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Formularies

(LIBRI FORMULARUM)

Formularies are medieval collections of models for the execution of documents ( acta ), public or private; a space being left for the insertion of names, dates, and circumstances peculiar to each case. As is well known, it is practically inevitable that documents of the same nature, issued from the same office, or even from distinct offices, will bear a close resemblance to one another. Those charged with the execution and expedition of such documents come naturally to employ the same formulæ in Similar Cases; moreover, the use of such formulæ permits the drafting of important documents to be entrusted to minor officials, since all they have to do is to insert in the allotted space the particular information previously supplied them. Finally, in this way every document is Clothed with all possible efficiency, since each of its clauses, and almost every word, has a meaning clearly and definitely intended. Uncertainties and difficulties of interpretation are thus avoided, and not unfrequently lawsuits. This legal formalism is usually known as the "style" or habitual diction of chanceries and the documents that issue therefrom. It represents long efforts to bring into the document all necessary and useful elements in their most appropriate order, and to use technical expressions suited to the case, some of them more or less essential, others merely as a matter of tradition. In this way arose a true art of drafting public documents or private acta , which became the monopoly of chanceries and notaries, which the mere layman could only imperfectly imitate, and which in time developed to such a point that the mere "style" of a supposititious deed has often been sufficient to enable a skilful critic to detect the forgery. The earlier Roman notaries ( tabelliones ) had their own traditional formulæ, and the drafting of their acta was subject to an infinity of detail (see "Novels" of Justinian, xliv, lxvi); the imperial chanceries of Rome and Byzantium were more remarkable still for their formulæ. The chanceries of the barbarian kingdoms and that of the papacy followed in their footsteps. Nevertheless it is not directly from the chanceries that the formularies drawn up in the Middle Ages have come down to us, but rather from the monastic and ecclesiastical schools. Therein was taught, as pertaining to the study of law, the art of drafting public and private documents (see Du Cange, "Glossarium med. et infimæ Latinitatis", s. v. "Dictare"). It was called dictare as opposed to scribere , i.e. the mere material execution of such documents.

To train the dictatores , as they were known, Specimens of public and private acta were placed before them, and they had to listen to commentaries thereon. Thus arose the yet extant formularies, between the fifth and the ninth centuries. These models were sometimes of a purely academic nature, but the number of such is small; in almost every case they are taken from real documents, in the transcription of which the individualizing references were suppressed so as to make them take on the appearance of general formulæ in many instances, too, nothing was suppressed. The formulæ deal with public documents: royal decrees on civil matters, ordinances, etc.; with documents relative to legal processes and the administration of justice ; or with private deeds drawn up by a notary : sales, exchanges, gifts to churches and monasteries, transference of ecclesiastical property, the manumission of slaves, the settlement of matrimonial dowries, the execution of wills, etc. Finally, there are deeds which refer solely to ecclesiastical concerns: consecrations of churches, blessings of various kinds, excommunications, etc. The study of the medieval formularies is of importance for students of the history of legislation, the rise of institutions, the development of manners and customs, of civil history, above all for the criticism of charters and diplomas, and for researches in medieval philology. In those times the ecclesiastical and civil orders were closely related. Many civil functions and some of the highest state offices were held by ecclesiastics and monks. The ars dictandi was taught in the schools connected with the monasteries and those under ecclesiastical control. For quite a long time all acta were drawn up only in Latin, and as the vernacular languages, in Romance lands, gradually fell away from classical Latin, recourse to ecclesiastics and monks became a matter of necessity. The formularies are, of course, anything but models of good Latinity; with the exception of the Letters (Variæ) of Cassiodorus, and the St. Gall collection "Sub Salomone", they are written in careless or even barbarous Latin, though it is possible that their wretched "style" is intentional, so as to render them intelligible to the multitude.

The formularies of the Middle Ages date from the sixth to the ninth or tenth century, and we still possess many once used in one or other of the barbarian kingdoms. Many were edited in the seventeenth century by Jérôme Bignon, Baluze, Mabillon, and others; and many more in the nineteenth century, especially by two savants who compiled collections of them:

  • Eugène de Rozière, "Recueil général des formules usitées dans l'empire des Francs du cinquième au dixième siècle" (3 vols., Paris, 1859-71). He groups these early medieval formulæ under five principal heads: "Formulæ ad jus publicum, ad jus privatum, ad judiciorum ordinem, ad jus canonicum, et ad ritus ecclesiasticos spectantes". And he follows up this arrangement by a very complete set of tables of concordance.
  • Karl Zeumer, "Formulæ Merovingici et Karolini ævi" (Hanover, 1886) in "Mon. Germ. Hist.: Leg.", V; he reproduces the formulæ in the work and gives a more complete study than de Rozière. In his pages will be found a complete bibliography of all written on the subject before that time ; or Chevalier, "Topo-Bibl.", may be consulted under the word "Formules".
  • Some brief observations will here suffice on the formulæ used between the sixth and the ninth centuries in the various barbarian kingdoms.

    (1) The Ostrogoths

    Cassiodorus, secretary and afterwards prime minister of King Theodoric, included in his "Variarum (epistolarum) libri XII", particularly in books six and seven, and, as he says, for the guidance of his successors, a great number of acta and letters drawn up by him for his royal master. It is a genuine formulary, though standing apart by itself. This collection dates from before 538 (P. L., LXIX). The Servite Canciani took ninety-two of these formulæ of Cassiodorus and included them in his "Barbarorum leges antiquæ" (Venice, 1781, I, 19-56).

    (2) The Visigoths

    " Formulæ Visigothicæ", a collection of the forty-Six formulæ made under King Sisebut (612-621). The king's name occurs twice in the curious formula xx, a dowry settlement in hexameter verse. Roman and Gothic law are followed either separately or together, according to the nationality of the covenanters. This collection was published in 1854 by de Rozière from a Madrid Manuscript, which was copied in turn from an Oviedo Manuscript of the twelfth century, now lost.

    (3) The Franks

    Their formularies are numerous:

    • (a) "Formulæ Andecavenses" , a collection made at Angers, consisting of sixty formulæ for private acta , some of them dating from the sixth century, but the greater number from the early part of the seventh; the last three of the collection belong to the end of the seventh century. They were first edited in 1685 by Mabillon from an eighth-century manuscript preserved at Fulda.
    • (b) "Formulæ Arvernenses" (also known as "Baluzianæ",from Baluze, their first editor, who issued the works in 1713), a collection of eight formulæ of private acta made at Clermont in Auvergne during the eighth century. The first of them is dated from the consulate of Honorius and Theodosius (407-422).
    • (c) "Marculfi monachi formularum libri duo" , the most important of these collections, and dedicated by its author to a Bishop Landri, doubtless identical with the Bishop of Paris (650-656). The first book contains thirty-seven formulæ of royal documents; the second, cartœ pagenses , or private acta , to the number of fifty-two. The work, which was well done, was very favourably received, and became popular as an official textbook, if not in the time of the mayors of the palace, at least under the early Carlovingians. During the reign of Charlemagne it received a few additions, and was re-arranged under the title" Formulæ Marculfinæ ævi Karolini". Zeumer edited six formulæ closely related to this collection.
    • (d) "Formulæ Turonenses" , also known as "Sirmondicæ" (Baluze edited them under this title because they had been discovered by Père Sirmond in a Langres manuscript ). This collection, made at Tours, contains forty-five formulæ, two of which are royal documents, many being judicial decisions, and the remainder private acta . It seems to belong to the middle of the eighth century. Zeumer added to the list twelve other formulæ taken from various manuscripts.
    • (e) "Formulæ Bituricenses" , a name given to nineteen formulæ taken from different collections, but all drafted at Bourges ; they date from 720 to the close of the eighth century. Zeumer added to them twelve formulæ taken from the Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Vierzon.
    • (f) "Formulæ Senonenses" , two distinct collections, both of which were made at Sens, and preserved in the same ninth-century manuscript. The first, "Cartæ Senonicæ", dates from before 775, and contains fifty-one formulæ, of which seven are for royal documents, two are letters to the king, and forty-two are private charters. Zeumer added six Merovingian formulæ. The second collection, "Formulæ Senonenses recentiores", dates from the reign of Louis the Pious, and contains eighteen formulæ, of which seven deal with judicial acts. Zeumer added five metrical formulæ, and two Merovingian formulæ written in Tironian notes.
    • (g) "Formulæ Pithoei" In a manuscript loaned by Pithou to Du Cange for his "Glossarium" of medieval Latin there was a rich collection of at least one hundred and eight formulæ, drawn up originally in territory governed by Salic law. This manuscript has disappeared. Under the above heading Zeumer has collected the various quotations made by Du Cange from this formulary.
    • (h) "Formulæ Salicæ Bignonianæ" , so called from the name of their first editor, Bignon. It contains twenty-seven formulæ, one of which is for a royal decree; they were collected in a country subject to Salic law, about the year 770.
    • (i, j) "Formulæ Salicæ Merkelianæ" , so called from the name of their editor, Merkel (about 1850), a collection of sixty-six formulæ taken from a Vatican manuscript ; they were not brought to completion until after 817. The first part (1-30) consists of formulæ for private acta , modelled on "Marculf" and the "Formulæ Turonenses"; the second part (31-42) follows the "Formulæ Bignonianæ" , the third (43-45) contains three formulæ drawn up in some abbey ; the fourth (46-66) has formulæ dating from the close of the eighth century and probably compiled in some episcopal town. Two formulæ of decrees of the bishops of Paris were discovered by Zeumer in the same manuscript.
    • (k) "Formulæ Salicæ Lindenbrogianæ" , so called from the name of their first editor, Friedrich Lindenbrog, a Frankfort lawyer (1613) who edited them together with other documents. The collection contains twenty-one formulæ of private acta , drawn up in Salic law territory. Four others were added by Zeumer.
    • (l) "Formulæ Imperiales e curia Ludovici Pii" , also known as "Carpenterianæ" from Carpentier who first edited them in his "Alphabetum Tironianum" (Paris, 1747). This is an important collection of fifty-five formulæ, drawn up after the fashion of the charters of Louis the Pious at the Abbey of St. Martin of Tours, between 828 and 832, The manuscript is written mainly in Tironian notes. This collection was used by the Carlovingian chancery of the ninth Century. Zeumer has added to the list two formulæ.
    • (m) "Collectio Flaviniensis" , one hundred and seventeen formulæ compiled at the Abbey of Flavigny in the ninth century; of these, ten only are not to be met with elsewhere.
    • (n) "Formulæ collectionis Sancti Dionysii" , a collection of twenty-five formulæ made at the Abbey of St-Denys under Charlemagne ; for the most part it is taken from the archives of the abbey.
    • (o) "Formulæ codicis Laudunensis" , a Laon manuscript containing seventeen formulæ, of which the first five were drawn up at the Abbey of St-Bavon in Ghent, and the remainder at Laon.

    (4) The Alamanni

    The most important of their formulæ are:

    • (a) "Formulæ Alsaticæ" , under which name we have two collections, one made at the Abbey of Murbach (Formulæ Morbacenses) at the end of the eighth century and preserved in a manuscript of St.Gall, containing twenty-seven formulæ, one of which is for a royal decree; the other embodies three formulæ made at Strasburg (Formulæ Argentinenses) and preserved in a Berne manuscript.
    • (b) "Formulæ Augienses" , from the Abbey of Reichenau. This consists of three distinct collections: one from the end of the eighth century containing twenty-three formulæ of private acta ; another belonging to the eighth and ninth centuries contains forty-three formulæ of private documents; the third, "Formulæ epistolares Augienses", is a "correct letter-writer" with twenty-six formulæ.
    • (C) "Formulæ Sangallenses" (from the Abbey of St. Gall), in two collections of this name. The "Formulæ Sangallenses miscellaneæ" consists of twenty-five formulæ, many of which are accompanied by directions for their use. They date from the middle of the eighth to the end of the ninth century. The important "Collectio Sangallensis Salomonis III tempore conscripta" is so called because it seems to have been compiled by the monk Notker at St. Gall, under Abbot Salomon III (890-920), who was also Bishop of Constance. Notker died in 912. It contains, in forty-seven formulæ, models of royal decrees, of private documents, of litterœ formatœ and other episcopal documents. Zeumer added six formulæ taken from the same manuscript.

    (5) The Bavarians

    Among their formulæ are:

    • (a) "Formulæ Salisburgenses" , a very fine collection of one hundred and twenty-six models of documents and letters, published in 1858, by Rockinger, and drawn up at Salzburg in the early part of the ninth century.
    • (b) "Collectio Pataviensis" (of Passau ), containing seven formulæ, five of which are of royal decrees, executed at Passau under Louis the German.
    • (c) "Formulæ codicis S. Emmerami" , fragments of a large collection made at St. Emmeram's , Ratisbon.

    (6) Rome

    The most important of all ancient formularies is certainly the "Liber diurnus romanorum pontificum", a collection of one hundred and seven formularies long used by the Apostolic chancery. If it was not drawn up for the papal chancery, it copies its documents, and is largely compiled from the "Registrum" or letter-book of St. Gregory the Great (590-604). It was certainly in official use by the Roman chancery from the ninth to the end of the eleventh century. This collection was known to the medieval canonists, and is often quoted by Cardinal Deusdedit and Yves of Chartres ; four of its documents were incorporated into the "Decretum" of Gratian. The best manuscript of the "Liber diurnus", written at the beginning of the ninth century, comes from the Roman monastery of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and was discovered in the Vatican Library. About the middle of the seventeenth century, the learned Lucas Holstenius used it when preparing an edition of the work which was officially stopped and suppressed on the eve of its appearance, because it contained an ancient profession of faith in which the popes anathematized their predecessor Honorius. In 1680 the Jesuit Garnier, using another manuscript of the College of Clermont (Paris), brought out an edition of the "Liber diurnus" not approved by Rome (P. L., CV). In the nineteenth century the Vatican manuscript was utilized for two editions, one by de Rozière (Paris, 1869), the other by von Sickel (Vienna, 1889). In 1891 the Abbate Ceriani discovered at the Ambrosiana (Milan) a third manuscript as yet unused. For a full bibliography of recent researches concerning the "Liber diurnus" see the "Topo-Bibl." of Chevalier, s. v. While, in its complete form, the "Liberdiurnus" cannot date back further than 786, the earliest forms of it go back to the end of the seventh century. Von Sickel holds that its opening formulæ (1-63) are even fifty years earlier than that date. It is badly arranged as a collection, but wonderfully complete. After a series of addresses and conclusions for papal letters, that vary according to the addressees, there are formulæ concerning the installation of bishops, the consecration of churches, the administration of church property, the grant of the pallium, and various other privileges. Then follow models for the official correspondence on the occasion of a vacancy of the Holy See and the election of a pope, also directions for the consecration and the profession of faith of the pope -elect; finally a group of formulæ affecting various matters of ecclesiastical administration.

    In the tenth century these formularies cease to be in universal use; in the eleventh, recourse is had to them still more rarely; other methods of training notaries are introduced. Copies of letters are no longer placed before them. In their stead, special treatises of instruction are prepared for these officials, and manuals of epistolary rhetoric appear, with examples scattered here and there throughout the text, or collected in separate books. Such treatises on composition, artes dictaminis , have hitherto been only partially studied and classified, chiefly by Rockinger in "Briefsteller und Formelbücher des XI. bis XIV. Jahrhunderts" (Munich, 1863). The most ancient of these manuals known to us is the "Breviarium de dictamine" of Alberic of Monte Cassino, about 1075; in the twelfth century treatises of this kind become more frequent, first in Italy, then in France, especially along the banks of the Loire at Orléans and at Tours. Side by side with these works of epistolary rhetoric we meet special treatises for the use of clerks in different chanceries, and formularies to guide notaries public. Such are the "Formularium tabellionum" of Irnerius of Bologna in the twelfth century, and the "Summa artis notariæ" of Ranieri of Perugia in the thirteenth; that of Salathiel of Bologna printed at Strasburg, in 1516, and the very popular one of Rolandino that went through many editions, beginning with the Turin edition of 1479.

    As to the papal chancery, in general very faithful to its customs and its "style", after the reform of Innocent III many formularies and practical treatises appeared, none of them possessing an official value. The writings of Dietrich of Nieheim (an employé of the chancery in 1380), "De Stilo" and "Liber Cancellariæ", have been the subject of critical studies. At a more recent date we meet many treatises on the Roman chancery and on pontifical letters, but they are not formularies, though their text often contains many models.

    Quite recently, however, there has appeared an official publication of certain formulæ of the Roman Curia, i.e. the collection of formulæ for matrimonial dispensations granted by the Dataria Apostolica (see ROMAN CONGREGATIONS), published in 1901 as "Formulæ Apostolicæ Datariæ pro matrimonialibus dispensationibus, jussu Emi. Card. Pro Datarii Cajetani Aloisi-Masella reformatæ".

    Lastly, in a different order of ideas, it may be well to mention a collection of formulæ for use in episcopal courts, the "Formularium legalepracticum" of Francesco Monacelli (Venice, 1737), re-edited by the Camera Apostolica (3 vols. fol., Rome, 1834).

    From the twelfth century onward the formularies of the papal Curia become more numerous but less interesting, since it is no longer necessary to have recourse to them to supplement the documents.

    The formularies of the Cancellaria Apostolica are collections drawn up by its clerks, almost exclusively for their own guidance; they interest us only through their relation to the "Rules of the Chancery" (see ROMAN CURIA). The formularies of the Pœnitentiaria have a higher interest for us; they appear during the twelfth century when that department of Roman administration was not restricted, as it now is, to questions of conscience and the forum internum , but served as a sort of clearing-house for lesser favours granted by the Holy See, especially for dispensations. These interesting documents, including the formularies, have been collected and edited by Göller in "Die papstliche Poenitentiarie bis Eugen IV." (Rome, 1907).

    Previously, Lea had published "A Formulary of the Papal Penitentiary in the Thirteenth Century" (Philadelphia, 1892), probably the work of Cardinal Thomasius of Capua (died 1243). We must mention the "Summa de absolutionibus et dispensationibus" of Nicholas IV ; of particular value also is the formulary of Benedict XII (1336 at the latest), made by order of that pope and long in use. It contains five hundred and seventy letters of which more than two hundred are taken from the collection of Thomasius. Attention is also directed to the list of "faculties" conferred, in 1357, on Cardinal Albornoz, first edited by Lecacheux in "Mélanges d'Archéologie et d'Histoire des écoles françaises de Rome et d'Athènes", in 1898; and to later texts in Göller. It will suffice if we make a bare mention of the taxœ or "taxes" in use at the Pœnitentiaria, to which were occasionally joined those imposed by the Cancellaria; in the opinion of the writer, they are not in any way related to the formularies.

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    Martyrs, members of a noble family of Brescia ; the elder brother, Faustinus, being a priest, ...

    Faustus of Riez

    Bishop of Riez ( Rhegium ) in Southern Gaul (Provence), the best known and most distinguished ...

    Faversham Abbey

    A former Benedictine monastery of the Cluniac Congregation situated in the County of Kent ...

    Faye, Hervé-Auguste-Etienne-Albann

    An astronomer, b. at Saint-Benoît-du-Sault (Indre, France ), Oct., 1814; d. at Paris, 4 ...

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    Fe 62

    Fear (from a Moral Standpoint)

    (CONSIDERED FROM A MORAL STANDPOINT.) Fear is an unsettlement of soul consequent upon the ...

    Fear (in Canon Law)

    (IN CANON LAW.) A mental disturbance caused by the perception of instant or future danger. ...

    Feast of Fools

    A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

    Feasts, Ecclesiastical

    ( Latin Festum ; Greek heorte ). Feast Days, or Holy Days, are days which are celebrated in ...

    Febronianism

    The politico-ecclesiastical system outlined by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, Auxiliary Bishop of ...

    Feckenham, John de

    Last Abbot of Westminster, and confessor of the Faith ; b. in Feckenham Forest, ...

    Feder, Johann Michael

    A German theologian, b. 25 May, 1753, at Oellingen in Bavaria ; d. 26 July, 1824, at ...

    Feilding, Rudolph William Basil

    The eighth Earl of Denbigh, and ninth Earl of Desmond, b. 9 April, 1823; d. 1892. He was educated ...

    Feilmoser, Andreas Benedict

    A theologian and Biblical scholar, b. 8 April, 1777, at Hopfgarten, Tyrol; d. at Tübingen, ...

    Felbiger, Johann Ignaz von

    A German educational reformer, pedagogical writer, and canon regular of the Order of St. ...

    Felician and Primus, Saints

    Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

    Felician Sisters, O.S.F.

    Founded 21 November, 1855, at Warsaw, Poland, by Mother Mary Angela, under the direction of ...

    Felicissimus

    A deacon of Carthage who, in the middle of the third century, headed a short-lived but dangerous ...

    Felicitas and Perpetua, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

    Felicitas, Saint

    MARTYR. The earliest list of the Roman feasts of martyrs, known as the "Depositio Martyrum" ...

    Felix and Adauctus, Saints

    Martyrs at Rome, 303, under Diocletian and Maximian. The Acts, first published in Ado's ...

    Felix and Nabor, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (303). The relics of these holy witnesses to the ...

    Felix I, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 274. Early in 269 he succeeded Saint Dionysius as head of the Roman ...

    Felix II

    Pope (more properly Antipope ), 355-358; d. 22 Nov., 365. In 355 Pope Liberius was ...

    Felix III (II), Pope Saint

    (Reigned 483-492). Born of a Roman senatorial family and said to have been an ancestor of ...

    Felix IV (III), Pope Saint

    (Reigned 526-530). On 18 May, 526, Pope John I died in prison at Ravenna, a victim of the ...

    Felix of Cantalice, Saint

    A Capuchin friar, b. at Cantalice, on the north-western border of the Abruzzi; d. at Rome, 18 ...

    Felix of Nola, Saint

    Born at Nola, near Naples, and lived in the third century. After his father's death he ...

    Felix of Valois, Saint

    Born in 1127; d. at Cerfroi, 4 November, 1212. He is commemorated 20 November. He was surnamed ...

    Felix V

    Regnal name of Amadeus of Savoy, Antipope (1440-1449). Born 4 December, 1383, died at ...

    Feller, François-Xavier de

    An author and apologist, b. at Brussels 18 August, 1735; d. at Ratisbon 22 May, 1802. He ...

    Feneberg, Johann Michael Nathanael

    Born in Oberdorf, Allgau, Bavaria, 9 Feb., 1751; died 12 Oct., 1812. He studied at Kaufbeuren and ...

    Fenn, John

    Born at Montacute near Wells in Somersetshire; d. 27 Dec., 1615. He was the eldest brother of Ven. ...

    Ferber, Nicolaus

    A Friar Minor and controversialist, born at Herborn, Germany, in 1485; died at Toulouse, 15 ...

    Ferdinand II

    Emperor, eldest son of Archduke Karl and the Bavarian Princess Maria, b. 1578; d. 15 February, ...

    Ferdinand III, Saint

    King of Leon and Castile, member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born in 1198 near ...

    Ferdinand, Blessed

    Prince of Portugal, b. in Portugal, 29 September, 1402; d. at Fez, in Morocco, 5 June, 1443. He ...

    Ferdinando, Luigi, Count de Marsigli

    Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...

    Ferentino, Diocese of

    (FERENTINUM) In the province of Rome, immediately subject to the Holy See. The town was in ...

    Fergus, Saints

    St. Fergus Cruithneach Died about 730, known in the Irish martyrologies as St. Fergus ...

    Feria

    ( Latin for "free day"). A day on which the people, especially the slaves, were not obliged ...

    Ferland, Jean-Baptiste-Antoine

    A French Canadian historian, b. at Montreal, 25 December, 1805; d. at Quebec, 11 January, ...

    Fermo, Archdiocese of

    (FIRMANA). In the province of Ascoli Piceno (Central Italy ). The great antiquity of the ...

    Fernández de Palencia, Diego

    A Spanish conqueror and historian; b. at Palencia in the early part of the sixteenth century. ...

    Fernández, Antonio

    A Jesuit missionary; b. at Lisbon, c. 1569; d. at Goa, 12 November, 1642. About 1602 he was ...

    Fernández, Juan

    A Jesuit lay brother and missionary; b. at Cordova ; d. 12 June, 1567, in Japan. In a letter ...

    Ferns

    DIOCESE OF FERNS (FERNENSIS). Diocese in the province of Leinster ( Ireland ), suffragan of ...

    Ferrara

    A RCHDIOCESE OF F ERRARA (F ERRARIENSIS ). Archdiocese immediately subject to the Holy ...

    Ferrari, Gaudenzio

    An Italian painter and the greatest master of the Piedmontese School, b. at Valduggia, near ...

    Ferraris, Lucius

    An eighteenth-century canonist of the Franciscan Order. The exact dates of his birth and death ...

    Ferre, Vicente

    Theologian, b. at Valencia, Spain ; d. at Salamanca in 1682. He entered the Dominican Order ...

    Ferreira, Antonio

    A poet, important both for his lyric and his dramatic compositions, b. at Lisbon, Portugal, in ...

    Ferrer, Rafael

    A Spanish missionary and explorer; b. at Valencia, in 1570; d. at San José, Peru, in ...

    Ferrer, Saint Vincent

    Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

    Ferrières, Abbey of

    Situated in the Diocese of Orléans , department of Loiret, and arrondissement of ...

    Ferstel, Heinrich, Freiherr von

    Architect; with Hansen and Schmidt, the creator of modern Vienna ; b. 7 July, 1828, at Vienna ; ...

    Fesch, Joseph

    Cardinal, b. at Ajaccio, Corsica, 3 January, 1763; d. at Rome, 13 May, 1839. He was the son of a ...

    Fessler, Josef

    Bishop of St. Polten in Austria and secretary of the Vatican Council ; b. 2 December, 1813, at ...

    Fetherston, Blessed Richard

    Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

    Feti, Domenico

    An Italian painter ; born at Rome, 1589; died at Venice, 1624. He was a pupil of Cigoli ...

    Fetishism

    Fetishism means the religion of the fetish. The word fetish is derived through the Portuguese ...

    Feuardent, François

    A Franciscan, theologian, preacher of the Ligue, b. at Coutanees, Normandy, in 1539; d. at ...

    Feuchtersleben, Baron Ernst von

    An Austrian poet, philosopher, and physician; born at Vienna, 29 April, 1806; died 3 September, ...

    Feudalism

    Etymology This term is derived from the Old Aryan pe'ku , hence Sanskrit pacu , "cattle"; ...

    Feuillants

    The Cistercians who, about 1145, founded an abbey in a shady valley in the Diocese of Rieux ...

    Feuillet, Louis

    (FEUILLÉE) Geographer, b. at Mane near Forcalquier, France, in 1660; d. at Marseilles ...

    Feyjóo y Montenegro, Benito Jerónimo

    A celebrated Spanish writer, b. at Casdemiro, in the parish of Santa Maria de Molias, Galicia, ...

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    Fi 52

    Fiacc, Saint

    (Lived about 415-520.) A poet, chief bishop of Leinster, and founder of two churches. His ...

    Fiacre, Saint

    Abbot, born in Ireland about the end of the sixth century; died 18 August, 670. Having been ...

    Ficino, Marsilio

    A philosopher, philologist, physician, b. at Florence, 19 Oct., 1433; d. at Correggio, 1 Oct, ...

    Ficker, Julius

    (More correctly Caspar von Ficker). Historian, b. at Paderborn, Germany, 30 April, 1826; d. at ...

    Fideism

    (Latin fides , faith). A philosophical term meaning a system of philosophy or an ...

    Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint

    Born in 1577, at Sigmaringen, Prussia, of which town his father Johannes Rey was burgomaster; ...

    Fiesole

    DIOCESE OF FIESOLE (FÆSULANA). Diocese in the province of Tuscany, suffragan of Florence. ...

    Figueroa, Francisco de

    A celebrated Spanish poet, surnamed "the Divine", b. at Alcalá de Henares, c. 1540, d. ...

    Figueroa, Francisco García de la Rosa

    Franciscan, b. in the latter part of the eighteenth century at Toluca, in the Archdiocese of ...

    Fiji, Vicariate Apostolic of

    Comprising the islands belonging to the Fiji Archipelago. This archipelago forms the central ...

    Filby, Blessed William

    Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

    Filelfo, Franscesco

    A humanist, b. at Tolentino, 25 July, 1398; d. at Florence 31 July, 1481. He studied grammar, ...

    Filial Church

    (Latin filialis , from filia , daughter), a church to which is annexed the cure of souls , ...

    Filicaja, Vincenzo da

    Lyric poet; born at Florence, 30 December, 1642; died there 24 September, 1707. At Pisa he was ...

    Filioque

    Filioque is a theological formula of great dogmatic and historical importance. On the one ...

    Fillastre, Guillaume

    French cardinal, canonist, humanist, and geographer, b. 1348 at La Suze, Maine, France ; d. at ...

    Filliucci, Vincenzo

    Jesuit moralist; b. at Sienna, Italy, 1566; d. at Rome 5 April, 1622. Having entered the Society ...

    Filliucius, Felix

    (Or, as his name is more often found, in its Italian form, FIGLIUCCI). An Italian humanist, a ...

    Final Perseverance

    ( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

    Finan, Saint

    Second Bishop of Lindisfarne ; died 9 February, 661. He was an Irish monk who had been ...

    Finbarr, Saint

    (Lochan, Barr). Bishop and patron of Cork, born near Bandon, about 550, died at Cloyne, 25 ...

    Finch, Ven. John

    A martyr, b. about 1548; d. 20 April, 1584. He was a yeoman of Eccleston, Lancashire, and a ...

    Finglow, Ven. John

    An English martyr ; b. at Barnby, near Howden, Yorkshire; executed at York, 8 August, 1586. He ...

    Finland

    Note: This article was taken from the 1909 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, and is presented ...

    Finnian of Moville, Saint

    Born about 495; died 589. Though not so celebrated as his namesake of Clonard, he was the ...

    Finotti, Joseph M.

    Born at Ferrara, Italy, 21 September, 1817; died at Central City, Colorado, 10 January, 1879. ...

    Fintan, Saints

    St. Fintan of Clonenagh A Leinster saint, b. about 524; d. 17 February, probably 594, or at least ...

    Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi

    Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

    Fire, Liturgical Use of

    Fire is one of the most expressive and most ancient of liturgical symbols. All the creeds of ...

    Firmament

    (Septuagint stereoma ; Vulgate, firmamentum ). The notion that the sky was a vast solid ...

    Firmicus Maternus

    Christian author of the fourth century; wrote a work "De errore profanarum religionum". Nothing ...

    Firmilian

    Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, died c. 269. He had among his contemporaries a reputation ...

    First-Born

    The word, though casually taken in Holy Writ in a metaphorical sense, is most generally used by ...

    First-Fruits

    The practice of consecrating first-fruits to the Deity is not a distinctly Jewish one (cf. ...

    Fiscal Procurator

    ( Latin PROCURATOR FISCALIS). The duties of the fiscal procurator consist in preventing ...

    Fischer, Antonius

    Archbishop of Cologne and cardinal, b. at Julich, 30 May, 1840; d. at Neuenahr, 30 July, 1912. ...

    Fish, Symbolism of the

    Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish ranks probably first in ...

    Fisher, Philip

    (An alias , real name THOMAS COPLEY) Missionary, b. in Madrid, 1595-6; d. in Maryland, U. ...

    Fisherman, The Ring of the

    The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

    Fitter, Daniel

    Born in Worcestershire, England, 1628; died at St. Thomas' Priory, near Stafford, 6 Feb., 1700. ...

    Fitton, James

    Missionary, b. at Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. , 10 April, 1805; d. there, 15 Sept., 1881. His ...

    Fitz-Simons, Thomas

    American merchant, b. in Ireland, 1741; d. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 26 Aug., 1811. There is no ...

    Fitzalan, Henry

    Twelfth Earl of Arundel, b. about 1511; d. in London, 24 Feb., 1580 (O.S. 1579). Son of William, ...

    FitzGibbon, Catherine

    (Catherine FitzGibbon.) Born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, ...

    Fitzherbert, Anthony, Sir

    Judge, b. in 1470; d. 27 May, 1538. He was the sixth son of Ralph Fitzherbert of Norbury, ...

    Fitzherbert, Maria Anne

    Wife of King George IV; b. 26 July, 1756 (place uncertain); d. at Brighton, England, 29 March, ...

    Fitzherbert, Thomas

    Born 1552, at Swynnerton, Staffs, England ; died 17 Aug., 1640, at Rome. His father having died ...

    Fitzpatrick, William John

    Historian, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 31 Aug., 1830; d. there 24 Dec., 1895. The son of a rich ...

    Fitzralph, Richard

    Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, 16 Dec., 1360. He ...

    Fitzsimon, Henry

    (Fitz Simon). Jesuit, b. 1566 (or 1569), in Dublin, Ireland ; d. 29 Nov., 1643 (or 1645), ...

    Fixlmillner, Placidus

    Astronomer, b. at Achleuthen near Kremsmünster, Austria, in 1721; d. at Kremsmünster, ...

    Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis

    Physicist, b. at Paris, 23 Sept., 1819; d. at Nanteuil, Seine-et-Marne, 18 Sept., 1896. His ...

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    Fl 39

    Fléchier, Esprit

    Bishop; b. at Pernes, France, 1632; died at Montpellier, 1710; member of the Academy, and ...

    Flórez, Enrique

    Spanish theologian, archeologist, and historian; born at Valladolid, 14 February, 1701; died at ...

    Flabellum

    The flabellum, in liturgical use, is a fan made of leather, silk, parchment, or feathers ...

    Flaccilla, Ælia

    ( Plakilla ) Empress, wife of Theodosius the Great , died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like ...

    Flagellants

    A fanatical and heretical sect that flourished in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries, Their ...

    Flagellation

    The history of the whip, rod, and stick, as instruments of punishment and of voluntary penance, ...

    Flaget, Benedict Joseph

    First Bishop of Bardstown (subsequently of Louisville ), Kentucky, U.S.A. b. at Contournat, ...

    Flanagan, Thomas Canon

    Born in England in 1814, though Irish by descent; died at Kidderminster, 21 July, 1865. He was ...

    Flanders

    (Flemish VLAENDEREN; German FLANDEREN; French FLANDRE). Designated in the eighth century a ...

    Flandrin, Jean-Hippolyte

    French painter, b. at Lyons, 23 March, 1809; d. at Rome, 21 March, 1864. He came of a family of ...

    Flathead Indians

    A name used in both Americas, without special ethnologic significance, to designate tribes ...

    Flathers, Ven. Mathew

    ( Alias Major). An English priest and martyr ; b. probably c. 1580 at Weston, Yorkshire, ...

    Flavia Domitilla

    A Christian Roman matron of the imperial family who lived towards the close of the first ...

    Flavian, Saint

    Bishop of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; d. at Hypæpa in Lydia, August, 449. ...

    Flavias

    A titular see of Cilicia Secunda. Nothing is known of its ancient name and history, except that ...

    Flavigny, Abbey of

    A Benedictine abbey in the Diocese of Dijon, the department of Côte-d'Or, and ...

    Flaviopolis

    A titular see in the province of Honorias. The city, formerly called Cratia, originally belonged ...

    Flemael, Bertholet

    (The name was also spelled FLEMALLE and FLAMAEL). Painter, b. at Liège, Flanders, in ...

    Fleming, Patrick

    Franciscan friar b. at Lagan, Couny Louth, Ireland, 17 April, 1599; d. 7 November, 1631. His ...

    Fleming, Richard

    (FLEMMING, FLEMMYNGE). Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; b. of a ...

    Fleming, Thomas

    Archbishop of Dublin, son of the Baron of Slane, b. in 1593; d. in 1665. He studied at thy ...

    Fletcher, John

    A missionary and theologian, b. at Ormskirk, England, of an old Catholic family ; educated at ...

    Flete, William

    An Augustinian hermit friar, a contemporary and great friend of St. Catherine of Siena ; the ...

    Fleuriot, Zénaide-Marie-Anne

    A French novelist, b. at Saint-Brieuc, 12 September, 1829; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1890. She ...

    Fleury, Abbey of

    ( More completely FLEURY-SAINT-BENOÎT) One of the oldest and most celebrated ...

    Fleury, André-Hercule de

    Born at Lodève, 26 June, 1653; died at Paris, 29 January, 1742. He was a ...

    Flodoard

    (Or FRODOARD) French historian and chronicler, b. at Epernay in 894; d. in 966. He was ...

    Flood of Noah

    Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the ...

    Floreffe, Abbey of

    Pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Sambre, about seven miles southwest of Namur, ...

    Florence

    (Latin Florentia ; Italian Firenze ). ARCHDIOCESE OF FLORENCE (FLORENTINA). Located in ...

    Florence of Worcester

    English chronicler; all that is known of his personal history is that he was a monk of ...

    Florence, Council of

    The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council was, correctly speaking, the continuation of the Council of ...

    Florentina, Saint

    Virgin ; born towards the middle of the sixth century; died about 612. The family of St. ...

    Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de

    Born at the château of Florian (Gard), 6 March, 1755; died at Sceaux, 13 September, 1794. An ...

    Florians, The

    (Floriacenses), an altogether independent order, and not, as some consider, a branch of the ...

    Florida

    The Peninsular or Everglade State, the most southern in the American Union and second largest east ...

    Florilegia

    Florilegia (Lat., florilegium, an anthology) are systematic collections of excerpts (more or ...

    Florus

    A deacon of Lyons, ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the ninth century. We have no ...

    Floyd, John

    English missionary, wrote under the names Flud, Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, George ...

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    Fo 64

    Fogaras

    ARCHDIOCESE OF FOGARAS (FOGARASIENSIS). Archdiocese in Hungary, of the Greek-Rumanian Rite. It ...

    Foggia

    DIOCESE OF FOGGIA (FODIANA). Diocese in the province of the same name in Apulia (Southern ...

    Foillan, Saint

    ( Irish FAELAN, FAOLAN, FOELAN, FOALAN.) Represented in iconography with a crown at his ...

    Folengo, Teofilo

    An Italian poet, better known by his pseudonyrn MERLIN COCCALO or COCAI; b. at Mantua in 1496; ...

    Foley, Henry

    Born at Astley in Worcestershire, England, 9 Aug., 1811; died at Manresa House, Roehampton, 19 ...

    Foligno

    DIOCESE OF FOLIGNO (FULGINATENSIS). Diocese in the province of Perugia, Italy, immediately ...

    Foliot, Gilbert

    Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

    Folkestone Abbey

    Folkestone Abbey -- more correctly FOLKESTONE PRIORY -- is situated in the east division of ...

    Fonseca Soares, Antonio da

    (ANTONIO DAS CHAGAS). Friar Minor and ascetical writer; b. at Vidigueira, 25 June, 1631; d. at ...

    Fonseca, José Ribeiro da

    Friar Minor ; b. at Evora, 3 Dec., 1690; d. at Porto, 16 June, 1752. He was received into the ...

    Fonseca, Pedro Da

    A philosopher and theologian, born at Cortizada, Portugal, 1528; died at Lisbon, 4 Nov., 1599. ...

    Fontana, Carlo

    An architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714. There seems to be no ...

    Fontana, Domenico

    A Roman architect of the Late Renaissance, b. at Melide on the Lake of Lugano, 1543; d. at ...

    Fontana, Felice

    Italian naturalist and physiologist, b. at Pomarolo in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1730; d. at Florence, ...

    Fontbonne, Jeanne

    In religion Mother St. John, second foundress and superior-general of the Sisters of St. Joseph ...

    Fonte-Avellana

    A suppressed order of hermits, which takes its name from their first hermitage in the Apennines. ...

    Fontenelle, Abbey of

    (Or ABBEY OF SAINT WANDRILLE). A Benedictine monastery in Normandy ...

    Fontevrault, Order and Abbey of

    I. CHARACTER OF THE ORDER The monastery of Fontevrault was founded by Blessed Robert ...

    Fonts, Holy Water

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

    Fools, Feast of

    A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

    Foppa, Ambrogio

    Generally known as CARADOSS0. Italian goldsmith, sculptor, and die sinker, b. at Mondonico in ...

    Forbes, John

    Capuchin, b. 1570; d. 1606. His father, John, eighth Lord Forbes, being a Protestant, and his ...

    Forbin-Janson, Comte de Charles-Auguste-Marie-Joseph

    A Bishop of Nancy and Toul, founder of the Association of the Holy Childhood , born in Paris, ...

    Forcellini, Egidio

    Latin lexicographer, b. at Fener, near Treviso, Italy, 26 Aug., 1688; d. at Padua, 4 April, ...

    Ford, Blessed Thomas

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

    Fordham University

    Fordham University developed out of Saint John's College, founded by Bishop Hughes upon the old ...

    Foreman, Andrew

    A Scottish prelate, of good border family ; b. at Hatton, near Berwick-on-Tweed; d. 1522. His ...

    Forer, Laurenz

    Controversialist, b. at Lucerne, 1580; d. at Ratisbon, 7 January, 1659. He entered the Society ...

    Foresters, Catholic Orders of

    I On 30 July, 1879, some members of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of Boston, Massachusetts, ...

    Forgery, Forger

    If we accept the definition usually given by canonists, forgery ( Latin falsum ) differs very ...

    Forli

    (FOROLIVIENSIS) Diocese in the province of Romagna (Central Italy ); suffragan of Ravenna. ...

    Form

    (Latin forma; Greek eidos, morphe, he kata ton logon ousia, to ti en einai : Aristotle) ...

    Formby, Henry

    Born 1816; died at Normanton Hall, Leicester, 12 March, 1884. His father, Henry Grenehalgh Formby, ...

    Formosus, Pope

    (891-896) The pontificate of this pope belongs to that era of strife for political supremacy ...

    Formularies

    (LIBRI FORMULARUM) Formularies are medieval collections of models for the execution of ...

    Forrest, William

    Priest and poet; dates of birth and death uncertain. Few personal details are known of him. He ...

    Forster, Fobrenius

    Prince-Abbot of St. Emmeram at Ratisbon, b. 30 Aug., 1709, at Königsfeld in Upper Bavaria ...

    Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria

    Astronomer and naturalist, b. at London, 9 Nov., 1789; d. at Brussels, 2 Feb., 1860. His literary ...

    Fort Augustus Abbey

    St. Benedict's Abbey, at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire, is at present the only monastery for ...

    Fort Wayne

    DIOCESE OF (WAYNE CASTRENSIS). The Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A. established in ...

    Fortaleza, Diocese of

    (FORTALEXIENSIS) The Diocese of Fortaleza is co-extensive with the State of Ceará in ...

    Fortescue, Blessed Adrian

    Knight of St. John, martyr, b. about 1476, executed 10 July, 1539. He belonged to the Salden ...

    Fortitude

    (1) Manliness is etymologically what is meant by the Latin word virtus and by the Greek andreia ...

    Fortunato of Brescia

    Morphologist and Minorite of the Reform of Lombardy ; b. at Brescia, 1701; d. at Madrid, ...

    Fortunatus

    Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus A Christian poet of the sixth century, b. ...

    Forty Hours' Devotion

    Also called Quarant' Ore or written in one word Quarantore , is a devotion in which continuous ...

    Forty Martyrs

    A party of soldiers who suffered a cruel death for their faith, near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, ...

    Forum, Ecclesiastical

    That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...

    Fossano

    DIOCESE OF FOSSANO (FOSSANENSIS). Fossano is a town in the province of Cuneo, in Piedmont, ...

    Fossombrone

    DIOCESE OF FOSSOMBRONE (FOROSEMPRONIENSIS). Diocese in the province of Pesaro, Italy, a ...

    Fossors

    (Latin fossores , fossarii from fodere , to dig). Grave diggers in the Roman ...

    Foster, John Gray

    Soldier, convert, b. at Whitfield, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 27 May, 1823; d. at Nashua, New ...

    Fothad, Saint

    Surnamed NA CANOINE ("of the Canon"). A monk of Fahan-Mura, County Doneval, Ireland, at the ...

    Fouard, Constant

    An ecclesiastical writer b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, 6 Aug. 1837; his early life was a ...

    Foucault, Jean-Bertrand-Léon

    A physicist and mechanician, b. at Paris, 19 Sept., 1819; d. there 11 Feb., 1868. He received ...

    Foulque de Neuilly

    A popular Crusade preacher, d. March, 1202. At the end of the twelfth century he was ...

    Foundation

    ( Latin fundatio; German Stiftung ) An ecclesiastical foundation is the making over of ...

    Foundling Asylums

    Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or ...

    Fountains Abbey

    A monastery of the Cistercian Order situated on the banks of the Skell about two and a half ...

    Fouquet, Jehan

    (Or J EAN F OUQUET ) French painter and miniaturist, b. at Tours, c. 1415; d. about 1480. ...

    Four Crowned Martyrs

    The old guidebooks to the tombs of the Roman martyrs make mention, in connection with the ...

    Four Masters, Annals of the

    The most extensive of all the compilations of the ancient annals of Ireland. They commence, ...

    Fowler, John

    Scholar and printer, b. at Bristol, England, 1537; d. at Namur, Flanders, 13 Feb., 1578-9. He ...

    Foxe's Book of Martyrs

    John Foxe was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, England, in 1516, and was educated at Magdalen ...

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    Fr 82

    Fréchette, Louis-Honoré

    Born at Notre-Dame de Lévis, P.Q., Canada, 16 November, 1839; died 30 May, 1908. He ...

    Fréjus

    DIOCESE OF FRÉJUS (FORUM JULII). Suffragan of Aix ; comprises the whole department of ...

    Fra Angelico

    A famous painter of the Florentine school, born near Castello di Vicchio in the province of ...

    Fractio Panis

    (BREAKING OF BREAD.) The name given to a fresco in the so-called "Capella Greca" in the ...

    France

    The fifth in size (usually reckoned the fourth) of the great divisions of Europe. DESCRIPTIVE ...

    Frances d'Amboise, Blessed

    Duchess of Brittany, afterwards Carmelite nun, b. 1427; d. at Nantes, 4 Nov., 1485. The daughter ...

    Frances of Rome, Saint

    (Bussa di Leoni.) One of the greatest mystics of the fifteenth century; born at Rome, of a noble ...

    Franceschini, Marc' Antonio

    Italian painter ; b. at Bologna, 1648; d. there c. 1729; best known for the decorative works he ...

    Franchi, Ausonio

    The pseudonym of CRISTOFORO BONAVINO, philosopher ; b. 24 February, 1821, at Pegli, province of ...

    Francia

    (FRANCESCO RAIBOLINI) A famous Bolognese goldsmith, engraver, and artist, b. about 1450; d. in ...

    Francis Borgia, Saint

    (Spanish F RANCISCO DE B ORJA Y A RAGON ) Francis Borgia, born 28 October, 1510, was the ...

    Francis Caracciolo, Saint

    Co-founder with John Augustine Adorno of the Conregation of the Minor Clerks Regular ; b. in Villa ...

    Francis de Geronimo, Saint

    (Girolamo, Hieronymo). Born 17 December, 1642; died 11 May, 1716. His birthplace was ...

    Francis de Sales, Saint

    Bishop of Geneva, Doctor of the Universal Church ; born at Thorens, in the Duchy of Savoy, 21 ...

    Francis I

    King of France ; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547. He was the ...

    Francis Ingleby, Venerable

    English martyr, born about 1551; suffered at York on Friday, 3 June, 1586 (old style). According ...

    Francis of Assisi, Saint

    Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year ...

    Francis of Fabriano, Blessed

    Priest of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. 2 Sept., 1251; d. 22 April, 1322. His birth and ...

    Francis of Paula, Saint

    Founder of the Order of Minims; b. in 1416, at Paula, in Calabria, Italy ; d. 2 April, 1507, at ...

    Francis of Vittoria

    A Spanish theologian ; b. about 1480, at Vittoria, province of Avila, in Old Castile ; d. 12 ...

    Francis Regis Clet, Blessed

    A Lazarist missionary in China ; b. 1748, martyred, 18 Feb., 1820. His father was a merchant ...

    Francis Solanus, Saint

    South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. at Montilla, in the Diocese of ...

    Francis Xavier, Saint

    Born in the Castle of Xavier near Sanguesa, in Navarre, 7 April, 1506; died on the Island of ...

    Francis, Rule of Saint

    As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here only the ...

    Franciscan Crown

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

    Franciscan Order

    A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men ...

    Franck, Kasper

    A theologian and controversialist; b. at Ortrand, Saxony, 2 Nov., 1543; d. at Ingolstadt, 12 ...

    Franco, Giovanni Battista

    (Frequently known as IL SEMOLIE) Italian historical painter and etcher, b. at Udine in ...

    Frank, Michael Sigismund

    Catholic artist and rediscoverer of the lost art of glass-painting; b. 1 June, 1770, at ...

    Frankenberg

    JOHANN HEINRICH, GRAF VON FRANKENBERG. Archbishop of Mechlin (Malines), Primate of ...

    Frankfort, Council of

    Convened in the summer of 794, by the grace of God, authority of the pope, and command of ...

    Frankfort-on-the-Main

    Frankfort-on-the-Main, formerly the scene of the election and coronation of the German emperors, ...

    Franks, The

    The Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient ...

    Franzelin, Johann Baptist

    Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Aldein, in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1816; d. at Rome, 11 Dec., ...

    Frascati

    DIOCESE OF FRASCATI (TUSCULANA). One of the six suburbicarian (i.e. neighbouring) dioceses ...

    Frassen, Claude

    A celebrated Scotist theologian and philosopher of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. near ...

    Fraternal Correction

    Fraternal correction is here taken to mean the admonishing of one's neighbor by a private ...

    Fraticelli

    (Or F RATRICELLI ) A name given to various heretical sects which appeared in the fourteenth ...

    Fraud

    In the common acceptation of the word, an act or course of deception deliberately practised with ...

    Fraunhofer, Joseph von

    Optician, b. at Straubing, Bavaria, 6 March, 1787; d. at Munich, 7 June, 1826. He was the tenth ...

    Frayssinous, Denis de

    1765-1841, Bishop of Hermopolis in partibus infidelium , is celebrated chiefly for his ...

    Fredegarius

    The name used since the sixteenth designate the supposed author of an anonymous historical ...

    Fredegis of Tours

    (Fridugisus or Fredegisus). A ninth-century monk, teacher, and writer. Fredegis was an ...

    Frederick I (Barbarossa)

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick of Swabia (d. 1147) and Judith, daughter of Henry ...

    Frederick II

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily; born 26 Dec., 1194; died ...

    Fredoli, Berenger

    Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati ; b. at Vérune, France, c. ú d. at Avignon, 11 June, ...

    Free Church of Scotland

    (Known since 1900 as the UNITED FREE CHURCH) An ecclesiastical organization in Scotland ...

    Free Will

    RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

    Free-Thinkers

    Those who, abandoning the religious truths and moral dictates of the Christian Revelation, and ...

    Freeman, Ven. William

    A priest and martyr, b. at Manthorp near York, c. 1558; d. at Warwick, 13 August, 1595. His ...

    Freemasonry

    The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...

    Fregoso, Federigo

    Cardinal ; b. at Genoa, about 1480; d. 22 July, 1541; belonged to the Fregosi, one of the four ...

    Freiburg

    City, archdiocese, and university in the Archduchy of Baden, Germany . THE CITY Freiburg in ...

    Fremin, James

    Jesuit missionary to the American Indians ; b. at Reims, 12 March, 1628; d. at Quebec, 2 July, ...

    French Academy, The

    The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of ...

    French Catholics in the United States

    The first Bishop of Burlington, the Right Reverend Louis de Goesbriand, in a letter dated 11 ...

    French Concordat of 1801, The

    This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope ...

    French Literature

    Origin and Foundations of the French Language When the Romans became masters of Gaul, they imposed ...

    French Revolution

    The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

    French, Nicholas

    Bishop of Ferns, Ireland, b. at Ballytory, Co. Wexford, in 1604, his parents being John ...

    Freppel, Charles-Emile

    Born at Ober-Ehnheim, Alsace, 1 June, 1827; died at Paris, 22 Dec., 1891. He was Bishop of ...

    Frequent Communion

    Without specifying how often the faithful should communicate, Christ simply bids us eat His Flesh ...

    Fresnel, Augustin-Jean

    Physicist; b. at Broglie near Bernay, Normandy, 10 May, 1788; d. at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, ...

    Friar

    [From Lat. frater , through O. Fr. fredre, frere, M. E. frere; It. frate (as prefix ...

    Friars Minor, Order of

    (Also known as FRANCISCANS.) This subject may be conveniently considered under the following ...

    Fribourg, University of

    From the sixteenth century, the foundation of a Catholic university in Switzerland had often ...

    Fridelli, Xavier Ehrenbert

    (Properly FRIEDEL.) Jesuit missioner and cartographer, b. at Linz, Austria, 11 March, 1673; ...

    Frideswide, Saint

    (FRIDESWIDA, FREDESWIDA, French FRÉVISSE, Old English FRIS). Virgin, patroness of ...

    Fridolin, Saint

    Missionary, founder of the Monastery of Säckingen, Baden (sixth century). In accordance with ...

    Friedrich von Hausen

    (HUSEN) Medieval German poet, one of the earliest of the minnesingers; date of birth ...

    Friends of God

    ( German G OTTESFREUNDE ). An association of pious persons, both ecclesiastical and lay, ...

    Friends, Society of

    The official designation of an Anglo - American religious sect originally styling themselves ...

    Frigolet, Abbey of

    The monastery of St. Michael was founded, about 960, at Frigolet, by Conrad the Pacific, King ...

    Fringes (in Scripture)

    This word is used to denote a special kind of trimming, consisting of loose threads of wool, silk, ...

    Fritz, Samuel

    A Jesuit missionary of the eighteenth century noted for his exploration of the Amazon River and ...

    Froissart, Jean

    French historian and poet, b. at Valenciennes, about 1337, d. at sentence -->Chimay early ...

    Fromentin, Eugène

    French writer and artist; b. at La Rochelle, 24 October, 1820; d. at Saint-Maurice, near La ...

    Frontal, Altar

    The frontal ( antipendium, pallium altaris ) is an appendage which covers the entire front of ...

    Frontenac, Louis de Baude

    A governor of New France, b. at Paris, 1622; d. at Quebec, 28 Nov., 1698. His father was captain ...

    Frowin, Blessed

    Benedictine abbot, d. 11 March, 1178. Of the early life of Frowin nothing is known, save that he ...

    Fructuosus of Braga, Saint

    An Archbishop, d. 16 April, c. 665. He was the son of a Gothic general, and studied in Palencia. ...

    Fructuosus of Tarragona, Saint

    A bishop and martyr ; d. 21 January, 259. During the night of 16 January, he, together with ...

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    Fu 21

    Fuchs, Johann Nepomuk von

    A chemist and mineralogist, b. at Mattenzell, near Bremberg, Lower Bavaria, 15 May, 1774; d. at ...

    Fulbert of Chartres

    Bishop, b. between 952 and 962; d. 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was ...

    Fulcran, Saint

    Bishop of Lodève; d. 13 February, 1006. According to the biography which Bernard Guidonis, ...

    Fulda

    DIOCESE OF FULDA (FULDENSIS). This diocese of the German Empire takes its name from the ...

    Fulgentius Ferrandus

    A canonist and theologian of the African Church in the first half of the sixth century. He was ...

    Fulgentius, Saint

    A Bishop of Ecija (Astigi), in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. Like his brothers ...

    Fulgentius, Saint

    (FABIUS CLAUDIUS GORDIANUS FULGENTIUS). Born 468, died 533. Bishop of Ruspe in the province ...

    Fullerton, Lady Georgiana Charlotte

    Novelist; born 23 September, 1812, in Staffordshire, died 19 January, 1885, at Bournemouth. She ...

    Fullo, Peter

    Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

    Fumo, Bartolommeo

    A theologian, b. at Villon near Piacenza ; d. 1545. At an early age he entered the Dominican ...

    Funchal

    (FUNCHALENSIS.) Diocese in the Madeira Islands. Both in neo-Latin and in Portuguese the name ...

    Fundamental Articles

    This term was employed by Protestant theologians to distinguish the essential parts of the ...

    Funeral Dues

    The canonical perquisites of a parish priest receivable on the occasion of the funeral of any of ...

    Funeral Pall

    A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

    Funk, Franz Xaver von

    Church historian, b. in the small market town of Abtsgemünd in Würtemberg, 12 October, ...

    Furness Abbey

    Situated in the north of Lancashire about five miles from the town of Ulverston. Originally a ...

    Furni

    A titular see in Proconsular Africa, where two towns of this name are known to have existed. One ...

    Furniss, John

    A well-known children's missioner, born near Sheffield, England, 19 June, 1809; at Clapham, ...

    Fursey, Saint

    An Abbot of Lagny, near Paris, d. 16 Jan., about 650. He was the son of Fintan, son of Finloga, ...

    Fussola

    A titular see in Numidia. It was a fortified town, inhabited for the most part by Donatists ...

    Fust, John

    ( Or FAUST.) A partner of Gutenberg in promoting the art of printing, d. at Paris about ...

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    Fy 1


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