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Josue (Joshua)

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books.

  • ( 'Oseé ), a Bethsamite in whose field the ark stood on its way back from the land of the Philistines to Juda ( 1 Samuel 6:14, 18 ).
  • ( 'Iesoûs ), governor of Jerusalem whose idolatrous altars were destroyed by King Josias, during the latter's attempts to undo the evil wrought by his father Amon and grandfather Manasses ( 2 Kings 22:8 ).
  • ( 'Iesoûs ), the son of Josedec and the high- priest who returned with Zorobabel from the Babylonian Captivity to Jerusalem ( Ezra 2:2 ; Nehemiah 7:7 ; 21:1 ). In I and II Esd. the Vulgate calls him Josue; in Agg. and Zach., Jesus. He assisted Zorobabel in rebuilding the Temple, and was most zealous for the restoration of the religion of Israel ( Ezra 3:2, 8 ; 4:3 ; 5:2 ). It was he whom Zacharias saw in vision stripped of filthy garments and clothed in clean robes and mitre, while the angel of the Lord proclaimed the high- priest the type of the coming Messias ( Zechariah 3 ).
  • ( 'Iesoué, 'Iesoû ), a head of the family of Phahath Moab, one of the families named in the list of Israelites that returned from the Babylonian Exile ( Ezra 2:6 ; Nehemiah 7:11 ).
  • ( 'Iesoî 'Iesoû ), a head of the priestly family of Idaia, maybe the high- priest Josue mentioned above ( Ezra 2:36 ; Nehemiah 7:39 ).
  • ( 'Iesoûs, 'Iesoû ), the name of a priestly family descended from Oduia, as also of various heads of that family after the Exile ( Ezra 2:40 ; 3:9 ; 8:33 ; Nehemiah 3:19 ; 7:43 ; 8:7 ; 9:4, 5 ; 12:8 , Vulg. Jesua; 12:24 ).
  • ( 'Iesía ), one of the sons of Herem who were ordered to put away their wives taken from the land of the stranger ( Ezra 10:31 ).
  • (First called Osee ; Septuagint 'Iesoûs, first A&úsé ), the son of Nun ; the genealogy of the family is given in I Par., vii, 20-27; it belonged to the tribe of Ephraim. Josue commanded the army of Israel, after the Exodus, in its battle with Amalec ( Exodus 17:9-13 ), was called the minister of Moses (xxiv, 13), accompanied the great lawgiver to and from Mount Sinai (xxxi, 17) and into the tabernacle of the covenant (xxxiii, 11), and acted as one of twelve spies whom Moses sent to view the land of Chanaan ( Numbers 13:9 ). On this occasion Moses changed his servant's name from Osee to Josue ( Numbers 13:17 ). The new name most likely means "Jahweh is salvation ". Josue and Caleb alone spoke well of the land, even though the people wished to stone them for not murmuring and these two lived on ( Numbers 14:38 ). Josue was chosen by God to succeed Moses. The words of the choice show the character of the chosen ( Numbers 27:17-18 ). Before Eleazar and all the assembly of the people Moses laid hands on Josue. Later this soldier was proposed by Moses to the people to lead them into the land beyond the Jordan ( Deuteronomy 31:3 ), and was ordered by the Lord to do so (xxxi, 23). After the death of Moses, Josue was filled with the spirit of wisdom and was obeyed by the children of Israel ( Deuteronomy 34:9 ). The rest of story of Josue is told in the Book of Josue.
  • THE BOOK OF JOSHUA

    The sixth book of the Old Testament ; in the plan of the critics, the last book of the Hexateuch (see P ENTATEUCH ). In the Fathers, the book is often called "Jesus Nave". The name dates from the time of Origen, who translated the Hebrew "son of Nun " by uìòs Nauê and insisted upon the Nave as a type of a ship; hence in the name Jesus Nave many of the Fathers see the type of Jesus, the Ship wherin the world is saved.

    (1) Contents

    The Book of Josue contains two parts: the conquest of the promised land and the division thereof. (a) The Conquest (i- xii). Josue enters the land of promise, after being assured by spies that the way is safe. It is the tenth day of the first month, forty-one years since the Exodus. The channel of the Jordan is dry during the passage of Israel (i-iii) A monument is erected in the midst of the Jordan, and one at Galgal, to commemorate the miracle. Josue camps at Galgal (iv). The Israelites born during the wandering are circumcised ; the pasch is eaten the first time in the land of promise; the manna ceases to fall; Josue is strengthened by the vision of an angel (v). The walls of Jericho fall without a blow; the city is sacked; its inhabitants are put to death ; only the family of Rahab is spared (vi). Israel goes up against Hai. The crime of Achan causes defeat. Josue punishes that crime and takes Hai (vii-viii, 29); sets up an altar on Mount Hebal; subjugates the Gabaonites (viii, 30-ix), defeats the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jerimoth, Lachis, and Eglon; captures and destroys Maceda, Lebna, Lachis, Eglon, Hebron, Dabir, and the South even to Gaza ; marches North and defeats the combined forces of the kings at the waters of Meron (x-xii). (b) The Division of the Land among the Tribes of Israel (xiii-xxii). Epilogue: last message and death of Josue (xxiii and xxiv).

    (2) Canonicity

    (a) In the Jewish canon Josue is among the Early Prophets Josue, Judges, and the four Books of Kings. It was not grouped with the Pentateuch, chiefly because, unlike Exodus and Leviticus, it contained no Torah, or law ; also because the five books of the Torah were assigned to Moses (see P ENTATEUCH ). (b) In the Christian canon Josue has ever held the same place as in the Jewish canon.

    (3)Unity

    Non-Catholics have almost all followed the critics in the question of the "Hexateuch"; even the conservative Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible ", ed. 1909, takes it for granted that Josue (Joshua) is a post-Exile patchwork. The first part (i-xii) is made up of two documents, probably J and E (Jehovistic and Elohistic elements), put together by J E and later revised by the Deuterocanonical editor (D); to this latter is assigned all of the first chapter. Very little of this portion is the work of P (the compiler of the Priestly Code). In the second part (xiii-xxii) the critics are uncertain as to whether the last editing was the work of the Deuteronomic or the Priestly editor; they agree in this that the same hands those of J, E, D, and P are at work in both parts, and that the portions which must be assigned to P have characteristics which are not at all found in his work in the Pentateuch. The final redaction is post-Exilic a work done about 440-400 B.C. Such in brief is the theory of the critics, who differ here as elsewhere in the matter of the details assigned to the various writers and the order of the editing, which all assume was certainly done. (See G. A. Smith and Welch in Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible ", large and small editions respectively, s. v. "Joshua"; Moore in Cheyne, "Encyc. Bibl."; Wellhausen, "Die Composition des Hexateuchs und der historischen Bücher des A. T.", Berlin, 1889; Driver, "Introd. to Lit. of O.T.", New York, 1892, 96.)

    The Jews knew no such Hexateuch, no such six books set together by a final editor; they always kept a marked distinction between the Pentateuch and Josue, and rather linked Josue with Judges than with Deuteronomy. The well-known preface to Ecclesiasticus (Septuagint) separates the "Law" from the "Prophets". The Samaritans have the Torah entirely separate from the recently discovered Samaritan Josue.

    Catholics almost universally defend the unity of Josue. It is true that before the decree of the Biblical Commission on the question of the multiple authorship of the Pentateuch, some Catholics assigned Josue, as well as the five Mosaic books, to J, E, D, and P. Catholic Biblical scholars favour the pre-Exilic unity of composition of Josue and its editorial independence of the Pentateuch. This independence is shown by the completeness and originality of the plan of the book. We have seen the unity of this plan Josue's conquest and division of the promised land. The purpose is clear to carry on the history of the chosen people after the death of Moses. The purpose of the Pentateuch was very different to codify the laws of the chosen people as well as to sum up their primitive history. No laws are codified in Josue. The critics argue that the death of Moses leaves a void to be filled up, i.e. the conquest of the land of promise, and therefore postulate this conquest for the historical, if not for the legal, completeness of the Pentateuch. Such an hypothesis would justify one in postulating also that the history of the conquest after the death of Josue be needed for the historical completeness of the Pentateuch. Again, the completeness of Josue's narrative of the conquest of the promised land is clear from the fact that it repeats data which are already given in the Pentateuch and are details of that conquest. The orders of Moses to the children of Ruben and of Gad are clear cut in the Pentateuch ( Numbers 32:20 sqq. ); so, too, is the execution of these orders by the Rubenites and Gadites in the lands of the Amorrhites and of Basan ( Numbers 32:33-38 ). If Josue is part of the composite and late composition which the critics make the Mosaic books out to be, how comes it that these very data concerning the children of Ruben and of Gad are repeated by the supposititious Deuteronomic D¹ or D² when he comes to set together the J and E and P of Josue? Why does he break in upon his continued narrative (see Joshua 1:12 ; 13:15-28 )? Why this useless repetition of the same names, if not because of the unity of composition of Josue? Why are the cities of refuge given again (cf. 20:8; Deuteronomy 4:41 sqq. )? To answer these and similar difficulties, the critics have recourse to an uncritical subterfuge D¹ or D² was not brought up in the school of modern criticism; hence his blunderings. We cannot accept so uncritical and free-handed a writer as the God-chosen and inspired editor of the Pentateuch and Josue. For a full refutation of the critics, see Cornely, "Introd. Specialis in Hist. V. T. Libros", II (Paris, 1887, 177).

    (4) Authorship

    (a) The Book of Josue was certainly written before the time of David, for the Chanaanite still dwelt in Gazer (xvi, 10), the Jebusite in Jerusalem (xv, 63), and Sidon held supremacy in Phoenicia (xiv, 28); whereas, before the time of Solomon, the Egyptians had driven the Chanaanite from Gazer ( 1 Kings 9:16 ), David had captured Jerusalem in the eighth year of his reign ( 2 Samuel 5:5 ), and Tyre (twelfth century B.C. ) had supplanted Sidon in the supremacy of Phoenicia. Moreover, in David's time, no writer could have set down his allies the Phoenicians among the peoples to be destroyed (xiii, 6). (b) Internal evidence favours the view that the author lived not long after the death of Josue. The territory assigned to each tribe is very exactly described. Only the land allotted to Ephraim is set down (xvi, 5), since occupation was delayed (xvii, 16); on the other hand, we are told not only the portion of land allotted to Juda and Benjamin, but the cities they had captured (xv, 1 sqq.; xviii, 11 sqq.); as for the other tribes, the progress they had made in winning the cities of their lot is told us with an accuracy which could not be explained were we to admit that the narrative is post-Exilic in its final redaction. Only the inadmissible bungling of the uncritical D¹ or D² will serve to explain away this argument. (c) The question remains: Did Josue write all save the epilogue? Catholics are divided. Most of the Fathers seem to have taken it for granted that the author is Josue; still there have ever been Catholics who assigned the work to some one shortly after the death of the great leader. Theodoret (In Jos., q. xiv), Pseudo-Athanasius (Synopsis Sacr. Scrip.), Tostatus (In Jos., i, q. xiii; vii), Maes ("Josue Imperatoris Historia", Antwerp, 1574), Haneberg ("Gesch. der bibl. Offenbarung", Ratisbon, 1863, 202), Danko ("Hist. Rev. Div. V. T.", Vienna, 1862, 200), Meignan ("De Moïse à David ", Paris, 1896, 335), and many other Catholic authors admit that the Book of Josue contains signs of later editing; but all insist that this editing was done before the Exile.

    (5) Historicity

    The Biblical Commission (15 Feb., 1909) has decreed the historicity of the primitive narrative of Genesis 1-3 ; a fortiori it will not tolerate that a Catholic deny the historicity of Josue. The chief objection of rationalists to the historical worth of the book is the almost overwhelming force of the miraculous therein; this objection has no worth to the Catholic exegete. Other objections are forestalled in the treatment of the authenticity of the work. Full answer to the rationalistic objections will be found in the standard works of Catholics on introduction. Saints Paul ( Hebrews 11:30-31 ; 13:5 ), James (ii, 25), and Stephen ( Acts 7:45 ), the tradition of the Synagogue and of the Church accept the Book of Josue as historical. To the Fathers Josue is an historical person and a type of the Messias. As an antidote to accusations that Josue was cruel and murderous, etc., one should read the Assyrian and Egyptian accounts of the almost contemporary treatment of the vanquished. St. Augustine solved the rationalistic difficulty by saying that the abominations of the Chanaanites merited the punishment which God, as Master of the world, meted out to them by the hand of Israel (In Hept., III, 56; P.L., XXXIV, 702, 816). These abominations of phallic worship and infant sacrifice have been proven by the excavations of the Palestine Exploration Fund at Gazer.

    (6) Text

    The Septuagint is preserved in two different recensions the Alexandrian (A) and Vatican (B) and varies considerably from the Masorah ; the Vulgate often differs from all three (iii, 4; iv, 3, 13; v, 6). The Samaritan Josue recently discovered, resembles the Sept. more closely than the Masorah.

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    One of the books of the Old Testament , and the chief personage in it. In this article it is ...

    Jocelin

    Cistercian monk and Bishop of Glasgow ; d. at Melrose Abbey in 1199. On 22 April, 1170, ...

    Jocelin de Brakelond

    An English chronicler, of the late twelfth century. He was the monk of Bury St. Edmund's ...

    Jocelin of Wells

    (Or JOSCELINE) Bishop of Bath and Wells (JOCELINUS THOTEMAN), d. 19 Nov., 1242. He was ...

    Joel

    The son of Phatuel, and second in the list of the twelve Minor Prophets. Nothing is known of his ...

    Joest, Jan

    (V AN K ALKAR ). Otherwise JAN JOOST VAN CALCKER. Dutch painter, b. at Calcker, or ...

    Jogues, Saint Isaac

    French missionary, born at Orléans, France, 10 January, 1607; martyred at Ossernenon, ...

    John and Cyrus, Saints

    Celebrated martyrs of the Coptic Church, surnamed thaumatourgoi anargyroi because they healed ...

    John and Paul, Saints

    Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

    John Baptist de la Salle, Saint

    Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...

    John Baptist de Rossi, Saint

    (De Rubeis). Born at Voltaggio in the Diocese of Genoa, 22 February, 1698; died at Rome, 23 ...

    John Beche, Blessed

    ( Alias THOMAS MARSHALL). English Benedictine abbot and martyr ; date of birth unknown; ...

    John Berchmans, Saint

    Born at Diest in Brabant, 13 March, 1599; died at Rome, 13 August, 1621. His parents watched ...

    John Bosco, Saint

    ( Or St. John Bosco; Don Bosco.) Founder of the Salesian Society. Born of poor parents in ...

    John Boste, Saint

    (Or JOHN BOAST.) Priest and martyr, b. of good Catholic family at Dufton, in Westmoreland, ...

    John Britton, Venerable

    (Or Bretton). A layman and martyr, of all ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in ...

    John Buckley, Venerable

    ( Alias John Jones; alias John Griffith; in religion, Godfrey Maurice). Priest and martyr, ...

    John Cantius, Saint

    Born at Kenty, near Oswiecim, Diocese of Krakow, Poland, 1412 (or 1403); died at Krakow, 1473, ...

    John Capistran, Saint

    Born at Capistrano, in the Diocese of Sulmona, Italy, 1385; died 23 October, 1456. His father had ...

    John Chrysostom, Saint

    ( Chrysostomos , "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). Doctor of the ...

    John Climacus, Saint

    Also surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, and THE SINAITA, b. doubtlessly in Syria, about 525; d. on Mount ...

    John Colombini, Blessed

    Founder of the Congregation of Jesuati; b. at Siena, Upper Italy, about 1300; d. on the way to ...

    John Cornelius and Companions, Venerable

    John Cornelius (called also Mohun) was born of Irish parents at Bodmin, in Cornwall, on the ...

    John Damascene, Saint

    Born at Damascus, about 676; died some time between 754 and 787. The only extant life of the ...

    John de Britto, Blessed

    Martyr ; born in Lisbon, 1 March, 1647, and was brought up in court; martyred in India 11 ...

    John Felton, Blessed

    Martyr, date and place of birth unknown, was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 8 ...

    John Fisher, Saint

    Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, and martyr ; born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1459 ...

    John Forest, Blessed

    Born in 1471, presumably at Oxford, where his surname was then not unknown; suffered 22 May, ...

    John Francis Regis, Saint

    Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...

    John Hambley, Venerable

    English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...

    John I, Pope Saint

    Died at Ravenna on 18 or 19 May (according to the most popular calculation), 526. A Tuscan by ...

    John II, Pope

    (533-535). The date of the birth of this pope is not known. He was a Roman and the son of ...

    John III, Pope

    (561-574). A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574. He was of a distinguished family, ...

    John Ingram, Venerable

    English martyr, born at Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, in 1565; executed at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 ...

    John IV, Pope

    (640-642). A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. The ...

    John IX, Pope

    (898-900). Not only is the date of John's birth unknown, but the date of his election as ...

    John Joseph of the Cross, Saint

    Born on the Island of Ischia, Southern Italy, 1654; d. 5 March, 1739. From his earliest years ...

    John Larke, Blessed

    English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

    John Malalas

    A Monophysite Byzantine chronicler of the sixth century, born at Antioch where he spent most if ...

    John Nelson, Blessed

    English Jesuit martyr, b. at Skelton, four miles from York, in 1534; d. at Tyburn, 3 February, ...

    John Nepomucene, Saint

    Born at Nepomuk about 1340; died 20 March, 1393. The controversy concerning the identity of John ...

    John of Antioch

    There are four persons commonly known by this name. I John, Patriarch of Antioch ...

    John of Avila, Blessed

    Apostolic preacher of Andalusia and author, b. at Almodóvar del Campo, a small town in ...

    John of Beverley, Saint

    Bishop of Hexham and afterwards of York; b. at Harpham, in the East Riding of Yorkshire; d. at ...

    John of Biclaro

    (Johannes Biclariensis.) Chronicler, born in Portugal, probably about the middle of the sixth ...

    John of Cornwall

    (JOHANNES CORNUBIENSIS, JOHANNES DE SANCTO GERMANO). John of Cornwall lived about 1176. He was ...

    John of Ephesus

    (Also known as JOHN OF ASIA). The earliest, and a very famous, Syriac historian. He was born ...

    John of Fécamp

    (Also known as JEANNELIN on account of his diminutive stature). Ascetic writer, b. near Ravenna ...

    John of Falkenberg

    Author, b. at Falkenberg, Pomerania, Prussia, date unknown; d. about 1418 in Italy &151; ...

    John of Fermo, Blessed

    More often called JOHN OF LA VERNA, from his long sojourn on that holy mountain, b. at Fermo ...

    John of Genoa

    (Often called Balbi, or de Balbis.) Grammarian; born at Genoa, date unknown; died there ...

    John of God, Saint

    Born at Montemor o Novo, Portugal, 8 March, 1495, of devout Christian parents ; died at ...

    John of Hauteville

    Moralist and satirical poet of the twelfth century (flourished about 1184). Little is known of his ...

    John of Janduno

    An Averroistic philosopher, theologian, and political writer of the fourteenth century. John of ...

    John of Montecorvino

    A Franciscan and founder of the Catholic mission in China, b. at Montecorvino in Southern ...

    John of Montesono

    Theologian and controversialist, born at Monzón, Spain ; dates of birth and death ...

    John of Nikiû

    An Egyptian chronicler who flourished in the latter part of the seventh century. The little we ...

    John of Paris

    ( Called also Quidort and de Soardis). Theologian and controversialist; born at Paris, ...

    John of Parma, Blessed

    Minister General of the Friars Minor (1247-1257), b. at Parma about 1209; d. at Camerino 19 ...

    John of Ragusa

    (Sometimes confounded with John of Segovia ). A Dominican theologian, president of the ...

    John of Roquetaillade (de Rupescissa)

    Franciscan alchemist, date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1362. After pursuing the ...

    John of Rupella

    Franciscan theologian, b. at La Rochelle (Rupella), towards the end of the twelfth century; d. ...

    John of Sahagun, Saint

    Hermit, b. 1419, at Sahagún (or San Fagondez) in the Kingdom of Leon, in Spain ; d. 11 ...

    John of Saint Thomas

    (Family name John Poinsot), theologian, born at Lisbon, 9 June, 1589; died at Fraga, Spain, 17 ...

    John of Salisbury

    (JOHANNES DE SARESBERIA, surnamed PARVUS). Born about 1115; died 1180; a distinguished ...

    John of Segovia

    A Spanish theologian, b. at Segovia towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. probably in ...

    John of the Cross, Saint

    Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b. at ...

    John of Victring

    (JOHANNES VICTORENSIS or DE VICTORIA). Chronicler, b. probably between 1270 and 1280; d. at ...

    John of Winterthur

    (Johannes Vitoduranus.) Historian, born about 1300 at Winterthur (Switzerland); died ...

    John Parvus

    Called in his day, JEHAN PETIT or LE PETIT. A French theologian and professor in the ...

    John Payne, Blessed

    Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

    John Rigby, Saint

    English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

    John Roberts, Saint

    First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

    John Rochester, Blessed

    Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

    John Sarkander, Blessed

    Martyr of the seal of confession, born at Skotschau in Austrian Silesia, 20 Dec., 1576; died at ...

    John Scholasticus

    ( ho Scholastikos ; also called J OHN OF A NTIOCH ) Patriarch of Constantinople (J OHN ...

    John Shert, Blessed

    A native of Cheshire; took the degree of B.A. at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1566. Successively ...

    John Stone, Blessed

    English martyr, executed at the Dane-John, Canterbury, probably in December, 1539, for denying ...

    John Story, Blessed

    ( Or Storey.) Martyr ; born 1504; died at Tyburn, 1 June, 1571. He was educated at ...

    John Talaia

    Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (481-482) at the time of the Monophysite troubles. He had ...

    John the Almsgiver, Saint

    (JOANNES ELEEMOSYNARIUS; JOANNES MISERICORS). Patriarch of Alexandria (606-16), b. at Amathus ...

    John the Baptist, Saint

    The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are ...

    John the Deacon

    (J OHANNES D IACONUS ). Among the writers of the Middle Ages who bear this name, four ...

    John the Evangelist, Saint

    I. New Testament Accounts II. The Alleged Presbyter John III. The Later Accounts of John IV. Feasts ...

    John the Faster

    ( ‘o nesteutés, jejunator ) Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), ...

    John the Silent, Saint

    (Hesychastes, Silentiarius). Bishop of Colonia, in Armenia, b. at Nicopolis, Armenia, 8 ...

    John Twenge, Saint

    Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

    John V, Pope

    (685-686). A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 ...

    John VI, Pope

    (701-705). A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705. He ascended the ...

    John VII, Pope

    (705-707). The year of his birth is unknown; d. 18 October, 707. Few particulars of his life ...

    John VIII, Pope

    (Reigned 872-82) A Roman and the son of Gundus. He seems to have been born in the first ...

    John X, Pope

    Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928. First a deacon, he became ...

    John XI, Pope

    Date of birth unknown, became pope in 931; d. 936. He was the son of Marozia by her first ...

    John XII, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64. The younger Alberic, after the downfall of his mother, ...

    John XIII, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972. After the death of John XII ...

    John XIV, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; d. 984. After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, ...

    John XIX (XX), Pope

    Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032. After the death of the last patricius of the House of Crescentius, ...

    John XV (XVI), Pope

    Enthroned 985; d. April, 996. After John XIV had been removed by force, the usurper, Boniface ...

    John XVI (XVII)

    Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013. After the death of John XV, Bruno, a relative of Otto ...

    John XVII (XVIII), Pope

    Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003. When Sylvester II died on 12 May, 1003, there was no ...

    John XVIII (XIX), Pope

    Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009. He was the son of a Roman ...

    John XXI (XX), Pope

    Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277. The son ...

    John XXII, Pope

    (JACQUES D'EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 ...

    John XXIII

    Antipope of the Pisan party (1400-15), b. about 1370; d. 22 November, 1419. Cardinal Baldassare ...

    John, Epistles of

    Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. The subject will ...

    John, Gospel of

    This subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Contents and Scheme of the ...

    Johnson, Blessed Robert

    Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

    Johnson, Blessed Thomas

    Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

    Johnson, Lionel Pigot

    Born at Broadstairs on the Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; died 4 Oct., 1902. He was the youngest ...

    Johnston, Richard Malcolm

    Educator, author, b. 8 March, 1822, at Powellton, Georgia, U.S.A.; d. at Baltimore, Maryland, 23 ...

    Joinville, Jean, Sire de

    Seneschal of Champagne, historian, b. in 1225; d. at Joinville, 1317. His family held an ...

    Joliet, Louis

    (Or JOLLIET). Louis Joliet, a discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, ...

    Joliette

    (JOLIETTENSIS). Diocese created by Pius X , 27 January, 1904 by division of the Archdiocese ...

    Jolly, Philipp Johann Gustav von

    German physicist, born at Mannheim, 26 September, 1809; died at Munich, 24 December, 1884. His ...

    Jonas

    The fifth of the Minor Prophets. The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the ...

    Jonas of Bobbio

    (Or Jonas of Susa ) Monk and hagiographer, b. about the close of the sixth century at ...

    Jonas of Orléans

    Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, born in Aquitaine; died in 843 or 844. From 818, when he ...

    Jonathan

    (Hebrew, " Yahweh hath given", cf. Theodore; Septuagint 'Ionáthan .) Name of several ...

    Jones, Inigo

    A famous English architect, b. 15 July, 1573, in London ; d. 21 June, 1652, and was buried in ...

    Jones, Venerable Edward

    Priest and martyr, b. in the Diocese of St. Asaph, Wales, date unknown; d. in London, 6 May ...

    Jordan, The

    (In Hebrew Yâdên, from the root Yârâd, to descend). The difference ...

    Jordanis

    Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...

    Jordanus of Giano

    (DE JANO). Italian Minorite, b. at Giano in the Valley of Spoleto, c. 1195; d. after 1262. ...

    Jornandes

    Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...

    Josaphat

    ( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...

    Josaphat and Barlaam

    The principal characters of a legend of Christian antiquity, which was a favourite subject of ...

    Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint

    Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...

    Josaphat, Valley of

    (JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...

    Joseph

    The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes ...

    Joseph Calasanctius of the Mother of God, Pious Workers of Saint

    Founded at Vienna, 24 November, 1889, by Father Anton Maria Schwartz for all works of charity, ...

    Joseph Calasanctius, Saint

    Called in religion "a Matre Dei", founder of the Piarists, b. 11 Sept., 1556, at the castle of ...

    Joseph II

    (1741-90). German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and ...

    Joseph of Arimathea

    All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels. He was born ...

    Joseph of Cupertino, Saint

    Mystic, born 17 June, 1603; died at Osimo 18 September, 1663; feast, 18 September. Joseph ...

    Joseph of Exeter

    (JOSEPHUS ISCANUS.) A twelfth-century Latin poet; b. at Exeter, England. About 1180 he went ...

    Joseph of Issachar

    A man of the tribe of Issachar, and the father of Igal who was one of the spies sent by Moses ...

    Joseph of Leonessa, Saint

    In the world named Eufranio Desiderio; born in 1556 at Leonessa in Umbria; died 4 February, ...

    Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, Saint

    This organization began its labours in 1871, when four young priests from Mill Hill were put in ...

    Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, Saint

    (Mill Hill, London, N.W.) A society of priests and laymen whose object is to labour for ...

    Joseph, Saint

    Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ . LIFE Sources ...

    Joseph, Sisters of Saint

    CONGREGATION OF THE SISTERS OF ST. JOSEPH Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. ...

    Josephites

    (Sons of St. Joseph) A congregation devoted to the Christian education of youth, founded in ...

    Josephus, Flavius

    Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem ; died about 101. He belonged to a distinguished ...

    Joshua

    The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...

    Josias

    (J OSIAH – Hebrew for " Yahweh supports"; Septuagint 'Iosías ). A pious ...

    Josue

    The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...

    Joubert, Joseph

    French philosopher ; b. at Martignac (Dordogne), 7 May, 1754, d. at Villeneuve-le-Roi (Yonne), 4 ...

    Jouffroy, Claude-François-Dorothée de

    M ARQUIS d' A BBANS . Mechanician, b. at Abbans, near Besançon, 30 Sept., 1751; d. ...

    Jouffroy, Jean de

    French prelate and statesman; b. at Luxeuil (Franche-Comté) about 1412; d. at the priory ...

    Jouin, Louis

    Linguist, philosopher, author, b. at Berlin, 14 June, 1818, d. at New York, 10 June, 1899. He ...

    Jouvancy, Joseph de

    (JOSEPHUS JUVENCIUS). Poet, pedagogue, philologist, and historian, b. at Paris, 14 September, ...

    Jouvenet, Jean

    Surnamed T HE G REAT . French painter, b. at Rouen in 1644, d. at Paris, 5 April, 1717. ...

    Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de

    (Also written JOVE-LLANOS). Spanish statesman and man of letters, at Gijon, Asturias, 5 Jan., ...

    Jovianus, Flavius Claudius

    Roman Emperor, 363-4. After the death of Julian the Apostate (26 June, 363), the army making ...

    Jovinianus

    An opponent of Christian asceticism in the fourth century, condemned as a heretic (390). Our ...

    Jovius, Paulus

    (GIOVIO). Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552. Having ...

    Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de

    Born in 1563 and not, as is mistakenly stated in the "Biographic Michaud ", in 1567; died at ...

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    Ju 57

    Juan Bautista de Toledo

    An eminent Spanish sculptor and architect; b. at Madrid (date not known); d. there 19 May, ...

    Jubilate Sunday

    The third Sunday after Easter, being so named from the first word of the Introit at Mass ...

    Jubilee, Holy Year of

    The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

    Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew)

    According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that ...

    Jubilees, Book of

    ( ta Iobelaia ). An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and ...

    Juda

    The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the ...

    Judaism

    At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...

    Judaizers

    (From Greek Ioudaizo , to adopt Jewish customs -- Esther 8:17 ; Galatians 2:14 ). A ...

    Judas Iscariot

    The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master . The name Judas ( Ioudas ) is the Greek form of ...

    Judas Machabeus

    Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...

    Judde, Claude

    French preacher and spiritual father; born at Rouen, about 20 December, 1661; died at Paris, ...

    Jude, Epistle of Saint

    The present subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Author and the ...

    Judea

    Like the adjective Ioudaios , the noun Ioudaia comes from the Aramæan Iehûdai ...

    Judge, Ecclesiastical

    (J UDEX E CCLESIASTICUS ) An ecclesiastical person who possesses ecclesiastical ...

    Judges, The Book of

    The seventh book of the Old Testament , second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon. I. ...

    Judgment, Divine

    This subject will be treated under two heads: I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively ...

    Judgment, General

    (Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

    Judgment, Last

    (Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

    Judgment, Particular

    A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

    Judica Sunday

    Name given to the fifth Sunday of Lent, and derived from the first words of the Introit of ...

    Judith, Book of

    HISTORY Nabuchodonosor, King of Nineveh, sends his general Holofernes to subdue the Jews. The ...

    Julia Billiart, Saint

    ( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

    Julian and Basilissa, Saints

    Husband and wife; died at Antioch or, more probably, at Antinoe, in the reign of Diocletian, ...

    Julian of Eclanum

    Born about 386; died in Sicily, 454; the most learned among the leaders of the Pelagian ...

    Julian of Speyer

    Often called J ULIANUS T EUTONICUS . A famous composer, poet, and historian of the ...

    Julian the Apostate

    (FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS). Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, ...

    Juliana Falconieri, Saint

    Born in 1270; died 12 June, 1341. Juliana belonged to the noble Florentine family of Falconieri. ...

    Juliana of Liège, Saint

    Nun, b. at Retinnes, near Liège, Belgium, 1193; d. at Fosses, 5 April, 1258. At the age ...

    Juliana of Norwich

    English mystic of the fourteenth century, author or recipient of the vision contained in the book ...

    Juliana, Saint

    Suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution. Both the Latin and Greek Churches mention ...

    Julie Billiart, Saint

    ( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

    Juliopolis

    Titular see in the province of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicaea. The city was founded under ...

    Julitta and Quiricus

    Martyred under Diocletian. The names of these two martyrs, who in the early Church enjoyed a ...

    Julius Africanus

    (c. 160-c. 240; the full name is Sextus Iulius Africanus, Greek Sextos Ioulios Aphrikanos ). ...

    Julius I, Pope Saint

    (337-352). The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for ...

    Julius II, Pope

    (GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE). Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 ...

    Julius III, Pope

    (GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE). Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555. ...

    Jumièges, Abbey of

    Jumièges, situated on the north bank of the Seine, between Duclair and Caudebec, in ...

    Junípero Serra

    Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, ...

    Jungmann, Bernard

    A dogmatic theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Münster in Westphalia, 1 ...

    Jungmann, Josef

    Born 12 Nov., 1830, at Münster, Westphalia ; died at Innsbruck, 25 Nov., 1885. In 1850 he ...

    Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical

    The right to guide and rule the Church of God. The subject is here treated under the following ...

    Jus Spolii

    (RIGHT OF SPOIL; also called JUS EXUVIARUM and RAPITE CAPITE) Jus Spolii, a claim, exercised in ...

    Jussieu, De

    Name of five French botanists. (1) ANTOINE DE JUSSIEU, physician and botanist, b. at Lyons, ...

    Juste

    The name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors, whose real name was Betti, ...

    Justice

    Justice is here taken in its ordinary and proper sense to signify the most important of the ...

    Justification

    (Latin justificatio ; Greek dikaiosis .) A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the ...

    Justin de Jacobis, Blessed

    Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis, h. at San Fele, Province of ...

    Justin Martyr, Saint

    Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about ...

    Justina and Cyprian, Saints

    Christians of Antioch who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian at ...

    Justinian I

    Roman Emperor (527-65) Flavius Anicius Julianus Justinianus was born about 483 at Tauresium ...

    Justiniani, Benedetto

    (GIUSTINIANI). Theological and Biblical writer, born at Genoa, about the year 1550; died at ...

    Justiniani, Nicholas

    Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...

    Justinianopolis

    A titular see of Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebaste. This see is better known in history ...

    Justus, Saint

    Fourth Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 627 (?). For the particulars of his life we are almost ...

    Juvencus, C. Vettius Aquilinus

    Christian Latin poet of the fourth century. Of his life we know only what St. Jerome tells us ...

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