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Molinism

The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will. This system was first developed by Luis de Molina, and was adopted in its essential points by the Society of Jesus . It is opposed by the Thomistic doctrine of grace -- the term Thomism has a somewhat wider meaning -- whose chief exponent is the Dominican Bañez. Along lines totally different from those of Molina, this subtile theologian endeavours to harmonize grace and free will on principles derived from St. Thomas. Whereas Molinism tries to clear up the mysterious relation between grace and free will by starting from the rather clear concept of freedom, the Thomists, in their attempt to explain the attitude of the will towards grace, begin with the obscure idea of efficacious grace. The question which both schools set themselves to answer is this: Whence does efficacious grace ( gratia efficax ), which includes in its very concept the actual free consent of the will, derive its infallible effect; and how is it that, in spite of the infallible efficacy of grace, the freedom of the will is not impaired? It is evident that, in every attempt to solve this difficult problem, Catholic theologians must safeguard two principles: first, the supremacy and causality of grace (against Pelagianism and Semipelagianism ), and second, the unimpaired freedom of consent in the will (against early Protestantism and Jansenism ). For both these principles are dogmas of the Church, clearly and emphatically defined by the Council of Trent. Now, whilst Thomism lays chief stress on the infallible efficacy of grace, without denying the existence and necessity of the free cooperation of the will, Molinism emphasizes the unrestrained freedom of the will, without detracting in any way from the efficacy, priority, and dignity of grace. As in the tunnelling of a mountain, galleries started by skilful engineers from opposite sides meet to form but one tunnel, thus it might have been expected that, in spite of different and opposite starting-points, the two schools would finally meet and reach one and the same scientific solution of the important problem. If we find, however, that this is not the case, and that they passed each other along parallel lines, we are inclined to attribute this failure to the intricate nature of the subject in question, rather than to the inefficiency of the scholars. The problem seems to lie so far beyond the horizon of the human mind, that man will never be able fully to penetrate its mystery. In the following we shall first consider Molinism as it came from its author's hands, and then briefly review the phases of its later historical development.

I. MOLINISM IN ITS ORIGINAL FORM

Molinism combats the heresy of the Reformers, according to which both sinners and just have lost freedom of will. It maintains and strenuously defends the Tridentine dogma which teaches:

  • that freedom of will has not been destroyed by original sin, and
  • that this freedom remains unimpaired under the influence of Divine grace (Cf. Sess. VI, can iv-v in Denzinger, "Enchiridion", ed. Bannwart, Freiburg, 1908, nn. 814-15).
  • Freedom is the power of the will to act or not to act, to act this or that way; whereas it is the characteristic of necessary causes, as animals and inanimate beings, to produce their effects by an intrinsic necessity. Freedom of the will is a consequence of intelligence, and as such the most precious gift of man, an endowment which he can never lose without annihilating his own nature. Man must of necessity be free in every state of life, actual or possible, whether that state be the purely natural ( status purœ naturœ ), or the state of original justice in paradise ( status justitiœ originalis ), or the state of fallen nature ( status naturœ lapsœ ), or the state of regeneration ( status naturœ reparatœ ). Were man to be deprived of freedom of will, he would necessarily degenerate in his nature and sink to the level of the animal. Since the purely natural state, devoid of supernatural grace and lacking a supernatural justice, never existed, and since the state of original justice has not been re-established by Christ's Redemption , man's present state alone is to be taken into consideration in solving the problem of the relation between grace and free will. In spite of original sin and concupiscence man is still free, not only with reference to ethical good and evil in his natural actions, but also in his supernatural salutary works in which Divine grace co-operates with his will. Molinism escaped every suspicion of Pelagianism by laying down at the outset that the soul with its faculties (the intellect and will) must be first constituted by prevenient grace a supernatural principle of operation in actu primo , before it can, in conjunction with the help of the supernatural concursus of God, elicit a salutary act in actu secundo . Thus, the salutary act is itself an act of grace rather than of the will; it is the common work of God and man, because and in so far as the supernatural element of the act is due to God and its vitality and freedom to man. It must not be imagined, however, that the will has such an influence on grace that its consent conditions or strengthens the power of grace; the fact is rather that the supernatural power of grace is first transformed into the vital energy of the will, and then, as a supernatural concursus, excites and accompanies the free and salutary act. In other words, as a helping or co-operating grace ( gratia adiuvans seu cooperans ), it produces the act conjointly with the will. According to this explanation, not only does Divine grace make a supernatural act possible, but the act itself, though free, is wholly dependent on grace, because it is grace which makes the salutary act possible and which stimulates and assists in producing it. Thus the act is produced entirely by God as First Cause ( Causa prima ), and also entirely by the will as second cause ( causa secunda ). The unprejudiced mind must acknowledge that this exposition is far from incurring the suspicion of Pelagianism or Semipelagianism.

    When the Thomists propound the subtler question, through what agency does the will, under the influence and impulse of grace, cease to be a mere natural faculty ( actus primus ) and produce a salutary act ( actus secundus ), or (according to Aristotelean terminology) pass from potency into act, the Molinists answer without hesitation that it is no way due to the Thomistic predetermination ( prœdeterminatio sive prœmotio physica ) of the will of God. For such a causal predetermination coming from a will other than our own, is a denial of self-determination on the part of our own will and destroys its freedom. It is rather the will itself which by its consent, under the restrictions mentioned above, renders the prevenient grace ( gratia prœveniens ) co-operative and the completely sufficient grace ( gratia vere sufficiens ) efficacious; for, to produce the salutary act, the free will need only consent to the prevenient and sufficient grace, which it has received from God. This theory reveals forthwith two characteristic features of Molinism, which stand in direct opposition to the principles of Thomism. The first consists in this, that the actus primus (i.e. the power to elicit a supernatural act) is, according to Molinism, due to a determining influx of grace previous to the salutary act ( influxus prœvius. gratia prœveniens ), but that God enters into the salutary act itself ( actus secundus ) only by means of a concomitant supernatural concursus ( concursus simultaneus, gratia cooperans ). The act, in so far as it is free, must come from the will; but the concursus prœvius of the Thomists, which is ultimately identical with God's predestination of the free act, makes illusory the free self-determination of the will, whether in giving or withholding its consent to the grace. The second characteristic difference between the two systems of grace lies in the radically different conception of the nature of merely sufficient grace ( gratia sufficiens ) and of efficacious grace ( gratia efficax ). Whereas Thomism derives the infallible success of efficacious grace from the very nature of this grace, and assumes consequently the grace to be efficacious intrinsically ( gratia efficax ab intrinseco ), Molinism ascribes the efficacy of grace to the free co-operation of the will and consequently admits a grace which is merely extrinsically efficacious ( gratia efficax ab extrinseco ). It is the free will that by the extrinsic circumstance of its consent makes efficacious the grace offered by God. If the will gives its consent, the grace which in itself is sufficient becomes efficacious; if it withholds its consent, the grace remains inefficacious ( gratia inefficax ), and it is due -- not to God, but -- solely to the will that the grace it reduced to one which is merely sufficient ( gratia mere sufficiens ).

    This explanation gave the Molinists an advantage over the Thomists, not only in that they safeguarded thereby the freedom of the will under the influence of grace, but especially because they offered a clearer account of the important truth that the grace, which is merely sufficient and therefore remains inefficacious, is nevertheless always really sufficient ( gratia vere sufficiens ), so that it would undoubtedly produce the salutary act for which it was given, if only the will would give its consent. Thomism, on the other hand, is confronted by the following dilemma: Either the grace which is merely sufficient ( gratia mere sufficiens ) is able by its own nature and without the help of an entirely different and new grace to produce the salutary act for which it was given, or it is not: if it is not able, then this sufficient grace is in reality insufficient ( gratia insufficiens ), since it must be supplemented by another; if it is able to produce the act by itself, then sufficient and efficacious grace do not differ in nature, but by reason of something extrinsic, namely in that the will gives its consent in one case and withholds it in the other. If then, when possessed of absolutely the same grace, one sinner is converted and another can remain obdurate, the inefficacy of the grace in the case of the obdurate sinner is due, not to the nature of the grace given, but to the sinful resistance of his free will, which refuses to avail itself of God's assistance. But for Thomism, which assumes an intrinsic and essential difference between sufficient and efficacious grace, so that sufficient grace to become efficacious must be supplemented by a new grace, the explanation is by no means so easy and simple. It cannot free itself from the difficulty, as is possible for Molinism, by saying that, but for the refractory attitude of the will, God would have bestowed this supplementary grace. For, since the sinful resistance of the will, viewed as an act, is to be referred to a physical premotion on the part of God, as well as the free co-operation with grace, the will, which is predetermined ad unum , is placed in a hopeless predicament. On the one hand the physical premotion in the form of an efficacious grace which is necessary to produce the salutary act, is lacking to the will, and, on the other, the entity of the sinful act of resistance is irrevocably predetermined by God as the Prime Mover ( Motor primus ). Whence then is the will to derive the impulse to accept or to reject the one premotion rather than the other? Therefore, the Molinists conclude that the Thomists cannot lay down the sinful resistance of the will as the cause of the inefficacy of the grace, which is merely sufficient.

    At this stage of the controversy the Thomists urge with great emphasis the grave accusation that the Molinists, by their undue exaltation of man's freedom of will, seriously circumscribe and diminish the supremacy of the Creator over His creatures, so that they destroy the efficacy and predominance of grace and make impossible in the hands of God the infallible result of efficacious grace. For, they argue, if the decision ultimately depends on the free will, whether a given grace shall be efficacious or not, the result of the salutary act must be attributed to man and not to God. But this is contrary to the warning of St. Paul, that we must not glory in the work of our salvation as though it were our own ( 1 Corinthians 4:7 ), and to his teaching that it is Divine grace which does not only give us the power to act, but "worketh" also in us "to will and to accomplish" (Phil., ii, 13); it is contrary also to the constant doctrine of St. Augustine, according to whom our free salutary acts are not our own work, but the work of grace.

    The consideration of these serious difficulties leads us to the very heart of Molina's system, and reveals the real Gordian knot of the whole controversy. For Molinism attempts to meet the objections just mentioned by the doctrine of the Divine scientia media . Even Molinism must and does admit that the very idea of efficacious grace includes the free consent of the will, and also that the decree of God to bestow an efficacious grace upon a man involves with metaphysical certainty the free co-operation of the will. From this it follows that God must possess some infallible source of knowledge by means of which he knows from all eternity, with metaphysical certainty, whether in the future the will is going to co-operate with a given grace or to resist it. When the question has assumed this form, it is easy to see that the whole controversy resolves itself into a discussion on the foreknowledge which God has of the free future acts; and thus the two opposing systems on grace are ultimately founded upon the general doctrine on God and His attributes. Both systems are confronted with the wider and deeper question: What is the medium of knowledge ( medium in quo ) in which God foresees the (absolute or conditioned) free operations of His rational creatures? That there must be such a medium of Divine foreknowledge is evident. The Thomists answer: God foresees the (absolute and conditioned) free acts of man in the eternal decrees of His own will, which with absolute certainty produce prœmovendo as definite prœdeterminationcs ad unum , all (absolute and conditional) free operations. With the same absolute certainty with which He knows His own will, He also foresees clearly and distinctly in the decrees of His will all future acts of man. However, the Molinists maintain that, since, as we remarked above, the predetermining decrees of the Divine Will must logically and necessarily destroy freedom and lead to Determinism, they cannot possibly be the medium in which God infallibly foresees future free acts. Rather these decrees must presuppose a special knowledge ( scientia media ), in the light of which God infallibly foresees from all eternity what attitude man's will would in any conceivable combination of circumstances assume if this or that particular grace were offered it. And it is only when guided by His infallible foreknowledge that God determines the kind of grace He shall give to man. If, for example, He foresees by means of the scientia media that St. Peter, after his denial of Christ, shall freely co-operate with a certain grace, He decrees to give him this particular grace and none other; the grace thus conferred becomes efficacious in bringing about his repentance. In the case of Judas, on the other hand, God, foreseeing the future resistance of this Apostle to a certain grace of conversion, decreed to allow it, and consequently bestowed upon him a grace which in itself was really sufficient, but remained inefficacious solely on account of the refractory disposition of the Apostle's will. Guided by this scientia media God is left entirely free in the disposition and distribution of grace. On His good pleasure alone it depends to whom He will give the supreme grace of final perseverance , to whom He will refuse it; whom He will receive into Heaven, whom He will exclude from His sight for ever. This doctrine is in perfect harmony with the dogmas of the gratuity of grace, the unequal distribution of efficacious grace, the wise and inscrutable operations of Divine Providence, the absolute impossibility to merit final perseverance , and lastly the immutable predestination to glory or rejection; nay more, it brings these very dogmas into harmony, not only with the infallible foreknowledge of God, but also with the freedom of the created will. The scientia media is thus in reality the cardinal point of Molinism; with it Molinism stands or falls. This doctrine of the scientia media is the battlefield of the two theological schools ; the Jesuits were striving to maintain and fortify it, while the Dominicans are ever putting forth their best efforts to capture or turn the position. The theologians who have come after them, unhampered by the traditions of either order, have followed some the doctrine of the Jesuits, some the Dominican system.

    The chief objection directed against Molinism at its rise was, that its shibboleth, the scientia media , was a sheer invention of Molina and therefore a suspicious innovation. The Molinists on the other hand did not hesitate to hurl back at the Thomists this same objection with regard to their prœmotio physica . In reality both accusations were equally unfounded. As long as there is an historical development of dogma, it is natural that, in the course of time and under the supernatural guidance of the Holy Ghost, new ideas and new terms should gain currency. The deposit of faith, which is unchangeable in substance but admits of development, contains these ideas from the beginning, and they are brought to their full development by the tireless labours of the theological schools. The idea of the scientia media Molina had borrowed from his celebrated professor, Pedro da Fonseca, S.J. ("Commentar. in Metaphys. Aristotelis", Cologne, 1615, III), who called it scientia mixta . The justification for this name Molina found in the consideration that, in addition to the Divine knowledge of the purely possible ( scientia simplicis intelligentiœ ) and the knowledge of the actually existing ( scientia visionis ), there must be a third kind of "intermediate knowledge ", which embraces all objects that are found neither in the region of pure possibility nor strictly in that of actuality, but partake equally of both extremes and in some sort belong to both kinds of knowledge. In this class are numbered especially those free actions, which, though never destined to be realized in historical fact, would come into existence if certain conditions were fulfilled. A hypothetical occurrence of this kind the theologians call a conditional future occurrence ( actus liber conditionate futurus seu futuribilis ). In virtue of this particular kind of Divine knowledge, Christ, for example, was able to declare with certainty to His obstinate hearers that the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon would have done penance in sackcloth and ashes, if they had witnessed the signs and miracles which were wrought in Corozain and Bethsaida (cf. Matthew 11:21 sq. ). We know, however, that such signs and miracles were not wrought and that the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon were not converted. Yet God had infallibly foreseen from all eternity that this conversion would have taken place if the condition (which never was realized) of Christ's mission to these cities had been fulfilled. Who will doubt that God in His omniscience foresees distinctly what any inhabitant of New York would do throughout the day if he were now in London or Paris instead of America? It is true that a number of Thomists, for example Ledesma ("De div. gratia auxil.", Salamanca, 1611, pp. 574 sqq.), denied, if not the existence, at least the infallibility of God's knowledge concerning the conditioned free future, and attributed to it only great probability. But, from the time that such eminent theologians as Alvarez, Gonet, Gotti, and Billuart succeeded in harmonizing the infallibility of this Divine knowledge with the fundamental tenets of Thomism by the subtle theory of hypothetical Divine decrees, there has been no Thomist who does not uphold the omniscience of God also with regard to conditioned events. But have they not then become supporters of the scientia media? By no means. For it is precisely the Molinists who most sternly repudiate these Divine predetermining decrees, be they absolute or conditioned, as the deathknell of man's freedom. For the very purpose of securing the freedom of the will and in no way to do violence to it by a physical premotion of any sort, the Molinists insisted all along that the knowledge of God precedes the decrees of His will. They thus kept this knowledge free and uninfluenced by any antecedent absolute or conditioned decree of God's will. Molinism is pledged to the following principle: The knowledge of God precedes as a guiding light the decree of His will, and His will is in no way the source of His knowledge. It was because by their scientia media they understood a knowledge independent of any decrees, that they were most sharply assailed by the Thomists.

    II. LATER DEVELOPMENT OF MOLINISM

    Thus far we have learned that the central idea of Molinism lies in the principle that the infallible success of efficacious grace is not to be ascribed to its own intrinsic nature, but to the Divine scientia media . The Society of Jesus has ever since clung tenaciously to this principle, but without considering itself bound to maintain all the assertions and arguments of Molina's "Concordia"; on many points of secondary importance its teachers are allowed perfect freedom of opinion.

    First of all it was clear to the Jesuits from the beginning and the disputations before the Congregatio de Auxiliis did but strengthen the conviction, that a more perfect, more fully developed, and more accurate exposition of the Molinistic system on grace was both possible and desirable. As a modification of Molinism we are usually referred in the first place to that expansion and development, which afterwards took the name of Congruism, and which owes its final form to the joint labours of Bellarmine, Francisco Suárez, Vasquez, and Lessius. As the article on Congruism shows in detail, the system received its name from the gratia congrua , i.e. a grace accommodated to circumstances. By such is understood a grace which, owing to its internal relationship and adaptation to the state of the recipient (his character, disposition, education, place, time, etc.), produces its effect in the light of the scientia media with infallible certainty, and thus is objectively identical with efficacious grace. The expression is borrowed from St. Augustine, as when he says: "Cujus autem miseretur, sic eum vocat, (quomodo scit ei congruere, ut vocantem non respuat" (Ad Simplicianum, I, Q. ii, n. 13). Consistently then with this terminology, the grace which is merely sufficient must be called gratia incongrua , i.e. a grace which has not a congruity with the circumstances, and is therefore inefficacious. This term also is sanctioned by St. Augustine (I. c.), for he says: "Illi enim electi, qui congruenter vocati; illi autem, qui non congruebant neque contemperabantur vocationi, non electi, quia non secuti, quamvis vocati". This doctrine seems to have advanced beyond "extreme Molinism" to this extent, that inefficacious grace and merely sufficient grace are made to differ even in actu primo -- not indeed in their internal nature and physical entity, but in their moral worth and ethical nature -- inasmuch as the bestowal of an ever so weak gratia congrua is an incomparably greater benefit of God than that of an ever so powerful gratia incongrua , the actual inefficacy of which God foresaw from all eternity. Though Molina himself had taught this doctrine ("Concordia", Paris, 1876, pp. 450, 466, 522, etc.), it seems that among his followers some extreme Molinists unduly emphasized the power of the will over grace, thus drawing upon themselves the suspicion of Semipelagianism. At least Cardinal Bellarmine attacks some who propagated such one-sided Molinistic views, and who cannot have been mere imaginary adversaries; against them he skilfully strengthened the tenets of Congruism by numerous quotations from St. Augustine.

    As was natural the later Molinism underwent considerable changes, and was improved by the unwearying labours of those who sought to establish the scientia media -- the most important factor in the whole system -- on a deeper philosophical and theological basis, and to demonstrate its worth from a dogmatic point of view. The task was a very difficult one. The theory of the Thomistic decrees of the Divine will having been eliminated as the infallible source of God's knowledge of free acts belonging to the conditional future, some other theory had to be substituted. Molina's doctrine, which Bellarmine and Becanus had made their own, was soon abandoned as savouring of Determinism. Molina (Concordia, pp. 290, 303) transferred the medium of God's infallible knowledge to the supercomprehensio cordis ( kardiognosia , the searching of hearts). In virtue of this supercomprehension, God knows the most secret inclinations and penetrates the most hidden recesses of man's heart, and is thus enabled to foresee with mathematical certainty the free resolves latent in man's will. This unsatisfactory explanation, however, met with the natural objection that the mathematically certain foreknowledge of an effect from its cause is nothing more or less than the knowledge of a necessary effect; consequently the will would no longer be free (cf. Kleutgen, "De Deo Uno", Rome, 1881, pp. 322 sqq.). Therefore, the opinion, gradually adopted since the time of Francisco Suárez (but repudiated in Molina's work), maintains that, by the scientia media , God sees the conditioned future acts in themselves, i.e. in their own (formal or objective) truth. For, since every free act must be absolutely determined in its being, even before it becomes actual or at least conditionally possible, it is from all eternity a definite truth ( determinata veritas ), and must consequently be knowable as such by the omniscient God with metaphysical certainty. Ruiz ("De scientia Dei", Paris, 1629), with a subtlety beyond his fellows, laid a deeper foundation for this theory, and succeeded in getting it permanently adopted by the Molinists. Further proofs for the scientia media may be found in Pohle's "Dogmatik", I (4th ed., 1908), pp. 206 Sq. However, when further investigations were made, so great and well-nigh insurmountable were the difficulties which arose against the establishing of the absolute independence of the scientia media in regard to the Divine Will, that the greater number of the modern Molinists either give up the attempt to indicate a medium of Divine knowledge ( medium in quo ), or positively declare it to be superfluous; nevertheless, there are a few (e.g. Kleutgen, Cornoldi, Régnon) who make a sharp distinction between the question of the actual existence of the scientia media and that of its process. While vigorously maintaining the existence of the scientia media , they frankly acknowledge their ignorance with regard to its process of operation. Thus, the scientia media , which was meant to solve all the mysteries concerning grace, seems to have become itself the greatest mystery of all. The most favourable statement that may be made in its favour is that it is a necessary postulate in any doctrine of grace in which the freedom of the will is to be safeguarded; in itself it is but a theologoumenon . If we then consider that the Thomists also, with Billuart (De Deo dissert., VIII, art. iv, §2 ad 6) at their head, call the reconciliation of their prœmotio physica with the freedom of the will a "mystery", it would seem that man is not capable of solving the problem of the harmony between grace and free will.

    Another phase in the development of this system is the fact that, in the course of time, some of the Molinists have made concessions to the Thomists in the question regarding predestination, without however abandoning the essentials of Molinism. The theory of the prœmotio physica agrees admirably with the idea of an absolute predestination to glory irrespective of foreseen merits ( prœdestinatio ante prœvisa merita ). This is the reason why this theory appears, except in the case of a few theologians, as a characteristic feature of the Thomistic doctrine on grace. Now, absolute predestination to glory necessarily involves the rather harsh doctrine of reprobation, which, though only negative, is nevertheless equally absolute. For, if God determines to bestow efficacious graces only upon those whom He has from all eternity predestined to glory, then those not contained in his decree of predestination are a priori and necessarily damned.

    Some leading Molinists like Bellarmine and Francisco Suárez may possibly have been tempted to show the practical possibility of reconciling Molinism with the eternal and unchangeable decree of predestination by siding with the Thomists in this question of secondary consideration, without, however, sacrificing their allegiance to the scientia media . But the majority of Molina's followers, under the lead of Lessius and Vasquez, most consistently held to the opposite view. For they admitted only a conditioned predestination to glory which becomes absolute only consequent upon the foreseen merits of man ( prœdestinatio post -- et propter -- prœvisa merita ), and roundly condemned negative reprobation on the ground that it not only limited but even ran counter to the salvific will of God. To-day there is scarcely a convinced Molinist who does not take alone this reasonable standpoint. A modification of Molinism of minor importance arose with regard to the so-called predefinition of good works ( prœdefinitio bonorum operum ). By predefinition, in contradistinction to predestination to glory, theologians understand the absolute, positive, and efficacious decree of God from all eternity, that certain persons shall at some time in the future perform certain good works (cf. Franzelin, "De Deo Uno" Rome, 1883, pp. 444 sqq.). This predefinition to good works is either formal or virtual, according as God's decree governing these works and the bestowal of efficacious grace is either formal or merely virtual: Molina, Vasquez, and Gregory de Valentia defended virtual, while Francisco Suárez, Tanner, Silvester Maurus, and others upheld formal predefinition. (See CONGRUISM; GRACE, CONTROVERSIES ON.)

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    (836-908). An Irish bishop and King of Cashel, Cormac MacCquilenan was of the race of ...

    MacDonald, John

    Laird of Glenaladale and Glenfinnan, philanthropist, colonizer, soldier, born in Glenaladale, ...

    MacDonell, Alexander

    First Bishop of Kingston, Ontario, Canada, b. 17 July 1760, at Inchlaggan in Glengarry, ...

    Mace

    (1) A short, richly ornamented staff, often made of silver, the upper part furnished with a knob ...

    Macedo, Francisco

    Known as a S. Augustino, O.F.M., theologian, born at Coimbra, Portugal, 1596; he entered the ...

    Macedonians

    (Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

    Macerata and Tolentino

    Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

    MacFarland, Francis Patrick

    Third Bishop of Hartford born at Franklin, Pennsylvania, 16 April, 1819; died at Hartford, ...

    MacGeoghegan, James

    Born at Uisneach, Westmeath, Ireland, 1702; died at Paris, 1763. He came of a long family long ...

    Machabees, The

    (Greek Hoi Makkabaioi ; Latin Machabei ; most probably from Aramaic maqqaba ="hammer"). ...

    Machabees, The Books of

    The title of four books, of which the first and second only are regarded by the Church as ...

    Machabeus, Judas

    Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...

    MacHale, John

    Born March 6, 1791 at Tubbernavine, Co. Mayo, Ireland ; died at Tuam, November 4, 1881. He ...

    Machiavelli

    Historian and statesman, b. at Florence, 3 May, 1469; d. there, 22 June, 1527. His family is ...

    Machpelah

    The burial-place in the vicinity of ancient Hebron which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hethite ...

    Machutus, Saint

    (Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...

    Mackenzie

    This vicariate which was detached from the Athabaska-Mackenzie Vicariate in 1901 and intrusted to ...

    Maclovius, Saint

    (Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...

    MacMahon, Heber

    ( Also EMER or EVER). Bishop of Clogher, Ireland, and patriotic leader, born at Farney, ...

    MacMahon, Marie-Edmé-Patrice-Maurice de

    Duc de Magenta, Marshal of France, President of the French Republic; born at Sully, ...

    MacNeven, William James

    Distinguished Irish-American physician and medical educator, b. at Ballynahowna, near Aughrim, ...

    Macri

    (or MACRAS?) A titular see in Mauretania Sitifiensis. This town figures only in the "Notitia ...

    Macrina the Elder, Saint

    Our knowledge of the life of the elder Macrina is derived mainly from the testimony of the ...

    Macrina the Younger, Saint

    Born about 330; died 379. She was the eldest child of Basil and Elder Emmelia, the granddaugher of ...

    Mactaris

    A titular see of the Byzantine Empire. This town is not spoken of by any ancient geographers ...

    Madagascar

    On the second day of March, 1500, a fleet of thirteen ships, commanded by Pedro Alvarez Cabral, ...

    Madaurus

    A titular see of Numidia. It was an old Numidian town which, having once belonged to the Kingdom ...

    Maderna, Carlo

    (1556-1629) known principally by his extension of St. Peter's, at the command of the pope, from ...

    Maderno, Stefano

    (1576-1636), a sculptor of the Roman School and of the era just preceding Bernini, his ...

    Madianites

    (In Authorized Version M IDIANITES ). An Arabian tribe ( Septuagint Madienaîoi ...

    Madras

    (MADRASPATAM; MADRASPATANA) Archdiocese in India. Its area is about 40,350 square miles, and ...

    Madrid-Alcalá

    (M ATRITENSIS -A LACHENSIS, or C OMPLUTENSUS : Complutum being the name given by the Romans ...

    Madruzzi, Christopher

    Born of a noble family of Trent, 5 July, 1512; died at Tivoli, Italy, 5 July, 1578. He studied ...

    Madura Mission

    As shown in the "Atlas Geographicus S.J.", the ancient Jesuit missions in India under the ...

    Maedoc, Saint

    (MOEDHOG, MOGUE, ÆDDAN FOEDDOG, AIDUS, HUGH) First Bishop of Ferns, in Wexford, b. ...

    Maelruan, Saint

    (Maolruain, Melruan, Molruan). Founder and first Abbot of Tamalcht (Tallacht), in the County of ...

    Maelrubha, Saint

    (MA-RUI, MOLROY, ERREW, SUMMARYRUFF, also SAGART-RUADH) An abbot and martyr, founder of ...

    Maerlant, Jacob van

    The greatest Flemish poet of the Middle Ages, b. about 1235; d. after 1291. Of his life little ...

    Maestro di Camera del Papa

    In former times there were four so-called palace prelates ( prelati palatini ): the Major ...

    Maffei, Bernardino

    Poet, orator, and antiquarian, b. at Bergamo, 27 Jan., 1514; d. at Rome, 1 Aug., 1549. He studied ...

    Maffei, Francesco

    Italian painter, b. at Vicenza ; d. at Padua, 1660. His influence upon the art of his own and ...

    Maffei, Marchese Francesco Scipione

    Italian littérateur and archaeologist, b. at Verona, 1 June, 1675; d. there, 11 Feb., ...

    Maffei, Raffaelo

    Humanist, historian and theologian, b. 17 February, 1451; d. 25 January, 1522. He was a native of ...

    Magaud, Antoine-Dominique

    French painter, b. at Marseilles 1817; d. there, 1899. He studied in Paris under Léon ...

    Magdala

    ( Hebrew Migdal = tower, fortress; Aramaic Magdala ; Greek Magdala ). It is perhaps the ...

    Magdalens

    The members of certain religious communities of penitent women who desired to reform their ...

    Magdeburg

    Capital of the Prussian Province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe; pop. 241,000; it is noted for ...

    Mageddo

    Chanaanite city, called in Hebrew, Megiddo ; in Septuagint, Mageddó(n) ; in ...

    Magellan, Ferdinand

    (Portuguese Fernão Magalhaes ). The first circumnavigator of the real world; born ...

    Magi

    (Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

    Magin Catalá

    Born at Montblanch, Catalonia, Spain, 29 or 30 January, 1761; died at Santa Clara, California, ...

    Maginn, Edward

    Coadjutor Bishop of Derry, b. at Fintona, Ireland, 16 Dec., 1802; d. at Derry, 17 January, ...

    Magisterium and Tradition

    The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

    Magistris, Simone de

    Born in 1728; died 6 October, 1802; a priest of the Oratorio di S. Filippo Neri, at Rome, whom ...

    Magliabechi, Antonio

    Italian scholar and librarian, b. 20 Oct., 1633, at Florence ; d. there, 4 July, 1714. He was ...

    Magna Carta

    The charter of liberties granted by King John of England in 1215 and confirmed with ...

    Magnesia

    A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Ephesus, lying about 40 miles north-east of Smyrna and ...

    Magnien, Alphonse

    An educator of the clergy, born at Bleymard, in the Diocese of Mende , France, 9 June, 1837; ...

    Magnificat

    The title commonly given to the Latin text and vernacular translation of the Canticle (or Song) ...

    Magnus, Olaus

    Swedish historian and geographer, b. at Skeninge, Sweden, 1490; d. at Rome, 1 Aug., 1558 [or ...

    Magnus, Saint

    (MAGNOALDUS, MAGINALDUS, popularly known as ST. MANG) An apostle of the Algäu, d. about ...

    Magnus, Valerianus

    (M AGNI ) Born at Milan, 1586, presumably of the noble family of de Magni; died at ...

    Magrath, John Macrory

    Born in Munster, Ireland, in the fifteenth century; date and place of death unknown. Like many ...

    Magydus

    A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perga. It was a small town with no history, on ...

    Mahony, Ven. Charles

    Irish Franciscan martyr ; b. after 1639; d. at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 12 August, 1679. The British ...

    Mai, Angelo

    Roman cardinal and celebrated philologist, b. at Schilpario, in the Diocese of Bergamo, 7 March ...

    Maignan, Emmanuel

    French physicist and theologian ; b. at Toulouse, 17 July, 1601; d. at Toulouse, 29 October, ...

    Mailla, Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyria de

    Jesuit missionary; b. 16 Dec., 1669, at Château Maillac on the Isère; d. 28 June, ...

    Maillard, Antoine-Simon

    Missionary b. in France (parentage, place and date of birth unknown); d. 12 August, 1762. He ...

    Maillard, Oliver

    Celebrated preacher, b. at Juignac, (?), Brittany, about 1430; d. at Toulouse, 22 July, 1502. He ...

    Maimbourg, Louis

    French church historian, b. at Nancy, 10 January, 1610; d. at Paris, 13 August, 1686. In 1626 he ...

    Maimonides, Teaching of Moses

    Moses ben Maimun (Arabic, Abu Amran Musa), Jewish commentator and philosopher, was born of ...

    Maina Indians

    (Also M AYNA ) A group of tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock, the Mainan, ...

    Maine

    Maine is commonly known as the Pine Tree State, but is sometimes called the Star in the East. ...

    Maine de Biran, François-Pierre-Gonthier

    A philosopher ; born at Grateloup near Bergerac, Dordogne, France, 29 November, 1766; died at ...

    Maintenon, Françoise, Marquise de

    Born at Niort, 28 November 1635; died at Saint-Cyr, 15 April 1719. She was the granddaughter of ...

    Mainz

    German town and bishopric in Hesse [now Rhineland-Palatine -- Ed. ]; formerly the seat of an ...

    Maipure Indians

    (Maypure) A former important group of tribes on the Upper Orinoco River, from above the Meta ...

    Maisonneuve, Paul de Chomedey de

    Founder of Montreal, b. in Champagne, France, early in the seventeenth century; d. in Paris, 9 ...

    Maistre, Joseph-Marie, Comte de

    French philosophical writer, b. at Chambéry, in Savoy, in 1753, when Savoy did not ...

    Maistre, Xavier de

    French romance writer, younger brother of Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre , b. at Chambery, ...

    Maitland

    (MAITLANDENSIS) Located in New South Wales. Maitland, the principal settlement on Hunter ...

    Majano, Benedetto da

    A well-known Florentine sculptor and architect of the Renaissance, b. at Majano, Tuscany. ...

    Majella, St. Gerard

    Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...

    Majorca and Iviza

    (MAJORICENSIS ET IBUSENSIS) A suffragan of Valencia, with the episcopal residence at Palma on ...

    Majordomo

    (Latin, Major domus ; Italian, Maggiordomo ). The majordomo or chief steward of the ...

    Majority

    ( Latin majoritas ) Majority, the state of a person or thing greater, or superior, in ...

    Majunke, Paul

    Catholic journalist, born at Gross-Schmograu in Silesia, 14 July, 1842; died at Hochkirch near ...

    Malabar

    In its narrower application Malabar was the name of a district of India stretching about 145 ...

    Malabar Rites

    A conventional term for certain customs or practices of the natives of South India, which the ...

    Malacca

    (Malacensis) The Diocese of Malacca comprises the southern portions of the Malay Peninsula, ...

    Malachias

    ( Hebrew Mál'akhî ), one of the twelve minor prophets. I. PERSONAGE AND NAME It ...

    Malachy, Saint

    St. Malachy, whose family name was O'Morgair, was born in Armagh in 1094. St. Bernard describes ...

    Malaga

    Diocese of Malaga (Malacitana). Diocese in Spain, by the Concordat of 1851 made a suffragan ...

    Malagrida, Gabriel

    A Jesuit missionary to Brazil, b. 18 September or 6 December, 1689, at Menaggio, in Italy ; ...

    Malatesta, House of

    The name of an Italian family prominent in the history of the fourteenth and fifteenth ...

    Malchus

    (Málchos). Greek form of M ALLUCH (i.e. counsellor), a name common in the Semitic ...

    Maldonado, Juan

    (MALDONATUS) A theologian and exegete, b. in 1533 at Casas de Reina, in the district of ...

    Malebranche, Nicolas

    A philosopher and theologian, priest of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri ; b. at Paris, 6 ...

    Malediction (in Scripture)

    Four principal words are rendered maledictio in the Vulgate, "curse" in Douay Version : (1) ...

    Malherbe, François

    French poet, b. at Caen, Normandy, in 1555; d. at Paris, 16 October, 1628. He was the eldest son ...

    Maliseet Indians

    Also MALECITE, MALESCHITE and AMALECITE, the last being the official Canadian form. A tribe ...

    Mallard, Ernest-François

    A French mineralogist, b. 4 February, 1833, at Châteauneuf-sur-Cher; d. 6 July, 1894, in ...

    Mallinckrodt, Herman von

    German parliamentarian; born 5 Feb., 1821, at Minden, Westphalia ; died 26 May, 1874, at Berlin. ...

    Mallinckrodt, Pauline

    A sister of the Catholic political leader Hermann Mallinckrodt , and foundress of the Sisters ...

    Malling Abbey

    An abbey of Benedictine nuns, at West Malling in the County of Kent, England. The earliest ...

    Mallory, Stephen Russell

    An American statesman; born in the Island of Trinidad, W. I., 1813; died at Pensacola, Florida, ...

    Mallus

    A titular see of Cilicia Prima, suffragan of Tarsus. According to legend, Mallus founded by ...

    Malmesbury

    A small decayed market town in Wiltshire, England, ninety-five miles west of London, formerly the ...

    Malmesbury, The Monk of

    Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. ...

    Malo, Saint

    (Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...

    Malone, William

    Jesuit missioner and writer; born according to the best authorities, in 1585; died at Seville, ...

    Malory, Sir Thomas

    Of Malory no single biographical statement is beyond conjecture save that he was a knight, that ...

    Malpighi, Marcello

    Founder of comparative physiology, b. at Crevalcore, 10 March, 1628; d. at Rome, 29 Sept., 1694. ...

    Malta

    The group of Maltese islands, including Malta (91.5 sq. m.), Gozo (24 3/4 sq. m.), Comine (1 sq. ...

    Malta, Knights of

    (Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

    Maltret, Claude

    (Or M ALTRAIT ) French Jesuit, b. at Puy, 3 Oct., 1621; d. Toulouse, 3 Jan., 1674. He entered ...

    Malvenda, Thomas

    An exegete and historical critic, b. at Jativa, Valencia, 1566; d. 7 May, 1628. He entered the ...

    Malvern

    Located in Worcestershire, England, a district covered by a lofty range between the Severn and ...

    Mamachi, Thomas Maria

    Dominican theologian and historian, born at Chios in the Archipelago, 4 December, 1713; died at ...

    Mame, Alfred-Henri-Amand

    Printer and publisher, b. at Tours, 17 Aug., 1811; d. at Tours, 12 April, 1893. The founder ...

    Mameluco

    (From the Arabic, memluk , "slave", the household cavalry of the former sultans of Egypt, ...

    Mamertine Prison

    The so-called "Mamertine Prison ", beneath the church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, via di ...

    Mamertus, Claudianus

    (The name Ecdicius is unauthorized). A Gallo-Roman theologian and the brother of St. ...

    Mamertus, Saint

    Bishop of Vienne, date of birth unknown; died shortly after 475. Concerning the life of ...

    Mammon

    Mamona ; the spelling Mammona is contrary to the textual evidence and seems not to occur in ...

    Man

    (Anglo-Saxon man =a person, human being; supposed root man =to think; German, Mann , ...

    Manahem

    (From a Hebrew meaning "the consoler"; Septuagint, Manaem ; Aquila, Manaen .) Manahem ...

    Manahen, Saint

    ( Manaen ) A member of the Church of Antioch , foster-brother, or household-friend ( ...

    Manasses

    The name of seven persons of the Bible , a tribe of Israel , and one of the apocryphal ...

    Mance, Jeanne

    Foundress of the Montreal Hôtel-Dieu, and one of the first women settlers in Canada, b. ...

    Manchester

    (MANCHESTERIENSIS) A suffragan of the Archdiocese of Boston, U.S.A. The city of Manchester is ...

    Manchuria

    A north-eastern division of the Chinese Empire and the cradle of the present [1910] imperial ...

    Mandan Indians

    A formerly important, but now reduced, tribe occupying jointly with the Hidatsa (Minitari or ...

    Mandeville, Jean de

    (MAUNDEVILLE, MONTEVILLA) The author of a book of travels much read in the Middle Ages, died ...

    Manfredonia

    (SIPONTINA) The city of Manfredonia is situated in the province of Foggia in Apulia, Central ...

    Mangalore

    (M ANGALORENSIS ) Diocese on the west coast of India, suffragan of Bombay. It comprises the ...

    Mangan, James Clarence

    Irish poet, b. in Dublin, 1 May, 1803; d. there, 20 June, 1849. He was the son of James Mangan, ...

    Manharter

    A politico-religious sect which arose in Tyrol in the first half of the nineteenth century. Its ...

    Manichæism

    Manichæism is a religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third ...

    Manifestation of Conscience

    (RATIO CONSCIENTIÆ) A practice in many religious orders and congregations, by which ...

    Manila

    (DE MANILA) This archdiocese comprises the city of Manila, the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, ...

    Manila Observatory

    Founded by Father Frederic Faura, S.J., in 1865; constituted officially The Philippine Weather ...

    Maniple

    Form, Material, and Use The maniple is an ornamental vestment in the form of a band, a little ...

    Manitoba

    One of the smallest, but economically and historically one of the most important, of the Canadian ...

    Mann, Theodore Augustine

    English naturalist and historian, b. in Yorkshire, 22 June, 1735; d. at Prague in Bohemia, 23 ...

    Manna

    (Greek man, manna ; Latin man, manna ). The food miraculously sent to the Israelites ...

    Manning, Henry Edward

    Cardinal Priest of Sts. Andrew and Gregory on the Coelian Hill and second Archbishop of ...

    Mannyng, Robert

    Poet. He came from Bourne in Lincolnshire, England. From his own account he entered the house of ...

    Mansard, François

    (Also spelled Mansart ). French architect, born in Paris, probably of Italian stock, in ...

    Mansard, Jules

    French architect, grand-nephew of François, was originally Jules Hardouin, but took the ...

    Mansi, Gian Domenico

    Italian prelate and scholar born at Lucca, of a patrician family, 16 February, 1692; died ...

    Mantegna, Andrea

    Italian painter ; born according to some authorities, at Vicenza, according to others at ...

    Mantelletta

    An outer vestment reaching to the knees, open in front, with slits instead of sleeves on the ...

    Mantua

    Diocese of Mantua (Mantuana), in Lombardy. The city is situated on the Mincio River, which ...

    Mantuanus, Baptista

    (Or SPAGNOLI). Carmelite and Renaissance poet, born at Mantua, 17 April, 1447, where he also ...

    Manu, The Laws of

    "The Laws of Manu" is the English designation commonly applied to the "Manava Dharma-sastra", a ...

    Manuel Chysoloras

    First teacher of Greek in Italy, born at Constantinople about the middle of the fourteenth ...

    Manuscripts

    Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called ...

    Manuscripts of the Bible

    Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version ...

    Manuscripts, Illuminated

    I. ORIGIN A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments which may be ...

    Manuterge

    The name given to the towel used by the priest when engaged liturgically. There are two kinds of ...

    Manutius, Aldus

    (Aldo Manuzio). Scholar and printer; born in 1450, at Sermoneta, near Rome ; died in 1515. He ...

    Manzoni, Alessandro

    Italian poet and novelist, b. at Milan, 7 March, 1785; d. 22 May, 1873. He was the son of Pietro ...

    Map, Walter

    (Sometimes wrongly written M APS ) Archdeacon of Oxford, b. at, or in the vicinity of, ...

    Maphrian

    The Syriac word mafriano signifies one who fructifies, a consecrator. It is used to designate ...

    Maréchal, Ambrose

    The third Archbishop of Baltimore ; born at Ingres near Orléans, France, 28 August, ...

    Maran, Prudentius

    A learned Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. 14 October, 1683, at Sezanne, in the ...

    Marash

    An Armenian Catholic Diocese. The ancient name of this village was most probably Germanicia, ...

    Maratta, Carlo

    An Italian painter, b. at Camerino, in the Rome, 15 December, 1713. From very early years ...

    Marbodius

    Bishop of Rennes, ecclesiastical writer and hymnologist, b. about 1035 at Angers, France, d. ...

    Marca, Pierre de

    French bishop and scholar, b. at Gan in Béarn, 24 Jan., 1594, of a family distinguished ...

    Marcellian and Mark, Saints

    Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286. ...

    Marcellina, Saint

    The only sister of St. Ambrose of Milan , b. about 330-5; d. about 398. She was older than St. ...

    Marcellinus Comes

    Latin chronicler of the sixth century. He was an Illyrian by birth, but spent his life at the ...

    Marcellinus of Civezza, O.F.M.

    (In the world PITRO RANISE) Modern Franciscan author, born at Civezza in Liguria, Italy, 29 ...

    Marcellinus, Flavius

    Date of birth unknown; died 12 September, 413. He was a high official ( tribunus et notarius ) ...

    Marcellinus, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; elected 30 June, 296; died 304. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" he ...

    Marcello, Benedetto

    Born in Venice in 1696; died at Brescia in July, 1739. Marcello's life was a strange mixture of ...

    Marcellus I, Saint, Pope

    His date of birth unknown; elected pope in May or June, 308; died in 309. For some time after ...

    Marcellus II, Pope

    (MARCELLO CERVINI DEGLI SPANNOCHI) Born 6 May, 1501, at Montepulciano in Tuscany ; died 6 ...

    Marcellus of Ancyra

    One of the bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea, a strong opponent of ...

    March, Auzias

    A Catalan poet, b. perhaps in the last quarter of the fourteenth century, at Valencia ; d. there ...

    Marchand, Jean Baptiste

    Second principal in order of succession of the Sulpician College of Montreal and missionary of ...

    Marchant, Peter

    A theologian, b. at Couvin, a village in the principality of Liège, in 1585; d. at ...

    Marchesi, Pompeo

    A Lombard sculptor of the neoclassic school, born at Saltrio, near Milan, 7 August, 1790; ...

    Marchi, Giuseppe

    An archeologist, born at Tolmezzo near Udine, 22 Feb., 1795; died at Rome, 10 Feb., 1860. He ...

    Marcian

    (M ARCIANUS, Markiânos ) Roman Emperor at Constantinople, b. in Thrace about 390; d. ...

    Marciane

    A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra. It figures in the "Notitiae episcopatuum" from ...

    Marcianopolis

    A titular see in Lower Maesia, on the right bank of the Danube, so called by Trajan after his ...

    Marcionites

    Heretical sect founded in A.D. 144 at Rome by Marcion and continuing in the West for 300 ...

    Marco Polo

    Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

    Marcopois

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Edessa. The native name of this city is not known, ...

    Marcosians

    A sect of Valentinian Gnostics, founded by Marcus and combated at length by Irenaeus (Haer. ...

    Marcoux, Joseph

    A missionary among the Iroquois, b. in Canada, 16 March, 1791; d. there 29 May, 1855. He was ...

    Marcus

    The name of three leading Gnostics. I. The founder of the Marcosians and elder contemporary ...

    Marcus Aurelius Antoninus

    Roman Emperor, A.D. 161-180, born at Rome, 26 April, 121; died 17 March, 180. HIS EARLY LIFE ...

    Marcus Diadochus

    ( Markos ho diadochos ) An obscure writer of the fourth century of whom nothing is known but ...

    Marcus Eremita

    ( Markos ho eremites , or monachos , or asketes ). A theologian and ascetic writer ...

    Marcus, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; consecrated 18 Jan., 336; d. 7 Oct., 336. After the death of Pope ...

    Mardin

    A residential Armenian archbishopric, a Chaldean bishopric, and a residential Syrian bishopric ...

    Marenco

    (1) Carlo Italian dramatist, born at Cassolo (or Cassolnuovo) in Piedmont in 1800; died at ...

    Marenzio, Luca

    Musical composer, born in 1550 at Coccaglia, near Brescia ; died at Rome 1599. His chief legacy ...

    Margaret Clitherow, Saint

    Martyr, called the "Pearl of York", born about 1556; died 25 March 1586. She was a daughter of ...

    Margaret Colona, Blessed

    Poor Clare, born in Rome, date uncertain; died there, 20 September, 1284. Her parents died in ...

    Margaret Haughery

    Margaret Haughery, "the mother of the orphans ", as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, ...

    Margaret Mary, Saint

    Religious of the Visitation Order. Apostle of the Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, born ...

    Margaret of Cortona, Saint

    A penitent of the Third Order of St. Francis, born at Laviano in Tuscany in 1247; died at ...

    Margaret of Hungary, Blessed

    Daughter of King Bela I of Hungary and his wife Marie Laskaris, born 1242; died 18 Jan., 1271. ...

    Margaret of Lorraine, Blessed

    Duchess d'Alencon, religious of the order of Poor Clares, born in 1463 at the castle of ...

    Margaret of Savoy, Blessed

    Marchioness of Montferrat, born at Pignerol in 1382; died at Alba, 23 November, 1464. She was the ...

    Margaret of Scotland, Saint

    Born about 1045, died 16 Nov., 1092, was a daughter of Edward "Outremere", or "the Exile", by ...

    Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament

    Carmelite nun, b. in Paris, 6 March, 1590; d. there 24 May, 1660. She was the second daughter of ...

    Margaret Pole, Blessed

    Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

    Margaret, Saint

    Virgin and martyr ; also called M ARINA ; belonged to Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, where ...

    Margaritae

    (DECRETI DECRETORUM DECRETALIUM). The canonists of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries who ...

    Margil, Antonio

    Born at Valencia, Spain, 18 August, 1657; died at Mexico, 6 Aug., 1726. He entered the ...

    Margotti, Giacomo

    A Catholic publicist, born 11 May, 1823; died 6 May, 1887. He was a native of San Remo, where ...

    Maria de Agreda

    (Or, according to her conventual title, Maria of Jesus) A discalced Franciscan nun ; born ...

    Maria Theresa

    Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Roman-German Empress, born 1717; died ...

    Maria-Laach

    (Abbatia Beatæ Marle Virginis ad lacum, or Beatæ Marle lacensis) A Benedictine ...

    Mariales, Kantes

    A Dominican, born about 1580; died at Venice in April, 1660. He was of a noble Venetian ...

    Marian Priests

    This term is applied to those English priests who being ordained in or before the reign of ...

    Mariana

    Archdiocese of Mariana (Marianensis). Mariana, situated in the centre of Minas Geraes, the ...

    Mariana Islands

    The Marianas Archipelago (also called the Ladrone Islands) is a chain of fifteen islands in the ...

    Mariana, Juan

    Author and Jesuit, b. at Talavern, Toledo, Spain, probably in April, 1536; d. at Toledo, 16 ...

    Mariannhill, Congregation of the Missionaries of

    Mariannhill is located in Natal, near Pinetown, 15 miles from Durban, and 56 from ...

    Marianus of Florence

    A Friar Minor and historian, born at Florence about the middle of the fifteenth century, exact ...

    Marianus Scotus

    There were two Irish scholars of this name who attained distinction in the eleventh century. Both ...

    Marie Antoinette

    Queen of France. Born at Vienna, 2 November, 1755; executed in Paris, 16 October, 1793. She was ...

    Marie Christine of Savoy, Blessed

    Born at Cagliari, Sardinia, 14 November, 1812; died at Naples, 31 January, 1836. She was the ...

    Marie de France

    A French poetess of the twelfth century. She has this trait in common with the other ...

    Marie de l'Incarnation, Blessed

    Known also as Madame Acarie, foundress of the French Carmel, born in Paris, 1 February, 1566; died ...

    Marie de l'Incarnation, Venerable

    (In the world, MARIE GUYARD). First superior of the Ursulines of Quebec , born at Tours, ...

    Marienberg

    A Benedictine abbey of the Congregation of St. Joseph near Mals, Tyrol (in Vintschau). The ...

    Marignolli, Giovanni de'

    Born at Florence about 1290; place and date of death unknown. When quite a youth he received the ...

    Marina

    (DE MARINIS) The name of an ancient and noble family of the Republic of Genoa, distinguished ...

    Marina, Saint

    Virgin and martyr ; also called M ARINA ; belonged to Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, where ...

    Marini, Luigi Gaetano

    A natural philosopher, jurist, historian, archeologist, born at Sant' Orcangelo (pagus ...

    Marinus I, Pope

    (882-884) There is reason for believing that Marinus I was elected on the very day of the ...

    Marinus II, Pope

    Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946. A Roman, and a cardinal of the title of St. ...

    Mariotte, Edme

    French physicist, b. at Dijon, France, about 1620; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1684. His residence was ...

    Maris, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints

    All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...

    Marisco, Adam de

    (or ADAM MARSH) A Franciscan who probably came from the county of Somerset, but the date ...

    Mariscotti, Saint Hyacintha

    A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

    Marius Aventicus, Saint

    (Or AVENTICENSIS) Bishop of Avenches (Switzerland) and chronicler, born about 530 in the ...

    Marius Maximus, Lucius Perpetuus Aurelianus

    Roman historian, lived c. 165-230. No connected account of his life exists, but he is frequently ...

    Marius Mercator

    Ecclesiastical writer, born probably in Northern Africa about 390; died shortly after 451. In 417 ...

    Mark and Marcellian, Saints

    Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286. ...

    Mark of Lisbon

    (Properly MARCOS DA SILVA). Friar minor, historian, and Bishop of Oporto in Portugal, b. at ...

    Mark, Gospel of

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

    Mark, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; consecrated 18 Jan., 336; d. 7 Oct., 336. After the death of Pope ...

    Mark, Saint

    (Greek Markos , Latin Marcus ). It is assumed in this article that the individual ...

    Maroni, Paul

    Missionary, b. 1 Nov., 1695. He entered the Austrian province of the Jesuits on 27 Oct., 1712, ...

    Maronia

    A titular see in the province of Rhodopis, suffragan of Trajanopolis. The town is an ancient ...

    Maronites

    This article will give first the present state of the Maronite nation and Church ; after which ...

    Marquesas Islands

    (INSULARUM MARCHESI) Located in Polynesia, includes all the Marquesas Islands, eleven in ...

    Marquette (Michigan)

    (SAULT STE. MARIE and MARQUETTE, MARIANOPOLITANA ET MARQUETTENSIS) The Diocese comprises the ...

    Marquette League

    A society founded in New York, in May, 1904, by Rev. H.G. Ganss, of Lancaster, Pa., with a ...

    Marquette University

    Marquette University of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is an outgrowth of Marquette College, which was ...

    Marquette, Jacques

    Jesuit missionary and discoverer of the Mississippi River, b. in 1636, at Laon, a town in north ...

    Marriage Banns

    (Latin bannum , pl. bann-a,-i from an Old English verb, bannan , to summon). In ...

    Marriage, Civil

    "Marriage", says Bishop, "as distinguished from the agreement to marry and from the act of ...

    Marriage, History of

    The word marriage may be taken to denote the action, contract, formality, or ceremony by which ...

    Marriage, Mixed

    (Latin Matrimonia mixta ). Technically, mixed marriages are those between Catholics and ...

    Marriage, Moral and Canonical Aspect of

    Marriage is that individual union through which man and woman by their reciprocal rights ...

    Marriage, Mystical

    In the Old and the New Testament , the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations ...

    Marriage, Putative

    Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

    Marriage, Ritual of

    The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony, as it stands in the "Rituale Romanum" ...

    Marriage, Sacrament of

    That Christian marriage (i.e. marriage between baptized persons ) is really a sacrament of ...

    Marriage, Validation of

    Validation of marriage may be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises ...

    Marryat, Florence

    Novelist and actress, b. 9 July, 1838, at Brighton, England ; d. 27 October 1899, in London, ...

    Marseilles

    Diocese of Marseilles (Massiliensis), suffragan of Aix, comprises the district of Marseilles in ...

    Marshall Islands

    (Vicariate Apostolic.) These islands, a German possession since 1885, lying in the Pacific ...

    Marshall, Thomas William

    Controversial writer, b. 1818; d. at Surbiton, Surrey, 14 Dec., 1877. He was son of John Marshall, ...

    Marsi

    (MARSORUM.) Diocese in the province of Aquila, Central Italy, with its seat at Pescina. With ...

    Marsico Nuovo and Potenza

    (MARSICENSIS ET POTENTINA) Suffragan diocese of Salerno. Marsico Nuevo is a city of the ...

    Marsigli, Luigi Ferdinando, Count de

    Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...

    Marsilius of Padua

    Physician and theologian, b. at Padua about 1270; d. about 1342. Contrary to the assertion of ...

    Martène, Edmond

    An historian and liturgist, born 22 December, 1654, at Saint-Jean-de-Losne near Dijon ; died 20 ...

    Martín, Enrico

    Date and place of birth unknown; d. in Mexico in 1632. According to some he was of Spanish ...

    Martel, Charles

    Born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741. He was the natural son of Pepin of ...

    Martha, Maris, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints

    All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...

    Martha, Saint

    Mentioned only in Luke 10:38-42 ; and John 11, 12, sqq. The Aramaic form occurs in a ...

    Martial, Saint

    Bishop of Limoges in the third century. We have no accurate information as to the origin, ...

    Martiall, John

    (Or MARSHALL) Born in Worcestershire 1534, died at Lille, 3 April, 1597. He was one of the six ...

    Martianay, Jean

    Born 30 Dec., 1647, at Saint-Sever-Cap, Diocese of Aire ; died 16 June, 1717, at Saint ...

    Martianus Capella

    Roman writer of Africa who flourished in the fifth century. His work is entitled: "De nuptiis ...

    Martigny, Joseph-Alexander

    Canon of Belley, archaeologist; b. at Sauverny, Ain, in 1808; d at Belley, 19 August, 1880. He ...

    Martin

    Benedictine Abbot of the Schottenkloster of Vienna, b. about 1400; d. 28 July, 1464 (29 July ...

    Martin I, Pope Saint

    Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius ; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to ...

    Martin II, Pope

    Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946. A Roman, and a cardinal of the title of St. ...

    Martin IV, Pope

    (Simon de Brie). Born at the castle of Montpensier in the old French province of Touraine at ...

    Martin of Braga

    (Bracara; or, of Dumio). Bishop and ecclesiastical writer; b. about 520 in Pannonia; d. in ...

    Martin of Leon, Saint

    A priest and canon regular of the Augustinians ; b. at Leon in Spain ( Old Castile ) before ...

    Martin of Tours, Saint

    Bishop; born at Sabaria (today Steinamanger in German, or Szombathely in Hungarian ), Pannonia ...

    Martin of Troppau

    A chronicler, date of birth unknown; died 1278. His family name was Strebski, and, being by ...

    Martin of Valencia, O.F.M.

    (Juan Martin de Boil) Born at Villa de Valencia, Spain, about the middle of the fifteenth ...

    Martin V, Pope

    (Oddone Colonna) Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431. ...

    Martin y Garcia, Luis

    Twenty-fourth General of the Society of Jesus ; born of humble parentage at Melgar de ...

    Martin, Felix

    Antiquary, historiographer, architect, educationist, b. 4 October, 1804, at Auray, seat of the ...

    Martin, Gregory

    Translator of the Douai Version of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate ; b. in Maxfield, parish ...

    Martin, Konrad

    Bishop of Paderborn ; b. 18 May, 1812, at Geismar, Province of Saxony ; d. 16 July, 1879, at ...

    Martin, Paulin

    French Biblical scholar, born at Lacam, Lot, 20 July 1840; died at Amélie-les-Bains, ...

    Martina, Saint

    Roman virgin, martyred in 226, according to some authorities, more probably in 228, under the ...

    Martini, Antonio

    Archbishop of Florence, Biblical scholar; b. at Prato in Tuscany, 20 April, 1720; d. at ...

    Martini, Martino

    (Chinese name Wei ). Distinguished Austrian Jesuit missionary to the Chinese, in the ...

    Martini, Simone

    (Also known as SIMONE DI MARTINO, and as SIMONE MEMMI). Sienese painter, born in Siena, 1283; ...

    Martinian and Processus, Saints

    The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

    Martinique

    (SANCTI PETRI ET ARCIS GALLICAÆ) Diocese ; Martinique is one of the French Lesser ...

    Martinov, John

    Born 7 October, 1821; died 26 April, 1894. Having passed through his university course at St. ...

    Martinsberg

    (Or P ANNONHALMA ) An important Benedictine abbey in Hungary about fourteen English miles ...

    Martinuzzi, George

    Monk, bishop, cardinal, b. at Kamicac, Dalmatia, 1482; d. 16 December, 1551. His real name was ...

    Martyr

    The Greek word martus signifies a witness who testifies to a fact of which he has knowledge ...

    Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter

    Historian of Spain and of the discoveries of her representatives, b. at Arona, near Anghiera, on ...

    Martyrology

    By martyrology is understood a catalogue of martyrs and saints arranged according to the ...

    Martyropolis

    A titular see, suffragan of Amida in the Province of Mesopotamia or Armenia Quarta. It was ...

    Martyrs in China

    The first Christian martyrs in China appear to have been the missionaries of Ili Bâliq ...

    Martyrs, Acts of the

    In a strict sense the Acts of the Martyrs are the official records of the trials of early ...

    Martyrs, Japanese

    There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the ...

    Martyrs, The Ten Thousand

    On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

    Maruthas, Saint

    Bishop of Tagrit or Maypherkat in Mesopotamia, friend of St. John Chrysostom , d. before 420. ...

    Mary Anne de Paredes, Blessed

    Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

    Mary de Cervellione

    (or DE CERVELLO) Popularly styled "de Socos" (of Help). Born about 1230 at Barcelona ; ...

    Mary de Sales Chappuis, Venerable

    (MARIE-THÉRÈSE CHAPPUIS) Belonging to the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary, ...

    Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus, Saint

    Of the Third Order of St. Francis , b. at Naples, 25 March, 1715; d. there, 6 October, 1791. ...

    Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, Saint

    Carmelite Virgin, born 2 April, 1566; died 25 May, 1607. Of outward events there were very few in ...

    Mary Magdalen, Saint

    Mary Magdalen was so called either from Magdala near Tiberias, on the west shore of Galilee, or ...

    Mary of Cleophas

    This title occurs only in John, xix, 25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot ...

    Mary of Egypt, Saint

    Born probably about 344; died about 421. At the early age of twelve Mary left her home and came to ...

    Mary of Romans 16:6

    Unknown outside of this single verse ( omans 16:6 ). She had "laboured much among" the Roman ...

    Mary Queen of Scots

    Mary Stuart, born at Linlithgow, 8 December, 1542; died at Fotheringay, 8 February, 1587. She was ...

    Mary Tudor

    Queen of England from 1553 to 1558; born 18 February, 1516; died 17 November, 1558. Mary was the ...

    Mary, Blessed Virgin, The

    The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

    Mary, Children of

    The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin ...

    Mary, Devotion to the Heart of

    As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...

    Mary, Devotion to the Virgin

    Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...

    Mary, Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. St.Romanus, the ...

    Mary, Little Brothers of

    Generally known as Marist School Brothers. This religious teaching institute is modern in its ...

    Mary, Missionaries of the Company of

    The Company of Mary was founded by Blessed Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort in 1713. As early as ...

    Mary, Mother of John Mark

    Mary, the mother of John, who was surnamed Mark ( Acts 12:12 ). We know nothing of her; but from ...

    Mary, Name of

    (In Scripture and in Catholic use) New Testament, Mariam and sometimes Maria — ...

    Mary, Name of

    The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...

    Mary, Society of (Marist Fathers)

    (Initials S.M.) A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion ...

    Mary, Society of, of Paris

    This society was founded in 1817 by Very Reverend William Joseph Chaminade at Bordeaux, France. ...

    Mary, Tomb of the Blessed Virgin

    The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

    Maryland

    One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States ...

    Masaccio

    (T OMMASO ). Italian painter, born about 1402, at San Giovanni di Valdarno, a stronghold ...

    Mascoutens Indians

    A Wisconsin tribe of Algonquian stock of considerable missionary importance in the seventeenth ...

    Masolino da Panicale

    Son of Cristoforo Fini; b. in the suburb of Panicale di Valdese, near Florence, 1383; d. c. 1440. ...

    Mason, Richard Angelus a S. Francisco

    English — or Irish — Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, 30 ...

    Masonry

    The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...

    Maspha

    Name of several places in the Bible . The Septuagint transcribes Masphá, Massephá, ...

    Massé, Enemond

    One of the first Jesuits sent to New France ; born at Lyons, 1574; died at Sillery, l2 May, ...

    Mass, Chapter and Conventual

    As a general rule, churches in which the Divine office is to be said publicly every day must also ...

    Mass, Liturgy of the

    A. Name and Definition The Mass is the complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the ...

    Mass, Music of the

    Under this heading will be considered exclusively the texts of the Mass (and not, therefore, the ...

    Mass, Nuptial

    "Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...

    Mass, Parochial

    The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

    Mass, Sacrifice of the

    The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...

    Massa Candida

    Under the date 24 August, the "Martyrologium Romanum" records this commemoration: At Carthage, ...

    Massa Carrara

    DIOCESE OF MASSA CARRARA (MASSENSIS). Diocese in Central Italy (Lunigiana and Garfagnana). ...

    Massa Marittima

    (MASSANA) Massa Marittima, in the Province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, first mentioned in the ...

    Massachusetts

    One of the thirteen original United States of America . The Commonwealth of Massachusetts covers ...

    Massacre, Saint Bartholomew's Day

    This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the ...

    Massaia, Guglielmo

    A Cardinal, born 9 June, 1809, at Piova in Piedmont, Italy ; died at Cremona, 6 August, 1889. ...

    Masses, Bequests for

    "The efficacy of prayers for the dead ", remarks the Court of Appeals of the State of New York ...

    Masses, Bequests for (Canada)

    The law governing bequests, being concerned with "property and civil rights ", falls within ...

    Masses, Bequests for (England)

    Before the Reformation dispositions of property, whether real or personal, for the purposes of ...

    Masses, Devises and Bequests for (United States)

    Prior to the period of the Reformation in England in 1532, Masses for the repose of the souls ...

    Massillon, Jean-Baptiste

    A celebrated French preacher and bishop ; born 24 June, 1663; died 28 September, 1742. The son ...

    Massorah

    The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels ...

    Massoulié, Antoine

    Theologian, born at Toulouse, 28 Oct., 1632; died at Rome, 23 Jan., 1706. At an early age he ...

    Massuet, René

    Benedictine patrologist, of the Congregation of St. Maur; born 13 August, 1666, at St. Ouen de ...

    Massys, Quentin

    (MESSYS, METZYS) A painter, born at Louvain in 1466; died at Antwerp in 1530 (bet. 13 July ...

    Master of Arts

    An academic degree higher than that of Bachelor. The conferring of the degree of Master of Arts, ...

    Master of Liesborn, The

    A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...

    Master of the Sacred Palace

    This office (which has always been entrusted to a Friar Preacher) may briefly be described as ...

    Mastrius, Bartholomew

    Franciscan, philosopher and theologian, born near Forli, at Meldola, Italy, in 1602; died 3 ...

    Mataco Indians

    (Or Mataguayo). A group of wide tribes of very low culture, ranging over a great part of the ...

    Mater

    A titular bishopric in the province of Byzantium, mentioned as a free city by Pliny under the ...

    Materialism

    As the word itself signifies, Materialism is a philosophical system which regards matter as the ...

    Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

    Second Sunday in October. The object of this feast is to commemorate the dignity of the Mary ...

    Mathathias

    The name of ten persons of the Bible , variant in both Hebrew and Greek of Old Testament and in ...

    Mathew, Theobald

    Apostle of Temperance, born at Thomastown Castle, near Cashel, Tipperary, Ireland, 10 October, ...

    Mathieu, François-Désiré

    Bishop and cardinal, born 27 May, 1839; died 26 October, 1908. Born of humble family at ...

    Mathusala

    One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5. The word is variously given as Mathusale ...

    Matilda of Canossa

    Countess of Tuscany, daughter and heiress of the Marquess Boniface of Tuscany, and Beatrice, ...

    Matilda, Saint

    Queen of Germany, wife of King Henry I (The Fowler), b. at the Villa of Engern in Westphalia, ...

    Matilda, Saint

    (MATILDA VON HACKEBORN-WIPPRA). Benedictine; born in 1240 or 1241 at the ancestral castle of ...

    Matins

    I. NAME The word "Matins" ( Latin Matutinum or Matutinae ), comes from Matuta , the Latin ...

    Matricula

    A term having several meanings in the field of Christian antiquity. (1) The word is applied ...

    Matteo da Siena

    (Matteo di Giovanni di Bartolo). Painter, born at Borgo San Sepolcro, c. 1435; died 1495. His ...

    Matteo di Termini

    (Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...

    Matteo of Aquasparta

    A celebrated Italian Franciscan, born at Aquasparta in the Diocese of Todi , Umbria, about ...

    Matter

    (Greek hyle ; Latin materia ; French matière ; German materie and stoff ), ...

    Matteucci, Carlo

    Physicist, born at Forli, in the Romagna, 21 June, 1811; died at Ardenza, near Leghorn, 25 July, ...

    Matthew of Bassi

    Founder and first Superior-General of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, the principal branch ...

    Matthew of Cracow

    Renowned scholar and preacher of the fourteenth century, b. at Cracow about 1335, d. at Pisa, 5 ...

    Matthew, Gospel of Saint

    I. CANONICITY The earliest Christian communities looked upon the books of the Old Testament as ...

    Matthew, Saint

    Apostle and evangelist. The name Matthew is derived from the Hebrew Mattija , being ...

    Matthew, Sir Tobie

    English priest, born at Salisbury, 3 October, 1577, died at Ghent, 13 October, 1655. He was the ...

    Matthias Corvinus

    King of Hungary, son of Janos Hunyady and Elizabeth Szilagyi of Horogssey, was born at ...

    Matthias of Neuburg

    Also NEUENBURG (NEOBURGENSIS). Chronicler, born towards the close of the thirteenth century, ...

    Matthias, Saint

    Apostle. The Greek Matthias (or, in some manuscripts, Maththias ), is a name derived ...

    Maundy Thursday

    The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

    Maunoury, Auguste-François

    Hellenist and exegete, b. at Champsecret, Orne, France, 30 Oct., 1811; d. at Séez, ...

    Maurice

    (Matricius, Maurikios ). Roman Emperor, born in 539; died in November, 602. He sprang from ...

    Maurice, Saint

    Leader ( primicerius ) of the Theban Legion, massacred at Agaunum, about 287 (286, 297, 302, ...

    Maurists, The

    A congregation of Benedictine monks in France, whose history extends from 1618 to 1818. It ...

    Maurus Magnentius Rabanus, Blessed

    ( Also Hrabanus, Reabanus). Abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, celebrated theological ...

    Maurus, Saint

    Deacon, son of Equitius, a nobleman of Rome, but claimed also by Fondi, Gallipoli, Lavello ...

    Maurus, Sylvester

    Writer on philosophy and theology, b. at Spoleto, 31 Dec., 1619; d. in Rome, 13 Jan., 1687. He ...

    Maury, Jean-Siffrein

    Cardinal and statesman, born at Valréas, near Avignon, 26 June, 1746; died at Rome on ...

    Maxentius, Joannes

    Joannes Maxentius, leader of the so-called Scythian monks, appears in history at Constantinople ...

    Maxentius, Marcus Aurelius

    Roman Emperor 306-12, son of the Emperor Maximinianus Herculius and son-in-law of the chief ...

    Maxfield, Venerable Thomas

    ( Vere Macclesfield) English priest and martyr, b. in Stafford gaol, about 1590, martyred ...

    Maximianopolis

    A titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. Its ancient name, Adad-Remmon, ...

    Maximianus

    (MARCUS AURELIUS VALERIUS MAXIMIANUS, surnamed HERCULIUS.) Roman Emperor, was adopted by ...

    Maximilian

    The name of several martyrs. (1) Maximilian of Antioch A soldier, martyred at Antioch, Jan. ...

    Maximilian I

    Duke of Bavaria, 1598-1622, Elector of Bavaria and Lord High Steward of the Holy Roman Empire, ...

    Maximinus Thrax

    Roman Emperor 235-8, son of a Goth and an Alanic mother. When the Emperor Septimius Severus was ...

    Maximinus, Caius Valerius Daja

    Under his uncle Augustus Galerius, the Caesar of Syria and Egypt, from the year 305; in 307 ...

    Maximinus, Saint

    Bishop of Trier, b. at Silly near Poitiers, d. there, 29 May, 352 or 12 Sept., 349. He was ...

    Maximopolis

    A titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The true name of the city is Maximianopolis, and ...

    Maximus of Constantinople, Saint

    Known as the Theologian and as Maximus Confessor , born at Constantinople about 580; died in ...

    Maximus of Turin, Saint

    Bishop and theological writer, b. probably in Rhaetia, about 380; d. shortly after 465. Only ...

    Maxwell, William

    Fifth Earl of Nithsdale (Lord Nithsdale signed as Nithsdaill) and fourteenth Lord Maxwell, b. in ...

    Maxwell, Winifred

    Countess of Nithsdale, d. at Rome, May, 1749. She was the daughter of William, first Marquis of ...

    Maya Indians

    The most important of the cultured native peoples of North America, both in the degree of their ...

    Mayer, Christian

    Moravian astronomer, born at Mederizenhi in Moravia, 20 Aug., 1719, died at Heidelberg, 16 ...

    Mayhew, Edward

    Born in 1569; died 14 September, 1625. He belonged to the old English family of Mayhew or Mayow of ...

    Mayne, Blessed Cuthbert

    Martyr, b. at Yorkston, near Barnstaple, Devonshire ( baptized 20 March, 1543-4); d. at ...

    Maynooth College

    The National College of Saint Patrick, at Maynooth in County Kildare, about twelve miles from ...

    Mayo Indians

    An important tribe occupying some fifteen towns on Mayo and Fuerte rivers, southern Sonora and ...

    Mayo, School of

    (Irish Magh Eo , which means, according to Colgan, the Plain of the Oaks, and, according to ...

    Mayor, John

    (MAJOR, MAIR; also called JOANNES MAJORIS and HADDINGTONUS SCOTUS) A Scotch philosopher and ...

    Mayoruna Indians

    A noted and savage tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, ranging the forests between the Ucayali, the ...

    Mayotte, Nossi-Bé, and Comoro

    PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF MAYOTTE, NOSSI-BE, AND COMORO (MAYOTTÆ, NOSSIBEÆ, ET ...

    Mayr, Beda

    A Bavarian Benedictine philosopher, apologist, and poet, b. 15 January, 1742 at Daiting near ...

    Mayron, Francis

    (DE MAYRONIS) Born about 1280, probably at Mayronnes, Department of Basses-Alpes, he entered ...

    Mazarin, Jules

    Born either at Rome or at Piscina in the Abruzzi, of a very old Sicilian family, 14 July, 1602; ...

    Mazatec Indians

    An important Mexican tribe of Zapotecan linguistic stock, occupying the mountain region of ...

    Mazenod, Charles Joseph Eugene de

    Bishop of Marseilles, and founder of the Congregation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, b. at ...

    Mazzara del Vallo

    DIOCESE OF MAZZARA DEL VALLO (MAZARIENSIS). The city is situated in the province of Trepani, ...

    Mazzella, Camillo

    Theologian and cardinal, born at Vitulano, 10 Feb., 1833; d. at Rome, 26 March, 1900. He ...

    Mazzolini, Lodovico

    (Also known as MAZZOLINI DA FERRARA, LODOVICO FERRARESA, and IL FERRARESE) Italian painter, b. ...

    Mazzolini, Sylvester

    (M OZOLINI, also P RIERIAS ) Theologian, b. at Priero, Piedmont, 1460; d. at Rome, ...

    Mazzuchelli, Pietro Francesco

    (Also known as IL MORAZZONE, MARAZZONE, and MORANZONE). Milanese painter, b. at Moranzone near ...

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    Mb 1

    Mbaya Indians

    (Guaycurü) A predatory tribe formerly ranging on both sides of the Paraguay River, on the ...

    × Close

    Mc 11

    McCabe, Edward

    Cardinal, born in Dublin, 1816; died at Kingstown, 11 February, 1885; he was the son of poor ...

    McCarthy, Justin

    Irish politician, journalist, novelist, and historian, b. at Cork, 22 Nov., 1830; d. at ...

    McCloskey, William George

    Bishop of Louisville, Kentucky, b. at Brooklyn, N.Y., 10 Nov., 1823; d. 17 September, 1909. He ...

    McGee, Thomas D'Arcy

    An editor, politician, and poet, born at Carlingford, Co. Louth, Ireland, 13 April, 1825; ...

    McLoughlin, John

    Physician and pioneer, born in the parish of La Riviere du Loup, Canada, 19 October, 1784; died ...

    McMahon, Martin Thomas

    Soldier, jurist; born at Laprairie, Canada, 21 March, 1838; died in New York, 21 April, 1906. His ...

    McMaster, James Alphonsus

    An editor, convert, born at Duanesburg, New York, U. S. A., 1 April, 1820; died in Brooklyn, New ...

    McQuaid, Bernard John

    The first Bishop of Rochester, U. S. A.; born in New York City, 15 December, 1823; died at ...

    McSherry, James Jr.

    Jurist, son of the author James McSherry ; born at Frederick, Maryland, 30 December, 1842; died ...

    McSherry, James Sr.

    Author; born at LibertyTown, Frederick County, Maryland, 29 July, 1819; died at Frederick City, ...

    McSherry, Richard

    Physician; born at Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia ), 21 November, 1817; died ...

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    Me 153

    Meagher, Thomas Francis

    Soldier, politician, b. at Waterford, Ireland, 3 August, 1823; accidentally drowned in the ...

    Meath

    (MIDENSIS). Diocese in Ireland, suffragan of Armagh. In extent it is the largest diocese in ...

    Meaux

    (Melsa). A Cistercian abbey about four miles east of Beverley in the East Riding of ...

    Meaux, Diocese of

    (MELDENSIS.) Meaux comprises the entire department of Seine and Marne, suffragan of Sens ...

    Mecca

    Mecca, the capital of Arabia and the sacred city of the Mohammedans, is situated in the district ...

    Mechanism

    There is no constant meaning in the history of philosophy for the word Mechanism. Originally, ...

    Mechitar

    (MECHITHAR, MEKHITAR, MCHITAR or MOCHTOR, a word which means "Comforter") Mechitar is the name ...

    Mechitarists

    Armenian Benedictines, founded by Mechitar in 1712. In its inception the order was looked upon ...

    Mechlin

    ( Latin MECHLINIA; French MALINES; MECHLINIENSIS). Archdiocese comprising the two Belgian ...

    Mechtel, Johann

    Chronicler; b. 1562 at Pfalzel near Trier (Germany); d. after 1631, perhaps as late as 1653 at ...

    Mechtild of Magdeburg

    A celebrated medieval mystic, b. of a noble family in Saxony about 1210; d. at the ...

    Mechtilde, Saint

    (MATILDA VON HACKEBORN-WIPPRA). Benedictine; born in 1240 or 1241 at the ancestral castle of ...

    Mecklenburg

    A division of the German Empire, consists of the two Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and ...

    Medaille, Jean Paul

    Jesuit missionary; b. at Carcassonne, the capital of the Department of Aude, France, 29 ...

    Medal of Saint Benedict

    A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict. One ...

    Medal, Miraculous

    The devotion commonly known as that of the Miraculous Medal owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a ...

    Medals, Devotional

    A medal may be defined to be a piece of metal, usually in the form of a coin, not used as money, ...

    Medardus, Saint

    Bishop of Noyon, b. at Salency (Oise) about 456; d. in his episcopal city 8 June, about 545. His ...

    Medea

    A titular see of Thrace, suffragan of Heraclea. This name and the modern name (Midieh) are ...

    Medellín

    (MEDELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Republic of Colombia, Metropolitan of Antioquia and ...

    Media and Medes

    ( Medía, Mêdoi ). An ancient country of Asia and the inhabitants thereof. The ...

    Mediator (Christ as Mediator)

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: (1) Definition of the word mediator; (2) ...

    Medices, Hieronymus

    (DE MEDICIS) Illustrious as a scholastic of acumen and penetration, b. at Camerino in ...

    Medici, Catherine de'

    Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589. She was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke ...

    Medici, House of

    A Florentine family, the members of which, having acquired great wealth as bankers, rose in a ...

    Medici, Maria de'

    Queen of France ; b. at Florence, 26 April, 1573; d. at Cologne, 3 July, 1642. She was a ...

    Medicine and Canon Law

    In the early centuries the practice of medicine by clerics, whether secular or regular, was not ...

    Medicine, History of

    The history of medical science, considered as a part of the general history of civilization, ...

    Medina, Bartholomew

    Dominican theologian, b. at Medina, 1527; d. at Salamanca, 1581. With Dominico Soto , Melchior ...

    Medina, Juan de

    Theologian ; born 1490; died 1547; he occupied the first rank among the theologians of the ...

    Medina, Miguel de

    Theologian, born at Belalcazar, Spain, 1489; died at Toledo, May, 1578. He entered the Franciscan ...

    Medrano, Francisco

    A Spanish lyric poet, b. in Seville, not to be confounded with Sebastian Francisco de Medrano ...

    Medulic, Andras

    A Croatian painter and engraver, called by Italian authors Medola, Medula, Schiavone, Schiaon, ...

    Meehan, Charles Patrick

    Irish historical writer and translator, b. in Dublin, 12 July, 1812; d. there 14 March 1890. ...

    Megara

    A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia. The city, which was built on an arid strip of ...

    Megarians

    The Megarian School is one of the imperfectly Socratic Schools, so called because they developed ...

    Mehrerau

    Formerly a Benedictine, now a Cistercian Abbey ; situated on Lake Constance, west of Bregenz, in ...

    Meignan, Guillaume-René

    Cardinal Archbishop of Tours, French apologist and Scriptural exegete, b. at Chauvigné, ...

    Meilleur, Jean-Baptiste

    French Canadian physician and educator, b. at St. Laurent, P.Q., 9 May, 1796; d. 7 Dec., 1878. He ...

    Meinwerk, Blessed

    Tenth Bishop of Paderborn, d. 1036: Meinwerk (Meginwerk) was born of the noble family of the ...

    Meissen

    A former see of north-east Germany. The present city of Meissen, situated in the Kingdom of ...

    Meissonier, Ernest

    French painter, b. at Lyons 21 February, 1815; d. at Paris, 31 January, 1891. If the Lyonese ...

    Meléndez Valdés, Juan

    Spanish poet and politician, b. at Ribera del Fresno (Badajoz) 11 March, 1754; d. in exile at ...

    Melancthon, Philipp

    Collaborator and friend of Luther, born at Bretten (in Unterpfalz, now Baden ), 16 February, ...

    Melania (the Younger), Saint

    Born at Rome, about 383; died in Jerusalem, 31 December, 439. She was a member of the famous ...

    Melbourne

    Archdiocese of Melbourne (Melburnen) Located in the state of Victoria, Southeastern ...

    Melchers, Paul

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 6 Jan., 1813, at Münster, Westphalia ; d. 14 ...

    Melchisedech

    [Gr. Melchisedek , from the Hebrew meaning "King of righteousness (Gesenius)] was King of ...

    Melchisedechians

    A branch of the Monarchians, founded by Theodotus the banker. (See MONARCHIANS.) Another quite ...

    Melchites

    (Melkites). ORIGIN AND NAME Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who ...

    Meletius of Antioch

    Bishop, b. in Melitene, Lesser Armenia ; d. at Antioch, 381. Before occupying the see of ...

    Meletius of Lycopolis

    Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis in Egypt, gave his name to a schism of short duration. There ...

    Melfi and Rapolla

    DIOCESE OF MELFI AND RAPOLLA (MELPHIENSIS ET RAPOLLENSIS) Diocese in the province of Potenza, ...

    Meli, Giovanni

    Sicilian poet, b. at Palermo, 4 March, 1740, d. 20 Dec., 1815. He was the son of a goldsmith of ...

    Melia, Pius

    Italian theologian, b. at Rome, 12 Jan., 1800; d. in London, June 1883. He entered the Society ...

    Melissus of Samos

    A Greek philosopher, of the Eleatic School, b. at Samos about 470 B.C. It is probable that he ...

    Melitene

    The residence of an Armenian Catholic see, also a titulary archbishopric. According to Pliny ...

    Melito, Saint

    Bishop of Sardis, prominent ecclesiastical writer in the latter half of the second century. Few ...

    Melk, Abbey and Congregation of

    (MOLCK, MELLICUM). Situated on an isolated rock commanding the Danube, Melk has been a noted ...

    Melkites

    (Melkites). ORIGIN AND NAME Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who ...

    Melleray

    (MELLEARIUM) Melleray, situated in Brittany (Loire-Inférieure), Diocese of Nantes, in ...

    Mellifont Abbey

    Located three miles from Drogheda, Co. Louth, Diocese of Armagh, it was the first Cistercian ...

    Mellitus, Saint

    Bishop of London and third Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 24 April, 624. He was the leader of ...

    Melo

    Located in Uruguay. It was decided in 1897 to erect two sees suffragan to Montevideo, one of ...

    Melos

    A titular see, suffragan of Naxos in the Cyclades. The name seems to have been derived from a ...

    Melozzo da Forlí

    An Italian painter of the Umbrian School, b. at Forlì, 1438; d. there 1494. Lanzi's ...

    Melrose Abbey

    The Abbey of Melrose, located in in Roxburghshire, founded in 1136 by King David I, was the ...

    Melrose, Chronicle of

    (CHRONICA DE MAILROS) It opens with the year 735, ends abruptly in 1270, and is founded solely ...

    Melzi, Francesco

    Born at Milan, about 1490; died 1568. He was a mysterious personage. He was a friend of Leonardo ...

    Memberton

    Principal chief of the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia at the time of the establishment of the ...

    Membre, Zenobius

    Born 1645 at Bapaume, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France, he was a member of the Franciscan ...

    Memling, Hans

    Flemish painter, b. about 1430-35; d. at Bruges 11 August, 1494. This date was discovered ...

    Memorial Brasses

    Just when memorial brasses first came into use is not known; the earliest existing dated ...

    Memory

    (Latin memoria ) Memory is the capability of the mind, to store up conscious processes, ...

    Memphis

    Ancient capital of Egypt ; diocese of the province of Arcadia or Heptanomos, suffragan of ...

    Men of Understanding

    (HOMINES INTELLIGENTIAE). Name assumed by a heretical sect which in 1410-11 was cited before ...

    Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino

    Poet, historian and literary critic, b. at Santander, Spain, in 1856; d. at Santander in 1912. ...

    Mena, Juan de

    Spanish poet, born 1411 at Cordova ; died 1456 at Torrelaguna. Prominent at the court of Juan II ...

    Menaion

    ( menaîon from mén, "month") The Menaion is the name of the twelve books, one ...

    Menas, Saint

    Martyr under Diocletian, about 295. According to the Greek Acts published with Latin translation ...

    Mencius

    (Latinized form of Chinese MENG-TZE, i.e. MENG THE SAGE). Philosopher, b. 371 or 372 B.C. He was ...

    Mendíburu, Manuel de

    Born at Lima, 29 October, 1805; died 21 January, 1885. He was educated in the University of S. ...

    Mendaña de Neyra, Alvaro de

    A Spanish navigator and explorer, born in Saragossa, 1541; died in Santa Cruz, Solomon ...

    Mende

    (MIMATENSIS) This diocese includes the department of Lozère, in France. Suffragan of ...

    Mendel, Mendelism

    Gregor Johann Mendel (the first name was taken on entrance to his order), b. 22 July, 1822, at ...

    Mendes de Silva, João

    Better known as Amadeus of Portugal, b. 1420, d. at Milan, 1482, began his religious life in ...

    Mendicant Friars

    Mendicant Friars are members of those religious orders which, originally, by vow of ...

    Mendieta, Jerónimo

    A Spanish missionary; born at Vitoria, Spain, 1525; died in the City of Mexico, 9 May, 1604. ...

    Mendoza, Diego Hurtade de

    A Spanish diplomat and writer, and one of the greatest figures in the history of Spanish ...

    Mendoza, Francisco Sarmiento de

    A Spanish canonist and bishop ; b. of a noble family at Burgos ; d. 1595, at Jaén. ...

    Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de

    Cardinal and Primate of Spain, b. at Guadalajara, 3 May, 1428; d. there, 11 January, 1495. He ...

    Meneses, Osorio Francisco

    Spanish painter, b. at Seville, 1630; d. probably in the same place, 1705. It is extraordinary ...

    Menestrier, Claude-François

    Antiquarian, b. at Lyons, 9 March, 1631; d. at Paris, 21 Jan., 1705. He inherited a taste for ...

    Menevia

    (MENEVENSIS) Menevia is said to be derived from Menapia , the name of an ancient Roman ...

    Mengarini, Gregario

    Pioneer missionary of the Flathead tribe and philologist of their language, b. in Rome, 21 July, ...

    Mengs, Anthon Rafael

    A Bohemian painter, usually regarded as belonging to the Italian or Spanish school, b. at ...

    Mennas

    Patriarch of Constantinople from 536 to 552. Early in 536 Pope St. Agapetus came to ...

    Mennonites

    A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth ...

    Menochio, Giovanni Stefano

    Jesuit biblical scholar, b. at Padua, 1575; d. in Rome, 4 Feb., 1655. He entered the Society of ...

    Menologium

    Although the word Menologium (in English also written Menology and Menologe) has been in some ...

    Menominee Indians

    A considerable tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock, formerly ranging over north-eastern ...

    Mensa, Mensal Revenue

    ( Latin, Mensa, table). The Latin word mensa has for its primitive signification "a table ...

    Mensing, John

    (MENSINGK) A theologian and celebrated opponent of Luther, born according to some at ...

    Mental Reservation

    The name applied to a doctrine which has grown out of the common Catholic teaching about lying and ...

    Mentelin, Johannes

    (MENTEL) Born c. 1410; died 12 Dec., 1478; an eminent German typographer of the fifteenth ...

    Menzini, Benedetto

    Priest and poet, b. at Florence, 1646; d. at Rome, 7 Sept., 1704. His family being poor, he ...

    Mercadé, Eustache

    French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century. The dates of his birth and death are not known. ...

    Mercedarians

    (Order of Our Lady of Mercy). A congregation of men founded in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco, born ...

    Mercier, Louis-Honoré

    A French Canadian statesman, b. 15 October, 1840, at Ibervile, Quebec, of a family of farmers; ...

    Mercuriali, Geronimo

    Better known by his Latin name Mercurialis; famous philologist and physician, b. at Forli, 30 ...

    Mercy, Brothers of Our Lady of

    Founded at Mechlin in 1839 by Canon J.B. Cornelius Scheppers for the instruction and care of ...

    Mercy, Corporal and Spiritual Works of

    Mercy as it is here contemplated is said to be a virtue influencing one's will to have ...

    Mercy, Sisters of

    A congregation of women founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Catherine Elizabeth McAuley, ...

    Mercy, Sisters of, of St. Borromeo

    Originally a pious association of ladies formed in 1626 for the care of the sick in the ...

    Meredith, Edward

    English Catholic controversialist, b. in 1648, was a son of the rector of Landulph, Cornwall. ...

    Merici, Saint Angela

    Foundress of the Ursulines, born 21 March, 1474, at Desenzano, a small town on the southwestern ...

    Merit

    By merit ( meritum ) in general is understood that property of a good work which entitles the ...

    Mermillod, Gaspard

    Bishop of Lausanne and cardinal, born at Carouge, Switzerland, 22 September, 1824; died in Rome, ...

    Merneptah I

    (1234?-1214 B.C.), the fourth king of the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty and the supposed Pharaoh ...

    Mersenne, Marin

    French theologian, philosopher, and mathematician; b. 8 September, 1588, near Oizé (now ...

    Mesa

    (Greek Mosá ; Moabite Stone, ms‘ ; Hebrew, mys‘ , meaning ...

    Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and Armenia

    Created by Gregory XVI on 17 Dec., 1832. Mgr. Trioche, Archbishop of Babylon or Bagdad, became ...

    Mesrob

    (Also called MASHTOTS) One of the greatest figures in Armenian history, he was born about 361 ...

    Messalians

    ( Praying folk; participle Pa'el of the Aramaic word meaning "to pray "). An heretical ...

    Messene

    A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia. Under this name at least, the city dates only ...

    Messias

    (Or Messias .) The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah , ...

    Messina

    (MESSINENSIS) Located in Sicily. The city is situated, in the shape of an amphitheatre, along ...

    Messina, Antonello da

    Born at Messina, about 1430; died 1497. After studying for some time in Sicily he crossed over ...

    Messingham, Thomas

    An Irish hagiologist, born in the Diocese of Meath, and studied in the Irish College, Paris, ...

    Metalwork in the Service of the Church

    From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ...

    Metaphrastes, Symeon

    ( Sumeòn ’o metaphrástes ). The principal compiler of the legends of ...

    Metaphysics

    I. The Name. II. The Definition. III. The Rejection of Metaphysics.IV. Relation of Metaphysics to ...

    Metastasio, Pietro

    Italian poet, b. at Rome, 1698; d. at Vienna, 1782. Of humble origins, his father, once a ...

    Metcalfe, Edward

    Born in Yorkshire, 1792; died a martyr of charity at Leeds, 7 May, 1847. He entered the ...

    Metellopolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor. The inscriptions make known a Phrygian town ...

    Metempsychosis

    (Greek meta empsychos , Latin metempsychosis : French metempsychose : German ...

    Metham, Thomas

    A knight, confessor of the Faith ; died in York Castle, 1573. He was eldest son of Thomas ...

    Methodism

    A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and ...

    Methodius and Cyril, Saints

    (Or CONSTANTINE and METHODIUS). These brothers, the Apostles of the Slavs, were born in ...

    Methodius I

    Patriarch of Constantinople (842-846), defender of images during the second Iconoclast ...

    Methodius of Olympus, Saint

    Bishop and ecclesiastical author, date of birth unknown; died a martyr, probably in 311. ...

    Methuselah

    One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5. The word is variously given as Mathusale ...

    Methymna

    A titular see in the island of Lesbos. It was once the second city of the island, and enjoyed ...

    Metrophanes of Smyrna

    A leader of the faithful Ignatian bishops at the time of the Photian schism (867). Baronius ...

    Metropolis

    A titular episcopal see and suffragan of Ephesus. Strabo (XIV, 1, 2; XIV, 1, 15), who speaks of ...

    Metropolitan

    Metropolitan , in ecclesiastical language, refers to whatever relates to the metropolis, the ...

    Metternich, Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von

    Statesman; born at Coblenz, 15 May, 1773; died at Vienna, 11 June, 1859; son of Count Georg, ...

    Metz

    A town and bishopric in Lorraine. I. THE TOWN OF METZ In ancient times Metz, then known as ...

    Meun, Jean Clopinel de

    (Or MEUNG.) French poet, b. c. 1260 in the little city of Meung-sur-Loire; d. at Paris ...

    Mexico

    GEOGRAPHY The Republic of Mexico is situated at the extreme point of the North American ...

    Mexico, Archdiocese of

    (MEXICANA.) Boundaries The boundaries of the Diocese of Mexico were at first not well defined. ...

    Mezger, Francis, Joseph, and Paul

    Three brothers, learned Benedictines of the monastery of St. Peter in Salzburg, and professors ...

    Mezzofanti, Giuseppe

    A cardinal, the greatest of polyglots, born 19 September, 1774; died 15 March, 1849. He was the ...

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    Mi 103

    Miami Indians

    An important tribe of Algonquian stock formerly claiming prior dominion over the whole of what ...

    Michael Cærularius

    ( Keroulários ). Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and ...

    Michael de Sanctis, Saint

    (DE LOS SANTOS). Born at, Vich in Catalonia, 29 September, 1591; died at Valladolid, 10 ...

    Michael O'Loghlen

    Born at Ennis, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1789; died 1846. Educated at Ennis Academy, and Trinity ...

    Michael of Cesena

    (MICHELE FUSCHI) A Friar Minor, Minister General of the Franciscan Order, and theologian, ...

    Michael Scotus

    (SCOTT or SCOT) A thirteenth century mathematician, philosopher, and scholar. He was born in ...

    Michael the Archangel, Saint

    ( Hebrew "Who is like God ?"). St. Michael is one of the principal angels ; his name was ...

    Michael, Military Orders of Saint

    (1) A Bavarian Order, founded in 1721 by Elector Joseph Clemens of Cologne, Duke of Bavaria, ...

    Michaud, Joseph-François

    Historian, born at Albens, Savoy, 1767; died at Passy, 30 September, 1839. He belonged to an ...

    Micheas of Ephraim

    Also called Michas. In Hebrew the complete form of the name is Mikhayahu or Mikhayehu ...

    Micheas, Book of

    Micheas (Hebr. Mikhah; Jeremiah 26:18 : Mikhayah keth.), the author of the book which holds the ...

    Micheas, Son of Jemla

    Also called Michas. In Hebrew the complete form of the name is Mikhayahu or Mikhayehu ...

    Michel, Jean

    A French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century, who revised and enlarged the mystery of the ...

    Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Italian sculptor, painter, and architect, b. at Caprese in the valley of the upper Arno, 6 March, ...

    Michelians

    A German Protestant sect which derives its name from "Michel", the popular designation of its ...

    Michelis, Edward

    A theologian, born in St. Mauritz, 6 Feb., 1813; died in Luxemburg, 8 June, 1855. After his ...

    Michelozzo di Bartolommeo

    An architect and sculptor, born at Florence circa 1391; died 1472. He exercised a quiet, but ...

    Michigan

    The State of Michigan is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by Canada, Lake Huron ...

    Michoacan

    (MICHOACANENSIS) Located in Mexico, the Diocese of Michoacan was established in 1536 by Pope ...

    Mickiewicz, Adam

    Born near Novogrodek, Lithuania, 1798; died at Constantinople, 1855. He studied at Novogrodek ...

    Micmacs

    ( Souriquois of the early French ) The easternmost of the Algonquin tribes and probably ...

    Micrologus

    Either a "synopsis" or a "short explanation", and in the Middle Ages used as an equivalent for ...

    Middendorp, Jakob

    Theologian and historian; b. about 1537 at Oldenzaal, or, according to others, at Ootmarsum, ...

    Middle Ages

    A term commonly used to designate that period of European history between the fall of the Roman ...

    Middlesbrough

    (MEDIOBURGENSIS) In medieval history it was known as Myddilburga or Middilburga, with many ...

    Midianites

    (In Authorized Version M IDIANITES ). An Arabian tribe ( Septuagint Madienaîoi ...

    Midrashim

    The term commonly designates ancient rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew Scriptures. It is the ...

    Midwives

    Midwives come under the canon law of the Church in their relation towards two of the sacraments, ...

    Migazzi, Christoph Anton

    Cardinal, Prince Archbishop of Vienna, b. 1714, in the Tyrol, d. 14 April, 1803, at Vienna. At ...

    Mignard, Pierre

    A French painter, born at Troyes, 7 November, 1612; died at Paris, 30 May, 1695. Though destined ...

    Migne, Jacques-Paul

    Priest, and publisher of theological works, born at Saint-Flour, 25 October, 1800; died at Paris, ...

    Migration

    The movement of populations from place to place is one of the earliest social phenomena history ...

    Milan

    (MEDIOLANENSIS) Located in Lombardy, northern Italy. The city is situated on the Orona River, ...

    Milde, Vinzenz Eduard

    Prince- Archbishop of Vienna, born at Brünn, in Moravia, in 1777; died at Vienna in ...

    Miles Gerard, Venerable

    Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

    Miles, George Henry

    A dramatist and man of letters, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 31 July, 1824; died near ...

    Mileto

    (MILETENSIS) Located in Calabria, in the province of Reggio, southern Italy. According to ...

    Miletopolis

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Cyzicus. Miletopolis was a town north of Mysia, at ...

    Miletus

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, in Caria. Situated on the western coast ...

    Miletus, Vitus

    (Originally MÜLLER) A Catholic theologian, born at Gmünd, Swabia, 1549; died at ...

    Milevum

    A titular see of Numidia. In Ptolemy's "Geography", IV, iii, 7, the city is mentioned under the ...

    Milic, Jan

    A pre-Hussite reform preacher and religious enthusiast, born at Kremsier in Moravia, died 29 ...

    Military Orders, The

    Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...

    Millennium and Millenarianism

    The fundamental idea of millenarianism, as understood by Christian writers, may be set forth ...

    Miller, Ferdinand Von

    Born at Fürstenfeldbruck, 1813; died at Munich, 1887. He laboured for the development of ...

    Millet, Jean-François

    French painter ; b. at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, 4 October, 1814; d. at Barbizon, 20 January, 1875. ...

    Millet, Pierre

    ( Or Milet). A celebrated early Jesuit missionary in New York State, b. at Bourges, ...

    Milner, John

    Born in London, 14 October, 1752: died at Wolverhampton, 19 April, 1826. At the age of twelve ...

    Milner, Venerable Ralph

    Layman and martyr, born at Flacsted, Hants, England, early in the sixteenth century; suffered ...

    Milo Crispin

    Monk, and cantor of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec ; wrote the lives of five of its abbots : ...

    Milopotamos

    A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Candia. Certain historians and geographers identify ...

    Miltiades, Pope Saint

    The year of his birth is not known; he was elected pope in either 310 or 311; died 10 or 11 ...

    Miltiz, Karl von

    Papal chamberlain and nuncio, b. about 1480, the son of Sigismund von Miltiz, "Landvogt" of ...

    Milwaukee

    (MILWAUKIENSIS) Established as a diocese, 28 Nov., 1843; became an archbishopric, 12 ...

    Mind

    (Greek nous ; Latin mens , German Geist , Seele ; French ame esprit ). The word ...

    Minden

    Diocese of Minden (former see of Westphalia ). Minden on the Weser is first heard of in ...

    Ming, John

    A philosopher and writer, born at Gyswyl, Unterwalden, Switzerland, 20 Sept., 1838; died at ...

    Minimi

    Minimi (or M INIMS ) are the members of the religious order founded by St. Francis of Paula. ...

    Minister

    The term minister has long been appropriated in a distinctive way to the clergy. The language ...

    Minkelers, Jean-Pierre

    Inventor of illuminating gas; b. at Maastricht, Holland, 1748; d. there 4 July, 1824. At the age ...

    Minnesota

    One of the North Central States of the American Union, lies about midway between the eastern and ...

    Mino di Giovanni

    (Called DA FIESOLE.) Born 1431; died 1484. He is inscribed in the "Libro della Matricola" of ...

    Minor

    ( Latin minor ), that which is less, or inferior in comparison with another, the term being ...

    Minor Orders

    ( Latin Ordines Minores ). The lower degrees of the hierarchy are designated by the name of ...

    Minorca

    (Minoricensis). Suffragan of Valencia, comprises the Island of Minorca, the second in size of ...

    Minsk

    (MINCENSIS) A suffragan of Mohileff, in Western Russia. The city of Minsk is situated on ...

    Mint, Papal

    The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

    Minucius Felix

    Christian apologist, flourished between 160 and 300; the exact date is not known. His ...

    Mirabilia Urbis Romæ

    The title of a medieval Latin description of the city of Rome, dating from about 1150. ...

    Miracle

    (Latin miraculum , from mirari , "to wonder"). In general, a wonderful thing, the word ...

    Miracle Plays and Mysteries

    These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian ...

    Miracles, Gift of

    The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

    Miraculous Medal

    The devotion commonly known as that of the Miraculous Medal owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a ...

    Miraeus, Aubert

    (Also called Aubert le Mire). Ecclesiastical historian, born at Brussels, 30 Nov., 1573; died ...

    Mirandola, Giovanni Francesco Pico della

    Italian philosopher, nephew of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, b. about 1469; d. 1533. Though very ...

    Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della

    Italian philosopher and scholar, born 24 February, 1463; died 17 November, 1494. He belonged to a ...

    Miridite, Abbey of

    (MIRIDITARUM, or SANCTI ALEXANDRI DE OROSHI). The name of an abbatia nullius in Albania, ...

    Miserere

    The first word of the Vulgate text of Psalm 1 (Hebrew, li). Two other Psalms (lv and lvi) begin ...

    Misericorde, Congregation of the Sisters of

    A congregation of women founded 16 January, 1848, for the purpose of procuring spiritual and ...

    Misocco and Galanca

    (MESAUCINAE ET CALANCAE). This prefecture in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, comprises the ...

    Missa Pro Populo

    The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

    Missal

    (Latin Missale from Missa , Mass), the book which contains the prayers said by the priest ...

    Mission Indians (of California)

    A name of no real ethnic significance, but used as a convenient popular and official term to ...

    Mission, Congregation of Priests of the

    A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

    Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo, Congregation of

    Founded by John Baptist Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza, Italy (d. 1 June, 1905); approved in ...

    Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales of Annecy

    Amid the many activities to which St. Francis devoted himself, he long had the desire to found a ...

    Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle

    Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

    Missions, California

    I. LOWER CALIFORNIA California became known to the world through Hernando Cortés, the ...

    Missions, Catholic

    The history of Catholic missions would necessarily begin with the missionary labours of Christ, ...

    Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada

    The French discoverers of Canada did not fail to impress the aborigines they met with a vague ...

    Missions, Catholic Indian, of the United States

    The spiritual welfare of the native tribes of America was a subject of deep concern to the ...

    Missions, Catholic Parochial

    This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

    Mississippi

    Mississippi, one of the United States of America , takes its name from the Mississippi River ...

    Missouri

    The State of Missouri was carved out of the Louisiana Territory, and derives its name from the ...

    Missouri Test-Oath

    In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

    Mithraism

    A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra. It ...

    Mitre

    Form, Material, and Use The mitre is a kind of folding-cap. It consists of two like parts, each ...

    Mittarelli, Nicola Giacomo

    (In religion GIAN BENEDETTO) A monastic historian, born 2 September, 1707, at Venice ; ...

    Mitylene

    A titulary archbishopric in the island of Lesbos. Inhabitated, first by the Pelasgians, then by ...

    Mivart, St. George Jackson

    Corresponding member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Member of the Council of ...

    Mixe Indians

    (Also Mije, Latin Mi-she) A mountain tribe in southern Mexico, noted for their extreme ...

    Mixed Marriage

    (Latin Matrimonia mixta ). Technically, mixed marriages are those between Catholics and ...

    Mixteca Indians

    (Also Misteca, Latin Mish-te-ka) One of the most important civilized tribes of southern ...

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    Mo 199

    Moab, Moabites

    In the Old Testament, the word Moab designates (1) a son of Lot by his elder daughter ( ...

    Mobile

    DIOCESE OF MOBILE ( French MOBILE, Spanish MAUBILA, Latin MOBILIENSIS). Suffragan of New ...

    Mocissus

    A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia. Procopius (De ædif., V, iv) informs us that this ...

    Mocoví Indians

    The name is also written Macobio, Mbocobi, Mocobio. They are a warlike and predatory tribe of the ...

    Modalism (Monarchianism)

    Heretics of the second and third centuries. The word, Monarchiani , was first used by Tertullian ...

    Modena

    ARCHDIOCESE OF MODENA (MUTINENSIS) Located in central Italy, between the rivers Secchia and ...

    Modernism

    Origin of the Word Theory of Theological Modernism The essential error of Modernism ...

    Modestus, Vitus, and Crescentia, Saints

    According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...

    Modigliana

    DIOCESE OF MODIGLIANA (MUTILIANENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence, in Tuscany. The city ...

    Modra

    A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicæa. The city of Modra figures only in ...

    Mohammed and Mohammedism

    I. THE FOUNDER Mohammed, "the Praised One", the prophet of Islam and the founder of ...

    Mohammedan Confraternities

    The countries where Mohammedanism prevails are full of religious associations, more or less ...

    Mohileff

    (Mohyloviensis) Latin Catholic archdiocese and ecclesiastical province in Russia. For the ...

    Mohr, Christian

    Born at Andernach, 1823; died at Cologne, 1888. He practised his profession of sculptor chiefly ...

    Mohr, Joseph

    Born at Siegburg, Rhine Province, 11 Jan., 1834; died at Munich, 7 February, 1892. Father Mohr did ...

    Moigno, François-Napoléon-Marie

    Physicist and author, b. at Guéméné (Morbihan), 15 April, 1804; d. at ...

    Molai, Jacques de

    (DE MOLAY). Born at Rahon, Jura, about 1244; d. at Paris, 18 March, 1314. A Templar at Beaune ...

    Molesme, Notre-Dame de

    A celebrated Benedictine monastery in a village of the same name, Canton of Laignes ...

    Molfetta, Terlizzi, and Giovinazzo

    (MELPHICTENSIS, TERLITIENSIS ET JUVENACENSIS) Molfetta is a city of the province of Bari, in ...

    Molière, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin

    (Properly, JEAN-BAPTISTE POQUELIN, the name by which he became known to fame having been assumed ...

    Molina, Antonio De

    A Spanish Carthusian and celebrated ascetical writer, born about 1560, at Villanueva de los ...

    Molina, Juan Ignacio

    (Mol. or Molin). Naturalist and scientist ; b. 20 July, 1740, at Guaraculen near Talca ...

    Molina, Luis de

    One of the most learned and renown theologians of the Society of Jesus, b. of noble parentage at ...

    Molinism

    The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will. This ...

    Molinos, Miguel de

    Founder of Quietism, born at Muniesa, Spain, 21 December, 1640; died at Rome, 28 December, ...

    Molitor, Wilhelm

    (Pseudonyms, ULRIC RIESLER and BENNO BRONNER) A poet, novelist, canonist and publicist, born at ...

    Molloy, Francis

    (O'MOLLOY) A theologian, grammarian born in King's County, Ireland, at the beginning of the ...

    Molloy, Gerald

    A theologian and scientist, born at Mount Tallant House, near Dublin, 10 Sept., 1834; died at ...

    Molo, Gasparo

    (he wrote his name also MOLA and MOLI) A skilful Italian goldsmith and planisher, chiefly known ...

    Moloch

    ( Hebrew Molech , king). A divinity worshiped by the idolatrous Israelites. The Hebrew ...

    Molokai

    An interesting island, one of the North Pacific group formerly known as the Sandwich Islands, or ...

    Molyneux, Sir Caryll

    Baronet of Sefton, and third Viscount Molyneux of Maryborough in Ireland, born 1624; died 1699. He ...

    Mombritius, Bonino

    A philologist, humanist, and editor of ancient writings, born 1424; died between 1482 and 1502. ...

    Monaco, Principality and Diocese of

    Situated on the Mediterranean Sea, on the skirts of the Turbie and the Tête de Chien ...

    Monad

    (From the Greek monas, monados ). Monad , in the sense of "ultimate, indivisible unit," ...

    Monarchia Sicula

    A right exercised from the beginning of the sixteenth century by the secular rulers of Sicily, ...

    Monarchians

    Heretics of the second and third centuries. The word, Monarchiani , was first used by Tertullian ...

    Monasteries in Continental Europe, Suppression of

    Under this title will be treated only the suppressions of religious houses (whether monastic in ...

    Monasteries in England, Suppression of

    From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be ...

    Monasteries, Double

    Religious houses comprising communities of both men and women, dwelling in contiguous ...

    Monastery, Canonical Erection of a

    A religious house (monastery or convent ) is a fixed residence of religious persons. It supposes, ...

    Monasticism

    Monasticism or monachism, literally the act of "dwelling alone" (Greek monos, monazein, monachos ...

    Monasticism, Eastern

    (1) Origin The first home of Christian monasticism is the Egyptian desert. Hither during ...

    Monasticism, Pre-Chalcedonian

    Egypt was the Motherland of Christian monasticism. It sprang into existence there at the ...

    Monasticism, Western

    (1) Pre-Benedictine Period The introduction of monasticism into the West may be dated from ...

    Moncada, Francisco De

    Count of Osona, Spanish historian, son of the Governor of Sardinia and Catalonia, born at ...

    Mondino dei Lucci

    Mondino (a diminutive for Raimondo; Mundinus) dei Lucci. Anatomist, b. probably at Bologna, ...

    Mondoñedo

    (Latin MONDUMETUM, or MINDON, MINDONIENSIS, also BRITONIENSIS, DUMIENSIS, and VILLABRIENSIS) ...

    Mondovi

    DIOCESE OF MONDOVÌ (MONTISREGALIS) Located in Piedmont, province of Cuneo, northern ...

    Mone, Franz

    A historian and archeologist, born at Mingolsheim near Bruchsal, Baden, 12 May, 1796; died at ...

    Moneta

    (MONETUS) A theologian, born at Cremona, Italy, date unknown; died at Bologna, 1240. He ...

    Mongolia

    The name used to designate an immense uneven plateau, part of the Chinese Empire, extending, ...

    Mongus, Peter

    ( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

    Monica, Saint

    Widow ; born of Christian parents at Tagaste, North Africa, in 333; died at Ostia, near Rome, ...

    Monism

    (From the Greek monos , "one", "alone", "unique"). Monism is a philosophical term which, ...

    Monita Secreta

    A code of instructions alleged to be addressed by Acquaviva, the fifth general of the Society, to ...

    Monk

    A monk may be conveniently defined as a member of a community of men, leading a more or less ...

    Monk of Malmesbury, The

    Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. ...

    Monogram of Christ

    By the Monogram of Christ is ordinarily understood the abbreviation of Christ's name formed by ...

    Monomotapa

    Whatever may be the etymological meaning of the word Monomotapa , the origin of which is much ...

    Monophysites and Monophysitism

    The history of this sect and of its ramifications has been summarized under E UTYCHIANISM (the ...

    Monopoli, Diocese of

    (MONOPOLITANA). A diocese in the Province of Bari, in Apulia, southern Italy. The city has a ...

    Monopoly, Moral Aspects of

    According to its etymology, monopoly ( monopolia ) signifies exclusive sale, or exclusive ...

    Monotheism

    Monotheism (from the Greek monos "only", and theos "god") is a word coined in comparatively ...

    Monothelitism and Monothelites

    (Sometimes written MONOTHELETES, from monotheletai , but the eta is more naturally ...

    Monreale

    Located in the province of Palermo, Sicily, on the skirts of Mount Caputo. The city is built in a ...

    Monroe, James

    A soldier, convert, born in Albemarle county, Virginia, U.S.A. 10 Sept., 1799; died at Orange, ...

    Monsabré, Jacques-Marie-Louis

    A celebrated pulpit orator, born at Blois, France, 10 Dec., 1827; died at Havre, 21 Feb., ...

    Monseigneur

    (From mon , "my" and seigneur , ("elder" or "lord," like Latin senior ) A French ...

    Monsell, William, Baron Emly

    Born 21 Sept., 1812; died at Tervoe, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 20 April, 1894. His father was ...

    Monsignor

    ( Dominus meus; monseigneur , My Lord). As early as the fourteenth century it was the custom ...

    Monstrance (Ostensorium)

    (From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...

    Monstrelet, Enguerrand de

    A French chronicler, born about 1390 or 1395; died in July, 1453. He was most probably a native of ...

    Mont-St-Michel

    A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Avranches, Normandy, France. It is unquestionably the ...

    Montañés, Juan Martínez

    A noted Spanish sculptor of the seventeenth century, died 1649, sometimes called "the Sevillian ...

    Montagna, Bartolomeo

    Italian painter, chief representative of the Vicenza School, b. at Orzinuovi about 1450; d. at ...

    Montagnais Indians (Chippewayans)

    A name given in error to the C HIPPEWAYANS , owing to a fancied resemblance to the ...

    Montagnais Indians (Quebec)

    French for "Mountaineers". The collective designation of a number of bands speaking dialects ...

    Montaigne, Michel-Eyquen de

    Writer, b. at the château of Montaigne, in Périgord, France, on 28 Feb., 1533; d. ...

    Montalcino

    DIOCESE OF MONTALCINO (ILCINENSIS) Montalcino is a small town about twenty miles from Siena, ...

    Montalembert, Charles-Forbes-René

    CHARLES-FORBES-RENÉ, COMTE DE MONTALEMBERT. Born in London, 15 April, 1810; died in ...

    Montalto

    DIOCESE OF MONTALTO (MONTIS ALTI) Located in Ascoli Piceno. The situation of the little town ...

    Montana

    The third largest of the United States of America , admitted to the Union 8 November, 1889; ...

    Montanists

    Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or "those among the Phrygians" ( oi ...

    Montanus, Benedictus Arias

    Orientalist, exegete, and editor of the "Antwerp Polyglot", born at Frejenal de la Sierra in ...

    Montauban

    (MONTIS ALBANI) A suffragan of Toulouse, comprises the entire department of Tarn and Garonne. ...

    Montault, Xavier Barbier De

    Born at Loudun, 6 February, 1830; died at Blaslay, Vienne ( France ), 29 March, 1901. He came of ...

    Montboissier, Blessed Peter of

    (Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

    Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Louis-Joseph

    A French general, born 28 Feb., 1712, at Candiac, of Louis-Daniel and Marie-Thérèse ...

    Monte Cassino, Abbey of

    An abbey nullius situated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine ...

    Monte Vergine

    An abbey in the province of Naples, Italy, near the town of Avellino, commanding a magnificent ...

    Montefeltro

    (FERETRANA) Located in the province of Urbino, in the Marches, Central Italy. The earliest ...

    Montefiascone

    (MONTIS FALISCI) Located in the province of Rome. The city is situated nearly 2000 feet above ...

    Montemayor, Jorge De

    (MONTEMÔR) A writer, born at Montemôr, province of Coimbra, Portugal, about 1520; ...

    Montenegro

    A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea; the territory was in ...

    Montepulciano

    DIOCESE OF MONTEPULCIANO (MONTIS POLITIANI) Diocese in the province of Siena, in Tuscany. The ...

    Monterey and Los Angeles

    DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...

    Montes Pietatis

    Montes Pietatius are charitable institutions of credit that lend money at low rates of ...

    Montesa, Military Order of

    This order was established in the Kingdom of Aragon to take the place of the Order of the ...

    Montesino, Antonio

    A Spanish missionary, date of birth unknown; died in the West Indies, 1545. Of his early life ...

    Montesinos, Luis de

    Spanish theologian, date and place of birth unknown; d. 7 Oct., 1621. He entered the Dominican ...

    Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de

    French writer and publicist, b. in the Château de la Brède near Bordeaux, 18 ...

    Monteverde, Claudio

    A distinguished musician, born at Cremona, May, 1567; died at Venice, 29 Nov., 1643. He studied ...

    Montevideo

    (MONTISVIDEI) Located in Uruguay, comprises the whole of the republic. This territory was ...

    Montfaucon, Bernard de

    French scholar, b. in 1655, at the château de Soulatge, Department of Aude, arrondissement ...

    Montfort, Simon de

    An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218. Simon (IV) de ...

    Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel

    Inventor; b. at Vidalon-lez-Annonay, Department of Ardèche, France, 26 August, 1740; d. ...

    Months, Special Devotions for

    During the Middle Ages the public functions of the Church and the popular devotions of the ...

    Montmagny, Charles Huault De

    The second French Governor of Canada, born in France towards the end of the sixteenth century, ...

    Montmirail, John de

    (MONTE-MIRABILI) Son of Andrew, Lord of Montmirail and Ferté-Gaucher, and Hildiarde ...

    Montmorency, Anne, First Duke of

    Born at Chantilly, 15 March, 1492; died at Paris, 12 November, 1567. He belonged to that family ...

    Montor, Alexis-François Artaud De

    A diplomat and historian, born at Paris, 31 July, 1772; died at Paris, 12 Nov., 1849. An ...

    Montpellier

    The Diocese of Montpellier (Montis Pessulani) comprises the department of Hérault, and is a ...

    Montreal, Archdiocese of

    Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical Province of Montreal. Suffragans: the Dioceses of ...

    Montreuil

    Charterhouse of Notre-Dame-des-Pres, at Montreuil, in the Diocese of Arras, Department of ...

    Montreuil Abbey

    A former convent of Cistercian nuns in the Diocese of Laon, now Soissons, France. Some ...

    Montyon, Antoine-Jean-Baptiste-Robert Auget, Baron de

    Famous French philanthropist; b. at Paris, 23 December, 1733; d. there 29 December, 1820. He was ...

    Moore, Arthur

    Count, b. at Liverpool, 1849; d. at Mooresfort, Tipperary, Ireland, 1904, was the son of ...

    Moore, Michael

    (Or MOOR) Priest, preacher, and professor, b. at Dublin, Ireland, 1640; d. at Paris, 22 ...

    Moore, Thomas

    Poet and biographer, b. 28 May, 1779, at Dublin, Ireland ; d. 26 February, 1852, at Devizes, ...

    Mopsuestia

    A titular see of Cilicia Secunda in Asia Minor and suffragan of Anazarbus. The founding of ...

    Moréri, Louis

    An encyclopaedist, b. at Bargemont in the Diocese of Fréjus, France, 25 March, 1643, d. at ...

    Mor, Antonis Van Dashort

    (MOOR) Commonly called ANTONIO MORO, or ANTHONIS MORE, a Dutch painter, b. at Utrecht in 1519; ...

    Moral Theology

    Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

    Morales, Ambrosio

    Spanish historian, b. at Cordova, 1513; d. in 1591. After his studies at the University of ...

    Morales, Christóbal

    A composer, born at Seville, 2 Jan., 1512; died at Málaga, 14 June, 1553. From 1 Sept., ...

    Morales, Juan Bautista

    Missionary, b. about 1597 at Ecija in Andalusia, Spain ; d. Fu-ning, China, 17 Sept., 1664. He ...

    Morales, Luis de

    Spanish painter, b. at Badajoz in Estremadura about 1509; d. at Badajoz, 1586. His life was ...

    Moralities

    ( Also: MORALITY PLAYS or MORAL PLAYS). Moralities are a development or an offshoot of the ...

    Morality

    It is necessary at the outset of this article to distinguish between morality and ethics , ...

    Moran, Francis Patrick

    Third Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Leighlinbridge, Ireland, 16 Sept., 1830; d. at Manly, Sydney, ...

    Moratín, Leandro Fernandez de

    Spanish poet and playwright, b. at Madrid, 10 March, 1760; at Paris, 21 June, 1828. He is ...

    Moravia

    ( German MÄHREN). Austrian crown land east of Bohemia. In the century before the Christian ...

    Moravian Brethren

    (MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...

    Morcelli, Stefano Antonio

    An Italian Jesuit and learned epigraphist; b. 17 January, 1737, at Chiari near Brescia ; d. ...

    More, Helen

    (DAME GERTRUDE.) Benedictine nun of the English Congregation; b. at Low Leyton, Essex, ...

    More, Henry

    Great-grandson of the martyred English chancellor ; b., 1586; d. at Watten in 1661. Having ...

    More, Thomas, Saint

    Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

    Morel, Gall

    Poet, scholar, aesthete, and educationist, b. at St. Fiden, Switzerland, on 24 March, 1803; d. at ...

    Morell, Juliana

    Dominican nun, b. at Barcelona, Spain, 16 February, 1594; d. at the convent of the Dominican ...

    Morelos, José María

    Mexican patriot, b. at Valladolid (now called Morelia in his honour ), Mexico, on 30 September, ...

    Moreto y Cabaña, Augustine

    Spanish dramatist; b. at Madrid, 9 April, 1618, d. at Toledo, 28 Octoher, 1669. He received what ...

    Morgagni, Giovanni Battista

    Called by Virchow, the "Father of Modern Pathology", a distinguished Italian physician and ...

    Morgan, Venerable Edward

    Welsh priest, martyr, b. at Bettisfield, Hanmer, Flintshire, executed at Tyburn, London, 26 ...

    Morghen, Raffaello

    Italian engraver, b. at Portici, 19 June, 1768 (1761?); d. at Florence, 8 April, 1833. His ...

    Moriarty, David

    Bishop and pulpit orator, b. in Ardfert, Co. Kerry, in 1812; d. 1 October, 1877. He received ...

    Morigi, Michaelangelo (Caravaggio)

    A Milanese painter, b. at Caravaggio in 1569, d. at Porto d' Ercole in 1609. His family name was ...

    Morimond, Abbey of

    Fourth daughter of Cîteaux situated in Champagne, Diocese of Langres , France ; was ...

    Morin, Jean

    A French priest of the Oratory, b. at Blois, in 1591, d. at Paris, 28 Feb., 1659. According to ...

    Mormons

    ( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...

    Morocco

    (Prefecture Apostolic of Morocco). The country known as Morocco (from Marrakesh, the name of ...

    Morone, Giovanni

    Cardinal, Bishop of Modena, b. at Milan 25 Jan., 1509; d. at Rome, 1 Dec., 1580. He belonged ...

    Moroni, Gaetano

    The author of the well-known "Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica", b. at Rome, 17 ...

    Moroni, Giovanni Battista

    A painter, b. at Bondo, near Albino, in the territory of Bergamo, between 1520 and 1525; d. at ...

    Morris, John

    Canon, afterwards Jesuit, F.S.A., b. in India, 4 July, 1826; d. at Wimbledon, 22 Oct., 1893, ...

    Morris, John Brande

    Born at Brentford, Middlesex, 4 September, 1812; died at Hammersmith, London, 9 April, 1880; he ...

    Morris, Martin Ferdinand

    Lawyer and jurist, b. 3 December, 1834, at Washington, D.C.; d. 12 September, 1909, at Washington, ...

    Morse

    ( Latin morsus ). Also called the MONILLE, FIRMULA, FIRMULE, PECTOIRALE, originally the ...

    Morse, Venerable Henry

    Martyr ; b. in 1595 in Norfolk; d. at Tyburn, 1 Feb., 1644. He was received into the church at ...

    Mortification

    One of the methods which Christian ascesticism employs in training the soul to virtuous and ...

    Mortmain

    (Old Fr., morte meyn ), dead-hand, or "such a state of possession of land as makes it ...

    Morton, John

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, b. in Dorsetshire about 1420, d. at Knowle, Kent, 15 Sept., ...

    Morton, Robert

    English priest and martyr, b. at Bawtry, Yorks, about 1548; executed in Lincoln's Inn Fields, ...

    Mosaic Legislation

    The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...

    Mosaics

    Mosaics, as a term, according to the usual authorities is derived through generations of gradual ...

    Moschus, Johannes

    ( ho tou Moschou , son of Moschus) A monk and ascetical writer, b. about 550 probably at ...

    Moscow

    (Russian Moskva ). The ancient capital of Russia and the chief city of the government ...

    Moses

    Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part ...

    Moses Bar Cephas

    A Syriac bishop and writer, b. at Balad about 813; d. 12 Feb., 903. He is known through a ...

    Moses Maimonides, Teaching of

    Moses ben Maimun (Arabic, Abu Amran Musa), Jewish commentator and philosopher, was born of ...

    Moses of Chorene

    (MOSES CHORENENSIS) Perhaps the best known writer of Armenia, called by his countrymen "the ...

    Mossul

    The seat of a Chaldean archdiocese, a Syrian diocese, and an Apostolic Mission. The origin of ...

    Most Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the

    Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

    Most Precious Blood, Feast of the

    For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

    Most Pure Heart of Mary, Feast of the

    In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the "Inner Life of Mary", ...

    Mostar and Markana-Trebinje

    (MANDATRIENSIS, MARCANENSIS ET TRIBUNENSIS) When at the Berlin Congress (1878) ...

    Mosynoupolis

    Titular see, suffragan of Trajanopolis in Rhodope. A single bishop is known, Paul, who assisted ...

    Motet

    A short piece of music set to Latin words, and sung instead of, or immediately after, the ...

    Motolinia, Toribio de Benavente

    Franciscan missionary, b. at Benavente, Spain, at the end of the fifteenth century; d. in the ...

    Motu Proprio

    The name given to certain papal rescripts on account of the clause motu proprio (of his own ...

    Mouchy, Antoine de

    (Called DEMOCHARES.) Theologian and canonist, b. 1494, at Ressons-sur-Matz, near Beauvais, in ...

    Moufang, Franz Christoph Ignaz

    Theologian, b. at Mainz, 17 Feb., 1817; d. there, 27 Feb., 1890. His early studies were made at ...

    Moulins

    D IOCESE OF M OULINS (M OLINENSIS ). Suffragan of Sens -- comprises the entire ...

    Mount Athos

    Athos is a small tongue of land that projects into the Aegean Sea, being the eastern-most of the ...

    Mount Calvary, Congregations of

    I. DAUGHTERS OF MOUNT CALVARY Founded in 1619 by Virginia Centurione (d. 1651), daughter of the ...

    Mount Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of

    This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386 under the title ...

    Mount Saint Mary's College

    Mount St. Mary's College , the second oldest among the Catholic collegiate institutions in the ...

    Movers, Franz Karl

    Exegete and Orientalist, b. at Koesfeld, Westphalia, 17 July, 1806; d. at Breslau, 28 Sept., ...

    Moxos Indians

    (MOYOS INDIANS). According to one authority, they are named from Musu, their Quichua name; ...

    Moy De Sons, Karl Ernst, Freiherr Von

    A jurist, born 10 August, 1799, at Munich ; died 1 August, 1867, at Innsbruck (Tyrol). He ...

    Moye, Ven. John Martin

    Priest of the Diocese of Metz, founder of the Sisters of Divine Providence, missionary in China, ...

    Moylan, Francis

    Bishop of Cork, born at Cork, 1739; died in 1815. He was the son of a rich merchant. As the ...

    Moylan, Stephen

    An American patriot and merchant, born in Ireland in 1734; died at Philadelphia, 11 April, ...

    Mozambique

    (Mocambique) The former official and still usual name given to the Portuguese possessions on ...

    Mozarabic Rite

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. History and Origin; II. Manuscripts and ...

    Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus

    One of the greatest musical geniuses in history, born at Salzburg, Austria, 27 January, 1756; died ...

    Mozetena Indians

    A group of some half dozen tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock upon the headwaters of ...

    Mozzetta

    A short, cape-shaped garment, covering the shoulders and reaching only to the elbow, with an open ...

    Mozzi, Luigi

    Controversialist, born at Bergamo, 26 May, 1746; died near Milan, 24 June, 1813. He entered the ...

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    Mr 1

    Mrak, Ignatius

    The second Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A., born 16 October, 1818, in Hotovle, in the Diocese of ...

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    Mu 31

    Muchar, Albert Anton Von

    An historian, born at Linez, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1781; died at Graz, Styria, 6 June, 1849. He was ...

    Mulhall, Michael George

    Statistician, b. in Dublin, 29 September, 1829; d. there 13 Dec., 1900. He was educated at the ...

    Mulholland, St. Clair Augustine

    Born at Lisburn, Co. Antrium, Ireland, 1 April 1839; died at Philadelphia, 17 Feb., 1910. ...

    Mullanphy, John

    Merchant, philanthropist, b. near Enniskillen, Co. Fremanagh, Ireland, 1758; d. at St. Louis, ...

    Mullock, John T.

    Bishop of St. John's, Newfoundland, born in 1807 at Limerick, Ireland ; died at St. John's, ...

    Mundwiler, Fintan

    Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of St. Meinrad, Indiana, born at Dietikon in Switzerland, ...

    Munich-Freising

    ARCHDIOCESE OF MUNICH-FREISING (MONASENSIS ET FRISINGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bavaria. This ...

    Munkács

    Diocese in Hungary, of Greek Catholic Rite, suffragan of Gran. It dates from the fifteenth ...

    Mura, Saint

    Born in Co. Donegal, Ireland, about 550. He was appointed Abbot of Fahan by St. Columba. The ...

    Muratori, Luigi Antonio

    Librarian in Modena, one of the greatest scholars of his time, b. 21 Oct., 1672; d. 23 Jan., ...

    Muratorian Canon

    Also called the Muratorian Fragment, after the name of the discoverer and first editor, L. A. ...

    Murder

    ( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

    Muret, Marc-Antoine

    French humanist, b. at Muret, near Limoges, in 1526; d. at Rome, in 1585. He studied at Poitiers ...

    Muri

    (MURI-GRIES) An abbey of monks of the Order of S. Benedict, which flourished for over ...

    Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban

    Spanish painter ; b. at Seville, 31 December, 1617; d. there 5 April, 1682. His family surname ...

    Murner, Thomas

    Greatest German satirist of the sixteenth century, b. at Oberehnheim, Alsace, 24 Dec., 1475; d. ...

    Muro-Lucano

    (MURANENSIS) Located in the province of Potenza, in Basilicata, southern Italy. The town is ...

    Murray, Daniel

    An Archbishop of Dublin, b. 1768, at Sheepwalk, near Arklow, Ireland ; d. at Dublin. He was ...

    Murray, John O'Kane

    Physician, historian, b. in County Antrim, Ireland, 12 Dec., 1847; d. at Chicago, Illinois, ...

    Murray, Patrick

    Theologian, b. Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland, 18 November, 1811; d. 15 Nov., 1882, in ...

    Museums, Christian

    Though applicable to collections composed of Christian objects representative of all epochs, ...

    Mush

    An Armenian Catholic see, comprising the sanjaks of Mush and Seert, in the vilayet of Bitlis. It ...

    Mush, John

    (Alias RATCLIFFE) A priest, b. in Yorkshire, 1551 or 1552; d. at Wenge, Co. Bucks, 1612 or ...

    Music of the Mass

    Under this heading will be considered exclusively the texts of the Mass (and not, therefore, the ...

    Music, Ecclesiastical

    By this term is meant the music which, by order or with the approbation of ecclesiastical ...

    Musical Instruments in Church Services

    For almost a thousand years Gregorian chant, without any instrumental or harmonic addition, was ...

    Musso, Cornelius

    Friar Minor Conventual, Bishop of Bitonto, prominent at the Council of Trent ; born at Piacenza ...

    Musti

    A titular see of Proconsular Africa, suffragan of Carthage. This town, which was a Roman ...

    Musuros, Markos

    A learned Greek humanist, born 1470 at Retimo, Crete; died 1517 at Rome. The son of a rich ...

    Mutis, José Celestino

    Eminent naturalist and scientist in South America, b. at Cadiz, Spain , 6 April, 1732; d. at ...

    Muzzarelli, Alfonso

    A learned Italian Jesuit, b. 22 August, 1749, at Ferrara ; d. 25 May, 1813, at Paris. He ...

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    My 12

    Mylasa

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, or Stauropolis, in Caria. This city, the ...

    Myndus

    A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. This city, known through its coins and ...

    Myra

    A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor. The city was from time immemorial one of the chief places ...

    Myrina

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. Herodotus (I, 149) mentions it as one of the ...

    Myriophytum

    A titular see of Thracia Prima and suffragan of Heraclea. The early history of this city is ...

    Mysore

    (MAISOUR); DIOCESE OF MYSORE (MYSURIENSIS) Diocese in India, suffragan to Pondicherry, ...

    Mysteries and Miracle Plays

    These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian ...

    Mystery

    (Greek mysterion , from myein , "to shut", "to close".) This term signifies in general ...

    Mystical Body of the Church

    The analogy borne by any society of men to an organism is sufficiently manifest. In every ...

    Mystical Marriage

    In the Old and the New Testament , the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations ...

    Mystical Theology

    Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

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