests' Communion League

An association of priests established at Rome on 20 July, 1906, in the Church of San ...

Priests' Eucharistic League

I. Object The Priests' Eucharistic League (Confraternitas sacerdotalis adorationis Sanctissimi ...

Priests, Confraternities of

Three confraternities of priests -- the Apostolic Union, the Priests' Eucharistic League, ...

Primacy

(Latin primatus, primus , first). The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as ...

Primadicci, James

(Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

Primate

(Lat. primas, from primus, "first"). In the Western Church a primate is a bishop ...

Prime

I. THE NAME The name Prime ( prima hora ) belongs with those of Terce, Sext, None, to the ...

Primer, The

The common English name for a book of devotions which from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century ...

Primicerius

(Etymologically primus in cera , sc. in tabula cerata , the first in a list of a class of ...

Primus and Felician, Saints

Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

Prince Albert, Diocese of

A suffragan see of St. Boniface, Manitoba, in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Originally ...

Prior

A monastic superior. In the Rule of St. Benedict the term prior occurs several times, but ...

Prioress

(Priorissa, Praeposita). A superioress in a monastic community for women. The term prioress ...

Priory

A monastery whose superior is a prior. The Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Carthusians, ...

Prisca, Saint

She was a martyr of the Roman Church, whose dates are unknown. The name Prisca or Priscilla ...

Priscianus

Latin grammarian, born at Caesarea (Mauretania) , taught at Constantinople under Anastatius I ...

Priscilla and Aquila

( Or Prisca.) Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome (Aquila was a native of Pontus ) in the ...

Priscillianism

This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic - ...

Prisons

I. IN ANCIENT TIMES Many jurisconsults and Scriptural interpreters include imprisonment among ...

Prisons, Ecclesiastical

It is plain from many decrees in the "Corpus Juris Canonici" that the Church has claimed and ...

Privilege

( Latin, privilegium , like priva lex ) Privilege is a permanent concession made by a ...

Privileged Altar

An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic ...

Privileges, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical privileges are exceptions to the Law made in favour of the clergy or in favour ...

Proba, Faltonia

A Christian poetess of the fourth century. The name Faltonia is doubtful and is apparently due ...

Probabilism

Probabilism is the moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the ...

Probus, Marcus Aurelius

Roman Emperor, 276-82, raised to the throne by the army in Syria to succeed Tacitus. Of humble ...

Probus, Tarachus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Processional Cross

A processional cross is simply a crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and ...

Processional, Roman

Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

Processions

Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every ...

Processus and Martinian, Saints

The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

Proclus, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople. Saint Proclus died in 446 or 447. Proclus came to the fore in the ...

Proconnesus

(PRŒCONNESUS) A titular see in Hellespont. Proconnesus was the name of an island ...

Procopius of Caesarea

Byzantine historian, b. in the latter years of the fifth century at Caesarea in Palestine , d. ...

Procter, Adelaide Anne

Poetess and philanthropist, b. in London, England, 30 October, 1825; d. in London, 2 February, ...

Procurator

A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. There are ...

Profession, Religious

HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

Promise, Divine

The term promise in Holy Writ both in its nominal and verbal form embraces not only promises ...

Promotor Fidei

(P ROMOTER OF THE F AITH ). An official of the Roman Congregation of Rites. The office ...

Promulgation

( Latin promulgare, to make known, to post in public). I. PROMULGATION IN GENERAL This is the ...

Proof

Proof is the establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. ...

Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of

The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide , whose official title is "sacra congregatio ...

Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the

This society is an international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of ...

Property

I. NOTION OF PROPERTY The proprietor or owner of a thing, in the current acceptation of the word, ...

Property, Ecclesiastical

Abstract Right of Ownership That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal ...

Property, Ecclesiastical, in the United States

The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed (tit. IX, cap. i, n. 264): "We must hold, ...

Prophecy

As the term is used in mystical theology , it applies both to the prophecies of canonical ...

Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess

I. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT A. Introduction Yahweh had forbidden Israel all kinds of oracles in ...

Proprium

The Proprium de tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum form in the present liturgy the two ...

Proschko, Franz Isidor

A well-known Austrian author, born at Hohenfurt, Bohemia, 2 April, 1816; died at Vienna, 6 ...

Prose or Sequence

I. DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Sequence ( Sequentia )–or, more accurately as ...

Proselyte

( proselytos , stranger or newcomer; Vulgate, advena ). The English term "proselyte" ...

Proske, Karl

Born at Grobing in Upper Silesia, 11 Feb., 1794; died 20 Dec., 1861. He took his degree as Doctor ...

Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro

The first sure date in the life of Prosper is that of his letter to St. Augustine written ...

Protasius and Gervasius, Saints

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

Protector, Altar

A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the ...

Protectorate of Missions

The right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an infidel country with regard to ...

Protectories

The institutions for the shelter and training of the young, designed to afford neglected or ...

Protestant Episcopal Church

The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

Protestantism

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.: I. Origin of the Name. II. ...

Prothonotary Apostolic

A member of the highest college of prelates in the Roman Curia, and also of the honorary ...

Protocol

The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries, e.g., mention of the reign, ...

Protopope

A priest of higher rank in the Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, corresponding in ...

Protus and Hyacinth, Saints

Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

Prout, Father

The name by which the Rev. Francis Sylvester Mahony (O'Mahony), author of "The Bells of ...

Provancher, Léon Abel

Naturalist, b. 10 March, 1820, in the parish of Béconcourt, Nicolet county, Province of ...

Proverbs, Book of

One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the ...

Providence, Congregations of (I)

Founded at Paris, by Madame Polaillon (Marie de Lumague), a devout widow. In 1643 Madame ...

Providence, Congregations of (II)

(St. Mary-of-the-Woods) Among the teaching religious orders that originated in France at ...

Providence, Congregations of (III)

SISTERS OF CHARITY The Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, known also as Sisters of ...

Providence, Congregations of (IV)

Founded at Turin in 1834 by the Marchesa Julia Falletti de Barolo for the care of children and ...

Providence, Congregations of (V)

SISTERS OF THE INSTITUTE OF CHARITY An offshoot from the Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, ...

Providence, Diocese of

(PROVIDENTIENSIS) Co-extensive with the State of Rhode Island . When erected (17 Feb., 1872) ...

Providence, Divine

( Latin, Providentia ; Greek, pronoia ). Providence in general, or foresight, is a ...

Province, Ecclesiastical

The name given to an ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an ...

Provincial

An officer acting under the superior general of a religious order, and exercising a general ...

Provincial Council

A deliberative assembly of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province, summoned and presided ...

Provision, Canonical

Canonical Provision is a term signifying regular induction into a benefice, comprising three ...

Provisors, Statute of

The English statute usually so designated is the 25th of Edward III, St. 4 (1350-1), otherwise ...

Provost

(Latin, prœpositus; French, prévôt; German, Probst ) Anciently (St. ...

Prudence

(Latin prudentia , contracted from providentia , seeing ahead). One of the four ...

Prudentius

(GALINDO) A Bishop of Troyes, born in Spain ; died at Troyes on 6 April, 861; celebrated ...

Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens

A Christian poet, born in the Tarraconensis, Northern Spain, 348; died probably in Spain, ...

Prusias ad Hypium

Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in the Honoriad. Memnon, the historian, says that Prusias ...

Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia at the present time covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 ...

Przemysl

(PREMISLIENSIS) Latin see in Galicia, suffragan of Lemberg. After conquering Halicz and ...

Przemysl, Sambor, and Sanok

(PREMISLIENSIS, SAMBORIENSIS, ET SANOCHIENSIS) A Græco-Ruthenian Uniat diocese of ...

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Ps 7

Psalms

The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" ( Kethubhim or Hagiographa ...

Psalms, Alphabetic

Alphabetic psalms are so called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, ...

Psalterium

The Psalterium, or Book of the Psalms, only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed ...

Psaume, Nicholas

(also PSAULME, PREAUME, Latin PSALMÆUS) Bishop of Verdun, born at Chaumont-sur-Aire in ...

Psellus, Michael

( Michael ho Psellos ), Byzantine statesman, scholar, and author, born apparently at ...

Psychology

(Greek psyche, logos ; Latin psychologia; French psychologie; German Seelenkunde ) In ...

Psychotherapy

(from the Greek psyche , "mind", and therapeuo , "I cure") Psychotherapy is that ...

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Pt 3

Ptolemais

Ptolemais, a titular see in Egypt, metropolis of Thebais Secunda. Ptolemais owes its name to ...

Ptolemais

(SAINT-JEAN D'ACRE) Ptolemais, a titular metropolis in Phoenicia Prima, or Maritima. The ...

Ptolemy the Gnostic

A heretic of the second century and personal disciple of Valentinus. He was probably still ...

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Pu 31

Public Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

Public Honesty (Decency)

A diriment matrimonial impediment consisting in a relationship, which arises from a valid ...

Publican

Publican , in the Gospels, is derived from the publicanus of the Vulgate, and signifies a ...

Pueblo Indians

NAME From the Spanish word meaning "village" or "town". A term used collectively to designate ...

Puget, Pierre

A painter, sculptor, architect, and naval constructor, born at Marseilles, 31 Oct., 1622; died ...

Pugh, George Ellis

A jurist and statesman, born at Cincinnati, Ohio., 28 November, 1822; died there, 19 July, 1876. ...

Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore

Architect and archeologist, born in London, 1 March, 1812; died at Ramsgate, 14 September, 1852; ...

Puiseux, Victor-Alexandre

French mathematician and astronomer, b. 16 April, 1820, at Argenteuil (Seine-et-Oise); d. 9 ...

Pulaski, Casimir

Patriot and soldier, b. at Winiary, Poland, 4 March, 1748; d. on the Wasp, in the harbour of ...

Pulati

(The Diocese of Pulati: Pulatensis or Polatinensis ). The ancient Pulati in Albania no ...

Pulcheria, Saint

Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire, eldest daughter of the Emperor Arcadius, b. 19 Jan., 399; d. ...

Pulci, Luigi

An Italian poet, born at Florence, 15 Aug., 1432; died at Padua in 1484. The Pulci gave many ...

Pullen, Robert

(POLENIUS, PULLAN, PULLEIN, PULLENUS, PULLY, LA POULE) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Died 1147 (?). ...

Pullus, Robert

(PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

Pulpit

( Latin pulpitum , a stage or scaffold) An elevated stand to preach on. To elucidate the ...

Punishment, Capital

The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The ...

Puno

DIOCESE OF PUNO (PUNIENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima in Peru. Its jurisdiction ...

Purcell, John Baptist

Archbishop of Cincinnati, born at Mallow, Ireland, 26 Feb., 1800; died at the convent of the ...

Purgative Way

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Purgatorial Societies

Pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to ...

Purgatory

The subject is treated under these heads: I. Catholic Doctrine II. Errors III. Proofs IV. Duration ...

Purgatory, St. Patrick's

Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

Purim

(P HURIM ). The origin of the name is disputed: some derive it from the Persian pure ...

Puritans

One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is ...

Pusey and Puseyism

Edward Bouverie Pusey, born at Pusey House, Berkshire, 22 Aug., 1800; died at Ascot Priory, ...

Pustet

The name of a family of well-known Catholic publishers. The original home of the Pustets was ...

Putative Marriage

Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

Puteanus, Erycius

(ERRIJCK DE PUT) Born at Venloo, in Dutch Limbourg, 4 Nov., 1574; died at Louvain, 17 Sept., ...

Putzer, Joseph

Theologian and canonist, b. at Rodaneck, Tyrol, 4 March, 1836; d. at Ilchester, Md., 15 May, ...

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre

French painter, b. at Lyons, 14 Dec., 1824; d. at Paris, 24 Oct., 1898. Through his father ...

Puyallup Indians

An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly holding the territory along the river of ...

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Py 4

Pyrker, Johann Ladislaus von Oberwart

(FELSÖ-EÖR) He was born at Langh near Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, 2 Nov., 1772; died ...

Pyrrhonism

Pyrrhonism is a system of scepticism, the founder of which was Pyrrho, a Greek philosopher, ...

Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism

Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician and founder of the Pythagorean school, ...

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