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Love (Theological Virtue)

The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul ( 1 Corinthians 13:13 ), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God.

This definition sets off the main characteristics of charity:

(1) Its origin , by Divine infusion. "The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost " ( Romans 5:5 ). It is, therefore, distinct from, and superior to, the inborn inclination or the acquired habit of loving God in the natural order. Theologians agree in saying that it is infused together with sanctifying grace, to which it is closely related either by way of real identity, as some few hold, or, according to the more common view, by way of connatural emanation.

(2) Its seat , in the human will. Although charity is at times intensely emotional, and frequently reacts on our sensory faculties, still it properly resides in the rational will a fact not to be forgotten by those who would make it an impossible virtue.

(3) Its specific act , i.e. the love of benevolence and friendship. To love God is to wish Him all honour and glory and every good, and to endeavour, as far as we can, to obtain it-for Him. St. John ( 14:23 ; 15:14 ) emphasizes the feature of reciprocity which makes charity a veritable friendship of man with God.

(4) Its motive , i.e., the Divine goodness or amiability taken absolutely and as made known to us by faith. It matters not whether that goodness be viewed in one, or several, or all of the Divine attributes, but, in all cases, it must be adhered to, not as a source of help, or reward, or happiness for ourselves, but as a good in itself infinitely worthy of our love, in this sense alone is God loved for His own sake. However, the distinction of the two loves: concupiscence, which prompts hope ; and benevolence, which animates charity, should not be forced into a sort of mutual exclusion, as the Church has repeatedly condemned any attempts at discrediting the workings of Christian hope.

(5) Its range , i.e., both God and man. While God alone is all lovable, yet, inasmuch as all men, by grace and glory, either actually share or at least are capable of sharing in the Divine goodness, it follows that supernatural love rather includes than excludes them, according to Matt., xxii, 39, and Luke, x, 27. Hence one and the same virtue of charity terminates in both God and man, God primarily and man secondarily.

I. Love of God

Man's paramount duty of loving God is tersely expressed in Deut., vi, 5; Matt., xxii, 37; and Luke, x, 27. Quite obvious is the imperative character of the words "thou shalt". Innocent XI ( Denzinger, nos. 1155-57) declares that the precept is not fulfilled by an act of charity performed once in a lifetime, or every five years, or on the rather indefinite occasions when justification cannot be otherwise procured.

Moralists urge the obligation at the beginning of the moral life when reason has attained its full de velopment; at the point of death; and from time to time during life, an exact count being neither possible nor necessary since the Christian habit of daily prayer surely covers the obligation.

The violation of the precept is generally negative, i.e., by omission or indirect, i.e., implied in every grievous fault; there are, however, sins directly opposed to the love of God : spiritual sloth, at least when it entails a voluntary loathing of spiritual goods, and the hatred of God, whether it be an abomination of God's restrictive and punitive laws or an aversion for His Sacred Person (see SLOTH; HATRED).

The qualifications, "with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole mind, and with thy whole strength", do not mean a maximum of intensity, for intensity of action never falls under a command; still less do they imply the necessity of feeling more sensible love for God than for creatures, for visible creatures, howsoever imperfect, appeal to our sensibility much more than the invisible God. Their true significance is that, both in our mental appreciation and in our voluntary resolve, God should stand above all the rest, not excepting father or mother, son or daughter ( Matthew 10:37 ). St. Thomas (II-II, Q. xliv, a. 5) would assign a special meaning to each of the four Biblical phrases; others, with more reason, take the whole sentence in its cumulative sense, and see in it the purpose, not only of raising charity above the low Materialism of the Sadducees or the formal Ritualism of the Pharisees, but also of declaring that "to love God above all things is to insure the sanctity of our whole life" (Le Camus, "Vie de Notre-Seigneur Jesus-Christ", III, 81).

The love of God is even more than a precept binding the human conscience ; it is also, as Le Camus observes, "the principle and goal of moral perfection."

As the principle of moral perfection in the supernatural order , with faith as foundation and hope as incentive, the love of God ranks first among the means of salvation styled by theologians necessary, necessitate medii". By stating that "charity never falleth away" (1 Cor xiii, 8), St Paul clearly intimates that there is no difference of kind, but only of degree, between charity here below and glory above; as a consequence Divine love becomes the necessary inception of that God-like life which reaches its fullness in heaven only. The necessity of habitual charity is inferred from its close communion with sanctifying grace. The necessity of actual charity is no less evident. Apart from the cases of the actual reception of baptism, penance, or extreme unction, wherein the love of charity by a special dispensation of God, admits of attrition as a substitute, all adults stand in need of it, according to 1 John, iii, 14: "He that loveth not, abideth in death".

As the goal of moral perfection , always in the supernatural order, the love of God is called "the greatest and the first commandment" ( Matthew 22:38 ), "the end of the commandment" (1 Tim., i, 5), "the bond of perfection" ( Colossians 3:14 ). It stands as an all-important factor in the two main phases of our spiritual life, justification and the acquisition of merits. The justifying power of charity, so well expressed in Luke, vii, 47, and 1 Pet., iv, 8, has in no way been abolished or reduced by the institution of the Sacraments of Baptism and Penance as necessary means of moral rehabilitation; it has only been made to include a willingness to receive these sacraments where and when possible. Its meritorious power, emphasized by St. Paul (Rom,.viii, 28), covers both the acts elicited or commanded by charity. St. Augustine (De laudibus quartets) calls charity the "life of virtues " ( vita virtutum ); and St. Thomas (II-II, Q. xxiii, a. 8), the "form of virtues " ( forma virtutum ). The meaning is that the other virtues, while possessing a real value of their own, derive a fresh and greater excellence from their union with charity, which, reaching out directly to God, ordains all our virtuous actions to Him.

As to the manner and degree of influence which charity should exercise over our virtuous actions in order to render them meritorious of heaven, theologians are far from being agreed, some requiring only the state of grace, or habitual charity, others insisting upon the more or less frequent renewal of distinct acts of divine love.

Of course, the meritorious power of charity is, like the virtue itself, susceptible of indefinite growth. St. Thomas (II-II, Q. xxiv, 24 a. 4 and 8) mentions three principal stages:

  • freedom from mortal sin by strenuous resistance to temptation,
  • avoidance of deliberate venial sins by the assiduous practice of virtue,
  • union with God through the frequent recurrence of acts of love.
  • To these, ascetic writers like Alvarez de Paz, St. Teresa, St. Francis of Sales, add many more degrees, thus anticipating even in this world the "many mansions in the Father's house". The prerogatives of charity should not, however, be construed so as to include inamissibility. The saying of St. John (1 Ep., iii, 6), "Whosoever abideth in him [ God ], sinneth not", means indeed the special permanence of charity chiefly in its higher degrees, but it is no absolute guarantee against the possible loss of it; while the infused habit is never diminished by venial sins, a single grievous fault is enough to destroy it and so end man's union and friendship with God.

    II. Love of Man

    While charity embraces all the children of God in heaven, on earth, and in purgatory (see COMMUNION OF SAINTS), it is taken here as meaning man's supernatural love for man, and that in this world; as such, it includes both love of self and love of neighbour.

    (1) Love of Self

    St. Gregory the Great (Hom. XIII in Evang.) objects to the expression "charity towards self", on the plea that charity requires two terms, and St. Augustine (De bono viduitatis, xxi) remarks that no command was needed to make man love himself. Obviously, St. Gregory's objection is purely grammatical; St. Augustine's remark applies to natural self-love. As a matter of fact, the precept of supernatural love of self is not only possible or needed, but also clearly implied in Christ's command to love our neighbour as ourselves. Its obligation, however, bears in a vague manner on the salvation of our soul ( Matthew 16:26 ), the acquisition of merits ( Matthew 6:19 sqq. ), the Christian use of our body ( Romans 6:13 ; 1 Corinthians 6:19 ; Colossians 3:5 ). and can hardly be brought down to practical points not already covered by more specific precepts.

    (2) Love of Neighbour

    The Christian idea of brotherly love as compared with the pagan or Jewish concept has been touched upon elsewhere (see CHARITY AND CHARITIES). Briefly, its distinctive feature, and superiority as well, is to be found less in its commands, or prohibitions, or even results, than in the motive which prompts its laws and prepares its achievements. The faithful carrying out of the "new commandment" is called the criterion of true Christian discipleship (John xiii, 34 sq.), the standard by which we shall be judged ( Matthew 25:34 sqq. ), the best proof that we love God Himself ( 1 John 3:10 ), and the fulfilment of the whole law ( Galatians 5:14 ), because, viewing the neighbour in God and through God, it has the same value as the love of God. The expression "to love the neighbour for the sake of God " means that we rise above the consideration of mere natural solidarity and fellow-feeling to the higher view of our common Divine adoption and heavenly heritage; in that sense only could our brotherly love be brought near to the love which Christ had for us ( John 13:35 ), and a kind of moral identity between Christ and the neighbour ( Matthew 25:40 ), become intelligible. From this high motive the universality of fraternal charity follows as a necessary consequence. Whosoever sees in his fellow-men, not the human peculiarities, but the God-given and God-like privileges, can no longer restrict his love to members of the family, or co-religionists, or fellow-citizens, or strangers within the borders ( Leviticus 19:34 ), but must needs extend it, without distinction of Jew or Gentile ( Romans 10:12 ), to all the units of the human kind, to social outcasts ( Luke 10:33 sqq. ), and even to enemies ( Matthew 5:23 sq. ). Very forcible is the lesson wherein Christ compels His hearers to recognize, in the much despised Samaritan, the true type of the neighbour, and truly new is the commandment whereby He urges us to forgive our enemies, to be reconciled with them, to assist and love them.

    The exercise of charity would soon become injudicious and inoperative unless there be in this, as in all the moral virtues, a well-defined order. The ordo caritatis , as theologians a term it, possibly from a wrong rendering into Latin of Cant., ii, 4 ( ordinavit in me charitatem ), takes into account these different factors:

  • the persons who claim our love,
  • the advantages which we desire to procure for them, and
  • the necessity in which they are placed.
  • The precedence is plain enough when these factors are viewed separately. Regarding the persons alone, the order is somewhat as follows: self, wife, children, parents, brothers and sisters, friends, domestics, neighbours, fellow-countrymen, and all others. Considering the goods by themselves, there is a triple order:

  • the most important spiritual goods appertaining to the salvation of the soul should first appeal to our solicitude; then
  • the intrinsic and natural goods of the soul and body, like life, health, knowledge, liberty, etc.;
  • finally, the extrinsic goods of reputation, wealth, etc.
  • Viewing apart the various kinds of necessity, the following order would obtain:

  • first, extreme necessity, wherein a man is in danger of damnation, or of death, or of the loss of other goods of nearly equal importance and can do nothing to help himself;
  • second, grave necessity, when one placed in similar danger can extricate himself only by heroic efforts;
  • third, common necessity, such as affects ordinary sinners or beggars who can help themselves without great difficulty.
  • When the three factors are combined, they give rise to complicated rules, the principal of which are these:

  • The love of complacency and the love of benefaction do not follow the same standard, the former being guided by the worthiness, the latter by the nearness and need, of the neighbour.
  • Our personal salvation is to be preferred to all else. We are never justified in committing the slightest sin for the love of any one or anything whatsoever, nor should we expose ourselves to spiritual danger except in such cases and with such precautions as would give us a moral right to, and guarantee of, God's protection.
  • We are bound to succour our neighbour in extreme spiritual necessity even at the cost of our own life, an obligation which, however supposes the certainty of the neighbour's need and of the effectiveness of our service to him.
  • Except in the very rare cases described above, we are not bound to risk life or limb for our neighbour, but only to undergo that amount of inconvenience which is justified by the neighbour's need and nearness. Casuists are not agreed as to the right to give one's life for another's life of equal importance.
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    Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, b. at Langham in Rutland; d. at ...

    Langheim

    A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), not far from Mein, in the ...

    Langhorne, Ven. Richard

    English martyr, b. about 1635, d. at Tyburn, 14 July, 1679. He was the third son of William ...

    Langley, Richard

    Layman and martyr, b. probably at Grimthorpe, Yorks, England, date unknown; d. at York, 1 Dec., ...

    Langres

    (LINGONÆ). Diocese comprising the Department of the Haute-Marne. Suppressed by the ...

    Lanigan, John

    Church historian, b. at Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland, in 1758; d. at Finglas, Dublin, 8 ...

    Lanspergius

    (JOHN JUSTUS OF LANDSBERG). Carthusian monk and ascetical writer, b. at Landsberg in Bavaria ...

    Lantern

    In Italian or modern architecture, a small structure on the top of a dome, for the purpose of ...

    Lanterns, Altar

    Lanterns are used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any ...

    Lanzi, Luigi

    An Italian archeologist, b. at Mont Olmo, near Macerata, in 1732; d. at Florence in 1810. In ...

    Laodicea

    A titular see, of Asia Minor, metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, said to have been originally ...

    Laos

    (Vicariate Apostolic) Separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Siam by a decree of 4 ...

    Laplace, Pierre-Simon

    Mathematical and physical astronomer, b. in Beaumont-en-Auge, near Caen, department of Calvados, ...

    Lapland and Lapps

    About 150,000 square miles of the most northerly regions of Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the ...

    Lapparent, Albert Auguste de

    French geologist, b. at Bourges, 30 Dec., 1839; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1908. He made a brilliant ...

    Laprade, Victor de

    French poet and critic, b. at Montbrison in 1812; d. at Lyons in 1883. He first studied ...

    Lapsi

    ( Latin, labi, lapsus ). The regular designation in the third century for Christians who ...

    Lapuente, Venerable Luis de

    (Also, D'Aponte, de Ponte, Dupont). Born at Valladolid, 11 November, 1554; died there, 16 ...

    Laranda

    A titular see of Isauria, afterwards of Lycaonia. Strabo (XII, 569), informs us that Laranda ...

    Lares

    Formerly a titular archiepiscopal see in pro-consular Africa. In ancient times it was a ...

    Larino

    (Larinum). Diocese in the province of Capmobasso, Southern Italy. Larinum was a city of the ...

    Larissa

    The seat of a titular archbishopric of Thessaly. The city, one of the oldest and richest in ...

    Larke, Blessed John

    English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

    Larrey, Dominique-Jean

    Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

    Larrey, Dominique-Jean

    Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

    Larue, Charles de

    Born 29 July, 1685 (some say 12 July, 1684), at Corbie, in France ; died 5 Oct., 1739, at St. ...

    Lasaulx, Ernst von

    Scholar and philosopher, born at Coblenz, 16 March, 1805; died at Munich, 9 May, 1861. His ...

    Lascaris, Constantine

    Greek scholar from Constantinople; born 1434; died at Messina in 1501. Made a prisoner by the ...

    Lascaris, Janus

    Also called John; surnamed Rhyndacenus (from Rhyndacus, a country town in Asia Minor ). He ...

    Laski, John

    J OHN A L ASCO . Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, b. at Lask, 1456; d. at ...

    Lassberg, Baron Joseph Maria Christoph von

    A distinguished German antiquary, born at Donaueschingen, 10 April, 1770; died 15 March, 1855. He ...

    Lassus, Orlandus de

    (Original name, Roland de Lattre), composer, born at Mons, Hainault, Belgium, in 1520 (according ...

    Last Judgment, The

    (Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

    Last Supper, The

    The meal held by Christ and His disciples on the eve of His Passion at which He instituted the ...

    Lataste, Marie

    Born at Mimbaste near Dax, France, 21 February, 1822; died at Rennes, 10 May, 1847; was the ...

    Latera, Flaminius Annibali de

    Historian, born at Latera, near Viterbo, 23 November, 1733; died at Viterbo, 27 February, 1813. He ...

    Lateran Council, Fifth

    When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general ...

    Lateran Council, First

    The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of ecumenical councils. It had been convoked in ...

    Lateran Council, Fourth

    From the commencement of his reign Innocent III had purposed to assemble an ecumenical council, ...

    Lateran Council, Second

    The death of Pope Honorius II (February, 1130) was followed by a schism. Petrus Leonis (Pierleoni), ...

    Lateran Council, Third

    The reign of Alexander III was one of the most laborious pontificates of the Middle Ages. Then, ...

    Lateran Councils

    A series of five important councils held at Rome from the twelfth to the sixteen century. From ...

    Lateran, Christian Museum of

    Established by Pius IX in 1854, in the Palazzo del Laterano erected by Sixtus V on the part of ...

    Lateran, Saint John

    THE BASILICA This is the oldest, and ranks first among the four great "patriarchal" basilicas ...

    Lathrop, George Parsons

    Poet, novelist, b. at Honolulu, Hawaii, 25 August, 1851; d. at New York, 19 April, 1898. He was ...

    Latin Church

    The word Church ( ecclesia ) is used in its first sense to express whole congregation of ...

    Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

    The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...

    Latin Literature in Christianity (Before the Sixth Century)

    The Latin language was not at first the literary and official organ of the Christian Church in ...

    Latin Literature in Christianity (Sixth to Twentieth Century)

    During the Middle Ages the so-called church Latin was to a great extent the language of poetry, ...

    Latin, Ecclesiastical

    In the present instance these words are taken to mean the Latin we find in the official textbooks ...

    Latini, Brunetto

    Florentine philosopher and statesman, born at Florence, c. 1210; the son of Buonaccorso Latini, ...

    Latreille, Pierre-André

    A prominent French zoologist; born at Brives, 29 November, 1762; died in Paris, 6 February, 1833. ...

    Latria

    Latria ( latreia ) in classical Greek originally meant "the state of a hired servant" (Aesch., ...

    Latrocinium

    (L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

    Latter-Day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of

    ( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...

    Lauda Sion

    The opening words (used as a title of the sequence composed by St. Thomas Aquinas, about the year ...

    Lauds

    In the Roman Liturgy of today Lauds designates an office composed of psalms and canticles, ...

    Laura

    The Greek word laura is employed by writers from the end of the fifth century to distinguish ...

    Laurence O'Toole, Saint

    (L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

    Laurentie, Pierre-Sébastien

    French publicist; b. at Houga, in the Department of Gers, France, 21 January, 1793; d. 9 ...

    Lausanne and Geneva

    Diocese of Lausanne and Geneva (Lausannensis et Genevensis). Diocese in Switzerland, immediately ...

    Lauzon, Jean de

    Fourth governor of Canada, b. at Paris, 1583; d. there, 16 Feb., 1666. He was the son of ...

    Lauzon, Pierre de

    A noted missionary of New France in the eighteenth century, born at Poitiers, 26 September, ...

    Lavérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de

    Discoverer of the Canadian West, born at Three Rivers, Quebec, 17 November, 1685; died at ...

    Lavabo

    The first word of that portion of Psalm 25 said by the celebrant at Mass while he washes his hands ...

    Laval University of Quebec

    The University of Laval was founded in 1852 by the Seminary of Quebec; the royal charter granted ...

    Laval, François de Montmorency

    First bishop of Canada, b. at Montigny-sur-Avre, 30 April, 1623, of Hughes de Laval and ...

    Lavant

    (LAVANTINA) An Austrian bishopric in the southern part of Styria, suffragan of Salzburg. The ...

    Laverdière, Charles-Honoré

    French-Canadian historian, born Chateau-Richer, Province of Quebec, 1826; died at Quebec, 1873. ...

    Laverlochère, Jean-Nicolas

    Missionary, born at St. Georges d'Espérance, Grenoble, France, 6 December, 1812; died at ...

    Lavigerie, Charles-Martial-Allemand

    French cardinal, b. at Huire near Bayonne, 13 Oct., 1825; d. at Algiers, 27 Nov., 1892. He ...

    Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent

    Chemist, philosopher, economist ; born in Paris, 26 August, 1743; guillotined 8 May, 1794. He ...

    Law

    I. CONCEPT OF LAW A. By law in the widest sense is understood that exact guide, rule, or ...

    Law, Canon

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notion and DivisionsII. Canon ...

    Law, Cemeteries in

    Cemeteries in Civil Law It would be impossible here to deal in detail with the various ...

    Law, Civil (Influence of the Church on)

    Christianity is essentially an ethical religion; and, although its moral principles were meant ...

    Law, Common

    (Latin communis , general, of general application; lex , law) The term is of English ...

    Law, Divine (Moral Aspect of)

    Divine Law is that which is enacted by God and made known to man through revelation. We ...

    Law, International

    International law has been defined to be "the rules which determine the conduct of the general ...

    Law, Mosaic

    The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...

    Law, Natural

    I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...

    Law, Roman

    In the following article this subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; ...

    Lawrence Justinian, Saint

    Bishop and first Patriarch of Venice, b. in 1381, and d. 8 January, 1456. He was a descendant ...

    Lawrence O'Toole, Saint

    (L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

    Lawrence of Brindisi, Saint

    (Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

    Lawrence, Saint

    Martyr ; died 10 August, 258. St. Lawrence, one of the deacons of the Roman Church, was one ...

    Lawrence, Saint

    Second Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 2 Feb., 619. For the particulars of his life and ...

    Laws, Penal

    This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

    Lay Abbot

    ( abbatocomes, abbas laicus, abbas miles ). A name used to designate a layman on whom a king ...

    Lay Brothers

    Religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or ...

    Lay Communion

    The primitive discipline of the Church established a different punishment for certain crimes ...

    Lay Confession

    This article does not deal with confession by laymen but with that made to laymen, for the ...

    Lay Tithes

    Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

    Laymann, Paul

    A famous Jesuit moralist, b. in 1574 at Arzl, near Innsbruck; d. of the plague on 13 November, ...

    Lazarites

    A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

    Lazarus

    Lazarus (Greek Lazaros , a contraction of Eleazaros --see 2 Maccabbees 6:18 — meaning ...

    Lazarus of Bethany, Saint

    Reputed first Bishop of Marseilles, died in the second half of the first century. According ...

    Lazarus of Jerusalem, Order of Saint

    The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the ...

    × Close

    Le 130

    Le Blant, Edmond-Frederic

    French archeologist and historian, born 12 August, 1818; died 5 July, 1897 at Paris. He studied ...

    Le Camus, Emile-Paul-Constant-Ange

    Preacher, theologian, scripturist, Bishop of La Rochelle and Saintes, b. at Paraza, France, ...

    Le Camus, Etienne

    French cardinal, b. at Paris, 1632; d. at Grenoble, 1707. Through the influence of his father, ...

    Le Caron, Joseph

    One of the four pioneer missionaries of Canada and first missionary to the Hurons, b. near ...

    Le Coz, Claude

    French bishop, b. at Plouévez-Parzay (Finistère), 1740; d. at Villevieux (Jura), ...

    Le Fèvre, Jacques

    A French theologian and controversialist, b. at Lisieux towards the middle of the seventeenth ...

    Le Gobien, Charles

    French Jesuit and founder of the famous collection of "Lettres édifiantes et curieuses", ...

    Le Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac

    Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

    Le Hir, Arthur-Marie

    Biblical scholar and Orientalist ; b. at Morlaix (Finisterre), in the Diocese of Quimper, ...

    Le Loutre, Louis-Joseph

    A missionary to the Micmac Indians and Vicar-General of Acadia under the Bishop of Quebec, b. ...

    Le Mans

    DIOCESE OF LE MANS (CENOMANENSIS). Comprises the entire Department of Sarthe. Prior to the ...

    Le Mercier, François

    One of the early missionaries of New France , b. at Paris, 4 October, 1604; d. in the island of ...

    Le Moyne

    The name of one of the most illustrious families of the New World, whose deeds adorn the pages ...

    Le Moyne, Simon

    A Jesuit missionary, b. at Beauvais, 1604; d. in 1665 at Cap de la Madeleine, near Three ...

    Le Nourry, Denis-Nicolas

    Denis-Nicolas Le Nourry, of the Congregation of St-Maur, ecclesiastical writer, b. at Dieppe in ...

    Le Puy

    (Aniciensis). Diocese comprising the whole Department of Haute Loire, and is a suffragan of ...

    Le Quien, Michel

    French historian and theologian, b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, department of Pas-de-Calais, 8 Oct., ...

    Le Sage, Alain-René

    Writer, b. at Sarzeau (Morbihan), 1668; d. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1747. The son of a notary who ...

    Le Tellier, Charles-Maurice

    Archbishop of Reims, b. at Turin, 1642; d. at Reims, 1710. The son of Michel Le Tellier and ...

    Le Tellier, Michel

    Born 16 October, 1643, of a peasant family, not at Vire as has so often been said, but at Vast ...

    Le Verrier, Urbain-Jean-Joseph

    An astronomer and director of the observatory at Paris, born at Saint Lô, the ancient ...

    León

    DIOCESE OF LEÓN (LEONENSIS) Suffragan of Michoacan in Mexico, erected in 1863. In the ...

    León, Luis de

    Spanish poet and theologian, b. at Belmonte, Aragon, in 1528; d. at Madrigal, 23 August, 1591. ...

    Lead, Diocese of

    (LEADENSIS). The Diocese of Lead, which was established on 6 August, 1902, comprises all that ...

    League of the Cross

    A Catholic total abstinence confraternity founded in London in 1873 by Cardinal Manning to ...

    League, German

    Only three years before the League was established, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (d. 1651), who ...

    League, The

    I. THE LEAGUE OF 1576 The discontent produced by the Peace of Beaulieu (6 May, 1576), which ...

    Leander of Seville, Saint

    Bishop of that city, b. at Carthage about 534, of a Roman family established in that city; d. ...

    Leavenworth

    Diocese of Leavenworth (Leavenworthensis). Suffragan to St. Louis. When established, 22 May, ...

    Lebanon

    Lebanon (Assyr. Labn nu ; Hebrew Lebanôn ; Egypt. possibly, Ramunu ; Greek Libanos ...

    Lebedus

    Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. It was on the coast, ninety stadia to the east ...

    Lebrun, Charles

    French historical painter, born in Paris, 1619; died at the Gobelin tapestry works, 1690. This ...

    Lebwin, Saint

    (LEBUINUS or LIAFWIN). Apostle of the Frisians and patron of Deveater, b. in England of ...

    Lecce

    (LICIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Otranto. Lecce, the capital of a province in Terra ...

    Leclerc du Tremblay, François

    A Capuchin, better known as P ÈRE J OSEPH , b. in Paris, 4 Nov., 1577; d. at Rueil, ...

    Leclercq, Chrestien

    A Franciscan Récollet and one of the most zealous missionaries to the Micmac of ...

    Lecoy de La Marche

    (RICHARD-ALBERT). French historian; b. at Nemours, 1839; d. at Paris, 1897. He left the ...

    Lectern

    (Lecturn, Letturn, Lettern, from legere , to read). Support for a book, reading-desk, or ...

    Lectionary

    ( Lectionarium or Legenda ). Lectionary is a term of somewhat vague significance, used ...

    Lector

    A lector (reader) in the West is a clerk having the second of the four minor orders. In all ...

    Ledge, Altar

    Originally the altar was made in the shape of an ordinary table, on which the crucifix and ...

    Ledochowski, Miecislas Halka

    Count, cardinal, Archbishop of Gnesen-Posen, b. at Gorki near Sandomir in Russian Poland, 29 ...

    Leeds

    (LOIDIS; LOIDENSIS). Diocese embracing the West Riding of Yorkshire, and that part of the city ...

    Lefèvre d'Etaples, Jacques

    Frequently called "Faber Stapulensis." A French philosopher, biblical and patristic scholar; ...

    Lefèvre de la Boderie, Guy

    French Orientalist and poet; b. near Falaise in Normandy, 9 August, 1541; d. in 1598 in the house ...

    Lefèvre, Family of

    There were various members of the Lefèvre family engaged in tapestry weaving in the ...

    Lefebvre, Camille

    Apostle of the Acadians, b. at St. Philippe, P. Q., 1831; d. at St. Joseph, N. B., 1895. The ...

    Legacies

    (Latin Legata ). I. DEFINITION In its most restricted sense, by a pious legacy or bequest ...

    Legate

    ( Latin legare , to send). Legate, in its broad signification, means that person who is sent ...

    Legends of the Saints

    Under the term legend the modern concept would include every untrue tale. But it is not so ...

    Legends, Literary or Profane

    In the period of national origins history and legend are inextricably mingled. In the course of ...

    Leghorn

    (LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

    Legio

    Titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. It figures for the first time in a ...

    Legipont, Oliver

    Benedictine, bibliographer, born at Soiron, Limburg, 2 Dec., 1698; died at Trier, 16 Jan., 1758. ...

    Legists

    Teachers of civil or Roman law, who, besides expounding sources, explaining terms, elucidating ...

    Legitimation

    ( Latin legitimatio ). The canonical term for the act by which the irregularity contracted ...

    Legrand, Louis

    French theologian and noted doctor of the Sorbonne, b. in Burgundy at Lusigny-sur-Ouche, 12 ...

    Lehnin, Abbey of

    Founded in 1180 by Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg, for Cistercian monks. Situated about ...

    Leibniz, System of

    I. LIFE OF LEIBNIZ Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz was born at Leipzig on 21 June (1 July), 1646. ...

    Leigh, Venerable Richard

    English martyr, born in Cambridgeshire about 1561; died at Tyburn, 30 August, 1588. Ordained ...

    Leipzig

    Chief town in the Kingdom of Saxony, situated at the junction of the Pleisse, Parthe, and Weisse ...

    Leipzig, University of

    The University of Leipzig in Saxony is, next to Heidelberg, the oldest university in the German ...

    Leitmeritz

    (L ITOMERICENSIS ), in Austria, embraces the northern part of the Kingdom of Bohemia (see map ...

    Lejeune, Jean

    Born at Poligny in 1592; died at Limoges, 19 Aug., 1672; member of the Oratory of Jesus, founded ...

    Lelong, Jacques

    A French bibliographer, b. at Paris, 19 April, 1665 d. there, 13 Aug., 1721. As a boy of ten, he ...

    Lemberg

    Seat of a Latin, a Uniat Ruthenian, and a Uniat Armenian archbishopric. The city is called Lwow ...

    Lemcke, Henry

    Missionary in the United States b. at Rhena, Mecklenburg, 27 July, 1796; d. at Carrolltown, ...

    Lemercier, Jacques

    Born at Pontoise, about 1585; died at Paris, 1654. Lemercier shares with Mansart and Le Muet the ...

    Lemos, Thomas de

    Spanish theologian and controversialist, b. at Rivadavia, Spain, 1555, d. at Rome 23 Aug., ...

    Lennig, Adam Franz

    Theologian, b. 3 Dec., 1803, at Mainz ; d. there, 22 Nov., 1866. He studied at Bouchsal under the ...

    Lenormant, Charles

    French arch æologist, b. in Paris, 1 June, 1802; d. at Athens, 24 November, 1859. After ...

    Lenormant, François

    Arch&aeligologist; son of Charles Lenormant, b. at Paris, 17 January, 1837; d. there, 9 ...

    Lent

    Origin of the word The Teutonic word Lent , which we employ to denote the forty days' fast ...

    Lentulus, Publius

    Publius Lentulus is a fictitious person, said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius, and ...

    Leo Diaconus

    Byzantine historian; b. at Kaloe, at the foot of Mount Tmolos, in Ionia, about the year 950; the ...

    Leo I (the Great), Pope

    (Reigned 440-61). Place and date of birth unknown; died 10 November, 461. Leo's pontificate, ...

    Leo II, Pope Saint

    Pope (682-83), date of birth unknown; d. 28 June, 683. He was a Sicilian, and son of one Paul. ...

    Leo III, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; died 816. He was elected on the very day his predecessor was buried (26 ...

    Leo IV, Pope

    (Reigned 847-55) A Roman and the son of Radoald, was unanimously elected to succeed Sergius ...

    Leo IX, Pope

    (1049-54), b. at Egisheim, near Colmar, on the borders of Alsace, 21 June, 1002; d. 19 April, ...

    Leo V, Pope

    Very little is known of him. We have no certainty either as to when he was elected or as to ...

    Leo VI, Pope

    The exact dates of the election and death of Leo VI are uncertain, but it is clear that he was ...

    Leo VII, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman and priest of St. Sixtus, and probably a ...

    Leo VIII, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; d. between 20 February and 13 April, 965. When the Emperor Otho I ...

    Leo X, Pope

    (G IOVANNI DE M EDICI ). Born at Florence, 11 December, 1475; died at Rome, 1 December, ...

    Leo XI, Pope

    (ALESSANDRO OTTAVIANO DE' MEDICI). Born at Florence in 1535; died at Rome 27 April, 1605, on ...

    Leo XII, Pope

    (A NNIBALE F RANCESCO C LEMENTE M ELCHIORE G IROLAMO N ICOLA DELLA G ENGA ) Born ...

    Leo XIII, Pope

    Born 2 March, 1810, at Carpineto; elected pope 20 February, 1878; died 20 July, 1903, at Rome. ...

    Leo, Brother

    Friar Minor, companion of St. Francis of Assisi,date of birth uncertain; died at Assisi, 15 ...

    Leocadia, Saint

    Virgin and martyr, d. 9 December, probably 304, in the Diocletian persecution. The last great ...

    Leodegar, Saint

    (LEGER) Bishop of Autun, b. about 615; d. a martyr in 678, at Sarcing, Somme. His mother ...

    Leon

    (THE DIOCESE AND CIVIL PROVINCE OF LEON) HISTORY Probably before the time of Trajan, the ...

    Leonard of Chios

    Born at an uncertain date on the Island of Chios, then under Genoese domination; died in Chios ...

    Leonard of Limousin, Saint

    Nothing absolutely certain is known of his history, as his earliest "Life", written in the ...

    Leonard of Port Maurice, Saint

    Preacher and ascetic writer, b. 20 Dec., 1676, at Porto Maurizio on the Riviera di Ponente; d. ...

    Leonardo da Vinci

    (LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

    Leonidas, Saint

    ( Or LEONIDES.) The Roman Martyrology records several feast days of martyrs of this ...

    Leontius Byzantinus

    ( Leontios Byzantios ) An important theologian of the sixth century. In spite of his ...

    Leontius, Saint

    Bishop of Fréjus, in Provence. France, b. probably at Nîmes, towards the end of ...

    Leontopolis

    A titular archiepiscopal see of Augustamnica Secunda. Strabo (XVII, 1,19, 20) places it near ...

    Leopoldine Society, The

    Established at Vienna for the purpose of aiding the Catholic missions in North America. When ...

    Lepanto

    Italian name for Naupactos (Naupactus) a titular metropolitan see of ancient Epirus. The name ...

    Leprosy

    Leprosy proper, or lepra tuberculosa , in contradistinction to other skin diseases commonly ...

    Leptis Magna

    Leptis Magna, a titular see of Tripolitana. Founded by the Sidonians in a fine and fertile ...

    Leros

    Titular see of the Cyclades, suffragan of Rhodes. According to Strabo (XIV, i, 6), this island ...

    Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole

    French publicist, b. at Lisieux, Calvados, in 1842; d. at Paris, 15 June, 1912. After ...

    Lesbi

    A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

    Lesbi

    A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

    Lescarbot, Marc

    French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

    Lescarbot, Marc

    French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

    Lescot, Pierre

    One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

    Lescot, Pierre

    One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

    Lesina

    (PHARIA: HVAR; PHARENSIS, BRACHIENSIS, ET ISSENSIS) Diocese in Dalmatia ; includes the three ...

    Leslie, John

    Bishop of Ross, Scotland, born 29 September, 1527, died at Guirtenburg, near Brussels 30 May, ...

    Lessius, Leonard

    (LEYS) A Flemish Jesuit and a theologian of high reputation, born at Brecht, in the ...

    Lessons in the Liturgy

    (Exclusive of Gospel). I. HISTORY The reading of lessons from the Bible, Acts of Martyrs , or ...

    Lestrange, Louis-Henri de

    (In religion, DOM AUGUSTINE) Born in 1754, in the Château de Colombier-le-Vieux, ...

    Lesueur, François Eustache

    Jesuit missionary and philologist, of the Abnaki mission in Canada ; born (according to notes ...

    Lesueur, Jean-François

    Composer, b. at Drucat-Plessiel, near Abbeville, 15 Feb., 1760; d. at Paris, 6 October, 1837. He ...

    Lete

    A titular see of Macedonia, known by its coins and inscriptions, mentioned in Ptolemy (III, ...

    Letourneux, Nicolas

    A well-known French preacher and ascetical writer of Jansenistic tendencies, born at Rouen, 30 ...

    Letters, Ecclesiastical

    (LITTERÆ ECCLESIASTICÆ) Ecclesiastical letters are publications or announcements of ...

    Leubus

    A celebrated ancient Cistercian abbey, situated on the Oder, northwest of Breslau, in the ...

    Leuce

    A titular see of Thrace, not mentioned by any ancient historian or geographer. However, its ...

    Levadoux, Michael

    One of the first band of Sulpicians who, owing to the distressed state of religion in France, ...

    Levau, Louis

    (LE VAU) A contemporary of Jacques Lemercier and the two Mansarts, and the chief architect of ...

    Levites

    (From Levi , name of the ancestral patriarch, generally interpreted "joined" or "attached ...

    Leviticus

    The third book of the Pentateuch, so called because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites, ...

    Lex

    (LAW) The etymology of the Latin word lex is a subject of controversy. Some authorities ...

    Lezana, Juan Bautista de

    Theologian, born at Madrid, 23 Nov., 1586; died in Rome, 29 March, 1659. He took the habit at ...

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    Li 90

    Liège

    (The Diocese of Liège; canonical name L EODIENSIS ). Liège (V ICUS L ...

    Libel

    ( Latin libellus , a little book) A malicious publication by writing, printing, picture, ...

    Libellatici, Libelli

    The libelli were certificates issued to Christians of the third century. They were of two ...

    Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum

    A miscellaneous collection of ecclesiastical formularies used in the papal chancery until the ...

    Liber Pontificalis

    (BOOK OF THE POPES). A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to ...

    Liber Septimus

    Three canonical collections of quite different value from a legal standpoint are known by this ...

    Libera Me

    (Domine, de morte aeterna, etc.). The responsory sung at funerals. It is a responsory of ...

    Libera Nos

    The first words of the Embolism of the Lord's Prayer in the Roman Rite. Most liturgies ...

    Liberal Arts, The Seven

    The expression artes liberales , chiefly used during the Middle Ages, does not mean arts as we ...

    Liberalism

    A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life. I. DEFINITION The word liberal ...

    Liberatore, Matteo

    A philosopher, theologian, and writer, born at Salerno, Italy, 14 August, 1810; died at Rome, ...

    Liberatus of Carthage

    (Sixth century) Archdeacon ; author of an important history of the Nestorian and ...

    Liberia

    A republic on the west coast of Africa, between 4° 20´ and 7° 20´ N. lat., ...

    Liberius, Pope

    (Reigned 352-66) Pope Julius died on 12 April, according to the "Liberian Catalogue", and ...

    Libermann, Ven. Francis Mary Paul

    Founder of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, which was afterwards merged in the ...

    Libraries

    Libraries, that is to say, collections of books accumulated and made accessible for public or ...

    Libri Carolini

    A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and ...

    Lichfield

    ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LICHFIELD (LICHFELDENSIS). This diocese took its rise in the conversion ...

    Lidwina, Saint

    Born at Schiedam, Holland, 18 April 1380; died 14 April, 1433. Her father, Peter by name, came of ...

    Lieber, Ernst Maria

    Born at Camberg in the Duchy of Nassau, 16 Nov., 1838; died 31 March, 1902. He was the principal ...

    Lieber, Moriz

    Politician and publicist, b. at the castle of Blankenheim in the Eifel, 1 Oct., 1790, d. at ...

    Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold

    Catholic theologian, b., at Molsheim in Alsace 12 Oct., 1759; 4. at Strasburg, 11 Nov., 1844. ...

    Liesborn

    A former noted Benedictine Abbey in Westphalia, Germany, founded in 815; suppressed in 1803. ...

    Liesborn, Master of

    A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...

    Liessies

    A Benedictine monastery near Avesnes, in the Diocese of Cambrai, France (Nord), founded about ...

    Life

    (Greek zoe ; Latin vita ; French La vie , German Das Leben ; vital principle; Greek ...

    Ligamen

    ( Latin for bond ). The existing marriage tie which constitutes in canon law a public ...

    Lights

    Upon the subject of the liturgical use of lights, as an adjunct of the services of the Church, ...

    Ligugé

    A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Poitiers, France, was founded about the year A.D. 360, ...

    Liguori, Saint Alphonsus

    Born at Marianella, near Naples, 27 September, 1696; died at Nocera de' Pagani, 1 August, 1787. ...

    Lilienfeld

    Lilienfeld, a Cistercian Abbey fifteen miles south of St. Polten, Lower Austria, was founded ...

    Lilius, Aloisius

    Aloisius Lilius, principal author of the Gregorian Calendar, was a native of Cirò or ...

    Lille

    The ancient capital of Flanders, now the chief town of the Département du Nord in France. ...

    Lillooet Indians

    An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, in southern British Columbia, formerly holding a ...

    Lima

    (Limana). The city of Lima, in the Department of the same name, is the capital of the Republic ...

    Limbo

    (Late Latin limbus ) a word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally "hem" or "border," as ...

    Limbourg, Pol de

    A French miniaturist. With his two brothers, he flourished at Paris at the end of the fourteenth ...

    Limburg

    (L IMBURGENSIS ) Diocese in the Kingdom of Prussia, suffragan of Freiburg. I. HISTORY ...

    Limerick

    (LIMERICENSIS) Diocese in Ireland ; includes the greater part of the County of Limerick and ...

    Limoges

    (LEMOVICENSIS). Diocese comprising the Departments of Haute Vienne and Creuse in France. ...

    Limyra

    Limyra, a titular see of Lycia, was a small city on the southern coast of Lycia, on the Limyrus, ...

    Linacre, Thomas

    English physician and clergyman, founder of the Royal College of Physicians, London, b. at ...

    Linares

    [Or MONTEREY or NUEVO LEÓN; ARCHDIOCESE OF (DE LINARES)] In 1777, at the request of ...

    Lincoln

    (LINCOLNIENSIS) Suffragan of Dubuque, erected 2 August, 1887, to include that part of the ...

    Lincoln

    ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LINCOLN (LINCOLNIENSIS). This see was founded by St. Theodore, Archbishop ...

    Lindanus, William Damasus

    (VAN LINDA) Bishop of Ruremonde and of Ghent, b. at Dordrecht, in 1525; d. at Ghent, 2 ...

    Linde, Justin Timotheus Balthasar, Freiherr von

    Hessian jurist and stateman, b. in the village of Brilon, Westphalia, 7 Aug., 1797; d. at Bonn ...

    Lindemann, Wilhelm

    A Catholic historian of German literature, b. at Schonnebeck near Essen, 17 December, 1828; d. ...

    Lindisfarne, Ancient Diocese and Monastery of

    (Lindisfarnensis). The island of Lindisfarne lies some two miles off the Northumberland coast, ...

    Lindores, Benedictine Abbey of

    On the River Tay, near Newburgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon, ...

    Line, Saint Anne

    English martyr, d. 27 Feb., 1601. She was the daughter of William Heigham of Dunmow, Essex, a ...

    Linens, Altar

    The altar-linens are the corporal, pall, purificator, and finger- towels. The Blessed Sacrament ...

    Lingard, John

    English priest and historian b. at Winchester, 5 February, 1771; d. at Hornby, 17 July, 1851. He ...

    Linköping, Ancient See of

    (LINCOPIA; LINCOPENSIS.) Located in Sweden ; originally included Östergötland, the ...

    Linoe

    A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, known only from the "Notitiae Episcopatuum" which mention ...

    Linus, Pope Saint

    (Reigned about A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79). All the ancient records of the Roman bishops ...

    Linz

    D IOCESE OF L INZ (L INCIENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vienna . I. HISTORY ...

    Lippe

    One of the Confederate States of the German Empire. The occasional use of the designation "Lippe ...

    Lippi, Filippino

    Italian painter, son of Filippo Lippi, b. at Prato, in 1458; d. at Florence 18 April, 1515. His ...

    Lippi, Filippo

    Italian painter, b. at Florence about 1406; d. at Spoleto, 9 October, 1469. Left an orphan at ...

    Lippomano, Luigi

    ( Or Aloisius Lipomanus Lippomano). A cardinal, hagiographer, b. in 1500; d. 15 August, ...

    Lipsanotheca

    A term sometimes used synonymously with reliquary, but signifying, more correctly, the little box ...

    Lipsius, Justus

    (JOSSE LIPS) A philologian and humanist of the Netherlands, b. at Overyssche, 18 Oct., ...

    Lisbon

    Patriarchate of Lisbon (Lisbonensis). Includes the districts of Lisbon and Santarem. The area ...

    Lismore

    DIOCESE OF LISMORE (LISMORENSIS) The Diocese of Lismore extends over a territory of 21,000 ...

    Lismore and Waterford

    (Waterfordiensis et Lismorensis), suffragan of Cashel. This diocese is almost coterminous with ...

    Lismore, School of

    As the School of Armagh in the North of Ireland, and that of Clonmacnoise in the centre, so the ...

    Lister, Thomas

    ( alias Thomas Butler) Jesuit writer, b. in Lancashire, about 1559; d. in England, probably ...

    Liszt, Franz

    Admittedly the greatest pianist in the annals of music, and a composer whose status in musical ...

    Litany

    (Latin litania , letania , from Greek lite , prayer or supplication) A litany is a ...

    Litany of Loreto

    Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

    Litany of the Holy Name

    An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

    Litany of the Saints

    The model of all other litanies, of great antiquity. HISTORY It was used in the "Litania ...

    Literature, English

    It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

    Lithuania

    ( German Litauen ) An ancient grandy-duchy united with Poland in the fourteenth century. ...

    Lithuanians in the United States

    The Lithuanians ( Lietuvys ; adjective, lietuviskas ) are a people of Russia, occupying the ...

    Litta

    A noble Milanese family which gave two distinguished cardinals to the Church. I. ALFONSO ...

    Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assissi

    Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

    Little Office of Our Lady

    A liturgical devotion to the Blessed Virgin, in imitation of, and in addition to, the Divine ...

    Little Rock

    (PETRICULANA) The State of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, parts of the Louisiana ...

    Littré, Paul-Maximilien-Emile

    A French lexicographer and philosopher ; born at Paris, 1 February, 1801; died there, 2 June, ...

    Liturgical Books

    Under this name we understand all the books, published by the authority of any church, that ...

    Liturgical Chant

    Taking these words in their ordinary acceptation, it is easy to settle the meaning of "liturgical ...

    Liturgy

    The various Christian liturgies are described each under its own name. ( See ALEXANDRINE ...

    Liturgy of Jerusalem

    The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...

    Liturgy of the Hours

    ("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

    Liutprand of Cremona

    (Or L UIDPRAND ). Bishop and historian, b. at the beginning of the tenth century; d. after ...

    Liverpool

    Diocese of Liverpool/a>/Liverpolium (Liverpolitana). One of the thirteen dioceses into ...

    Livias

    A titular see in Palestina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is twice mentioned in the Bible ...

    Livorno

    (LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

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    Ll 4

    Llancarvan

    Llancarvan, Glamorganshire, Wales, was a college and monastery founded apparently about the ...

    Llandaff

    ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LLANDAFF (LANDAVENSIS) The origins of this see are to be found in the sixth ...

    Llanthony Priory

    A monastery of Augustinian Canons, situated amongst the Black Mountains of South Wales, nine ...

    Lloyd, Saint John

    Welsh priest and martyr, executed at Cardiff, 22 July, 1679. He took the missionary oath at ...

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    Lo 73

    Loaisa, Garcia de

    Cardinal and Archbishop of Seville, b. in Talavera, Spain, c. 1479; d. at Madrid, 21 April, ...

    Loango

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF LOANGO (LOWER FRENCH CONGO). Formerly included in the great Kingdom of ...

    Loaves of Proposition

    Heb. "bread of the faces", i.e. "bread of the presence (of Yahweh )" ( Exodus 35:13 ; 39:35 , ...

    Lobbes, Benedictine Abbey of

    Located in Hainault, Belgium, founded about 650, by St. Landelin, a converted brigand, so that ...

    Lobera, Ann

    (Better known as V ENERABLE A NN OF J ESUS ). Carmelite nun, companion of St. Teresa; ...

    Loccum

    (LUCCA, LOCKEN, LOCKWEEN, LYKE, LYCKO) A Cistercian abbey in the Diocese of Minden, formerly ...

    Lochleven

    (From leamhan , an elm-tree) Lochleven, a lake in Kinross-shire, Scotland, an island of ...

    Lochner, Stephen

    A painter, born at Meersburg, on the Lake of Constance, date of birth unknown; died at ...

    Loci Theologici

    Loci theologici or loci communes , are the common topics of discussion in theology. As ...

    Locke, Matthew

    Composer; born at Exeter, in 1629; died August, 1677. He was a chorister of Exeter Cathedral ...

    Lockhart, William

    Son of the Rev. Alexander Lockhart of Waringham, Surry; b. 22 Aug., 1820; d. at St. Etheldreda's ...

    Lockwood, Venerable John

    Venerable John Lockwood, priest and martyr, born about 1555; died at York, 13 April, 1642. He ...

    Lodi

    (LAUDENSIS) A suffragan of Milan. Lodi, the capital of a district in the Province of Milan, ...

    Logia, Jesu

    Found partly in the Inspired Books of the New Testament, partly in uninspired writings. The ...

    Logic

    Logic is the science and art which so directs the mind in the process of reasoning and ...

    Logos, The

    The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the ...

    Lohel, Johann

    (JOHANN LOHELIUS) Archbishop of Prague, b. at Eger, Bohemia, 1549; d. 2 Nov., 1622. Of poor ...

    Lohner, Tobias

    Born 13 March, 1619, at Neuötting in the Diocese of Salzburg ; died 26 (probably) May, ...

    Loja, Diocese of

    (Lojana), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, includes the greater part of the Provinces of Loja and El ...

    Lollards

    The name given to the followers of John Wyclif, an heretical body numerous in England in the ...

    Loménie de Brienne, Etienne-Charles de

    French cardinal and statesman; b. at Paris, 1727; d. at Sens, 1794. He was of noble lineage, ...

    Loman, Saint

    Bishop of Trim in Ireland, nephew of St. Patrick, was remarkable as being the first placed over ...

    Lombard, Peter

    Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

    Lombard, Peter

    Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Waterford, about 1555; d. at Rome, 1625; belonged to a respectable ...

    Lombardy

    A word derived from Longobardia and used during the Middle Ages to designate the country ruled ...

    London (England)

    London, the capital of England and chief city of the British Empire, is situated about fifty ...

    London (Ontario)

    DIOCESE OF LONDON (LONDINENSIS) Diocese in Canada, established 21 February, 1855; see ...

    Longstreet, James

    Soldier and Catholic convert. Born 8 January, 1821, at Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.A.; died ...

    Lope de Vega Carpio, Félix de

    Poet and dramatist, b. at Madrid, 1562; d. 23 Aug., 1635. With Lope de Vega begins the era of ...

    Lopez-Caro, Francisco

    Spanish artist, b. at Seville in 1598; d. at Madrid in 1662; he was a pupil of Juan de Las ...

    Lord's Prayer

    Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

    Lorea

    Titular see in the province of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The city figures in the different ...

    Lorenzana, Francisco Antonio de

    Cardinal, b. 22 Sept., 1722 at Leon in Spain ; d. 17 April, 1804, at Rome. After the completion ...

    Lorenzetti, Pietro and Ambrogio

    Sienese painters. The time of their birth and death is not known. Their dated works extend ...

    Lorenzo da Brindisi, Saint

    (Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

    Loreto, Holy House of

    (The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

    Loreto, Litany of

    Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

    Lorette

    (Full name, Notre-Dame de la Jeune Lorette , "Our Lady of New Loretto") An Indian village ...

    Lorrain, Claude de

    French painter and etcher, b. in 1600 at Chamagnc on the banks of the Moselle in Lorraine ; d. ...

    Lorraine

    I. ORIGIN By the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided in three ...

    Lorsch Abbey

    ( Laureshamense Monasterium , called also Laurissa and Lauresham ). One of the most ...

    Loryma

    A titular see of Caria, small fortified town and harbour on the coast of Caria, not far from ...

    Los Angeles and Monterey

    DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...

    Lossada, Luis de

    Philosopher, b. at Quiroga, Asturias, Spain in 1681; d. at Salamanca, in 1748. He entered the ...

    Lossen, Karl August

    German petrologist and geologist, born at Kreuznach (Rhine Province), 5 January, 1841; died at ...

    Lot

    Son of Abraham's brother Aran ( Genesis 11:27 ), therefore Abraham's nephew (his "brother": ...

    Lottery

    A lottery is one of the aleatory contracts and is commonly defined as a distribution of prizes by ...

    Lotti, Antonio

    Composer, born at Venice in 1667; died there, 5 January, 1740 and studied under Legrenzi, ...

    Lotto, Lorenzo

    Italian portrait painter, born at Venice, 1480; died at Loreto, 1556. This eminent artist was ...

    Loucheux

    The would-be Kuchin of some ethnologists, and the Tukudh of the Protestant missionaries; ...

    Louis Allemand, Blessed

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Arles, whose name has been written in a great variety of ways (Alamanus, ...

    Louis Bertrand, Saint

    Born at Valencia, Spain, 1 Jan., 1526; died 9 Oct., 1581. His patents were Juan Bertrand and ...

    Louis IX, Saint

    King of France, son of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile, born at Poissy, 25 April, 1215; died ...

    Louis of Casoria, Venerable

    Friar Minor and founder of the Frati Bigi; b. at Casoria, near Naples, 11 March, 1814; d. at ...

    Louis of Granada, Venerable

    Theologian, writer, and preacher; b. of very humble parentage at Granada, Spain, 1505; d. at ...

    Louis of Toulouse, Saint

    Bishop of Toulouse, generally represented vested in pontifical garments and holding a book and a ...

    Louis XIV

    King of France, b. at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 September, 1638; d. at Versailles, 1 September, ...

    Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Saint

    Missionary in Brittany and Vendee; born at Montfort, 31 January, 1673; died at Saint Laurent sur ...

    Louise de Marillac Le Gras, Venerable

    Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

    Louise, Sister

    Educator and organizer, b. at Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, 14 Nov., 1813; d. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 3 ...

    Louisiana

    I. COLONIAL The history of Louisiana forms an important part of the history of the United ...

    Louisville, Diocese of

    Comprises that part of Kentucky west of the Kentucky River and western borders of Carroll, Owen, ...

    Lourdes, Brothers of Our Lady of

    (Abbreviation C.N.D.L. — Congregation de Notre-Dame de Lourdes) A community devoted to ...

    Lourdes, Notre-Dame de

    Notre-Dame de Lourdes, in the Department of Hautes Pyrenées, France, is far-famed for the ...

    Louvain, University of

    In order to restore the splendour of Louvain, capital of his Duchy of Brabant, John IV of the ...

    Love, Theological Virtue of

    The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul ( 1 Corinthians 13:13 ), ...

    Low Church

    The name given to one of the three parties or doctrinal tendencies that prevail in the ...

    Low Sunday

    The first Sunday after Easter. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it is apparently ...

    Lower California, Vicariate Apostolic of

    Includes the territory of that name in Mexico (Sp. Baja or Vieja California ), a peninsula ...

    Lower Criticism

    The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

    Loyola University (Chicago)

    Loyola University is the outgrowth of St. Ignatius College, founded by the Jesuits in 1869 for ...

    Loyola University (New Orleans)

    Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, is (1912) the only Catholic university in what is ...

    Loyola, Saint Ignatius

    Youngest son of Don Beltrán Yañez de Oñez y Loyola and Marina Saenz de Lieona ...

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    Lu 49

    Luçon

    Diocese of Luçon (Lucionensis). Embraces the Department of La Vendée. It was ...

    Lublin

    DIOCESE OF LUBLIN (LUBLINENSIS). The city of Lublin is in Russian Poland, capital of the ...

    Luca, Giovanni Battista de

    A Cardinal and Italian canonist of the seventeenth century, b. at Venusia, Southern Italy, in ...

    Lucas, Frederick

    A member of Parliament and journalist, b. in Westminster, 30 March, 1812, d. at Staines, ...

    Lucca

    ARCHDIOCESE OF LUCCA (LUCENSIS). Lucca, the capital of the like named province in Tuscany, ...

    Lucera

    DIOCESE OF LUCERA (LUCERINENSIS). Lucera is a very ancient city in the province of Foggia in ...

    Lucerne

    Chief town of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The beginnings of the town, as well as the ...

    Lucian of Antioch

    A priest of the Church of Antioch who suffered martyrdom (7 January, 312), during the reign ...

    Lucic, John

    (Or LUCIUS) Croatian historian, b. early in the seventeenth century, at Trojir, or Tragurion, ...

    Lucifer

    ( Hebrew helel ; Septuagint heosphoros , Vulgate lucifer ) The name Lucifer ...

    Lucifer of Cagliari

    (LUCIFER CALARITANUS) A bishop, who must have been born in the early years of the fourth ...

    Lucina, Crypt of

    The traditional title of the most ancient section of the catacomb of St. Callistus. According to ...

    Lucius I, Pope Saint

    Reigned 253-254; died at Rome, 5 March, 254. After the death of St. Cornelius , who died in ...

    Lucius II, Pope

    (Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso) Born at Bologna, unknown date, died at Rome, 15 February, ...

    Lucius III, Pope

    (Ubaldo Allucingoli) Born at Lucca, unknown date ; died at Verona, 25 Notaember, 1185. ...

    Lucy, Saint

    A virgin and martyr of Syracuse in Sicily, whose feast is celebrated by Latins and ...

    Ludger, Saint

    (Lüdiger or Liudger) Missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, first Bishop of Munster ...

    Ludmilla, Saint

    Wife of Boriwoi, the first Christian Duke of Bohemia, b. at Mielnik, c. 860; d. at Tetin, near ...

    Ludolph of Saxony

    (Ludolph the Carthusian ). An ecclesiastical writer of the fourteenth century, date of ...

    Ludovicus a S. Carolo

    (LUDOVICUS JACOB) Carmelite writer, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne (according to some at ...

    Lueger, Karl

    A burgomaster of Vienna, Austrian political leader and municipal reformer, born at Vienna, 24 ...

    Lugo

    DIOCESE OF LUGO (LUCENSIS) Diocese in Galicia, Spain, a suffragan of Santiago, said to have ...

    Lugo, Francisco de

    Jesuit theologian, b. at Madrid, 1580; d. at Valladolid, 17 September, 1652. he was the elder ...

    Lugo, John de

    Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, one of the most eminent theologians of modern times, b. at ...

    Lugos

    Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Fogaras and Alba Julia of the Uniat-Rumanian Rite, was ...

    Luini, Bernardino

    Milanese painter, b. between 1470 and 1480; d. after 1530. The actual facts known respecting the ...

    Luke, Gospel of Saint

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Biography of Saint Luke ...

    Lulé Indians

    A name which has given rise to considerable confusion and dispute in Argentine ethnology, owing ...

    Lully, Jean-Baptiste

    Composer, b. near Florence in 1633; d. at Paris, 22 March, 1687. He was brought to France when ...

    Lully, Raymond

    (RAMON LULL) "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, ...

    Lumen Christi

    The versicle chanted by the deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle. After ...

    Luminare

    (A word which gives in the plural luminaria and has hence been incorrectly written in the ...

    Lummi Indians

    (Abbreviated from Nuglummi , about equivalent to "people", the name used by themselves). ...

    Lumper, Gottfried

    Benedictine patristic writer, born 6 Feb., 1747, at Füssen in Bavaria ; died 8 March, ...

    Luna, Pedro de

    Antipope under the name of Benedict XIII, b. at Illueca, Aragon, 1328; d. at the ...

    Lund

    [LUNDA; LONDUNUM (LONDINUM) GOTHORUM (SCANORUM, SCANDINORUM, or DANORUM)]. In the Län of ...

    Lunette

    The lunette, known in Germany as the lunula and also as the melchisedech, is a crescent-shaped ...

    Luni-Sarzana-Brugnato

    Diocese in the province of Genoa. Luni (originally Luna) was an Etruscan city, but was seized by ...

    Lupus

    (SERVATUS LUPUS, LOUP) Abbot of Ferrières, French Benedictine writer, b. in the ...

    Lupus, Christian

    (WOLF) Historian, b. at Ypres (Flanders), 23 July, 1612; d. at Louvain, 10 July, 1681. He ...

    Luscinius, Ottmar

    (NACHTGALL) An Alsatian Humanist, b. at Strasburg, 1487; d. at Freiburg, 1537. After ...

    Lusignan, Jean-Baptiste-Alphonse

    French-Canadian writer, b. at St-Denis on the Richelieu, P.Q., 27 September, 1843; d. 5 January, ...

    Lussy, Melchior

    Statesman, b. at Stans, Canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland, 1529; d. there 14 Nov., 1606. Even in ...

    Lust

    The inordinate craving for, or indulgence of, the carnal pleasure which is experienced in the ...

    Luther, Martin

    Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany ; born at Eisleben, 10 ...

    Lutheranism

    The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant ...

    Lutzk, Zhitomir, and Kamenetz, Diocese of

    (LUCEORIENSIS, ZYTOMIRIENSIS, ET CAMENECENSIS). Diocese located in Little Russia. Its present ...

    Luxemburg

    The small remnant of the old duchy of this name and since 11 May, 1867, an independent neutral ...

    Luxeuil Abbey

    Situated in the Department of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, in the Diocese of ...

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    Ly 13

    Lycopolis

    A titular see in Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoë. As Siout or Siaout it played a ...

    Lydda

    A titular see of Palestina Prima in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The town was formerly ...

    Lydgate, John

    Born at Lydgate, Suffolk, about 1370; d. probably about 1450. He entered the Benedictine abbey ...

    Lying

    Lying, as defined by St. Thomas Aquinas , is a statement at variance with the mind . This ...

    Lynch, John

    Historian, b. at Galway, Ireland, 1599; d. in France, 1673; was the son of Alexander Lynch, who ...

    Lyndwood, William

    Bishop of St. David's and the greatest of English canonists, b. about 1375; d. in 1446. He had ...

    Lyons, Archdiocese of

    The Archdiocese of Lyons (Lugdunensis) comprises the Department of the Rhône (except the ...

    Lyons, Councils of (Introduction)

    Previous to 1313 the Abbé Martin counts no less than twenty-eight synods or councils held ...

    Lyons, First Council of

    Innocent IV, threatened by Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyons 2 December, 1244, and early in ...

    Lyons, Second Council of

    The Second Council of Lyons was one of the most largely attended of conciliar assemblies, there ...

    Lyrba

    A titular see of Pamphylia Prima, known by its coins and the mention made of it by Dionysius, ...

    Lysias

    A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, mentioned by Strabo, XII, 576, Pliny, V, 29, Ptolemy, V, 2, ...

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