Skip to content

Greek Catholics in America

The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States some twenty-five years ago [1884]. Occasionally a priest of that rite from Syria came to America to ask assistance for his people who were struggling amid the Moslems, but while his visit was a matter of curiosity, his rite and the peoples who followed it were wholly unknown to American Catholics. To-day, however, emigration has increased to such an extent and is drawn from so many lands and peoples that there are representatives of most of the Eastern rites in America, and particularly those of the Greek Rite. These have lately arrived in large numbers and have erected their churches all over the country. The chief races which have brought the Greek Rite with them to the United States are the various Slavs of Austro-Hungary, and they are now approaching such a position of material well-being and intellectual development as to be reckoned with as one of the factors of Catholic life in the United States. Other races have also brought the Greek Rite with them and established it where they have settled. The advent of the Slavs into the United States really commenced about 1879-1880. Those of the Greek Rite came from the north-eastern portion of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, where they inhabited chiefly the northern and southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, which form the boundary line between Galicia and Hungary. The first of the new-corners were miners in the coal districts. During the troublous times in Pennsylvania, from 1871 to 1879, when the "Molly Maguires" terrorized the mining districts and practically defied the authority of the State, the various coal companies determined to look abroad for foreign labour to replace their lawless workmen, and so they introduced the Austrian Slav to the mining regions of Pennsylvania. His success in wage-earning induced his countrymen to follow, and the coal companies and iron-masters of Pennsylvania were quick to avail themselves of the new and less costly labour. This was before any of the present contract labour laws were enacted. The Slav was willing to work for longer hours than the English-speaking labourer, to perform heavier work, and to stolidly put up with inconveniences which his predecessor would not brook. He came from a land in which he had originally been a serf (serfdom was abolished in Austria-Hungary in 1848, and in Russia in 1861), then a degraded poverty-stricken peasant with hardly anything to call his own, and it was no wonder that America seemed to offer him boundless opportunity to earn a living and improve his condition. At first he was a cheap man ; but in the course of a very short time the Slav became not a mere pair of strong hands, but a skilled worker, and as such he drove out his competitors, and his success drew still more of his countrymen across the sea. In the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania there were in 1880 but some 1900 Slavs ; in 1890, over 40,000; and in 1900, upwards of 81,000. The same proportion holds good of the bituminous coal-mining districts and of the iron regions in that and other states. Taking simply the past four years (1905-1908), the immigration of the Slovaks and Ruthenians, both of the Greek Catholic Rite, has amounted to 215,972. This leaves out of consideration the immigration (147,675) of the Croatians and Slavonians for the same period, though a considerable portion of them are also of the Greek Rite. These Slavs brought with them their Greek Catholic rites and practices, but they were illiterate, ignorant, the poorest of the poor, and knew nothing of the English language. Herding together in camps and settlements, and working like serfs at the most exhausting labour, they had but little opportunity to improve themselves or to learn the language, customs, and ways of the Americans around them, while both American and foreign-born Catholics failed to recognize in them fellow-Catholics, and so passed them scornfully by, and the American of the older stock and anti-Catholic prejudices too often held them in supreme contempt. Yet as soon as they gathered some little substance and formed a. settled community they sent for their clergy. When these arrived, they, too, were often imbued with national and racial prejudices, and knew too little of the English language and American ideas and customs to initiate immediately the progress of their people, yet they created for them churches, schools, and a branch of their native literature upon American soil, and gradually brought them into touch with the people around them. In this they were seconded by many educated laymen who also followed their countrymen, and the result has been that the Greek Rite has now been established in the United States much more solidly and with greater virility than it is in many of the dioceses in south-eastern Europe. Other races and nationalities have also established themselves besides the Slavs ; and there are in America also the Rumanians, the Syrians, and the Italians who follow the Greek Rite. But the people who have been foremost and most enthusiastic inthe support of and devotion to their Oriental Rite are the so-called Ruthenians, a name used to designate the Ruthenians proper and also those Slovaks who are their immediate neighbours. In order to understand fully their position and relations in America, some of their history and peculiarities should be given.

I. RUTHENIAN GREEK CATHOLICS

The word Ruthenian is derived from the later Latin Ruthenia, the former name for Russia, and of course the Ruthenians might well be called Russians. Indeed, the present Ruthenians declare that they are the original Russians, and that the present Russia and Russians owe their name and nation to the accident of successful conquest and assimilation. Their own name for themselves is Rusini, and it is probable that Ruthenian was merely an attempt to put this word into Latin. The word Rutheni is first found in the writings of the Polish annalist, Martinus Gallus (1190), and the Danish historian, Saxo Grammaticus (1203). The original word Rusini is derived from Rus, the abstract word for Russian fatherland or dwelling-place of the Slavic people; and the English word "Russian" may therefore mean a derivative from the word Rus, as denominating the race, or it may mean a subject of the Russian Empire. The former is russky the latter rossiisky, in the Russian and Ruthenian languages, and hence, while the first word is translated either as Russian or Ruthenian, it carries no special reference to the Russian Empire. These people are also called "Little Russians" (an expression chiefly used for them in the Russian Empire), originally an allusion to their stature as contrasted with the Muscovites. Their language is known as Ruthenian or Little Russian, and is spoken in Northern Hungary, Galicia Bukowina, and in the Provinces of Volhynia, Podolia, Chelm, and Kiev in Russia. It is quite similar to the Russian language of the Russian Empire (sometimes called Great Russian), bearing about the same relation to it as Lowland Scotch does to English, or Plattdeutsch to German, and rather closer than Portuguese does to Spanish. The Ruthenians (in Austria ) and Little Russians (in Russia ) use the Russian alphabet and write their language in almost the same orthography as the Great Russians of St. Petersburg and Moscow, but they pronounce it in many cases very differently, quite as the French and English might pronounce differently a word written the same in each language. This fact has led in late years to a recension of the Russian alphabet in Galicia and Bukowina by the governmental authorities, and by dropping some letters and adding one or two more and then spelling all the words just as they are pronounced, they have produced a new language at least to the eye. This is the "phonetic" alphabet and orthography, and as thus introduced it differentiates the Ruthenian language of these provinces more than ever from the Russian. The phonetic system of orthography is still fiercely opposed at home and in America, and as an Austrian governmental measure it is regarded by many as an effort to detach the Ruthenians from the rest of the Russian race and in a measure to Polonize them. This battle of the reformed phonetic spelling rages as fiercely in the United States as in Austria. Indeed the Greek Catholic bishop here has found it necessary to issue his official documents in both the phonetic and the etymologic spelling (as the older form is called), so as to meet the views of both parties. The phonetic spelling has never been introduced among the Ruthenians in Hungary, and their section of the language is still written in the customary form, there and in the United States. Besides the Ruthenians there are also the Slovaks who live in Northern and North-western Hungary, close neighbours to the Ruthenians, who are Greek Catholics, and who speak a language almost like the Bohemian, yet similar to the Ruthenian. It is written, however, with Roman letters, and the pronunciation follows the Bohemian more than the Ruthenian. These people seem to have been originally Ruthenian, but became gradually changed and moulded by the Bohemians and their language and for a long time wrote their language in the same manner as the Bohemian. The Bohemians, however, are in the Austrian part of the empire, while the Slovaks are in Hungary. They have emigrated to the United States in large numbers, and are about equally divided between the Greek and Roman Rites. This again necessitates the publication of church matters, prayer books, journals, etc., in the Slovak language. It illustrates the difficulties of the Greek Catholic priests in the United States since they are likely to have in their parishes Ruthenians (of the old and new orthographies), Slovaks, and even those who speak only Hungarian, having lost their Slavic tongue. It is no uncommon thing to find a Greek Catholic priest capable of speaking five languages: Ruthenian, Slovak, Hungarian, German, and English. It is these people as a whole who are comprehended under the term Ruthenian, although that term applies strictly to those speaking Russian and using the Russian alphabet. After the eleventh century the larger portion of Russians fell away from the unity of the Church in the schism of Constantinople, while a minority continued faithful to the Catholic Church, and later many more returned to unity. The Holy See, therefore, made use of the ancient word Ruthenian to designate those Russians who followed the Greek Rite in unity with the Holy See , in order to distinguish them from the Northern Russians who adhered to the schism. Later on, those Russians who joined the union under the Polish kings received the same name, and the word Ruthenian is today used exclusively to designate the Russians of Austro-Hungary, who are Greek Catholics in contradistinction to the Russians of the Russian Empire, who are of the Greek Orthodox faith.

The language of the Mass and the other liturgical services according to the Byzantine Rite is the ancient Slavonic (staroslavianski), and the Greek Liturgy was originally translated by Sts. Cyril and Methodius about the year 868, and it has remained substantially the same ever since. It is curious to notice that the Ruthenian language is much closer, both in spelling and pronunciation, to the church Slavonic than the present Russian language of St. Petersburg and Moscow. The letters in which the church books are printed are the Cyrillic, or Kirillitsa said to have been invented or, rather, adapted by St. Cyril from the Greek alphabet, together with some additional letters of his own invention. It consists of forty-three letters of archaic form as used in the church books, but has been altered and reduced in modern Russian and Ruthenian to thirty-five letters. In the year 879 Pope John VIII formally authorized the use of the Slavonic language forever in the Mass and in the whole liturgy and offices of the Church, according to the Greek Rite, and its use has been continued ever since by the Catholic and the Orthodox (schismatic) Greeks of the Slavic races. This is the language used in the Sluzhebnik (Missal), Trebnik (Ritual), Chasoslov (Book of Hours), and other church books of the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in America.

After the schism of Constantinople (1054) most of the Russians became estranged from the unity of the Church. (See under GREEK CHURCH, Vol. VI, pp. 760-62.) In 1595 the Russian bishops of Lithuania and Little Russia determined to return to unity with the Holy See, and held a council at Brest-Litovsk, at which a decree of union was adopted, and where they chose two of their number, Ignatius Potzey and Cyril Terletzki, to go to Rome and take the oath of submission to the pope. They declared that they desired to return to the full unity of the Church as it existed before the schism of Photius and Cærularius, so as to have in Russia one united Catholic Church again. No change in their rites or their calendar was required by Rome, but the whole of the ancient Greek Liturgy, service, and discipline (excepting a few schismatic saints' days and practices) was to go on as before. In December, 1595, Clement VIII solemnly ratified the union of the two Churches in the Bull "Magnus Dominus". On 6 October, 1596, the union between the Eastern and Western Churches was proclaimed and ratified in the Russian part of the Kingdom of Poland. A large number of the Russian bishops immediately went over to the union. In Chelm the Russian Bishop Zbiruiski led the way with his whole diocese, and his successor, Methodius Terletzki, was a valiant champion of the Uniat Church. This Greek Uniat Church even produced a martyr for the Faith, St. Josaphat, Archbishop of Polotzk, who was slain by the Orthodox partisans in 1633. In Galicia, however, the union was slower. While priests and congregations became Uniat, the Bishops of Peremysl and Lemberg stood out for nearly a century. But on 23 June, 1691, Innocent Vinnitzki, Bishop of Peremysl, joined the union, and in 1700 Joseph Shumlanski, Bishopof Lemberg (it was afterwards restored to metropolitan dignity by the pope in 1807), also took the oath of union with the Holy See. From that time till now the Russians on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains and on both sides of the River Dniester have been united with Rome. On the southern side of the Carpathians the Russians also accepted the union. In the year 1636 Vassili Tarasovitch, Bishop of Munkács, acknowledged the pope as the head of the Church and for it he was persecuted, imprisoned and forced to resign his see. But union with the Holy See could not be stayed by such means, and on 24 April, 1646, it was accomplished in the city of Ungvar by Peter Rostoshinski; the then Bishop of Munkács, and George Yakusitch, Bishop of Agri (Erlau). These two bishops in solemn council, with sixty three priests, abjured the schism and confessed themselves Greek clergy holding the Faith of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in communion with Rome. Since that time the Ruthenian people (including the Greek Slovaks) in the Kingdom of Hungary have acknowledged the pope as the visible head of the undivided Catholic Church.

These Ruthenians have continued to practise their ancient Greek-Slavonic rites and usages, and their forms of worship introduced into the United States seem strange to the Catholic accustomed only to the Roman Rite, and have made them objects of distrust and even active dislike, so that a few of the most salient differences may be pointed out, although a full statement will be found in the various articles on the Eastern rites, ceremonies, and vestments. The Mass itself is said in ancient Slavonic, the altar is separated from the body of the church by a high partition called the iconostasis, upon which the pictures of Christ and His Mother, as well as various saints, are placed, and the vestments of the Mass are quite different. The stole is a broad band looped around the neck and hanging straight down in front, the chasuble is cut away at the front and closely resembles the Roman cope, and instead of the maniple two broad cuffs are worn, while a broad belt takes the place of the girdle or cincture. Married men may be ordained to the diaconate and priesthood ; but bishops must be celibate, nor can a deacon or priest marry after ordination. Priests impart the Sacrament of Confirmation to children immediately after baptism, and Communion is given to the laity under both forms, the consecrated species being mingled together in the chalice and administered to the communicant with a spoon. Organs are not used in their churches, and their church year follows the Julian Calendar, which is now thirteen days behind the Gregorian calendar in use in the United States and Western Europe. Besides this, the Ruthenians (and the Russian Orthodox likewise), display the so-called "three-armed" (or Russian)  cross fashioned in this manner upon their churches and use it upon their missals, prayer-books, paintings and banners, as well as other objects. They make the sign of the cross in the reverse direction to the Roman method, and in their religious services the men and women are segregated from each other upon different sides of their churches.

It is from these people, inhabiting Galicia, Bukowina, and Hungary, that the Ruthenian Greek Catholic population has come. Their earliest immigration to the United States began in 1879, from the western portion of Galicia near the Carpathian Mountains, the so-called Lemkovschini, and then spread throughout the Galician and Hungarian sides of the mountains. At first it was hardly noticed, but it grew year by year, the earliest immigrants coming from Grybow, Gorlice, Jaslo, Neu Sandec, Krosno, and Sanok in Galicia, and from Szepes, Saros, Abauj, and Ung in Hungary, until finally the governmental authorities began to notice it. At the post offices in many of the mountain places in the Ruthenian portion of Galicia it was observed that the peasants were receiving large sums of money from their fathers, sons, or brothers in America. The news spread rapidly, the newspapers and officials taking it up, and so emigration was at once stimulated to the highest degree. Every year it has increased, and Ruthenian societies are formed here to assist their newly-arrived brethren to find employment and to give information to those at home about America.. It is impossible to tell exactly how many Ruthenian and Slovak Greek Catholics have come to the United States, because no statistics have been kept by the United States Government in regard to religious faith of immigrants, and not always accurate ones in regard to race or nationality. Still the immigration reports show that immigration from Austria-Hungary from 1861 to 1868 was annually in the hundreds; and from 1869 to 1879 it ranged from 1500 to 8000 annually; and in 1880 it suddenly rose to 17,000. From 1880 to 1908 the total immigration from Austria-Hungary to the United States amounted to 2,780,000, and about twenty percent of these were Ruthenians and Slovaks. Within the last four years (1905-1908) the immigration of the Slovaks and Ruthenians has amounted to 215,972. To this must be added the Croatians and Slavonians (117,695), a large proportion of whom are of the Greek Rite . It is estimated that there are at present in the United States between 350,000 and 400,000 Greek Catholic Ruthenians, including as such the Greek Catholic Slovaks and Croato-Slovenians. The largest number (over one-half) are in Pennsylvania, while New York, New Jersey, and Ohio have each a very large number of them, and the remainder are scattered all through the New England and Western states. From the best information obtainable in advance of the coming census of 1910 their distribution is as follows:--

Pennsylvania
New York
New Jersey
Ohio
Connecticut
Illinois
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Missouri 190,000
50,500
40,000
35,500
10,000
8,000
7,500
1,500
6,500 Indiana
Minnesota 
Colorado, Dakota,
Nebraska and 
Montana, about
West Virginia, 
Virginia and the 
Southern States, 
about 6,000
3,000
 

8,000
 
 

5,000

After the Ruthenian immigration had begun in considerable numbers, it was but natural that they should desire to establish a Church of their own rite. At Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, the Ruthenian settlement had so increased that towards the end of 1884 they sent a petition to Archbishop (afterwards Cardinal ) Sylvester Sembratovitch, Metropolitan of Lemberg praying that a Greek Catholic priest might be sent to them to found a parish of the Greek Rite at that place. The petitioners promised to build a church for him if he were sent. In the following year (1885) Rev. Ivan Volanski, of the Diocese of Lemberg, arrived in the United States the first Greek Catholic priest to take up work among his people here. On his arrival he presented himself in Philadelphia with his letters but being a married priest, he encountered great difficulty in being recognized as a Catholic priest in good standing. However, he proceeded to Shenandoah, where under great difficulties and discouragements he organgized his congregation and for about a year celebrated Mass and other services in a hired hall, for he was unable to obtain the use of the local Latin churches for Greek services. The matter of his regularity and his acceptance as a priest in Pennsylvania for the Ruthenians was finally arranged through Cardinal Sembratovitch. Early in 1886 he completed at Shenandoah a little frame church dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel, the first Greek Catholic church in America. He then organized there the first Greek Catholic Society, that of St. Nicholas, built and organized & small parochial school, and then proceeded to form congregations and to found churches in other places where the Ruthenians were thickly settled. During his stay he organized congregations and started churches at Hazleton (1887), Kingston (1888), and Olyphant (1888) in Pennsylvania, at Jersey City, New Jersey (1889), and at Minneapolis, Minnesota (1889). Finding his Ruthenian people without any reading-matter in their own language, he sent to Galicia for Russian type, and in the latter part of 1886 he obtained a few fonts from the Shevchenko printing office at Lemberg. He then commenced the publication in "phonetic" Ruthenian of a small paper issued every two weeks at Shenandoah under the name of "America". This paper lived until about 1890, but got involved in the labour troubles in the mining districts which destroyed much of its usefulness. In the spring of 1887 the Metropolitan of Lemberg sent him another priest, Rev. Zeno Lakovitch (unmarried), and a lay teacher, Volodimir Semenovitch from the University of Lemberg. Father Lakovitch laboured at Kingston and at Wilkesbarre, where he died a year later. In 1888 Rev. Constantine Andrukovitch was sent from Lemberg, and, in addition to his parochial work, he, with Father Volanski, undertook to establish a series of stores in several towns in Pennsylvania to sell goods to the Ruthenians and thus avoid the enormous prices which the mining companies charged them. The business venture was unsuccessful, and, with other matters, it caused the recall of Father Volanski to Galicia. He remained there some time, then was sent as a missionary to Brazil, where his wife died, when he returned to Galicia, where he was a parish priest until his death in 1905. This business venture also caused the suspension of Father Andrukovitch, who returned to Galicia in 1892. The next three Greek clergymen were Rev. Theophan Obushkevitch (of Galicia), Rev. Cornelius Laurisin, and Rev. Augustin Laurisin (of Hungary ), who took up their missionary work energetically. The first two are still Greek Catholic parish priests in this country. Since their coming there has been a constant accession of Ruthenian Greek priests from Galicia and Hungary, and the building of churches and schools has gone on with increasing success. Even quite costly churches have been built. In Jersey City the old church has given way to a fine stone and brick church, which is an excellent specimen of Russian architecture, while at Homestead and Shamokin, Pennsylvania, there are quite costly churches erected. Many of the Greek churches are purchases from Protestant denominations altered and rearranged for the necessities of their rite, while one or two are churches brought over from the schismatics. The first Greek Catholic Mass in New York City was celebrated in the basement of St. Brigid's church on Avenue A (which was put at the disposal of the Greeks by the late Archbishop Corrigan ), on 19 April, 1890, by the Rev. Alexander Dzubay, who is still in active parish work in America. This Greek congregation afterwards bought a church in Brooklyn (St. Elias, 1892), and there was no Ruthenian church in Manhattan until the Greek Catholic church of St. George was opened in 1905. In February, 1909, the Greek Bishop Soter bought a Protestant Episcopal church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, refitted it, and consecrated it as the Greek Cathedral of St. Mary of the Immaculate Conception , and in the adjoining parish house and rectory will also open a seminary for the education of American priests of the Greek Rite. Of course many Ruthenian settlements in various localities are too poor to build and maintain a church, nor are there just at present sufficient priests in America to attend to their spiritual needs. Still there are at present (1909) about 140 Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches in the United States and there are also ten more new ones projected for waiting congregations. Their churches are distributed as follows:--

Pennsylvania New York
Ohio
New Jersey
Connecticut
Illinois
Massachusetts 80
14
12
10
4
4
4 Indiana
Missouri
West Virginia
Minnesota
Rhode Island
Virginia 3
3
2
2
1
1

The Ruthenian Greek Catholic clergy in the United States consists (1909), of one bishop and 118 priests, originating from the following dioceses :--

Diocese Monks   Secular Clergy       Celibates Married Widowers Lemberg 4 8 5 5 Premysl   6 12 2 Stanislau   2 2 1 Eperies 2 1 13 10 Munkács   1 30 5 Kreutz   1     Scranton   1 2   Philadelphia   4     Pittsburg   1       ____
6 ____
25 ____
64 ____
23

Several of these priests are converts from the Orthodox Greek Church in the United States. As has been said, men who are already married are ordained to the diaconate and priesthood in the Greek Church, and so it naturally followed that married priests were sent to America. While a married priesthood seems repugnant to a Catholic of the Latin Rite, yet it is strongly adhered to by the Greek Catholics as vaguely a part of their nationality and Eastern Rite. All American Greek Catholic priests will hereafter be ordained from celibate candidates only, according to the provisions of the Apostolic Letter "Ea semper", which will be referred to later. The growing importance of the Greek Rite in America, the dissensions arising out of old-country political factions among the Ruthenians, which will be mentioned later on, and which occasioned serious interference with the normal growth of the Greek Church, and the increasing intensity of the efforts of the Russian Orthodox to detach the Ruthenians in America from their faith and unity (see GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH IN AMERICA ) caused the Holy Father in 1907 to provide a Greek Catholic bishop for America. Previous to this (1902) the Holy See had sent the Right Rev. Andrew Hodobay, titular abbot and canon of the Greek Diocese of Eperies, as Apostolic visitor to the Ruthenians in America, who examined the conditions of the Catholics of the Greek Rite in all parts of the United States and returned to Europe in 1906 with his report. The choice of a bishop for the Ruthenian Greek Catholics fell upon the Right Rev. Stephen Soter Ortynski, a Basilian monk, hegumenos of the monastery of St. Paul, Michaelovka, Galicia. On 12 May, 1907 he was consecrated titular Bishop of Daulia by the Most Rev. Andrew Roman Ivanovitch Scheptitzky, Greek Metropolitan of Lemberg, and the other Greek bishops of Galicia, and he arrived in America on 27 August, 1907. Shortly after his arrival (September, 1907) the Apostolic Letter "Ea semper", concerning the new bishop for the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in the United States his powers and duties, and the general constitution of the Greek Rite in America was published. It created considerable dissatisfaction among the Greek clergy and laity inasmuch as it did not provide for any diocesan power or authority for the new bishop, but placed him as an auxiliary to the Latin bishops, and as it modified several of their immemorial privileges in various ways. The Sacrament of Confirmation was thereafter to be withheld from infants at baptism, and was not to be conferred by priests, but was reserved for the bishop only (as in the Latin Rite and among the Greeks in Italy ), and married priests were not thereafter to be ordained in America or to be sent thither from abroad, while the regulations as to the marriage of persons of the two rites were also modified. The Greek Ruthenian laity saw in it an attack upon their Slavic nationality and Eastern Rite, an idea which the Russian Orthodox Church eagerly fostered and magnified. They were told by the Orthodox that the whole letter was a latinization of their Greek Rite in regard to confirmation and Holy orders, and was a nullification in America of the Decrees of the popes that their rite should be kept intact. This resulted in some losses (about 10,000) from the Ruthenians to the Russian Church, but already many of them are coming back. Matters, however, adjusted themselves, and the work of the new bishop is having good results. The whole matter of a Greek bishop in America is so far in an experimental stage, and it rests upon the extent of the current and future immigration, the stability and solidarity of the Ruthenians in their adherence to their faith and rite, as to what powers and authority their bishop shall ultimately have. Where there is an evident and actual need for it the Holy See has always granted the erection of Oriental dioceses, but where a minority of a population seems bound to become assimilated with, and eventually absorbed into, the surrounding population the case may be entirely otherwise. The newly appointed bishop has had success in establishing churches and parochial schools and in inducing his Ruthenian flock to become American citizens and identify themselves with American life while not abandoning their faith and their Eastern Rite. He aims to establish English-Ruthenian schools in each Greek parish and to open a Ruthenian American seminary at Philadelphia for the education of American-born Ruthenians as priests of the Greek Rite. There is already one American-Ruthenian priest, lately ordained. In purely theological matters they will be educated as in Latin seminaries, if not actually sent there for lectures, but in the Oriental church rites, discipline, liturgical language, music, and customs the proposed seminary will fill a place for the Ruthenians which our present diocesan seminaries do not fill. The number of church or parochial schools of the Ruthenians is about fifty, where instruction in English, Ruthenian, church catechism, and the elements of a general education is given. No organized Sunday-school system has as yet been established amongst them, nor are there any nuns or religious engaged in teaching in the United States.

In order to understand somewhat clearly the situation of the Ruthenians in America, account must be taken of their national home politics, which they bring with them and fight out often quite bitterly in this country. As already said, they are from the northern and southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. The northern Ruthenians derisively call their southern brethren "Hungarians" (Madyari), while the latter return the compliment by calling the former "Poles" (Poliaki). The point of this lies in the fact that each of the nationalities named is cordially detested by the Ruthenians on either side. But these are merely surface divisions between the two bodies of the same race. Their actual factional differences are much deeper. There may be said to be, broadly speaking, three Ruthenian parties or factions in the United States : (1) The Moscophiles, or Moskalophiles (Moskal is the Little Russian word for a Great Russian), who aim at an imitation, if not an actual adoption, of all things Russian as found in the present Empire of Russia looking towards Moscow as the seed and kernel of Russian or Slavic development, and who are strong supporters of Panslavism; (2) the Ukraintzi, or Ukrainians (the Ukraine is the adjoining border-land provinces of Russia and Galicia), who stand for the interests of the Ruthenian people in Austria and of the Little Russians in Russia, as distinct and apart from the Great Russians, and who desire to develop the Ruthenian (Little Russian) language, literature, and race along their own lines, entirely distinct and apart from that of the present-day Russian Empire; and (3) the Ugro-russki, or Hungarian Ruthenians, who keep all the old Russian racial traditions, reverencing their Russian language, literature, and ancestry as models to follow in their development, but at the same time refusing to follow the ideas of Moscow and St. Petersburg in such development, either in Hungary or in the United States. The first two parties are Galicians, the last one Slovaks and Hungarian Ruthenians. These parties are sometimes divided into smaller factions, perplexing for an outsider to understand, such as those who desire to introduce the Hungarian language and customs, even using Hungarian in the liturgy of the Church. It is needless to say that none of these larger parties ever agree upon any one subject other than their Slavic nationality and Greek Rite. The Moscophiles often unite with the Greek Orthodox and Russian societies upon the slightest pretext when Russo-Slavic ideals are to be proclaimed, and are fiercely against everything that does not look Russiaward, for Russia is their big brother. On the other hand the Ukraintzi will have nothing to do with modern Russia ; it is behind the age and lags in the march of civilization; and they have besides offended both the other parties by adopting the "phonetic" style of spelling. This offence seems to be intensified because the new Greek bishop is somewhat of their way of thinking. The Ugro-russki are violently opposed to whatever does not accord with the racial views and traditions of the Ruthenian and Slovak people within the borders of Hungary, and do not agree with the views and actions of either of the other two parties. Consequently, the Greek Catholic bishop has to publish his official communications in Ruthenian, both phonetic and old-style, and in Slovak, in order to reach all his people.

Of course these Greek Catholics of such varied views have organized into societies. Each church has its own local religious and singing societies, but there are other and larger bodies known as "brotherhoods" or lodges (bratstva), which have been of great assistance in building up the Ruthenian churches. They are usually of the nature of mutual benefit societies, assist in finding work, helping in religious matters and the like, having always the Greek Rite and the Ruthenian race as their main inspiration. Some of them provide that their members must show that they have made their Easter communion or forfeit membership, and provide for the dropping of a member when he ceases to be a Catholic. These brotherhoods or lodges are combined into a general federation or union which takes in the whole United States . It has its annual convention composed of delegates from the various brotherhoods and always has some well-known Greek Catholic priest as its spiritual director. The largest and oldest of these federated societies is the "Soyedineniya Greko-Kaftolicheskikh Russkikh Bra

More Volume: G 539

Click/Touch the sub-volume below to view encyclopedia articles within the sub-volume.

7

Gédoyn, Nicolas

A French translator and literary critic; b. at Orléans, 17 June, 1667; d. 10 August, 1744, ...

Génebrard, Gilbert

A learned Benedictine exegete and Orientalist, b. 12 December, 1535, at Riom, in the department ...

Génicot, Edward

Moral theologian, b. at Antwerp, Belgium, 18 June, 1856; d. at Louvain, 21 February, 1900. After ...

Géramb, Baron Ferdinand de

In religion, Brother Mary Joseph; Abbot and procurator-general of La Trappe, came of a noble and ...

Gérando, Joseph-Marie de

A French statesman and writer, born at Lyons, 29 February, 1772; died at Paris, 10 November, ...

Gérard, Abbot of Brogne, Saint

Born at Staves in the county of Namur, towards the end of the ninth century; died at Brogne or ...

Géry, Saint

(Latin Gaugericus ). Bishop of Cambrai - Arras ; b. of Roman parents, Gaudentius and ...

× Close

1

Gómara, Francisco Lopez de

( Or GOMORA.) Born at Seville, Spain, in 1510; studied at the University of Alcalá, ...

× Close

4

Görres, Guido

Historian, publicist, and poet; b. at Coblenz on 28 May, 1805; d. at Munich on 14 July, 1852. He ...

Görres, Johann Joseph

Born at Coblenz, in the heart of the Rhine country, 25 January, 1776; died at Munich, 29 January, ...

Görz

( Italian GORIZIA; Slovene GORICA). Capital of the Austrian crown-land Görz and ...

Göttweig, Abbey of

(GOTTWEIH, GOTTVICUM, GOTTVICENSE). A Benedictine abbey situated on a hill of the same name, ...

× Close

3

Gügler, Joseph Heinrich Aloysius

Born at Udligerschwyl, near Lucerne, Switzerland, 25 August, 1782; died at Lucerne, 28 February, ...

Günther of Cologne

(also GUNTHAR) An archbishop of that city, died 8 July, 873. He belonged to a noble ...

Günther, Anton

Philosopher ; b. 17 Nov., 1783, at Lindenau, near Leitmeritz, Bohemia ; d. at Vienna, 24 ...

× Close

Ga 103

Gabala

A titular see of Syria Prima. Ten bishops of this city are known between 325 and 553, the ...

Gabbatha

The Aramaic appellation of a place in Jerusalem, designated also under the Greek name of ...

Gaboon

V ICARIATE A POSTOLIC OF G ABUN Formerly called the Vicariate Apostolic of the Two ...

Gabriel Possenti, Blessed

Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

Gabriel Sionita

A learned Maronite, famous for his share in the publication of the Parisian polyglot of the ...

Gabriel the Archangel, Saint

"Fortitudo Dei", one of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible . Only four appearances of ...

Gabriel, Brothers of Saint

The Congregation of the Brothers of Christian Instruction of St. Gabriel was originally founded ...

Gad

( , fortune, luck). A proper name which designates in the Bible , (I), a patriarch; (II), a ...

Gadara

A titular see of Palaestina Prima; there were two sees of this name, one in Palaestina Prima, ...

Gaddi, Agnolo, Giovanni, and Taddeo

Florentine artists, Taddeo being the father of Agnolo and Giovanni. The dates of their birth ...

Gaeta

ARCHDIOCESE OF GAETA (CAIETANA). Archdiocese in the province of Caserta in Campania (Southern ...

Gaetano, Saint

(GAETANO.) Founder of the Theatines, born October, 1480 at Vicenza in Venetian territory; ...

Gagarin, Ivan Sergejewitch

Gagarin was of the princely Russian family which traces its origin to the ancient rulers of ...

Gagliardi, Achille

Ascetic writer and spiritual director ; born at Padua, Italy, in 1537; died at Modena, 6 ...

Gahan, William

A priest and author; born 5 June, 1732, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Dublin ; died ...

Gaillard, Claude Ferdinand

A French engraver and painter ; b. at Paris, 7 Jan., 1834; d. there, 27 Jan., 1887. His early ...

Gal, Saint

Of the ninety-eight bishops who have occupied the see of Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergne) the ...

Galantini, Ippolito, Blessed

Founder of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine of Florence; b. at Florence of obscure ...

Galatians, Epistle to the

GALATIA In the course of centuries, gallic tribes, related to those that invaded Italy and ...

Galatino, Pietro Colonna

Friar Minor, philosopher, theologian, Orientalist ; b. at Galatia (now Cajazzo) in Apulia; d. at ...

Galerius, Valerius Maximianus

Galerius, a native of Illyria, was made Caesar 1 March, 293, by Diocletian, whose daughter ...

Galien, Joseph

Dominican, professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Avignon, meteorologist, ...

Galilee

( Septuagint and New Testament Galilaia ). The native land of Jesus Christ, where He began ...

Galilei, Alessandro

An eminent Florentine architect ; born 1691; died 1737. Having attained some distinction, he ...

Galilei, Galileo

Generally called GALILEO. Born at Pisa, 15 February, 1564; died 8 January, 1642. His father, ...

Galitzin, Elizabeth

Princess, religious of the Sacred Heart ; born at St. Petersburg, 22 February, 1797; died in ...

Gall, Abbey of Saint

In Switzerland, Canton St. Gall, 30 miles southeast of Constance ; for many centuries one of ...

Gall, Saint

(GALLUS; in the most ancient manuscript he is called GALLO, GALLONUS, GALLUNUS, and sometimes ...

Galla

Vicariate Apostolic embracing the territory of the Galla or Oromo tribes in Abyssinia. In its ...

Galla, Saint

A Roman widow of the sixth century; feast, 5 October. According to St. Gregory the Great ...

Gallait, Louis

Flemish painter ; born at Tournai, 10 May, 1810; died in Brussels, 20 November, 1887. He ...

Galland, Antoine

French Orientalist and numismatist, b. at Rollot, near Montdidier, in Picardy, 1646, d. at ...

Gallandi, Andrea

Oratorian and patristic scholar, born at Venice, 7 December, 1709; died there 12 January, 1779, ...

Galle

DIOCESE OF GALLE (GALLENSIS). Diocese in Ceylon, created by Leo XIII 25 Aug., 1893, by ...

Gallego, Juan Nicasio

Priest and poet; born at Zamora, Spain, 14 December, 1777; died at Madrid, 9 January, 1853; ...

Galletti, Pietro Luigi

Benedictine, historian and archaeologist; b. at Rome in 1724; d. there, 13 December, 1790. He ...

Gallia Christiana

A documentary catalogue or list, with brief historical notices, of all the dioceses and ...

Gallican Rite, The

This subject will be treated under the following six heads: I. History and Origin; II. ...

Gallicanism

This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the ...

Gallicanus, Saints

The following saints of this name are commemorated on 25 June: (1) St. Gallicanus Roman ...

Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius

Roman emperor; b. about 218; d. at Milan, 4 March, 268; appointed regent by his father Valerian ...

Gallifet, Joseph de

Priest ; b. near Aix, France, 2 May 1663; d. at Lyons, 1 September, 1749. He entered the ...

Gallipoli

DIOCESE OF GALLIPOLI (GALLIPOLITANA). Diocese in the province of Lecce (Southern Italy ). ...

Gallitzin, Adele Amalie

(Or GOLYZIN). Princess; b. at Berlin, 28 Aug., 1748; d. at Angelmodde, near Münster, ...

Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine

Prince, priest, and missionary, born at The Hague, Holland, 22 December, 1770; died at Loretto, ...

Galloway, Diocese of

(Gallovidiana). Situated in the southwest of Scotland. It comprises the Counties of Dumfries, ...

Galluppi, Pasquale

Philosopher, b. at Tropea, in Calabria, 2 April, 1770; d. at Naples, 13 Dec., 1846, where from ...

Gallwey, Peter

Born at Killarney, 13 Nov., 1820; d. in London, 23 Sept., 1906; one of the best-known London ...

Galtelli-Nuoro

(Galtellinensis-Norensis) Diocese in the province of Sassari (Sardinia), on a hill of the ...

Galura, Bernhard

Prince- Bishop of Brixen ; b. 21 August, 1764, at Herbolzheim, Bresigau; d. 17 May, 1856. After ...

Galvani, Luigi

Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798. It was his ...

Galveston

DIOCESE OF GALVESTON (GALVESTONIENSIS). The Diocese of Galveston was established in 1847 and ...

Galway and Kilmacduagh

DIOCESE OF GALWAY AND KILMACDUAGH (GALVIENSIS ET DUACENSIS). Diocese in Ireland ; an ...

Gama, Vasco da

The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, ...

Gamaliel

(Greek form of the Hebrew name meaning "reward of God "). The name designates in the New ...

Gamans, Jean

Born 8 July, 1606, at Ahrweiler (according to other sources at Neuenahr, about two miles from ...

Gambling

Gambling , or gaming , is the staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game ...

Gams, Pius Bonifacius

An ecclesiastical historian, b. at Mittelbuch, Würtemberg, 23 January, 1816; d. Munich, ...

Gandolphy, Peter

(Or Gandolphi.) Jesuit preacher; b. in London, 26 July, 1779; d. at East Sheen, Surrey, 9 ...

Gangra

A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia; in the native tongue the word signifies goat, and ...

Gansfort, John Wessel

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Gap

(VAPINCENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Aix, includes the department of the Hautes-Alpes. ...

García Moreno, Gabriel

Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 ...

García, Anne

Better known as Venerable Anne of St. Bartholomew, Discalced Carmelite nun, companion of St. ...

Garcia, Saint Gonsalo

Born of a Portuguese father and a Canarese mother in Bassein, East India, about the year 1556 or ...

Garcilasso de la Vega

Spanish lyric poet; b. at Toledo, 6 Feb., 1503; d. at Nice, 14 Oct., 1536. A noble and a ...

Garcilasso de la Vega

Historian of Peru ; b. at Cuzco, Peru, 12 April, 1539; d. at Córdoba, Spain, c. 1617. The ...

Gardellini, Aloisio

Born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1759; died there, 8 Oct., 1829. He is famous chiefly for his collection of ...

Garesché, Julius Peter

Soldier; born 26 April, 1821, near Havana, Cuba; killed at the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, ...

Garet, Jean

Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Havre about 1627; died at ...

Gargara

A titular see in the province of Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The city appears to have been ...

Garin, André

An Oblate missionary and parish priest, born 7 May, 1822, at Côte-Saint-André, ...

Garland

A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and ...

Garland, John

An English poet and grammarian, who lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. He tells us ...

Garlick, Venerable Nicholas

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...

Garneau, François-Xavier

A French Canadian historian, b. at Quebec, 15 June, 1809, of François-Xavier Garneau and ...

Garnet, Henry

(Garnett.) English martyr, b. 1553-4; d. 1606, son of Brian Garnet, master of Nottingham ...

Garnet, Saint Thomas

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Garnier, Charles

Jesuit Missionary, born at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; died 7 December, 1649. He ...

Garnier, Jean

Church historian, patristic scholar, and moral theologian ; b. at Paris, 11 Nov., 1612; d. at ...

Garnier, Julien

Jesuit missionary, born at Connerai, France, 6 January, 1642; d. in Quebec, 1730. He entered ...

Garrucci, Raffaele

A historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, 22 January, 1812; d. at Rome, 5 May, 1885. He ...

Garzon

(GARZONENSIS.) Suffragan diocese of Popayan in the Republic of Colombia . It comprises the ...

Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed

Founder of the Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood (C.P.P.S.); b. at Rome on the feast of ...

Gaspe, Philippe-Aubert de

A French Canadian writer, b. at Quebec, 30 Oct., 1786, of a family ennobled by Louis XIV in ...

Gassendi, Pierre

(GASSENDY, GASSEND.) A French philosopher and scientist ; b. at Champtercier, a country ...

Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph

An Austrian sculptor, b. 22 Nov., 1816 at Prägraten, Tyrol; d. 28 Oct., 1900. He was first ...

Gassner, Johann Joseph

A celebrated exorcist ; b. 22 Aug., 1727, at Braz, Vorarlberg, Austria ; d. 4 April, 1779, at ...

Gaston, William

Jurist; b. at Newbern, North Carolina , U.S.A. 19 Sept., 1778: d. at Raleigh, North Carolina ...

Gatianus, Saint

Founder and bishop of Tours ; b. probably at Rome ; d. at Tours, 20 December, 301. He came ...

Gau, Franz Christian

Architect and archeologist, b. at Cologne, 15 June, 1790; d. at Paris, January, 1854. In 1809 he ...

Gaubil, Antoine

A French Jesuit and missionary to China, b. at Gaillac (Aveyron), 14 July, 1689; d. at Peking, ...

Gaudentius of Brescia

(GAUDENTIUS BRIXIENSIS or BONTEMPS.) A theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins ; ...

Gaudentius, Saint

Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on ...

Gaudete Sunday

The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass ( Gaudete ...

Gaudier, Antoine de

A writer on asectic theology ; b. at Château-Thierry, France, 7 January, 1572; d. at ...

Gaudiosus

Bishop of Tarazona (Turiasso), Spain ; died about 540. Our information concerning the life ...

Gaul, Christian

The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under ...

Gaultier, Aloisius-Edouard-Camille

Priest and schoolmaster; b. at Asti, Piedmont, about 1745, of French parents ; d. at Paris, 18 ...

Gaume, Jean-Joseph

French theologian and author, b. at Fuans (Franche-Comté) in 1802; d. in 1879. While ...

Gavantus, Bartolommeo

(GAVANTO) Liturgist, a member of the Barnabite Order ; b. at Monza, 1569; d. at Milan, 14 ...

Gaza

( Hebrew 'Azzah , "the strong") A titular see of Palaestina Prima, in the Patriarchate ...

Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria

A theologian, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 3 March, 1722; d. at Vicenza, 11 Dec., 1799. At a very ...

× Close

Ge 93

Gebhard (III) of Constance

Bishop of that city and strenuous defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments ...

Gebhart, Emile

A French professor and writer, b. 19 July, 1839, at Nancy ; d. 22 April, 1908, in Paris. He was ...

Gedeon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

Gegenbauer, Josef Anton

An accomplished German historical and portrait painter, b. 6 March, 1800, at Wangen, ...

Geiler von Kayserberg, Johann

A celebrated German pulpit orator, b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 16 March, 1445; d. at ...

Geissel, Johannes von

Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 5 February, 1796, at Gimmeldingen, in the Palatinate; d. 8 ...

Gelasius I, Pope Saint

Died at Rome, 19 Nov., 496. Gelasius, as he himself states in his letter to the Emperor ...

Gelasius II, Pope

Born at Gaeta, year unknown; elected 24 Jan., 1118; died at Cluny, 29 Jan., 1119. No sooner had ...

Gelasius of Cyzicus

Ecclesiastical writer. He was the son of a priest of Cyzicus, and wrote in Bithynia, about 475, ...

Gemblours

(Gembloux, Gemblacum) A suppressed Benedictine monastery about nine miles north-west of ...

Genealogy (in the Bible)

The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament : I Tim., i, 4, and Tit., iii, 9. ...

Genealogy of Christ

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...

General Chapter

( Latin capitulum , a chapter). The daily assembling of a community for purposes of ...

General Judgment

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Generation

( Latin Vulgate, generatio ). This word, of very varied meaning, corresponds to the two ...

Genesareth

( Gennesaret .) This is the name given to the Lake of Tiberias in Luke 5:1; called ...

Genesius

(1) Genesius (of Rome) A comedian at Rome, martyred under Diocletian in 286 or 303. Feast, 25 ...

Genevieve, Saint

Patroness of Paris, b. at Nanterre, c. 419 or 422; d. at Paris, 512. Her feast is kept on 3 ...

Genezareth, Land of

By this name is designated in Mark, vi, 53, a district of Palestine bordering on the Sea of ...

Genga, Girolamo

A painter, born at Urbino in 1476; died at the same place, 1551. This talented craftsman was ...

Gennadius I, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople (458-471), has left scarcely any writings. Facundus (Defensio, II, ...

Gennadius II

Patriarch of Constantinople (1454-1456). His original name was George Scholarius ( Georgios ...

Gennadius of Marseilles

(GENNADIUS SCHOLASTICUS). A priest whose chief title to fame is his continuation of St. ...

Gennings, Edmund and John

The first, a martyr for the Catholic Faith, and the second, the restorer of the English province ...

Genoa

ARCHDIOCESE OF GENOA (JANUENSIS) Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy. The city is situated ...

Gentile da Fabriano

Italian painter ; b. probably about 1378 in the District of the Marches; d. probably 1427. The ...

Gentiles

( Hebrew Gôyîm ; Greek ethne, ethnikoi , Hellenes ; Vulgate Gentes, Gentiles, ...

Gentili, Aloysius

Born 14 July, 1801, at Rome ; died 26 September, 1848, at Dublin. He was proficient in poetry, ...

Genuflexion

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

Geoffrey of Clairvaux

A disciple of Bernard, was b. between the years 1115 and 1120, at Auxerre; d. some time after ...

Geoffrey of Dunstable

Also known as GEOFFREY OF GORHAM. Abbot of St. Alban's, d. at St. Alban's, 26 Feb., 1146. He ...

Geoffrey of Monmouth

(GAUFRIDUS ARTURUS, GALFRIDUS MONEMETENSIS, GALFFRAI or GRUFFYD AB ARTHUR). Bishop of St. ...

Geoffrey of Vendôme

(GOFFRIDUS ABBAS VINDOCINENSIS.) A cardinal, b. in the second half of the eleventh century of ...

Geography and the Church

The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never ...

Geography, Biblical

With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater ...

George Hamartolus

A monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some ...

George of Trebizond

A Greek scholar of the early Italian Renaissance ; b. in Crete (a Venetian possession from ...

George Pisides

(Or THE PISIDIAN). A Byzantine poet lived in the first half of the seventh century. From his ...

George the Bearded

(Also called THE RICH.) Duke of Saxony, b. at Dresden, 27 August, 1471; d. in the same city, ...

George, Orders of Saint

Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...

George, Saint

Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, ...

Georgetown University

Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia , "is the oldest Catholic literary ...

Georgia

STATISTICS The area of Georgia is 59,475 sq. m., and it is the largest of the original thirteen ...

Georgius Syncellus

(Greek Georgios ho Sygkellos ). Died after 810; the author of one of the more important ...

Gerace

DIOCESE OF GERACE (HIERACENSIS). Diocese in the province of Reggio in Calabria (Southern Italy ...

Gerald, Saint

Bishop of Mayo, an English monk, date of birth unknown; died 13 March, 731; followed St. ...

Geraldton

DIOCESE OF GERALDTON (GERALDTONENSIS). Diocese in Australia, established in 1898, comprises ...

Gerard Majella, Saint

Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...

Gerard of Cremona

A twelfth-century student of Arabic science and translator from Arabic into Latin; born at ...

Gerard, Archbishop of York

Date of birth unknown; died at Southwell, 21 May, 1108. He was a nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of ...

Gerard, Bishop of Toul, Saint

Born at Cologne, 935; died at Toul, 23 April, 994. Belonging to a wealthy and noble family, he ...

Gerard, John

Jesuit ; born 4 October, 1564; died 27 July, 1637. He is well known through his autobiography, a ...

Gerard, Richard

Confessor ; born about 1635; died 11 March, 1680 (O.S.). The Bromley branch of the Gerard ...

Gerard, Ven. Miles

Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

Gerardus Odonis

Also Geraldus Othonis , or Ottonis , a medieval theologian and Minister General of the ...

Gerasa

A titular see in the province of Arabia and the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ...

Gerberon, Gabriel

A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation ; b. at St-Calais, Department of Sarthe, France, 12 ...

Gerbet, Olympe-Phillipe

A French bishop and writer; b. at Poligny (Jura), 1798; d. at Perpignan (Pyrénées ...

Gerbillon, Jean-François

French missionary; born at Verdun, 4 June, 1654; died at Peking, China, 27 March, 1707. He ...

Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Samoëns in Savoy, 20 June, 1718; d. at Rome, 12 August ...

Gerhard of Zütphen

(ZERBOLT OF ZUTPHEN) Born at Zütphen, 1367; died at Windesheim, 1398; a mystical writer ...

Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Provost of that place and Austin canon , one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany ...

Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

Bishop of Auxerre, born at Auxerre c. 380; died at Ravenna, 31 July, 448. He was the son of ...

Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris

Bishop of Paris ; born near Autun, Saône-et-Loire, c. 496; died at Paris, 28 May, 576. ...

Germaine Cousin, Saint

Born in 1579 of humble parents at Pibrac, a village about ten miles from Toulouse ; died in ...

German Gardiner, Blessed

Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1544; ...

German Literature

I. FROM OLDEST PRE-CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO 800 A.D. There are no written monuments before the eighth ...

Germanicia

A titular see in the province of Euphratensis and the patriarchate of Antioch; incorrectly ...

Germanicopolis

A titular see in the province of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. The city took its name from ...

Germans in the United States

Germans, either by birth or descent, form a very important element in the population of the ...

Germanus I, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople (715-30), b. at Constantinople towards the end of the reign of ...

Germany

I. BEFORE 1556 From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented ...

Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

(VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN MISSIONS) Its jurisdiction covers the Grand Duchies of ...

Germia

A titular see of Galatia Secunda, a suffragan of Pessinus ; mentioned by Hierocles in the ...

Gerona

DIOCESE OF GERONA (GERUNDENSIS) The Diocese of Geronia in Catalonia, Spain, suffragan of ...

Gerrha

A titular see in the province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium in the Patriarchate ...

Gerson, Jean de Charlier de

The surname being the name of his native place; b. in the hamlet of Gerson 14 December, 1363; d. ...

Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed

Abbess of the Premonstratensian convent of Aldenberg, near Wetzlar, in the Diocese of Trier ; ...

Gertrude of Hackeborn

Cistercian Abbess of Helfta, near Eisleben; born near Halberstadt in 1232; died towards the end ...

Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

Virgin, and Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles; born in 626; died 17 March, 659. ...

Gertrude the Great, Saint

Benedictine and mystic writer; born in Germany, 6 Jan., 1256; died at Helfta, near Eisleben, ...

Gertrude van der Oosten, Venerable

Beguine ; born at Voorburch, Holland ; died at Delft, 6 Jan., 1358. She was born of peasant ...

Gervaise, Dom François Armand

Discalced Carmelite, b. at Paris, 1660; d. at Reclus, France, 1761. After completing his ...

Gervase of Canterbury

(GERVAS US DOROBORNENSIS) English chronicler, b. about 1141; d. in, or soon after, 1210. If ...

Gervase of Tilbury

(TILBERIENSIS) Medieval writer, b. probably at Tilbury, in the County of Essex, England, ...

Gervase, George

(Jervise.) Priest and martyr, born at Boscham, Suffolk, England, 1571; died at Tyburn, 11 ...

Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

Gesellenvereine

German Catholic societies for the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young men. ...

Gesta Dei per Francos

Gesta Dei per Francos is the title adopted by Guibert de Nogent (died about 1124) for his history ...

Gesta Romanorum

A medieval collection of anecdotes, to which moral reflections are attached. It was compiled ...

Gethsemane

Gethsemani (Hebrew gat , press, and semen , oil) is the place in which Jesus Christ ...

Gethsemane, Abbey of Our Lady of

An abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, commonly called Trappists, established in ...

Gezireh

Gezireh (or Djezireh), seat of two Catholic residential sees, one Chaldean, the other Syrian. ...

× Close

Gf 1

Gfrörer, August Friedrich

German historian; b. at Calw, Würtemberg, 5 March, 1803; d. at Karlsbad, 6 July, 1861. ...

× Close

Gh 7

Ghardaia

Prefecture Apostolic in the French Sahara, separated in 1901 from the Vicariate Apostolic of ...

Ghent

DIOCESE OF GHENT (GANDENSIS or GANDAVENSIS). The Diocese of Ghent at present comprises the ...

Ghibellines and Guelphs

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione

Sculptor ; b. at Florence about 1381; d. there, December, 1455. He ushered in the early ...

Ghirlandajo

(D OMENICO DI T OMMASO B IGORDI ). A famous Florentine painter ; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., ...

Ghislain, Saint

Confessor and anchorite in Belgium ; b. in the first half of the seventh century; d. at ...

Ghost Dance

The principal ceremonial rite of a peculiar Indian religion with originated about 1887 with ...

× Close

Gi 53

Giannone, Pietro

Italian historian, born 7 May, 1676, at Ischitella in the province of Capinata, Naples ; died ...

Gibail and Batrun

A Maronite residential see. Gibail is merely the modern name of Byblos a titular see of ...

Gibault, Pierre

Missionary, b. at Montreal, Canada, 1737; d. at New Madrid, about 1804; son of Pierre Gibault ...

Gibbons, John

Jesuit theologian and controversialist; b. 1544, at or near Wells, Somersetshire; died 16 Aug. or ...

Gibbons, Richard

Brother of Father John Gibbons, born at Winchester, 1550 or 1549; died at Douai, 23 June, 1632. ...

Giberti, Gian Matteo

Cardinal, and Bishop of Verona, the natural son of Francesco Giberti, a Genoese naval ...

Giberti, Jean-Pierre

Canonist; b. at Aix, Provence, in 1660; d. at Paris in 1736. He became a cleric at an early ...

Gibraltar

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar is a rugged promontory in the province of ...

Gideon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

Giffard, Bonaventure

Born at Wolverhampton, England, 1642; died at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 12 March, 1734; second son ...

Giffard, Godfrey

Bishop of Worcester, b. about 1235; d. 26 Jan., 1301. He was the son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton ...

Giffard, William

Second Norman Bishop of Winchester from 1100 to 1129. Little is known of his history anterior ...

Gifford, William

Archbishop of Reims ; b. in Hampshire, 1554; d. at Reims, 11 April, 1629. He was the son of ...

Gift of Miracles

The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

Gift, Supernatural

A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...

Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo

A renowned cardinal, general, and statesman; b. about 1310 at Cuenca in New Castile ; d. 23 ...

Gil of Santarem, Blessed

A Portuguese Dominican : b. at Vaozela, diocese of Viseu, about 1185; d. at Santarem, 14 May, ...

Gilbert de la Porrée

(Gilbertus Porretanus) Bishop of Poitiers, philosopher, theologian and general scholar; b. ...

Gilbert Foliot

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

Gilbert Islands

Vicariate apostolic ; comprises the group of that name, besides the islands of Ellice and ...

Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint

Founder of the Order of Gilbertines , b. at Sempringham, on the border of the Lincolnshire fens, ...

Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent

Poet, b. at Fontenoy-le-Château, 1751; d. at Paris, 12 November, 1780. His parents were ...

Gilbert, Sir John Thomas

Irish archivist and historian, b. in Dublin, 23 January, 1829; d. there, 23 May, 1898. He was ...

Gilbertines, Order of

Founded by St. Gilbert, about the year 1130, at Sempringham, Gilbert's native place, where he was ...

Gildas, Saint

Surnamed the Wise; b. about 516; d. at Houat, Brittany, 570. Sometimes he is called "Badonicus" ...

Giles, Saint

(Latin Ægidius.) An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage ...

Gillespie, Eliza Maria

(In religion Mother Mary of St. Angela). Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 21 ...

Gillespie, Neal Henry

Brother of Eliza Maria Gillespie ; b. in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 19 January 1831; d. at ...

Gillis, James

Scottish bishop ; b. at Montreal, Canada, 7 April, 1802; d. at Edinburgh, 24 February 1864. He ...

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield

A musician, born at Ballygar Galway, Ireland, 25 Dec., 1829; died at St. Louis, 24 Sept., 1892; ...

Gindarus

A titular see of Syria Prima, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Pliny (Hist. nat. V, 81) ...

Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie-Achille

A French bishop ; b. at Montpellier (department of Herault) 3 Dec., 1806; d. there 17 Nov., ...

Gioberti, Vincenzo

An Italian statesman and philosopher ; b. at Turin, 5 April, 1801; d. at Paris, 26 October, ...

Giocondo, Fra Giovanni

An Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, b. in Verona, c. 1445; ...

Giordani, Tommasso

A composer, b. at Naples in 1738; d. at Dublin, Ireland, February 1806. The family came to ...

Giordano, Luca

Neapolitan painter ; b. at Naples, 1632; d. in the same place, 12 Jan., 1705. He was esteemed ...

Giorgione

(GIORGIO BARBARELLI, ZORZO DA CASTELFRANCO) Italian painter, b. at Castelfranco in or before ...

Giotto di Bondone

A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in 1266 ...

Giovanelli, Ruggiero

Composer, b. at Velletri, near Rome, in 1560; d. at Rome, 7 January, 1625. In 1584 he was ...

Giovanni Dominici, Blessed

(BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...

Giraldi, Giovanni Battista

(Surnamed CINTIO) Italian dramatist and novelist; b. at Ferrara, Italy, 1504; d. there, ...

Giraldi, Ubaldo

(UBALDUS A SANCTO CAJETANO). An Italian canonist; b. in 1692; d. in 1775. He was a member of ...

Giraldus Cambrensis

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry) was a distinguished writer, historian, and ecclesiastic of ...

Girard, Jean-Baptiste

Known as Père Girard, a Swiss pedagogue, b. at Fribourg, 17 December, 1765; d. there, 6 ...

Girardon, François

A noted sculptor of the reign of Louis XIV, b. at Troyes, France, 1630; d. at Paris, 1715. The ...

Giraud de Borneil

A Provençal troubadour, b. about the middle of the twelfth century, at Excideuil in the ...

Girba

A titular see in the province of African Tripoli. It is an island, in ancient times called ...

Girgenti

DIOCESE OF GIRGENTI (AGRIGENTINA). Girgenti is the capital of a province in Sicily and is ...

Gisbert, Blaise

French rhetorician and critic; born at Cahors, 21 February, 1657; died at Montpellier, 21 ...

Giuliani, Veronica

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

Giulio Romano

Properly GIULIO DEI GIANNUZZI, also known as GIULIO PIPPI. A famous architect and painter, the ...

Giuseppe Giusti

A poet and patriot ; b. 1809, at Monsumano near Pescia, Italy ; d. 31 March, 1850, at ...

Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

× Close

Gl 19

Glaber, Raoul

Benedictine chronicler; b. in Burgundy before 1000; d. at Cluny about 1050. In early boyhood he ...

Glabrio, Manius Acilius

Consul at Rome during A.D. 91, with Trajan. He belonged to one of the noblest families of ...

Glagolitic

(Or G LAGOLITSA ; Slavonic glagol, a word; glagolati, to speak). An ancient alphabet ...

Glaire, Jean-Baptiste

Priest, hebraist, and Biblical scholar; b. at Bordeaux, 1 April, 1798; d. at Issy, near Paris, ...

Glanville, Ranulf de

Chief Justiciar of England ; b. at Stratford, Suffolk, England, date unknown; d. before Acre, ...

Glarean, Henry

(LORITI) The most distinguished of Swiss humanists, poet, philosopher, geographer, ...

Glasgow

I. ARCHDIOCESE OF GLASGOW (GLASGUENSIS) Archdiocese in the south-west of Scotland, comprising at ...

Glastonbury Abbey

[G LESTINGABURH; called also Y NISWITRIN (Isle of Glass) and A VALON (Isle of Apples)] ...

Glebe

Glebe ( Latin gleba ) originally signified, in common law , any farm, estate, or parcel of ...

Glendalough, School of

Glendalough (the Valley of the Two Lakes) is a picturesque and lonely glen in the heart of the ...

Gloria in Excelsis Deo

The great doxology ( hymnus angelicus ) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form". ...

Gloria, Laus et Honor

A hymn composed by St. Theodulph of Orléans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of which the ...

Glory

This word has many shades of meaning which lexicographers are somewhat puzzled to differentiate ...

Glory Be

In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...

Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

(IN CANON LAW) A gloss (Gk. glossa , Lat. glossa , tongue, speech) is an interpretation ...

Glosses, Scriptural

I. ETYMOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL MEANINGS The modern English word gloss is derived directly from the ...

Glossolalia

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Gloves, Episcopal

Liturgical gloves ( chirothecœ , called also at an earlier date manicœ , wanti ...

Gluttony

(From Lat. gluttire , to swallow, to gulp down), the excessive indulgence in food and drink. ...

× Close

Gn 2

Gnesen-Posen

Archdiocese in the Kingdom of Prussia. The archdiocese includes the Dioceses of Gnesen and ...

Gnosticism

The doctrine of salvation by knowledge. This definition, based on the etymology of the word ( ...

× Close

Go 89

Goa

(GOANENSIS.) Patriarchate of the East Indies, the chief see of the Portuguese dominions in the ...

Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of

Goajira is the most northern portion of South America is a peninsula running into the Caribbean ...

Goar, Jacques

A Dominican and hellenist, b. at Paris, 1601, d. 23 September, 1653. He entered the convent of ...

Goar, Saint

An anchorite of Aquitaine; b. about 585; d. near Oberwesel (Germany), 6 July, 649. He came of a ...

Gobat, George

Moral theologian ; born at Charmoilles, in the Diocese of Basil, now in the Department of the ...

Gobban Saer

Regarded in traditional lore as the greatest Irish architect of the seventh century, and ...

Gobelinus, Person

(Persona.) Born in 1358; died 17 November, 1421. He was a Westphalian and was known as an ...

God

Etymology of the Word "God" Discusses the root-meaning of the name "God", which is derived from ...

God, Existence of

The topic will be treated as follows: I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. The Problem Stated1. ...

God, Nature and Attributes of

I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...

God, Relation of the Universe to

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

God, Three Persons of

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Godard, Saint

(Also spelled GOTHARD, GODEHARD). Bishop of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony ; born about the ...

Godden, Thomas

(True name Tylden.) Born at Addington, Kent, 1624; died in London, 1 Dec., 1688. His father, ...

Godeau, Antoine

Bishop, poet and exegete ; b. at Dreux in the diocese of Chartres, 1605; d. at Vence, 21 ...

Godeberta, Saint

Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France ; died about the ...

Godelina, Saint

(GODELINA.) Born at Hondeforte-lez-Boulogne, c. 1049; died at Ghistelles, 6 July, 1070. The ...

Godet des Marais, Paul

Bishop of Chartres, France ; b. at Talcy, near Blois, 1647; d. at Chartres, 1709. He studied ...

Godfrey Goodman

Born at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 28 February, 1582-3; died at Westminster, 19 January, 1656. He was ...

Godfrey of Bouillon

Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and ...

Godfrey of Fontaines

(GODEFRIDUS DE fontIBUS, DOCTOR VENERANDUS) A scholastic philosopher and theologian ; born ...

Godfrey of Viterbo

German writer of the twelfth century. Nothing is known as to the place or date of his birth, ...

Godinez

(GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...

Godric

The name of two Abbots of Croyland. Godric I (870-941) Godrick I was the successor of the Abbot ...

Goesport, John Wessel

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Goetz, Marie Josephine

Second superior-general of the Society of the Sacred Heart, daughter of Joseph Goetz of ...

Goffe, Stephen

(Or Gough) Oratorian; b. 1605; d. at Paris, Christmas Day, 1681. He was the son of Stephen ...

Goffine, Leonard

(Or G OFFINÉ ). Born at Cologne, or according to some, at Broich, 6 December, 1648; ...

Gog and Magog

Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 ...

Golden Bull

(Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...

Golden Calf

An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Exodus 32 where ...

Golden Rose

A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have ...

Goldoni, Carlo

Dramatist; b. at Venice, 25 Feb., 1707; d. at Paris, 6 Jan., 1793. Goldoni is especially ...

Goldwell, Thomas

Bishop of St. Asaph, the last survivor of the ancient hierarchy of England ; b. probably at ...

Golgotha

The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. NAME Etymology and Use The word Calvary ( ...

Gomes De Amorim, Francisco

Portuguese poet, dramatist, and novelist; b. at Avelomar, near Oporto, 13 August, 1827; d. 4 ...

Gondulphus

(GUNDULFUS). The name of three saints, of whom one was Bishop of Tongres (Maestricht), the ...

Gonet, Jean Baptiste

Theologian, b. about 1616 at Beziers, in the province of Languedoc; d. there 24 Jan., 1681. From ...

Gonnelieu, Jérôme de

Theologian, ascetical writer, and preacher; born at Soissons, 8 Sept., 1640; died at Paris, 28 ...

González de Santalla, Thyrsus

Theologian and thirteenth general of the Society of Jesus, b. at Arganda, Spain, 18 January, ...

González, Zeferino

Dominican, cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province and Diocese ...

Gonzaga, Ercole

(Hercules.) Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 23 November, 1505; d. 2 March, 1563. He was the Son of ...

Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius

Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...

Gonzaga, Scipione

Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593. He belonged to ...

Gonzalez, Saint Peter

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

Gonzalo de Berceo

Spanish poet, active between 1220 and 1242. Born in the closing years on twelfth century, he ...

Good

"Good" is one of those primary ideas which cannot be strictly defined. In order to fix its ...

Good Faith

A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively ...

Good Friday

Definition and etymology Good Friday, called Feria VI in Parasceve in the Roman Missal, he ...

Good Hope, Cape of (Eastern)

The Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope was established in 1847, when the Vicariate of the ...

Good Hope, Cape of (Western)

The Western vicariate and the Central prefecture, although different in name, are virtually one. ...

Good Samaritan, Sisters of the

A congregation of Tertiaries Regular of St. Benedict, established 2 February, 1857, at Sydney, ...

Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

Good, Highest, The

"We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the ...

Goodman, Ven. John

Priest and martyr ; born in the Diocese of Bangor, Wales, 1590; died 1642. He was educated at ...

Goossens, Pierre-Lambert

Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin (Belgium), b. at Perck, near Vilvorde, 18 July, 1827; d. at ...

Gordian

( Latin GORDIANUS.) There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. ...

Gordianus and Epimachus, Saints

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

Gordon Riots

This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, ...

Gordon, Andrew

A Benedictine monk, physicist ; b. 15 June, 1712, at Cofforach in Forfarshire, Scotland ; d. ...

Gordos

A titular see in the province of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. The city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

Gorgonius, Saint

Martyr, suffered in 304 at Nicomedia during the persecution of Diocletian. Gorgonius held a high ...

Gorkum, The Martyrs of

The year 1572, Luther and Calvin had already wrested from the Church a great part of Europe. ...

Gortyna

A titular see, and in the Greek Church metropolitan see, of the Island of Crete. The city, ...

Goscelin

(Or GOTSELIN, according to the spelling in the earliest manuscripts of his works.) A ...

Gospel and Gospels

The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds. It is very ...

Gospel in the Liturgy

I. HISTORY From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important ...

Gospel of Mark

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

Goss, Alexander

Second Bishop of Liverpool ; born at Ormskirk, Lancashire, 5 July, 1814; died. at St. Edward's ...

Gossaert, Jan

Called M ABUSE from Maubeuge in Hainaut. Flemish painter ; b. about 1472; d. at Middelburg ...

Gosselin, Jean-Edmé-Auguste

Ecclesiastical author; b. at Rouen, France, 28 Sept., 1787; d. at Paris, 27 Nov., 1858. He ...

Gother, John

(Or JOHN GOTER) Priest and controversialist; b. at Southampton, date unknown; d. at sea on a ...

Gothic Architecture

The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...

Gottfried von Strasburg

One of the greatest of Middle High German epic poets. Of his life we know absolutely nothing; ...

Gotti, Vincent Louis

Cardinal and theologian, b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 1742. He received ...

Gottschalk of Orbais

A medieval theologian ; b. about 800, d. after 866, probable 30 October, 868 (or 869), in the ...

Gottschalk, Saint

(GODESCALCUS). Martyr Prince of the Wends; d. at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast ...

Goulburn

(Gulburnensis). One of the six suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical province of Sydney, ...

Gounod, Charles-François

One of the most distinguished French musicians and composers of the nineteenth century, b. in ...

Goupil, René

Jesuit missionary; born 1607, in Anjou; martyred in New York State, 23 September, 1642. Health ...

Gousset, Thomas-Marie-Joseph

French cardinal and theologian ; b. at Montigny-les-Charlieu, a village of ...

Government Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

Gower, John

Poet; born between 1327-1330, probably in Kent; died October, 1408. He was of gentle blood and ...

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco José de

Painter and etcher, b. in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 31 March, 1746; d. in Bordeaux, 16 ...

Goyaz, Diocese of

(Goyasiensis). Co-extensive with the state of the same name, one of the twenty states which, with ...

Gozo, Diocese of

The diocese of Gozo (Goulos-Gaudisiensis), comprises the Island of Gozo in the Mediterranean ...

Gozzi, Carlo

Italian author, born at Venice, 1720; died 1806. He spent in military service three years that ...

Gozzoli

(BENOZZO DI LESE DI SANDRO, surnamed GOZZOLI). Painter ; b. at Florence, 1420; d. at Pisa ...

Gozzolini, Saint Sylvester

Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...

× Close

Gr 107

Grässel, Lorenz

Coadjutor-elect of Baltimore ; born at Ruemannsfelden, Bavaria, 18 August, 1753; died at ...

Gröne, Valentin

A Catholic theologian, b. at Paderborn, 7 December, 1817; d. at Irmgarteichen, in the district ...

Grün, Anastasius

A pseudonym for Anton Alexander (Maria), Count von Auersperg, an Austrian poet; b. at Laibach in ...

Grace

Actual Grace Explains the concept of actual grace, which is defined in the article as "a ...

Grace at Meals

In Apostolic times St. Paul counsels the faithful: "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever ...

Grace, Actual

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...

Grace, Controversies on

These are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will. How can the ...

Grace, Supernatural

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...

Grace, William Russell

Philanthropist and merchant, born at Cork, Ireland, 10 May, 1832; died at New York, 21 March, ...

Gradual

( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step) Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the ...

Gradual Psalms

Fifteen psalms -- namely, Psalms 119-133 (in Hebrew 120-134) -- bear a Hebrew inscription which ...

Gradwell, Robert

Bishop; b. at Clifton-in-the-Fylde, Lancashire, 26 Jan., 1777; d. in London, 15 March, 1833; went ...

Graffiti

The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched ...

Graham, Patrick

First Archbishop of St. Andrews and Metropolitan of Scotland, date of birth uncertain; d. ...

Grail, The Holy

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

Gramont, Eugénie de

Religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart ; b. at Versailles, 17 September, 1788; d. at ...

Gran

( Hungarian ESZTERGOM; Latin STRIGONIUM, STRIGONIENSIS) Located in Hungary. From the ...

Granada

Archdiocese of Granada (Granatensis). Archdiocese in Spain, founded by St. Cecilius about ...

Granada, University of

The origin of this university is to be traced to the Arab school at Cordova, which, when the ...

Grancolas, Jean

Doctor of the Sorbonne, theologian, liturgist; b. near Chateaudun, about 1660; d. at Paris, 1 ...

Grand Rapids

(Grandormensis) Diocese created 12 May, 1882 out of the diocese of Detroit, and made to ...

Grande Chartreuse, La

The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an ...

Granderath, Theodor

Born 19 June, 1839, at Giesenkirchen, Rhine Province; died 19 March, 1902, at Valkenburg, ...

Grandidier, Philippe-André

Priest and historian, b. at Strasburg, Alsace, 9 Nov., 1752; d. at the Abbey of Luntzel ...

Grandmont, Abbey and Order of

Abbey and Order in the department of Hte-Vienne, France. The exact date of the foundation of the ...

Grant, Thomas

First Bishop of Southwark ; b. at Ligny-les-Aires, Arras, France, 25 Nov., 1816; d. at Rome, ...

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

Known in history as CARDINAL DE GRANVELLE (GRANVELLA). Born at Ornans in Franche-Comté, ...

Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Grasse, François-Joseph-Paul

Count and Marquess de Grasse-Tilly, lieutenant-general of the naval forces; b. near Toulon, 1723; ...

Grassis, Paris de

Master of ceremonies to Julius II and Leo X ; b. at Bologna, about 1470; d. at Rome, 10 June, ...

Gratian

Roman Emperor; son of Valentinian I; born at Sirmium, 359; died at Lyons, 383. Before he had ...

Gratian, Jerome

Spiritual director of St. Teresa and first Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites ; born at ...

Gratian, Johannes

(GRATIANUS). The little that is known concerning the author of the "Concordantia discordantium ...

Gratianopolis

A titular see in Caesarea Mauretania, Africa. This city does not figure in a list of the ...

Gratius, Ortwin

(VAN GRAES) Humanist ; b. 1475 at Holtwick, near Coesfeld, Westphalia ; d. at Cologne, 22 ...

Gratry, Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse

French priest and writer; b. at Lille, 30 March, 1805; d. at Montreux, Switzerland, 7 February, ...

Gratz, Peter Aloys

Schoolmaster and exegete, b. 17 Aug., 1769, at Mittelberg, Allgäu, Bavaria ; d. at ...

Gravier, Jacques

Jesuit missionary; born 1651 at Moulins, where he studied classics and philosophy under the ...

Gravina and Montepeloso

DIOCESE OF GRAVINA AND MONTEPELOSO (GRAVINENSIS ET MONTIS PELUSII). Gravina is a town in the ...

Gravina, Dominic

Theologian ; b. in Sicily, about 1573; d. in the Minerva, at Rome, 26 Aug., 1643. He entered the ...

Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo

Italian jurist and littérateur of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. at ...

Graz, University of

The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its ...

Great Falls

DIOCESE OF GREAT FALLS (GREATORMENSIS). Created by Pope Pius X, 18 May, 1904; comprises the ...

Greco, El

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Greece

Greece will be treated in this article under the following heads: I. The Land and the People; II. ...

Greek Catholics in America

The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States ...

Greek Church

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Explanation of Terms; II. The Greek ...

Greek Orthodox Church in America

The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are ...

Greek Rites

(1) Rite, Language, Religion These are three things that must always be distinguished. A rite is ...

Green Bay

(SINUS VIRIDIS) The Diocese of Green Bay — established 3 March, 1868, from the territory ...

Green, Hugh

Martyr ; born about 1584; martyred 19 August, 1642. His parents, who were Protestants, sent him ...

Green, Thomas Louis

Priest and controversialist; b. at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, 1799; d. at Newport, Shropshire, ...

Greenland

An island stretching from within the Arctic Circle south to about 59 degrees N. latitude, being ...

Gregorian Chant

The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of ...

Gregory Bæticus

Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...

Gregory I, Pope Saint

Doctor of the Church ; born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. Gregory is certainly one of ...

Gregory II, Pope Saint

(Reigned 715-731). Perhaps the greatest of the great popes who occupied the chair of Peter ...

Gregory III, Pope Saint

(Reigned 731-741.) Pope St. Gregory III was the son of a Syrian named John. The date of his ...

Gregory IV, Pope

Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a ...

Gregory IX

(UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Born about 1145, at Anagni in the Campagna; died 22 August, 1241, ...

Gregory of Heimburg

Humanist and Statesman, b. at Würzburg in the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at ...

Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint

Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. He ...

Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint

Known at THAUMATURGUS, ( ho Thaumatourgos , the miracle-worker). Born at Neocæsarea in ...

Gregory of Nyssa, Saint

Date of birth unknown; died after 385 or 386. He belongs to the group known as the "Cappadocian ...

Gregory of Rimini, Saint

An Augustinian theologian ; born at Rimini, Italy, in the second half of the thirteenth ...

Gregory of Tours, Saint

Born in 538 or 539 at Arverni, the modern Clermont-Ferrand; died at Tours, 17 Nov., in 593 or ...

Gregory of Utrecht, Saint

Abbot; b. about 707 or 708; d. 775 or 780. Gregory was born of a noble family at Trier. His ...

Gregory of Valencia

Professor of the University of Ingolstadt , b. at Medina, Spain, March, 1550 (1540, 1551?); d. ...

Gregory the Illuminator

Born 257?; died 337?, surnamed the Illuminator (Lusavorich). Gregory the Illuminator is the ...

Gregory V, Pope

Born c. 970; died 4 February, 999. On the death of John XV the Romans sent a deputation to Otto ...

Gregory VI

On the death of Sergius IV in June, 1012, "a certain Gregory", opposed the election of ...

Gregory VI, Pope

(JOHN GRATIAN). Date of birth unknown; elected 1 May 1045; abdicated at Sutri, 20 December, ...

Gregory VII, Pope Saint

(HILDEBRAND). One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men ...

Gregory VIII

Antipope. He was Mauritius Burdinus (Bordinho, Bourdin), who was placed upon the papal chair by ...

Gregory VIII, Pope

(ALBERTO DI MORRA). Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento ; elected ...

Gregory X

Born 1210; died 10 January, 1276. The death of Pope Clement IV (29 November, 1268) left the ...

Gregory XI

(PIERRE ROGER DE BEAUFORT). Born in 1331, at the castle of Maumont in the Dioceses of Limoges ...

Gregory XII

(ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism ; born at Venice, of a ...

Gregory XIII, Pope

(UGO BUONCOMPAGNI). Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied ...

Gregory XIV, Pope

(N ICCOLÒ S FONDRATI ). Born at Somma, near Milan, 11 Feb., 1535; died at Rome, 15 ...

Gregory XV, Pope

(ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. ...

Gregory XVI, Pope

(MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 ...

Greifswald, University of

The oldest university of Prussia, founded in 1456. Even before this, Greifswald had, for a short ...

Greith, Karl Johann

Bishop and church historian, b. at Rapperswyl, Switzerland, 25 May, 1897; d. at St. Gall, 17 ...

Gremiale

A square or oblong cloth which the bishop, according to the "Cæremoniale" and ...

Grenoble

DIOCESE OF GRENOBLE (GRATIANOPOLITANA) Now comprises the Department of Isère and the Canton ...

Gresemund, Dietrich

German humanist ; b. in 1477, at Speyer ; d. 1512, at Mainz. His father, also named Dietrich, ...

Greslon, Adrien

French missionary; b. at Perigueux, in 1618; entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 5 ...

Gresset, Jean Baptiste

Born 29 August, 1709; died 16 June, 1777, at Amiens. Having finished his studies at the college ...

Gretser, Jacob

A celebrated Jesuit writer; b. at Markdorf in the Diocese of Constance in 1562; d. at ...

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste

French painter, b. at Tournus in Ardeche, 21 August, 1725; d. at Paris, 21 March, 1805. His ...

Grey Nuns

The Order of Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal, commonly ...

Grey Nuns of the Cross

A community founded in 1745 at Monteal by Madame d'Youville, known as the Grey Sisters, or Grey ...

Griffin, Gerald

A novelist, dramatist, lyricist; b. 12 December, 1803, at Limerick, Ireland ; d. at Cork, 12 ...

Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph

Journalist, historian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 10 Nov., 1911. In early ...

Griffiths, Thomas

Born in London, 2 June, 1791; died 19 August, 1847; the first and only Vicar Apostolic of the ...

Grillparzer, Franz

An Austrian poet, b. at Vienna, 15 January, 1791, d. 21 January, 1872. After desultory ...

Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

Italian physicist, b. at Bologna, 2 April, 1618; d. in the same city, 28 Dec., 1663. He entered ...

Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco

An eclectic painter of the Bolognese school ; b. at Bologna, 1606; d. at Rome, 1680. He was a ...

Grimmelshausen, Johann Jacob Christoffel von

The greatest German novelist of the seventeenth century. What we know of his life is largely ...

Groote, Gerard

( Or Geert De Groote; Gerhardus Magnus.) Founder of the "Brethren of the Common Life" , b. ...

Gropper, John

An eminent jurist and theologian, b. 24 Feb., 1503, at Soest, Westphalia ; d. at Rome, 13 March, ...

Grosseteste, Robert

Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages ; b. about 1175; d. 9 ...

Grosseto

(Grossetana) Grosseto, suffragan diocese of Siena, has for its episcopal city the capital ...

Grosswardein

( Hungarian Nagy-Várad; Magno-Varadinensis) A diocese of the Latin Rite in ...

Grottaferrata, Abbey of

( Latin Crypta ferrata .) A Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site ...

Grueber, Johann

A German Jesuit missionary in China and noted explorer of the seventeenth century; b. at Linz, ...

× Close

Gu 49

Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal

Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sablé-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 ...

Guérard, Robert

Born at Rouen, 1641; died at the monastery of Saint-Ouen, 2 January, 1715. For some time he ...

Guérin

(1) Eugénie de Guérin A French writer; b. at the château of La Cayla, in ...

Guérin, Anne-Thérèse

(In religion, Mother Theodore) Born at Etables (Côte du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 ...

Guadalajara

(Guadalaxara) Archdiocese in Mexico, separated from the Diocese of Michoacan by Paul III, 31 ...

Guadalupe, Shrine of

Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the ...

Guadeloupe

(Or Basse Terre; Guadalupensis; Imæ Telluris) Diocese in the West Indies, comprises the ...

Guadix, Diocese of

(GUADICENSIS) The Diocese of Guadix, in Spain, comprises the greater part of the Province of ...

Guaicuri Indians

(Pronounced Waikuri .) A group of small tribes, speaking dialectic forms of a common ...

Guamanga, Diocese of

( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...

Guaraní Indians

(Pronounced Waraní .) One of the most important tribal groups of South America, ...

Guarantees, Law of

(LA LEGGE DELLE GUARENTIGIE) A name given to the law passed by the senate and chamber of the ...

Guarda, Diocese of

(EGITANIENSIS.) Province of Beira, Portugal. Near the episcopal city are the ruins of Idanha, ...

Guardi, Francesco

Venetian painter ; born at Venice, 1712; died in the same city, 1793. He was a pupil of ...

Guardian Angels

( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...

Guardian Angels, Feast of

This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar. It was not ...

Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

Guardianship is "the condition or fact of being a guardian; the office or position of guardian" ...

Guarini, Battista

An Italian poet, b. at Ferrara, 1538, d. at Venice, 7 Oct., 1612. His father, Francesco ...

Guarino da Verona

A humanist, b. 1370, at Verona, Italy ; d. 1460, at Ferrara. He studied Latin in the school ...

Guastalla, Diocese of

(GUASTELLENSIS). In the province of Reggio Emilia (Central Italy ) on the left bank of the Po ...

Guastallines

Luigia Torelli, Countess of Guastalla (b. about 1500; d. 29 Oct., 1559 or 1569), widowed for ...

Guatemala, Santiago de

(Sancti Jacobi majoris de Guatemala) Archdiocese conterminous with the Republic of Guatemala, ...

Guayaquil

A RCHDIOCESE OF G UAYAQUIL (G UAYAQUILENSIS ). Guayaquil, the capital of the Ecuadorian ...

Gubbio

Diocese of Eugubinensis, in the province of Perugia in Umbria (Central Italy ). The city ...

Gudenus, Moritz

A German convert to the Catholic faith from the Protestant ministry; b. 11 April, 1596, at ...

Gudula, Saint

(Latin, Guodila ). Born in Brabant, Belgium, of Witger and Amalberga, in the seventh ...

Guelphs and Ghibellines

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

Guglielmini, Giovanni Battista

Scientist, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1763; d. in the same city, l5 December, 1817. He is known as ...

Guiana

(Or Guayana .) Guiana was the name given to all that region of South America which extends ...

Guibert of Ravenna

An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at ...

Guicciardini, Francesco

An historian and statesman; born at Florence, 1483; died there, 23 May, 1540. His parents, Piero ...

Guido of Arezzo

(Guido Aretinus). A monk of the Order of St. Benedict, b. (according to Dom Morin in the ...

Guigues du Chastel

(Guigo de Castro). Fifth prior of the Grande Chartreuse, legislator of the Carthusian Order ...

Guijon, André

Bishop and orator; born in November, 1548, at Autun ; died in September, 1631. He was the son ...

Guilds

Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These ...

Guiney, Patrick Robert

Second and eldest surviving son of James Roger Guiney and Judith Macrae; born at Parkstown, Co. ...

Guiscard, Robert

Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; born about 1016; ...

Guise, House of

The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the ...

Guitmund

A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius ; born at an ...

Gulf of St. Lawrence

Vicariate erected 12 September, 1905, and formed from the prefecture Apostolic of the same name ...

Gunpowder Plot, The

(Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605). Robert Catesby, the originator of the ...

Gunther, Blessed

A hermit in Bohemia in the eleventh century; b. about 955; d. at Hartmanitz, Bohemia, 9 ...

Gurk

(GURCENSIS) A prince-bishopric of Carinthia, suffragan to Salzburg, erected by Archbishop ...

Gury, Jean-Pierre

Moral theologian ; b. at Mailleroncourt, Haute-Saône, 23 January, 1801; d. at Merc ur, ...

Gusmão, Bartholomeu Lourenço de

Naturalist, and the first aeronaut; b. in 1685 at Santos in the province of São Paulo , ...

Gutenberg, Johann

(Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg). Inventor of printing; born about ...

Guthlac, Saint

Hermit; born about 673; died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life ...

Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte-

A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...

Guzmán, Fernando Pérez de

Señor de Batres; Spanish historian and poet (1376-1458). He belonged to a family ...

× Close

Gy 1


Never Miss any Updates!

Stay up to date with the latest news, information, and special offers.

Catholic Online Logo

Copyright 2016 Catholic Online. All materials contained on this site, whether written, audible or visual are the exclusive property of Catholic Online and are protected under U.S. and International copyright laws, © Copyright 2016 Catholic Online. Any unauthorized use, without prior written consent of Catholic Online is strictly forbidden and prohibited.