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New Mexico

A territory of the United States now (Jan., 1911) awaiting only the completion of its Constitution and the acceptance thereof by the Federal authorities to rank as a state. It lies between 31º20' and 37º N. lat., and between 103º2' and 109º2' W. long.; it is bounded on the north by Colorado, on the east by Oklahoma and Texas, on the south by Texas and the Republic of Mexico, and on the west by Arizona. It is about 370 miles from east to west, 335 from north to south, and has an area of 122,580 sq. miles, with mountain, plateau, and valley on either side of the Rio Grande. The average rainfall is 12 inches, usually between July and September, so that spring and summer are dry, and agriculture and grazing suffer. The climate is uniform, the summers, as a rule, moderate, and, the atmosphere being dry, the heat is not oppressive. In the north-west and north-east the winters are long, but not severe, while in the central and southern portions the winters are usually short and mild. In the United States census of 1900 the population was 141,282, of which 33 per cent was illiterate; in the census of 1910 the population was 327,296. About one-half of the inhabitants are of Spanish descent.

The soil in the valleys is a rich and sandy loam, capable, with irrigation, of producing good crops. It is also rich in gold and silver, and important mines have been opened near Deming, Silver City, and Lordsburg, in the south-western part of the state. There are copper mines near Glorieta in the north, and near Santa Rita in the south; while coal is found in great abundance near Gallup, Cerillos, and in the north-west. The mineral production of New Mexico for 1907 was $7,517,843, that of coal alone amounting to $3,832,128. In 1909 the net product in coal, shipped from the mines, was 2,708,624 tons, or a total value of $3,881,508. A few forests exist in the eastern plains, and abundant timber is found in the north-western and central districts. Though mining and commerce as well as agriculture are now in process of rapid development, New Mexico is still a grazing country. Sheep-farming is the most important and lucrative industry; cattle-farming is also of importance. In 1908 and 1909 severe droughts caused the sheep industry to decline somewhat. In 1909 New Mexico shipped 700,800 head of sheep; in 1908, 835,800; in 1907, 975,800. The wool shorn in 1909, from over 4,000,000 sheep, was 18,000,000 lbs., which brought an average of 19 cents per lb., yielding a cash production of $3,420,000. The shipments of cattle in the same year amounted to 310,326, and 64,830 hides were handles in the same period. Farming is successfully carried on in the Rio Grande and other valleys, Indian corn, wheat, and garden products being the principal crops. For the year 1907 the territorial governor's report placed the value of the agricultural products at $25,000,000, but this was a gross overestimate. The important manufacturing interests are those connected with mining, railroads, etc. Lumbering is being developed by capital brought in from the East, and large lumber mills are now in operation, notably at Albuquerque. There are 75 banks (41 national and 34 territorial) in the state, with an aggregate capital of $3,274,086. The bonded debt of the state is $1,002,000, of which $89,579.49 is covered by the sinking fund.

GENERAL HISTORY

In April, 1536, there arrived at Culiacán, in the Mexican Province of Sinaloa, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Andrés Dorantes, Alonso de Castillo Maldonado, and the negro Estevanico, the only survivors of the ill-fated expedition of Narváez which had left Spain in 1528. Mendoza, the Viceroy of Mexico, was told astonishing tales by Cabeza de Vaca concerning the wealth of the country to the north, and he forthwith commanded Coronado, governor of the Province of Nueva Galicia, to prepare an expedition. The preparations went slowly, and Mendoza ordered Friar Marcos de Niza to make a preliminary exploration of the northern country. The Franciscan left Culiacán in 1539, accompanied by Estevanico and a few Indians. After untold hardships he reached the famous pueblo of Zuñi, took possession of all the surrounding country, planted the cross, and named the territory "The New Kingdom of St. Francis". Marcos de Niza is, therefore, rightly called the discoverer of New Mexico and Arizona. He then returned to Mexico, and his narrative, especially what he said about the seven cities of Cibola, was an incentive to Coronado, who set out from Culiacán in 1540, accompanied by Marcos and a large body of Spaniards and Indians. Coronado crossed Sonora (now Arizona ) and entered New Mexico in July, 1540. The expedition returned in 1542 but, although many regions were discovered, no conquests were made nor colonies established. In 1563 an expedition was led into New Mexico by Francisco de Ibarra : it is worth mentioning only for the reason that de Ibarra returned in 1565 with the boast that he had discovered "a new Mexico", which was, probably, the origin of the name. Espejo entered New Mexico in 1581, but accomplished nothing. In this same year a Franciscan Friar, Augustín Rodríguez, entered with a few companions, and lost his life in the cause of Christianity. In 1581 Espejo called New Mexico Nueva Andalucia. By 1598 the name Nuevo Méjico was evidently well known, since Villagrá's epic is called "Historia del Nuevo Méjico".

The expeditions of Espejo and Father Augustín Rodríguez were followed by many more of an unimportant character, and it was not until 1598, when Don Juan de Oñate, accompanied by ten Franciscans under Father Alonso Martínez, and four hundred men, of whom one hundred and thirty were accompanied by their wives and families, marched up alongside the Rio Grande, and settled at San Juan de los Caballeros, near the junction of the Chama with the Rio Grande, thirty miles north of Santa Fé. This was the first permanent Spanish settlement in New Mexico. Here was established, also, the first mission, and San Juan de los Caballeros (or San Gabriel, a few miles west on the Chama river?) was the capital of the new province until it was moved to Santa Fé some time between 1602 and 1616. The colony prospered, missions were established by the Franciscans, new colonists arrived, and by the middle of the seventeenth century general prosperity prevailed. In the year 1680, however, a terrible Indian rebellion broke out under the leadership of Pope, an Indian of the pueblo of San Juan. All the Spanish settlements were attacked, and many people massacred. The survivors fled to Santa Fé, but, after three days' fighting, were compelled to abandon the city and were driven out of the province.

Thus was destroyed the work of eighty years. The Spaniards did not lose courage : between 1691 and 1693 Antonio de Vargas reconquered New Mexico and entered it with many of the old colonists and many more new ones, his entire colony consisting of 800 people, including seventy families and 200 soldiers. The old villages were occupied, churches rebuilt, and missions re-established. A new villa was founded, Santa Cruz de Cañada, around which most of the families which had come with De Vargas under Padre Farfán were settled. The colonies, no longer seriously threatened by the Indians, progressed slowly. By the end of the eighteenth century the population of New Mexico was about 34,000, one-half Spaniards. The first half of the nineteenth century was a period of revolutions -- rapid transformations of government and foreign invasions, accepted by the Spanish inhabitants of New Mexico in an easy-going spirit of submission unparalleled in history.

In 1821 the news of Mexican independence was received, and, although the people of New Mexico were ignorant of the events which had preceded it, they celebrated the event with great enthusiasm and swore allegiance to Iturbide. In 1824, just three years after independence, came the news of the fall of Iturbide and the inauguration of the Republic of Mexico : throngs gathered at Santa Fé, the people were harangued, and the new regime was applauded as a blessing to New Mexico. When war was declared between the United States and Mexico -- an event concerning which the New Mexicans were ignorant -- General Stephen Watts Kearny was sent to conquer New Mexico. In 1846 he entered the territory, and General Armijo, the local military chief, fled to Mexico. Kearny took possession of the territory in the name of the United States, promising the people all the rights and liberties which other citizens of the United States enjoyed. The people joyfully accepted American rule, and swore obedience to the Stars and Stripes. At one stroke, no one knew why or how, a Spanish colony, after existing under Spanish institutions for nearly three centuries, was brought under the rule of a foreign race and under new and unknown institutions. After the military occupation by Kearny in 1846, Charles Bent was civil governor. He was murdered at Taos, in 1847, by some Spaniards whom he had grossly offended. In 1847-48 Donaciano Vigil was civil governor.

In 1848, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, New Mexico was formally ceded by Mexico to the United States , and in 1850 it was regularly organized as a territory (which included Arizona until 1863), and James S. Calhoun was the first territorial governor. The first territorial Legislative Assembly met at Santa Fé in 1851: most of the members were of Spanish descent and this has been true of all the Assemblies until the end of the century. Up to 1910 the proceedings of the Legislature were in Spanish and English, interpreters being always present. During the years 1861-62 the Texan Confederates entered New Mexico, to occupy Albuquerque and Santa Fé, but Federal troops arrived from Colorado and California and frustrated the attempt. During the years from 1860 to 1890 New Mexico progressed very slowly. Education was in a deplorable state (no system was established until 1890), the surrounding Indians continually harassed the inhabitants, and no railroad was constructed until after 1880. In 1860 the population was 80,567; in 1870, 90,573; in 1880, 109,793. Nine-tenths of the population in 1880 was of Spanish descent: at present (1911) this element is only about one-half, owing to the constant immigration from the other states of the Union. Since 1890 New Mexico has progressed rapidly. Education is now enthusiastically supported and encouraged, the natural resources are being quickly developed, and the larger towns and cities have all the marks of modern civilization and progress. Since 1850 many unsuccessful attempts have been made to secure statehood; at last, in June, 1910, Congress passed an Enabling Act: New Mexico is to adopt a Constitution, subject to the approval of Congress.

MISSIONS OF NEW MEXICO

The Franciscan Friar Marcos de Niza, as we have seen above, reached New Mexico near the pueblo of Zuñi in 1539. This short expedition may be considered, therefore, as the first mission in New Mexico and what is now Arizona. With the expedition of Coronado (1540-42) several Franciscans under Marcos de Niza entered New Mexico. There is some confusion about their exact number and even about their names. It seems reasonably certain, however, that Marcos had to abandon the expedition after reaching Zuñi, and that two Franciscan priests, Juan de Padilla and Juan de la Cruz, and a lay brother, Luis de Escalona, continued with the expedition into New Mexico, remained as missionaries among the Indians when Coronado returned in 1542, and were finally murdered by them. These were the first three Christian missionaries to receive the crown of martyrdom within the present limits of the United States. Forty years after the Niza and Coronado expeditions of 1539-42, it was again a Franciscan who made an attempt to gain the New Mexico Indians to the Faith. This was Father Augustín Rodríguez, who, in 1581, left San Bartolomé in Northern Mexico and, accompanied by two other friars, Juan de Santa María and Fr. Francisco López, and some seventeen more men, marched up the Rio Grande and visited many more of the pueblos on both sides of the river. The friars decided to remain in the new missionary field when the rest of the expedition returned in 1582, but the Indians proved intractable and the two friars received the crown of martyrdom.

When news of the fate of Augustín Rodríguez reached San Bartolomé in Nueva Vizcaya, Father Bernardino Beltrán was desirous of making another attempt to evangelize New Mexico, but, being alone, would not remain there. It was in 1598 that Don Juan de Oñate made the first permanent Spanish settlement in New Mexico, at San Juan de los Caballeros. Ten Franciscan friars under Father Alonso Martínez accompanied Oñate in his conquest, and established at San Juan the first Spanish Franciscan mission. Missionary work was begun in earnest, and in 1599 Oñate sent a party to Mexico for re-enforcements. With this party went Fathers Martínez, Salazar, and Vergara to obtain more friars. Salazar died along the way, Martínez did not return, but a new Franciscan comisario , Juan de Escalona, returned to New Mexico with Vergara and eight more Franciscans. New missions were being established in the near pueblos , and prosperity was at hand, but Oñate's ambitions proved fatal: in 1601 he desired to conquer the country to the north and west, and started on an expedition with a small force, taking with him two Franciscans. The people who remained at and near San Juan de los Caballeros were left unprotected. Civil discord followed, and the newly-settled province was abandoned, the settlers, with the friars, moving south. Father Escalona remained, at the risk of his life, to await the return of Oñate; but he had written to the viceroy, asking that Oñate should be recalled. Oñate, with a new comisario , Francisco Escobar, and Father San Buenaventura, set out on another counter expedition, and Escalona and the other friars continued their missionary work among their neophytes. New re-enforcements arrived between 1605 and 1608, in spite of Oñate's misrule. In 1608 Father Alonso Peinado came as comisario and brought with him eight more friars. By this time 8000 Indians had been converted. By 1617 the Franciscans had built eleven churches and converted 14,000 Indians.

In 1620 Father Gerónimo de Zárate Salmerón, a very zealous missionary, came to New Mexico. There he worked for eight years, and wrote a book on Christian doctrine in the language of the Jémez. By 1626 the missions numbered 27; 34,000 Indians had been baptized, and 43 churches built. Of the friars only 16 were left. In 1630 Fr. Benavides desired to establish a bishopric in New Mexico, and went to Spain to lay his petition before the king. In his memorial he says that there were in New Mexico, in 1630, 25 missions, covering 90 pueblos , attended by 50 friars, and that the Christian natives numbered 60,000. The missions established in New Mexico in 1630, according to the memorial, were the following: among the Piros, or Picos, 3 missions (Socorro, Senecú, Sevilleta); among the Liguas, 2 (Sandia, Isleta); among the Queres, 3; among the Tompiros, 6; among the Tanos, 1; among the Pecos, 1; among the Toas, or Tehuas, 3; at Santa Fé, 1; among the Taos, 1; among the Zuñi, 2. The other two are not mentioned. However, the wrongs perpetrated by local governors exasperated the Indians, and the missionaries were thus laboring under difficulties. By 1680 the number of missions had increased to 33, but the Indian rebellion broke out. All the missions and settlements were destroyed, the churches burned, and the settlers massacred. The number of victims among the Spaniards was 400. Of the missionaries, 11 escaped, while 21 were massacred.

With Don Diego de Vargas, and the reconquest of New Mexico in 1691-95, the Franciscans entered the province again. Father San Antonio was the guardian, but in 1694 he returned to El Paso, and, with Father Francisco Vargas as guardian, the missions were re-established. Not only were most of the old missions again in a prosperous condition, but new ones were established among the Apaches, Navajos, and other tribes. Towards the middle of the eighteenth century, petty disputes arose between the friars and the Bishop of Durango, and the results were unfavourable to the missions, which at this time numbered from 20 to 25, Father Juan Mirabal being guardian. In 1760 Bishop Tamarón of Durango visited the province. From this time on the Franciscan missions in New Mexico changed, the friars in many cases acted as parish priests, and their work did not prove so fruitful.

During the last half of the eighteenth century, and during the last years of Spanish rule (1800-1821), the missions declined more and more. The Franciscans still remained, and received salaries from the Government, not as missionaries but as parish priests. They were under their guardian, but the Bishop of Durango controlled religious affairs, with a permanent vicar in New Mexico. The Mexican rule of 1821-1846 was worse than the Spanish rule, and the missionaries existed only in name. At the time of the American occupation, in 1846, the missions, as such, no longer existed.

The missionary work in what is now Arizona was in some cases that of the New Mexican friars, who from the beginning of their labours extended their missions among the Zuñi and the Moquis. A few of these missions, however, had no connexion whatever with the missionary work of New Mexico. After Niza's exploration in 1540, we know little of the missionary work in Arizona proper, until 1633, when Fray Francisco Parras, who was almost alone in his work, was killed at Aguatevi. In 1680 four Franciscans, attending three missions among the Moquis, were killed during the New Mexican rebellion of that year. In Northern Mexico, close to the Arizona line (or, as then known, Primeria Alta), the Jesuits were doing excellent mission work in 1600-1700. It was a Jesuit, also, Father Eusebio Francisco Kino , who explored what is now southern Arizona, in 1687. No missions were established, however, in Arizona before Father Kino's death in 1711, though churches were built, and many Indians converted. The work of Father Kino was abandoned after his death, until 1732, when Fathers Felipe Segesser and Juan B. Grashoffer established the first permanent missions of Arizona at San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi. In 1750 these two missions were attacked and plundered by the Pimas, but the missionaries escaped. In 1752 the missions were reoccupied. A rivalry between the Franciscan and the Jesuits hindered the success of the missions.

In 1767, however, the controversy between Jesuits and Franciscans was ended, and the Jesuits expelled. The Government, not content with their expulsion, confiscated the mission property, though the Franciscans were invited to the field. Four Franciscans arrived in 1768 to renew the missionary work and found the missions in a deplorable state, but they persuaded the Government to help in the restoration and to restore the confiscated property. It is to be observed that these missions of Arizona, as well as many of those of Sonora in Mexico, were, until 1873, under the control of the College of Santa Cruz (just across the Arizona line in Northern Mexico), separated from 1783 to 1791, and united in 1791. The two important Arizona Missions, San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi, became prosperous, the former under the famous Franciscan, Father Francisco Garcés from 1768 to 1774. Father Garcés laboured continually among the Indians until he lost his life, in 1781, in his missionary work near the Colorado River in California. The missions of Arizona declined after 1800, and in 1828 the Mexican Government ordered their abandonment. From this time until 1859, when Bishop Lamy of Santa Fé sent the Rt. Rev. J.P. Macheboeuf to minister to the spiritual needs of Arizona, there were no signs of Christianity in Arizona other than abandoned missions and ruined churches.

PRESENT CONDITIONS (1910)

Pending the full admission of New Mexico to statehood, its government is still that of a territory of the United States, regulated by the provisions of the Federal Statutes. Accordingly, the governor and other executive officers are appointed, by the executive authority of the United States and paid by the Federal Treasury; the Legislature (House of Representatives and Council) is elected by the people of the territory; the Territorial Judiciary (a chief justice and five associate justices) is appointed by the President of the United States for a term of four years, but justices of the peace are elected for two years.

Education

The educational system of New Mexico dates from 1890 and is still in process of development. The public-school system is governed by a territorial Board of Education consisting of seven members. This board apportions the school funds, prepares teachers' examinations, selects books, etc. There are also the usual county and district officers. At present there are approximately 1000 public schools in New Mexico, with about 50,000 pupils, of whom 20,000 are Spanish and 100 negroes. There are 70 denominational schools, with 5,000 pupils, and 18 private schools, with 288 pupils. Furthermore, there were, in 1908, 25 Indian schools with 1933 pupils.

The Catholic schools of the territory number 23, with about 100 teachers and about 1500 pupils (estimated in 1910; 1,212 in 1908). The most important Catholic school in New Mexico is St. Michael's College at Santa Fé, founded in 1859 by Bishop J. B. Lamy. The sisters' charitable institutions ( hospitals, etc.) are state-aided. In 1909 the appropriations for these purposes amounted to $12,000. The other denominational schools are distributed as follows: Presbyterian, 25; Congregational, 9; Methodist, 11; Baptist, 2. The territorial (or state) university was established in 1889 at Albuquerque. It is supported by territorial appropriations and land revenues. For the year 1909-10 the income was $40,000. Its teaching force consisted, in 1909-10, of 16 professors, associate professors, and instructors, and the number of students in attendance was 130. There are three normal schools, one at Las Vegas, one at El Rito, and one at Silver City; a military school at Roswell; a school of mines at Socorro ; and a college of agriculture and mechanic arts at Mesilla Park-the best equipped and most efficient school in New Mexico, receiving both federal and territorial aid aggregating $100,000 a year (1909-10), having a teaching force of 40 professors, assistant professors, and instructors, and an attendance of 285 students (1909-10). The combined valuation of the territory's educational institutions is about $1,000,000, while the annual expenditures aggregate $275,000.

Religion

In 1850, when New Mexico was organized as a territory of the United States, it (including, till 1863, Arizona and part of Colorado ) was made a vicariate Apostolic, under the Rt. Rev. John B. Lamy. In 1853 New Mexico (with exceptions noted below) was made the Diocese of Santa Fé, and the vicar Apostolic became its first bishop. In 1865 this diocese became the Archdiocese of Santa Fé, and Bishop Lamy became its first archbishop. The archdiocese includes all of New Mexico, except Doña Ana, Eddy, and Grant Counties, which belong to the Diocese of Tuscon. The present Archbishop of Santa Fé is the Rt. Rev. John B. Pitaval. The Catholic population of the territory in 1882 was 126,000; in 1906 it was 121,558 (U. S. Census Bulletin, no. 103, p. 36). But the figures for 1882 (given by H. H. Bancroft) must include the Catholic population of Arizona and probably also of Colorado. In 1906 Catholics were more than 88 percent of the church membership of the territory, which was 137,009, distributed as follows:—

  • Roman Catholics. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .121,558
  • Methodists. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . ..6,560
  • Presbyterians. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . ..2,935
  • Baptists. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .2,403
  • Disciples, or Christians. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .1,092
  • Protestant Episcopalians. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . ..869
  • Unclassified. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .1,592
  • Total . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .137,009

At present (1910) the total Catholic population of New Mexico may be estimated at not less than 130,000, about 120,000 being of Spanish descent. No definite statistics are available on this last point. The large Catholic population of New Mexico is due to having been colonized by the Spaniards, whose first thought on founding a colony was to build churches and establish missions. The recent Catholic immigration has been from the Middle West, and this is largely Irish.

Catholics distinguished in Public Life

The fact that until about the year 1890 the population of the territory was mostly Spanish, and therefore Catholic, is the reason why most of the men who have figured prominently in the history of New Mexico have been Catholic Spaniards. Among the more prominent may be mentioned: Donaciano Vigil, military governor, 1878-48; Miguel A. Otero, territorial secretary, 1861; delegates to the Federal Congress, José M. Gallegos, 1853-54; Miguel A. Otero, 1855-60; Francisco Perea, 1863-64; José F. Chaves, 1865-70, José M. Gallegos, 1871-72; Trinidad Romero, 1877-78; Mariano S. Otero, 1879-90; Tranquilino Luna 1881-82; Francisco A. Manzanares, 1883-4. The treasurers and auditors from 1863 to 1886 were all, with but one exception, Catholic Spaniards.

Legislation affecting Religion

(1) Absolute freedom of worship is guaranteed by the Organic Act constituting the territory, and by statute preference to any religious denomination is forbidden. (2) Horse-racing and cock-fighting on Sunday are forbidden; labour, except works of necessity, charity, or mercy, prohibited, and the offence is punishable by a fine of from $5 to $15. (3) No religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office or public trust in this territory. Oaths are administered in the usual fashion, but an affirmation may be used instead when the individual has conscientious scruples against taking an oath. (4) No statutory enactment punishing blasphemy or profanity has ever been passed in the territory. (5) It is customary to open the sessions of the Legislature with an invocation of the Supreme Being, but there is no statutory authority either for or against this ceremony. Until the present time (1910) this function has always been discharged by a Catholic priest. (6) Christmas is the only religious festival observed as a legal holiday in New Mexico. New Year's Day is also a legal holiday, but Good Friday, Ash Wednesday, All Souls' Day, etc., are not recognized. (7) There has been no decision in the courts of New Mexico regarding the seal of confession, but it is to be presumed that, in the absence of any statutory provision covering the point, the courts of the territory would follow the general rule: that confession to a priest is a confidential communication and therefore inviolable. (8) Churches are, in the contemplation of the laws of New Mexico, in the category of charitable institutions. (9) No religious or charitable institution is permitted to hold more than $50,000 worth of property ; any property acquired or held contrary to the above prohibition shall be forfeited and escheat to the United States. The property of religious institutions is exempt from taxation when it is being used and devoted exclusively to its appropriate objects, and not used with a view to pecuniary profit. The clergy are exempt from jury and military service. (10) Marriage may be either by religious or by civil ceremony. The male must be eighteen years of age, and the female fifteen, for marriage with the parents' consent ; after the male is twenty-one and the female eighteen they may marry regardless of parents' consent. Marriages between first cousins, uncles, aunts, nieces and nephews, half-brothers and sisters, grandparent and grandchildren, are declared incest and absolutely void. (11) Education in the public schools must be non-sectarian. (12) No charitable or religious bequests are recognized unless made in writing duly attested by the lawful number of witnesses. (13) There are no restrictions as to cemeteries other than that they must not be near running streams. (14) Divorce may be obtained for cruelty, adultery, desertion, and for almost every ground recognized as sufficient in any state of the Union. The party seeking divorce must have been a bona fide resident of the territory for more than a year prior to the date of filing the action. Service on the defendant must be personal, if the defendant is within the territory, but may be by publication, if the whereabouts of the defendant are unknown. Trials of divorce are without a jury.

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(Or NOEL ALEXANDRE). A French historian and theologian, of the Order of St. Dominic, b. at ...

Natchez

DIOCESE OF NATCHEZ (NATCHESIENSIS) Established 28 July, 1837; comprises the State of ...

Natchitoches

Diocese of Natchitoches Former title of the present Diocese of Alexandria (Alexandrinensis), ...

Nathan

Nathan (God-given), the name of several Israelites mentioned in the Old Testament. (1) Nathan, ...

Nathanael

One of the first disciples of Jesus, to Whom he was brought by his friend Philip ( John ...

Nathinites

Or N ATHINEANS ( hnthynym , the given ones; Septuagint generally o‘i dedoménoi ...

National Union, Catholic Young Men's

This association was organized on 22 February, 1875, at a meeting held in Newark, New Jersey, at ...

Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. St.Romanus, the ...

Natural Law

I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...

Naturalism

Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of ...

Nature

Etymologically (Latin natura from nasci , to be born, like the corresponding Greek physis ...

Naturism

Naturism is the term proposed by Réville to designate the worship of nature. It differs ...

Nausea, Frederic

(Latinized from the German Grau .) Bishop of Vienna, born c. 1480 at Waischenfeld ( ...

Navajo Indians

Navajo Indians, numbering about 20,000, constitute the largest group of Indians belonging to the ...

Navarre

The territory formerly known as Navarre now belongs to two nations, Spain and France, according ...

Navarrete, Domingo Fernández

Dominican missionary and archbishop, born c. 1610 at Peñafiel in Old Castile ; died ...

Navarrete, Juan Fernández

Spanish painter, b. at Logrono, 1526 and died at Segovia, 1579 (at Toledo, February, 1579 or 28 ...

Navarrete, Martín Fernández

Spanish navigator and writer, b. at Avalos (Logrono), 8 November, 1765; d. at Madrid, 8 October, ...

Nave

Architecturally the central, open space of a church, west of the choir or chancel, and separated ...

Nazarene

( Nazarenos, Nazarenus ). As a name applied to Christ, the word Nazarene occurs only ...

Nazareth

The town of Galilee where the Blessed Virgin dwelt when the Archangel announced to her the ...

Nazareth, Sisters of Charity of

Founded Dec., 1812, by the Rev. B.J.M. David (see D IOCESE OF L OUISVILLE ). Father David, ...

Nazarite

(Hebrew, " consecrated to God "). The name given by the Hebrews to a person set apart and ...

Nazarius and Celsus, Saints

The only historical information which we possess regarding these two martyrs is the discovery of ...

Nazarius and Companions, Saint

In the Roman Martyrology and that of Bede for 12 June mention is made of four Roman martyrs, ...

Nazarius, John Paul

Dominican theologian, b. in 1556 at Cremonia; d. in 1645 at Bologna. He entered the order at an ...

Nazarius, Saint

Fourteenth abbot of the monastery of Lérins, probably sometime during the reign of the ...

Nazianzus

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Tertia. Nazianzus was a small town the history which is ...

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Ne 66

Neale, Leonard

Second Archbishop of Baltimore, b. near Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland, 15 Oct., 1746; ...

Nebo

( Septuagint, Nabau ). A town mentioned in several passages of the Old Testament, v.g., ...

Nebo, Mount

( Septuagint : Nabau ). A mountain of the Abarim range east of Jordan and the Dead Sea, ...

Nebraska

Nebraska, meaning in English, "shallow water", occupies geographically a central location among ...

Necessity

Necessity, in a general way, denotes a strict connection between different beings, or the ...

Neckam, Alexander of

( Or Necham.) English scholar, born in Hertfordshire, 1157; died at Kempsey, Worcestershire, ...

Necrologies

Necrologies, or, as they are more frequently called in France, obituaires , are the registers ...

Necromancy

( nekros , "dead", and manteia , "divination") Necromancy is a special mode of divination ...

Nectarius

( Nechtarios ), Patriarch of Constantinople, (381-397), died 27 Sept, 397, eleventh bishop of ...

Negligence

( Latin nec , not, and legere , to pick out). The condition of not heeding. More ...

Nehemiah, Book of

Also called the second Book of Esdras (Ezra), is reckoned both in the Talmud and in the early ...

Neher, Stephan Jakob

Church historian ; b. at Ebnat, 24 July, 1829; d. at Nordhausen, 7 Oct., 1902. His family were ...

Nemore, Jordanus (Jordanis) de

The name given in manuscripts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries to a mathematician who ...

Nemrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...

Neo-Platonism

General survey A system of idealistic, spiritualistic philosophy, tending towards mysticism, ...

Neo-Pythagorean Philosophy

The ethico-religious society founded by Pythagoras, which flourished especially in Magna ...

Neo-Scholasticism

Neo-Scholasticism is the development of the Scholasticism of the Middle Ages during the latter ...

Neocæsarea

A titular see, suffragan of Hierapolis in the Patriarchate of Antioch sometimes called ...

Neocæsarea

A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus, at first called Cabira, one of the favourite residences ...

Neophyte

Neophyte ( neophytoi , the newly planted, i.e. incorporated with the mystic Body of Christ), a ...

Nephtali

(A.V., N APHTALI ) Sixth son of Jacob and Bala ( Genesis 30:8 ). The name is explained ...

Nepi and Sutri

Nepi and Sutri (Nepsin et Sutrin), united sees of the province of Rome, central Italy, in the ...

Nepveu, Francis

Writer on ascetical subjects, b. at St. Malo, 29 April, 1639; entered the novitiate of the ...

Nereus and Achilleus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints

The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

Neri, Antonio

Florentine chemist, born in Florence ln the sixteenth century; died 1614, place unknown. We have ...

Neri, Saint Philip Romolo

THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...

Nerinckx, Charles

Missionary priest in Kentucky, founder of the Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, born ...

Nero

Nero, the last Roman emperor (reigned 54-68) of the Julian-Claudian line, was the son of Domitius ...

Nerses I-IV

Armenian patriarchs. Nerses I Surnamed "the Great". Died 373. Born of the royal stock, he ...

Nerses of Lambron

Born 1153 at Lambron, Cilicia; died 1198; son of Oschin II, prince of Lambron and nephew of the ...

Nestorius and Nestorianism

I. THE HERESIARCH Nestorius, who gave his name to the Nestorian heresy, was born at Germanicia, ...

Netherlands, The

( German Niederlande ; French Pays Bas ). The Netherlands, or Low Countries, as organized by ...

Netter, Thomas

Theologian and controversialist, b. at Saffron Waldon, Essex, England, about 1375; d. at Rouen, ...

Neugart, Trudpert

Benedictine historian, born at Villingen, Baden, 23 February, 1742; died at St Paul's ...

Neum

(Latin, neuma, pneuma, or neupma, from Greek pneûma, a nod). A term in medieval ...

Neumann, Johann Balthasar

Born 1687 at Eger; died 1753 at Würzburg, master of the rococo style and one of the ...

Neumayr, Franz

Preacher, writer on theological, controversial and ascetical subjects, and author of many ...

Neusohl

Diocese of Neusohl (Hung. Beszterczebànya; Lat. Neosoliensis), founded in 1776 by Maria ...

Neutra

(Nitria; Nyitha) -- Diocese of Neutra (Nitriensis). Diocese in Western Hungary, a suffragan of ...

Nevada

A Western state of the United States , bounded on the North by Oregon and Idaho, on the East ...

Neve

Titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Two of its bishops are known: Petronius, who ...

Nevers

(Nivernum) Diocese ; includes the Department of Nièvre, in France. Suppressed by the ...

Neville

(1) Edmund Neville ( alias Sales), a Jesuit, born at Hopcut, Lancashire, 1605; died in ...

New Abbey

The Abbey of Sweetheart, named New Abbey Pow, or New Abbey, in order to distinguish it, from ...

New Caledonia

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC New Caledonia, one of the largest islands of Oceania, lies about 900 miles ...

New Guinea

The second largest island and one of the least known countries of the world, lies immediately ...

New Hampshire

The most northerly of the thirteen original states of the United States, lying between 70°37' ...

New Jersey

One of the original thirteen states of the American Union. It ratified the Federal Constitution ...

New Mexico

A territory of the United States now (Jan., 1911) awaiting only the completion of its ...

New Norcia

A Benedictine abbey in Western Australia, founded on 1 March, 1846, by a Spanish Benedictine, ...

New Orleans

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW ORLEANS (NOVÆ AURELIÆ). Erected 25 April, 1793, as the Diocese of ...

New Pomerania

New Pomerania, the largest island of the Bismarck Archipelago, is separated from New Guinea by ...

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

New Testament, Canon of the

The Catholic New Testament, as defined by the Council of Trent, does not differ, as regards the ...

New Year's Day

The word year is etymologically the same as hour (Skeat), and signifies a going, movement ...

New York (Archdiocese)

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW YORK (NEO-EBORACENSIS). See erected 8 April, 1808; made archiepiscopal 19 ...

New York (State)

One of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the Declaration of ...

New Zealand

New Zealand—formerly described as a colony—has, since September, 1907, by royal ...

Newark

(NOVARCENSIS) Diocese created in 1853, suffragan of New York and comprising Hudson, Passaic, ...

Newbattle

( Neubotle , i.e. new dwelling). Newbattle, in the ancient Diocese of St. Andrews, about ...

Newdigate, Blessed Sebastian

Executed at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. A younger son of John Newdigate of Harefield Place, Middlesex, ...

Newfoundland

A British colony of North America (area 42,734 square miles), bounded on the north by the Strait ...

Newhouse, Abbey of

The Abbey of Newhouse, near Brockelsby, Lincoln, the first Premonstratensian abbey in England, ...

Newman, John Henry

(1801-1890) Cardinal-Deacon of St. George in Velabro, divine, philosopher, man of letters, ...

Newport (England)

(NEOPORTENSIS) This diocese takes its name from Newport, a town of about 70,000 inhabitants, ...

Newton, John

A soldier and engineer, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 24 August, 1823; died in New York City, 1 May, ...

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Ni 70

Niagara University

Niagara University, situated near Niagara Falls, New York, is conducted by the Vincentians. It ...

Nicéron, Jean-Pierre

A French lexicographer, born in Paris, 11 March, 1685, died there, 8 July, 1738. After his ...

Nicaea

Titular see of Bithynia Secunda, situated on Lake Ascanius, in a fertile plain, but very ...

Nicaea, First Council of

First Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 325 on the occasion of the heresy of ...

Nicaea, Second Council of

Seventh Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 787. (For an account of the ...

Nicaragua

(REPUBLIC AND DIOCESE OF NICARAGUA; DE NICARAGUA) The diocese, suffragan of Guatemala, is ...

Nicastro

(NEOCASTRENSIS). A city of the Province of Catanzaro, in Calabria, southern Italy, situated ...

Niccola Pisano

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

Nice

(NICIENSIS) Nice comprises the Department of Alpes-Maritimes. It was re-established by the ...

Nicene Creed

As approved in amplified form at the Council of Constantinople (381), it is the profession of the ...

Nicephorus, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople, 806-815, b. about 758; d. 2 June, 829. This champion of the orthodox ...

Nicetas

(NICETA) A Bishop of Remesiana (Romatiana) in what is now Servia, born about 335; died ...

Nicetius, Saint

A Bishop of Trier, born in the latter part of the fifth century, exact date unknown; died in ...

Niche

A recess for the reception of a statue, so designed as to give it emphasis, frame it effectively, ...

Nicholas Garlick, Venerable

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...

Nicholas I, Saint, Pope

Born at Rome, date unknown; died 13 November, 867. One of the great popes of the Middle ...

Nicholas II, Pope

(GERHARD OF BURGUNDY) Nicholas was born at Chevron, in what is now Savoy ; elected at Siena, ...

Nicholas III, Pope

(GIOVANNI GAETANI ORSINI) Born at Rome, c. 1216; elected at Viterbo, 25 November, 1277; died ...

Nicholas IV, Pope

(GIROLAMO MASCI) Born at Ascoli in the Rome, 4 April, 1292. He was of humble extraction, ...

Nicholas Justiniani

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...

Nicholas of Cusa

German cardinal, philosopher, and administrator, b. at Cues on the Moselle, in the Archdiocese ...

Nicholas of Flüe, Blessed

(D E R UPE ). Born 21 March, 1417, on the Flüeli, a fertile plateau near Sachseln, ...

Nicholas of Gorran

(Or GORRAIN) Medieval preacher, and scriptural commentator; b. in 1232 at Gorron, France ; ...

Nicholas of Lyra

( Doctor planus et utilis ) Exegete, b. at Lyra in Normandy, 1270; d. at Paris, 1340. The ...

Nicholas of Myra, Saint

( Also called NICHOLAS OF BARI). Bishop of Myra in Lycia; died 6 December, 345 or 352. ...

Nicholas of Osimo

(AUXIMANUS). A celebrated preacher and author, b. at Osimo, Italy, in the second half of the ...

Nicholas of Strasburg

Mystic ; flourished early in the fourteenth century. Educated at Paris, he was later on lector ...

Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint

Born at Sant' Angelo, near Fermo, in the Hermits of St. Augustine -- a star above him or on his ...

Nicholas Owen, Saint

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...

Nicholas Pieck, Saint

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

Nicholas V, Pope

(TOMMASO PARENTUCELLI) A name never to be mentioned without reverence by every lover of ...

Nichols, Venerable George

(Or NICOLLS). English martyr, born at Oxford about 1550; executed at Oxford, 19 October, ...

Nicholson, Francis

A controversial writer; b. at Manchester, 1650 ( baptized 27 Oct.); d. at Lisbon, 13 Aug., 1731. ...

Nicodemus

A prominent Jew of the time of Christ, mentioned only in the Fourth Gospel . The name is of ...

Nicodemus, Gospel of

(Or the Gospel of Nicodemus.) This work does not assume to have written by Pilate, but to have ...

Nicolò de' Tudeschi

("abbas modernus" or "recentior", "abbas Panormitanus" or "Siculus") A Benedictine canonist, ...

Nicolaï, Jean

Celebrated Dominican theologian and controversialist, b. in 1594 at Mouzay in the Diocese of ...

Nicolaites

(Also called Nicolaitans), a sect mentioned in the Apocalypse (ii,6,15) as existing in ...

Nicolas, Armella

Popularly known as "La bonne Armelle", a saintly French serving-maid held in high veneration among ...

Nicolas, Auguste

French apologist, b. at Bordeaux, 6 Jan., 1807; d. at Versailles 18 Jan., 1888. He first studied ...

Nicolaus Germanus

(Often called "Donis" from a misapprehension of the title "Donnus" or "Donus" an abbreviated form ...

Nicole, Pierre

Theologian and controversialist, b. 19 October, 1625, at Chartres, d. 16 November, 1695, at ...

Nicolet

(NICOLETANA) Diocese in the Province of Quebec, Canada, suffragan of Quebec. It comprises the ...

Nicomedes, Saint

Martyr of unknown era, whose feast is observed 15 September. The Roman Martyrologium and the ...

Nicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I ...

Nicopolis

A titular see, suffragan of Sebasteia, in Armenia Prima. Founded by Pompey after his decisive ...

Nicopolis

(NICOPOLITANA) Diocese in Bulgaria. The city of Nicopolis (Thrace or Moesia), situated at the ...

Nicopolis

A titular see and metropolis in ancient Epirus. Augustus founded the city (B.C. 31) on a ...

Nicosia

A city of the Province of Catania, in Sicily situated at a height of about 2800 feet above the ...

Nicosia

Titular archdiocese in the Province of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhummer' "Aus Cypern" in ...

Nicotera and Tropea

(NICOTERENSIS ET TROPEIENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Reggio di Calabria. Nicotera, the ancient ...

Nider, John

Theologian, b. 1380 in Swabia; d. 13 August, 1438, at Colmar. He entered the Order of Preachers ...

Nieremberg y Otin, Juan Eusebio

Noted theologian and polygraphist, b. of German parents at Madrid, 1595; d. there, 1658. ...

Niessenberger, Hans

An architect of the latter part of the Middle Ages, whose name is mentioned with comparative ...

Niger, Peter George

(NIGRI, German SCHWARTZ) Dominican theologian, preacher and controversialist, b. 1434 at ...

Nigeria

A colony of British East Africa extending from the Gulf of Guinea to Lake Chad (from 4° 30' ...

Nihilism

The term was first used by Turgeniev in his novel, "Fathers and Sons" (in "Russkij Vestnik", Feb., ...

Nihus, Barthold

Convert and controversialist, b. at Holtorf in Hanover, 7 February, 1590 (according to other ...

Nikolaus von Dinkelsbühl

Theologian, b. c. 1360, at Dinkelsbühl; d. 17 March, 1433, at Mariazell in Styria. He ...

Nikon

Patriarch of Moscow (1652-1658; d. 1681). He was of peasant origin, born in the district of ...

Nilles, Nikolaus

Born 21 June, 1828, of a wealthy peasant family of Rippweiler, Luxemburg ; died 31 January, ...

Nilopolis

A titular see and a suffragan of Oxyrynchos, in Egypt. According to Ptolemy (IV, v, 26) the ...

Nilus the Younger

Of Rossano, in Calabria; born in 910, died 27 December, 1005. For a time he was married (or ...

Nilus, Saint

( Neilos ) Nilus the elder, of Sinai (died c. 430), was one of the many disciples and ...

Nimbus

(Latin, related to Nebula, nephele , properly vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies ...

Nimrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...

Ninian, Saint

(NINIAS, NINUS, DINAN, RINGAN, RINGEN) Bishop and confessor ; date of birth unknown; died ...

Nirschl, Joseph

Theologian and writer, b. at Durchfurth, Lower Bavaria, 24 February, 1823; d. at ...

Nisibis

A titular Archdiocese of Mesopotamia, situated on the Mygdonius at the foot of Mt. Masius. It is ...

Nithard

Frankish historian, son of Angilbert and Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne ; died about 843 or ...

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No 65

Noah

[Hebrew Nôah , "rest"; Greek Noah ; Latin Noah ]. The ninth patriarch of the ...

Noah's Ark

The Hebrew name to designate Noah's Ark, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' ...

Noailles, Louis-Antoine de

Cardinal and bishop, b. at the Château of Teyssiére in Auvergne, France, 27 May, ...

Nobili, Robert de'

Born at Montepulciano, Tuscany, September, 1577; died at Mylapore, India, in 1656. He entered the ...

Noble, Daniel

Physician, b. 14 Jan., 1810; d. at Manchester, 12 Jan, 1885. He was the son of Mary Dewhurst and ...

Nocera

DIOCESE OF NOCERA (NUCERINENSIS) Diocese in Perugia, Umbria, Italy, near the sources of the ...

Nocera dei Pagani

(NUCERIN PAGANORUM; dei Pagani ="of the Pagans") Diocese in Salermo, Italy, at the foot of ...

Nocturns

( Nocturni or Nocturna ). A very old term applied to night Offices. Tertullian speaks of ...

Nogaret, Guillaume de

Born about the middle of the thirteenth century at St. Felix-en-Lauragais; died 1314; he was one ...

Nola

(NOLANA) Diocese ; suffragan of Naples. The city of Nola in the Italian Province of Caserta, ...

Nola, Giovanni Marliano da

Sculptor and architect, b., it is said, of a leather merchant named Giuseppe, at Nola, near ...

Nolasco, Saint Peter

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

Nollet, Jean-Antoine

Physicist, b. at Pimpré, Oise, France, 19 November, 1700; d. at Paris, 25 April, 1770. His ...

Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...

Nomination

The various methods of designating persons for ecclesiastical benefices or offices have been ...

Nomocanon

(From the Greek nomos , law, and kanon , a rule) A collection of ecclesiastical law, the ...

Non Expedit

("It is not expedient"). Words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the ...

Non-Jurors

The name given to the Anglican Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of allegiance to ...

Nonantola

A former Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius , six miles north-east of Modena ...

Nonconformists

A name which, in its most general acceptation, denotes those refusing to conform with the ...

None

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Origin of None; II. None from the ...

Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien

Controversialist; b. in Besançon, 29 July, 1711; d. there, 3 September, 1793. At nineteen ...

Nonnus

Nonnus, of Panopolis in Upper Egypt (c. 400), the reputed author of two poems in hexameters; ...

Norbert, Saint

Born at Kanten on the left bank of the Rhine, near Wesel, c. 1080; died at Magdeburg, 6 June, ...

Norbertines

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

Norcia

(NORSIN). A diocese and city in Perugia, Italy, often mentioned in Roman history. In the ...

Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of

(Since the Reformation) Under this title are accounts only of the prominent Catholic Dukes of ...

Noris, Henry

Cardinal, b. at Verona, 29 August, 1631, of English ancestry; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1704. He ...

Normandy

An ancient French province, from which five "departments" were formed in 1790: ...

Norris, Sylvester

( Alias SMITH, NEWTON). Controversial writer and English missionary priest ; b. 1570 or ...

Norsemen

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

North Carolina

One of the original thirteen States of the United States, is situated between 33° 53' and ...

North Dakota

One of the United States of America , originally included in the Louisiana Purchase. Little was ...

Northampton

(NORTANTONIENSIS) Diocese in England, comprises the Counties of Northampton, Bedford, ...

Northcote, James Spencer

Born at Feniton Court, Devonshire, 26 May, 1821; d. at Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, 3 March, ...

Northern Territory

(Prefecture Apostolic) The Northern Territory, formerly Alexander Land, is that part of ...

Northmen

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

Norton, Christopher

Martyr ; executed at Tyburn, 27 May, 1570. His father was Richard Norton of Norton Conyers, ...

Norway

Norway, comprising the smaller division of the Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by ...

Norwich, Ancient Diocese of

(NORDOVICUM; NORVICUM). Though this see took its present name only in the eleventh century, ...

Notaries

( Latin notarius ). Persons appointed by competent authority to draw up official or authentic ...

Notburga

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...

Notburga, Saint

Patroness of servants and peasants, b. c. 1265 at Rattenberg on the Inn; d. c. 16 September, 1313. ...

Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...

Notitia Dignitatum

(Register of Offices). The official handbook of the civil and military officials in the later ...

Notitia Provinciarum et Civitatum Africae

(List of the Provinces and Cities of Africa). A list of the bishops and their sees in the ...

Notitiae Episcopatuum

The name given to official documents that furnish for Eastern countries the list and hierarchical ...

Notker

Among the various monks of St. Gall who bore this name, the following are the most important: ...

Noto

(NETEN). Noto, the ancient Netum and after the Saracen conquest the capital of one of the ...

Notoriety, Notorious

( Latin Notorietas, notorium , from notus , known). Notoriety is the quality or the ...

Notre Dame de Montreal, Congregation of

Marguerite Bourgeoys, the foundress, was born at Troyes, France, 17 April, 1620. She was the ...

Notre Dame, School Sisters of

A religious community devoted to education. In the United Sates they have conducted parish ...

Notre Dame, Sisters of (of Cleveland, Ohio)

A branch of the congregation founded by Blessed Julie Billiart. In 1850, Father Elting of ...

Notre Dame, University of

(Full name is the University of Notre Dame du Lac ). Notre Dame is located in Northern ...

Notre-Dame de Namur, Institute of

Founded in 1803 at Amiens, France, by Bl. Julie Billiart (b. 1751 d. 1816) and ...

Notre-Dame de Sion, Congregation of

Religious institute of women, founded at Paris in May 1843, by Marie-Théodore and ...

Nottingham

(NOTTINGHAMIEN) One of the original twelve English dioceses created at the time of the ...

Nourrisson, Jean-Felix

Philosopher, b. at Thiers, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, 18 July, 1825; d. at Paris, 13 June, ...

Nova Scotia

I. GEOGRAPHY Nova Scotia is one of the maritime provinces of Canada. It forms part of what was ...

Novara

(NOVARIENSIS). A diocese and the capital of the province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy, noted ...

Novatianism

Novatian was a schismatic of the third century, and founder of the sect of the Novatians; he ...

Novatus, Saint

St. Novatus, who is mentioned on 20 June with his brother, the martyr Timotheus, was the son of ...

Novello, Blessed Agostino

(Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...

Novena

(From novem , nine.) A nine days' private or public devotion in the Catholic Church to ...

Novice

I. DEFINITION AND REQUIREMENTS The word novice , which among the Romans meant a newly acquired ...

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Nu 19

Nubia

Located in North-eastern Africa, extending from Sennar south to beyond Khartoum and including the ...

Nueva Cáceres

(NOVA CACERES) Diocese created in 1595 by Clement VIII ; it is one of the four suffragan ...

Nueva Pamplona

(NEO-PAMPILONENSIS). Diocese in Colombia, South America, founded in 1549 and a see erected by ...

Nueva Segovia

(NOVAE SEGOBIAE) Diocese in the Philippines, so called from Segovia, a town in Spain. The town ...

Nugent, Francis

Priest of the Franciscan Capuchin Order, founder of the Irish and the Rhenish Provinces of said ...

Nugent, James

Philanthropist, temperance advocate and social reformer b. 3 March, 1822 at Liverpool ; d. 27 ...

Numbers, Use of, in the Church

No attentive reader of the Old Testament can fail to notice that a certain sacredness seems to ...

Numismatics

(From the Greek nomisma , "legal currency") Numismatics is the science of coins and of ...

Nun of Kent

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...

Nunc Dimittis

(The Canticle of Simeon). Found in St. Luke's Gospel (2:29-32) , is the last in historical ...

Nuncio

An ordinary and permanent representative of the pope, vested with both political and ...

Nunez, Pedro

(Pedro Nonius). Mathematician and astronomer, b. at Alcacer-do-Sol, 1492; d. at Coimbra, ...

Nuns

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various ...

Nuptial Mass

"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...

Nuremberg

(NÜRNBERG) The second largest city in Bavaria, situated in a plain on both sides of the ...

Nusco

(N USCANA ) Diocese in the province of Avellino, Italy, suffragan of Salerno ; dates from ...

Nussbaum, Johannn Nepomuk von

German surgeon, b. at Munich 2 Sept., 1829; d. there 31 Oct., 1890. He made his studies in the ...

Nutter, Robert, Ven.

English martyr ; b. at Burnley, Lancashire, c. 1550; executed at Lancaster, 26 July, 1600. He ...

Nuyens, Wilhelmus

Historian, b. 18 August, 1823, at Avenhorn in Holland ; d. 10 December, 1894, at Westwoud near ...

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Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...

Nympha, Tryphon, and Respicius

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

Nyssa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...

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