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Wisconsin

Known as the "Badger State", admitted to the Union on 29 May, 1848, the seventeenth state admitted, after the original thirteen. It is bounded on the east by Lake Michigan, on the north by the upper Peninsula of the State of Michigan and by Lake Superior, on the west by Minnesota and St. Croix Rivers, and on the south by Illinois. It lies between 42°30' and 47°3' N. lat., and between 86°49' and 92°54' W. long. Its greatest length from north to south is about 300 miles, and its greatest breadth from east to west about 250 miles.

PHYSICAL FEATURES

Its surface is rolling in character, and it forms, with the upper Peninsula of Michigan, a sort of plateau between the lakes and rivers which bound it on the east, north, and west. The levels range from about 600 feet to nearly 2000 feet above the sea, and the natural grade divides the state into two great drainage basins. The state, including the Apostle Islands in Lake Superior, Washington Island and a number of small island at the entrance to Green Bay, has a total area of 56,066 square miles, of which 810 are water surface. Its long boundary upon Lake Michigan and the indentation formed by Green Bay give it many advantages in respect to the marine traffic, which is growing to such enormous proportions upon the Great Lakes; and it possesses much water power, capable of extended development. Lakes of great natural beauty are numerous throughout the state. The population in 1890 was 1,686,880, exclusive of 6450 persons specially enumerated; in 1900 it had grown to 2,069,042; and in 1910 it was 2,333,860 or 42.2 persons to the square mile. Thus, the increase of population from 1890 to 1900 was between 22 and 23 per cent., while the increase from 1900 to 1910 was between 12 and 13 percent.

RESOURCES

Wisconsin ranks high in agriculture, hay and grain being the most important crops, and oats and Indian corn the largest cereal crops, together with a large production of barley, rye, buckwheat, potatoes, and sugar beets. In the southern part of the state large cranberry marshes are to be found. There are extensive apple orchards, and other orchards are being successfully developed. The dairy industry is very important, the production of milk, cheese, and butter being large and of great value. In 1910 there were in the state: 2,587,000 neat cattle (including 1,506,000 milk cows), 669,000 horses, 1,034,000 sheep, and 1,651,000 swine. Up to 1908 the state was the chief source of the white pine supply, and has always produced red pine, hemlock, and white spruce in large quantities. The forests are still considerable, in spite of heavy losses through forest fires. The state forest reserve, which is managed by the State Board of Forestry, exceed 250,000 acres. As a great manufacturing state, the value of the output increased from $9,293,068 in 1850 to $360,818,942 in 1900 and to $590,306,000 in 1909. The most important articles are lumber, paper and wood pulp, cheese, butter, and condensed milk, steel products, leather, beer, flour, meat, agricultural implements, carriages and wagons, and clothing. Great quantities of iron ore, zinc, and lead are mined; granite, limestone, and sandstone are quarried, and cream-coloured brick is manufactured extensively from deposits of clay along the shores of Lake Michigan.

COMMUNICATION

The railroad system is well developed and subject to regulation, as to prices and accommodations, by a state commission. In 1909 the railroads of the state covered 7512 miles. The marine traffic is very large, and the natural harbours along Lake Michigan are gradually being developed. Grain, flour, lumber, and iron ore are extensively exported by water, and immense cargoes of coal are returned from the east. Milwaukee is the only port of entry in the state. Its imports in 1909 were $4,493,635 and its exports $244,890.

HISTORY

French Dominion

The first French form of the name Wisconsin was Misconsing, which gradually developed into Oisconsin. When English became the language of the territory, the spelling was changed and finally the present form was adopted officially. Wisconsin formed part of the vast New World, to which Spain made a general claim under the name of Florida, but no Spaniards appears to have come within hundreds of miles of the present state boundaries. In 1608 Quebec was founded as the capital of New France, and the French missionaries and fur-traders pushed westward into the wilderness, New France claiming by virtue of discovery the whole great inland water system. It was not until 1634, however, that Nicolet, an interpreter, who had lived with the Huron Indians, was sent by Champlain, Governor of New France, into what we call the Northwest. He landed, in what is now Wisconsin, somewhere upon the shores of Green Bay, and was welcomed as a god by the Indians. Twenty years later two French fur-traders, Radisson and Groseilliers, wintered near Green Bay, and in the spring of 1655 ascended the Fox River, crossed to the Wisconsin River, and some time the following year explored the shores of Lake Superior and returned to Quebec. Three years later, with other fur-traders and accompanied by friendly Indians, they were again on Lake Superior, where they heard rumours of copper mines and somewhere on the southern shore they built a rough fort. On this expedition they wandered as far west as Minnesota, and ultimately returned in safety to Canada. The Jesuit missionaries had gained a foothold among the Huron Indians in Ontario, and when, after a disastrous war with the Iroquois, the Hurons fled to northern Wisconsin, they were followed in 1660 by Father Menard. The following spring the missionary, with one white companion, visited the Huron villages on the Chippewa and Black Rivers, crossed to the Wisconsin River, and descended it for some distance, where at a portage Father Menard disappeared and was never again heard of. In 1665 his place was taken by Father Allouez, who instructed the roving Indians of various tribes, which had been scattered by the Iroquois, and in 1669 he was relieved by Father Marquette , whose zeal and the labours and romance attaching to whose ventures have connected his name indissolubly with the history of this part of the country. In 1666 Perrot, a fur-trader, had visited the tribes near Green Bay and persuaded the Potawatomi to send a delegation to Montreal to see the Governor of New France. Father Allouez in 1669 was again in the vicinity of Green Bay, where he wintered. In the early spring he visited various Indian villages, returning in the late spring to Sault Ste Marie, but coming back in the same autumn with Father Dablon, when several missions were founded. In 1671 the representative of New France at Sault Ste Marie took formal possession of the Northwest in the name of the King of France. The following year Father Allouez and Father André worked at the extension of the missions.

In 1673 Father Marquette began his wanderings. He and Jolliet entered Green Bay, passed up the Fox River, portaged to the Wisconsin River, followed the latter to its mouth, went down the Mississippi to the mouth of the Arkansas, and here planted a cross and started to retrace their way. They went up the Mississippi River and the Illinois River to the site of the present city of Chicago, where they portaged to Lake Michigan, and arrived safely in September at the mission which Father Allouez had built at De Pere, and in their journey encountered many Indians of the more southerly tribes. The following year Marquette with two assistants set out to establish a mission among the Illinois tribes. From Green Bay they portaged to Lake Michigan and travelled in canoes to the mouth of the Chicago River, where they wintered, and resuming their journey in the spring they went as far as the site of the present city of Peoria. Then Father Marquette, stricken with a mortal illness, turned northwards again, but died on the journey (19 May, 1675). Meantime Father Allouez and Fathers André and Silvy continued their missionary work around Green Bay, and in 1677 Father Albanel arrived at De Pere as superior of the missions in that part of the world. The same year Father Allouez went south to the Illinois. In the two following years Duluth explored the western end of Lake Superior and discovered a new route to the Mississippi; in 1679 LaSalle, who had received from the King of France a monopoly of the western fur trade, arrived at Green bay in the first sailing vessel ever seen on the Great Lakes. This vessel went back loaded with furs, while La Salle and a strong party came south on the west shore of Lake Michigan in canoes, despite the wild weather, and made a landing in Milwaukee Bay, finally proceeding to the Illinois country. Hence Father Hennepin, a Recollect friar, with two companions explored the Upper Mississippi and were taken prisoners by the Sioux, ultimately to be rescued, however, by Duluth, who with them crossed by the route of the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers to De Pere, and in 1683 defended that mission against an attack by the Iroquois. The meeting out of justice to the Indians, who had murdered Frenchmen, made Lake Superior safe for French traders.

In 1685 Perrot became commandant of the west; he established trading posts on the Mississippi, and, in 1690, discovered the lead mines in south-western Wisconsin, which were destined to have such an important effect upon the development of the district. The route from Green Bay by the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers had become the most travelled, but the wars between the Indians had rendered this route unsafe, and in 1693 Frontenac ordered Le Sueur to keep open the route from Lake Superior to the Mississippi. In 1696, however, licences for fur trading were revoked, western outposts were recalled, and the forts abandoned. In 1698 Father Buisson de St. Cosme came south along the western shore of Lake Michigan to the Chicago portage, visiting on the way an Indian village near the present site of Sheboygan, and stopping also at Milwaukee and at the site of the present city of Racine. Two years later Le Sueur, with a party of miners from France, went up the Mississippi to examine various lead deposits, among others those of Wisconsin. In 1701 peace was made between the Iroquois and the north-western tribes, a large number of Indians from Wisconsin attending the council at Montreal, and in 1702 the trader, St-Denis, paid the Fox Indians liberally to allow his trading canoes to reach the Mississippi once more over the Fox-Wisconsin route, which had been for some years untravelled by white men. But a few years later, the Indian wars recurring, the trade routes became again unsafe. In 1716 La Porte, having been ordered to conduct a campaign against the hostile Indians, arrived at Green Bay with 800 men, and shortly afterwards peace was concluded and hostages given. In 1718 it was reported that there was a settlement of French traders at Green Bay , where a fort had been built. In 1727 a fort was built on Lake Pepin in order to split the alliance of Indian tribes in this neighbourhood and furnish a basis for a further advance westward, but in the following year this was abandoned, and it was not until 1731 that the Fox tribe, after years of warfare, was broken and to a great extent dispersed. In 1738 Louis Denis, Sieur de la Ronde, secured a permit to work the Lake Superior copper mines, and shortly thereafter lead mining was inaugurated in south-western Wisconsin. Fur trading continued on a large scale (on co-partnership being said to have cleared 100,000 livres per year from the Wisconsin fur trade alone), and gradually the various Indian tribes were reconciled to each other under French influence. Wisconsin Indians took part in Braddock's defeat, in the siege of Fort William Henry, and in the defence of Quebec, and in 1760 dispatched a party to the defence of Montreal, but retired before its fall.

British Dominion

Upon the fall of New France Wisconsin became British territory and was under military authority. In 1761 a British detachment took over the old French fort at Green Bay and garrisoned it, and British traders began to come in from Albany. In 1763 the formal cession took place; this was quickly followed by the conspiracy of Pontiac. The Wisconsin Indians, however, were divided in sentiment, but upon the whole were friendly to the British, although the fall of Mackinac rendered necessary the evacuation of Green Bay. In 1774 Wisconsin was annexed to the Province of Quebec . During the war for Independence Wisconsin Indians assisted the British, and a punitive expedition sent out by the Americans reached the south-western part of Wisconsin. In 1783 the Treaty of Paris was concluded, ceding to the United States all British territory east of the Mississippi.

American Dominion

It was not, however, until 1796 that the British finally evacuated their military posts on the Upper Lakes, and during this period Wisconsin was practically controlled by British fur-trading companies. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Virginia claimed territorial rights over Wisconsin, but subsequently ceded their claims to the Federal Government for the formation of the great Northwest Territory, a national domain out of which new states were to be carved. In 1800 the Northwest Territory was cut in two and Wisconsin became a part of the western division, known as Indiana Territory. In 1809 the State of Indiana was carved out of the territory of that name, and the remaining part, including Wisconsin, became Illinois Territory. In 1818 the State of Illinois was carved out of that territory and the balance, including Wisconsin, became Michigan Territory. In 1836 Wisconsin Territory was created, including the present states of Minnesota and Iowa and a great part of North Dakota and South Dakota. In 1838 the Territory of Iowa was formed out of a part of Wisconsin Territory. In 1848 Wisconsin was admitted as a state, reduced to the present boundaries, the rest of that domain becoming the Territory of Minnesota. Meanwhile, Dubuque had visited Prairie du Chien and obtained permission of the Fox Indians to work the lead mines. Settlers had come in; Indian outbreaks had been suppressed; the war of 1812 had come and gone, and Fort Shelby, the first American post in Wisconsin, at Prairie du Chien, had been captured and later abandoned by the British; the Indians had renewed their allegiance to the United States, the fur-trade had been restricted to American citizens, Astor's American Fur Company had operated in Wisconsin, and Government fur-trading factories had been established a Green Bay and Prairie du Chien. The first school in Wisconsin was opened at Green Bay in 1817. In 1818 Solomon Juneau arrived at Milwaukee, bought out the trading post of his father-in- law, and began the work which has caused him to be considered the founder of the metropolis of the state. The land claims of the French settlers were adjusted, and in 1821 the first steamer on the Upper Lakes appeared in Lake Michigan. In 1822 the Government fur- trading factory system was abolished, and in the same year the rush of speculators to the lead mines in south-western Wisconsin began. In 1832 occurred the Black Hawk War, which, strange to say, appeared to advertise Wisconsin in the east, and increased immigration to its borders. In 1833 Milwaukee was platted, and the first newspaper in Wisconsin was established at Green Bay. In 1846, the people having voted in favour of a state Government and the enabling act having been passed, the first Constitutional Convention opened at Madison, but in April of the following year the suggested Constitution was rejected by popular vote. In December, 1847, the second Constitutional convention gathered, and on 13 March, 1848, the second Constitution was adopted by the people and Wisconsin admitted into the Union under Act of Congress, 29 May. The population was then about 220,000. In 1848, owing to the revolutionary troubles in Europe, there flowed into Milwaukee and the eastern counties of the state a very large German immigration. These immigrants and their descendants have done much to colour the character and habits of the community. There has been a considerable Irish immigration, followed by a great Polish immigration ; of later years Italians and Slavs have come in large numbers.

In 1854 at Ripon the Republican party was organized, and in the same year a fugitive slave, named Glover, was arrested at Racine and was rescued from the Milwaukee jail by a mob. Sherman M. Booth, a fiery Abolitionist, was arrested for complicity in the rescue and the Supreme Court of the state discharge him, deciding that the Fugitive Slave law of 1850 was void. This decision was afterwards reversed by the Supreme Court of the United State, and Booth was re-arrested, but was pardoned by President Buchanan. In 1856 occurred the famous quo warranto proceeding, by which Barstow, the Democratic nominee, was ousted from the office of governor by Bashford, the Republican candidate. Wisconsin played a prominent part in the Civil War, furnishing over 90,000 troops, of whom nearly 11,000 lost their lives. The famous "Iron Brigade" was composed chiefly of Wisconsin troops, commanded by a Wisconsin officer. In 1869 began the agitation for the regulation of railway rates, and in 1874 the so-called Potter Law was passed which limited freight and passenger charges and which was upheld as constitutional by the Supreme Court of the state. Feeling ran very high and two years later that law was repealed. In 1885 iron ore of an excellent grade was discovered in the Gogebic Range and a great boom began. In 1889 the Legislature passed an Act, known as the Bennett Law, which required compulsory education in the English language. This Act contained some very objectionable features, which caused much indignation among the foreign-speaking citizens, and generally among Catholics and Lutherans, who considered it an attack on the parochial schools. The Lutheran authorities denounced it, and it was vigorously opposed by Archbishop Heiss of Milwaukee, Bishop Flasch of Racine, and Bishop Katzer of Green Bay. During the agitation which followed, the first two bishops died and the burden of the closing stages of the fight fell upon Bishop Katzer's shoulders. The Democrats took up the issue, demanding the repeal of the law, and the state campaign of 1890 was marked by exceeding bitterness. The Democrats carried the state by 30,000 plurality, and the law was immediately repealed.

In 1890 was decided the famous Edgerton Bible case, in which the Supreme Court of the state held that Bible reading in the public school schools is sectarian instruction and, therefore, violative of the Constitution. In 1892 the Supreme Court nullified the gerrymander passed by the Democratic Legislature, and in 1893 required former state treasurers or their bondsmen to refund the interest which such treasurers had received on state moneys, deposited by them in banks. In the Spanish-American War Wisconsin sent over 5000 men to the front. The leading feature of the history of the last ten years in Wisconsin has been the so-called progressive movement in which this state has taken the lead. Much experimental legislation has been passed and several state commissions, with very extensive powers, have been created. Officials have been forbidden to receive railway passes, the system of taxing railways has been changed from a license to an ad valorem system, the primary election law, inheritance tax law, Workmen's Compensation law, and Income Tax law have been passed, the law of Apprenticeship has been thoroughly revised and modernized, a Civil Service Act has been passed, a railway commission created with power to regulate rates, a State Board of Forestry organized, cities have been authorized to establish a commission form of government, child labour and the labour of women have been regulated, and factory inspection provided for. At present (1912) the state is much divided between those who wish to carry this class of legislation still farther and those who think that it has already been carried too far for the prosperity of the community.

EDUCATION

The state educational system consists of a state university, normal schools, high schools, and common schools. The university, situated at Madison, the capital of the state, was provided for by Act of territorial legislature in 1836, but nothing further was done until after Wisconsin was admitted to statehood in 1848, when, in accordance with the new Constitution, the Legislature provided for the establishment of a university to be governed by a board of regents. Meantime, Congress had authorized the secretary of the treasury to set aside two townships within the territory of Wisconsin for the use and support of a university and the title to these lands vested in the state upon its admission to the Union. The state Constitution provided for the sale of these lands from time to time for the establishment of a university fund. In 1854 Congress made a further grant of lands to be sold for the benefit of the university. The income of the fund proving, however, insufficient, the capital was drawn upon, and ultimately the state began to make direct appropriations. The university is now supported partly by the income of such Federal grants, partly by taxation, partly by fees of students, and to a small extent by private gifts. It includes a college of letters and science, a college of engineering, a law school, a college of agriculture, a medical school, a college of music, an observatory, and a university extension division. The grant total of students, given in the bulletin for May, 1911, is 5538, in the charge of several hundred professors and assistants. The state appropriations for the biennium ending 30 June, 1910, were $2,371,593, while other sources of income, including over $700,000 from students' fees, etc., brought the grant total of university receipts for that biennium up to $3,293,445.73. The total expenditure by the state for educational purposes for 1910 was $13,126,359.06, of which upwards of $10,6000,000 was expended for common schools, high schools, and graded schools. School attendance for children between seven and fourteen years of age who live within two miles of school by the nearest travelled public highway is compulsory. There are twenty-two day schools for the deaf, and in 1909, out of 285 high schools, twenty-eight were township high schools. The state normal schools are supported to some extent by the interest of an endowment created by the sale of swamp and overflowed lands, and as to the balance by an annual state tax. A state library commission maintains circulating free public libraries comprising more than 40,000 volumes. The total enrollment in public schools for 1909-10 exceeded 460,000, accommodated in 7769 school houses and taught by 14,729 teachers. Educational institutions of collegiate rank are: Beloit College (1846); Carroll College (1846), Waukesha; Lawrence College (1847, Appleton; Concordia College (1881); Marquette University (1864) and Milwaukie-Downer College (1895) for women ; Milton College (1867), Milton; North- western University (1865), Watertown; Ripon College (1851), Ripon; Wayland University (1855), Beaver Dam; and the following Catholic schools : St. Clara Academy (1847), Sinsiniwa; St. Francis Seminary, St. Francis; and St. Lawrence College, Mt. Calvary. There are also many private academic and trade or technical schools and six industrial schools for Indians. Religious statistics show that in 1906 the Catholic Church had 505,264 members, the various Lutheran bodies 284,286, the Methodist bodies 57,473, the Congregationalists 26,163, and the Baptists 21,716.

The Catholic Church maintains a large number of parochial schools and some high schools and academies. Marquette University in Milwaukee (the metropolis of the state), under the control of the Jesuits, has affiliated to itself various educational institutions in that city and has in all its departments about 2000 students. It is estimated that there are over 65,000 children in the Catholic parochial schools of the state. There is a numerous attendance at Lutheran parochial schools. At St. Francis, near Milwaukee, is situated the provincial seminary for the education of priests, with upwards of 150 students in philosophy and theology. Catholic charities are numerous and generously supported. The liberal laws of the state permit the organization by private individuals of industrial schools and home-finding associations. Thus the Sisters of the Good Shepherd in Milwaukee control two corporations, one of which is organized under the industrial school statutes and receives on commitment by the courts numerous incorrigible girls. The home-finding societies receive dependent children on commitment by the courts, and thereupon become the guardians of such children and may consent to their adoption. The Catholic infant asylums house about 500 infants and the orphan asylums nearly 1000 children. The new Saint Mary's Hospital in Milwaukee, conducted by the Sisters of Charity, is one of the largest and finest hospitals in the Northwest, and its work is, to a great extent, purely charitable work.

LEGISLATION

Wisconsin is a code state. The laws have been several times revised, the latest complete revision being in 1898; since which time there has been much legislation of a so-called progressive nature. Certain public service corporations and the life-insurance companies pay taxes or license fees directly to the state in lieu of other taxes. All public service corporations are under the control of a state commission, and since the amendments of 1911 their bonds must be approved by that commission. A Workmen's Compensation Law, compulsory as to the dealing of state and municipalities with their employees, voluntary as to the dealings of private employers with their employees, was passed in 1911, and has been held constitutional, except as to some minor details left for future determination. There are stringent laws concerning factory inspection, apprenticeship, and the labour of women and children, administered by a state commission. A graduated Income Tax Law, exempting moneys and credits from direct taxation, passed in 1911, has been held constitutional per se, though many provisions contained in it have been left for future determination. State, county, and municipal officers are nominated at primary elections, and the Corrupt Practices Act of 1911 rigidly limits the expenditures by candidates and on their behalf, forbids the employment of workers at the election booths on election day, and requires that all political advertisements inserted in newspapers shall embody a statement as to authorship and price paid. Below the Supreme Court, whose members are elected for terms of ten yeas, are the circuit courts, whose judges are elected for terms of six years, the circuit courts being vested with the full jurisdiction of the common law. The county courts of the state handle probate matters and deal with the commitment of the insane and certain special subjects and in some counties have a limited civil jurisdiction ; and from the county courts appeals lie to the circuit courts, where matters are tried de novo. Special courts having jurisdiction in criminal matters are created from time to time by act of Legislature, and justice courts exist under the Constitution, having civil jurisdiction up to $200 and certain criminal jurisdiction. An attempt was recently made to drive the justice courts out of Milwaukee County without constitutional amendment, by the creation of a so-called Civil Court of limited jurisdiction, from which appeals lie (as they do from justice courts) to the circuit court.

Laws Directly Affecting Religion

Freedom of worship is guaranteed by Article I, Sections 18 and 19, of the Constitution of the state, as follows: "The right of every man to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of his own conscience shall never be infringed; nor shall any man be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry, against consent ; nor shall any control of, or interference with, the rights of conscience be permitted, or any preference be given by law to any religious establishments or modes of worship, nor shall any money be drawn from the treasury for the benefit of religious societies, or religious or theological seminaries."

"No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification for any office of public trust under the state, and no person shall be rendered incompetent to give evidence in any court of law or equity in consequence of his opinions on the subject of religion." Sunday is a legal holiday and upon that day saloons are to be closed (a law not enforced). Barber shops, warehouses, and workhouses are also to be closed on Sunday, except for works of charity or necessity. The law permits affirmation subject to the pains and penalties of perjury in lieu of an oath. The seal of confession is protected by statute, Sec. 4074, Statutes of 1898: "A clergyman or other minister of any religion shall not be allowed to disclose a confession made to him in his professional character, in the course of discipline enjoined by the rules or practice of the religious body to which he belongs, without consent thereto by the party confessing."

A very recent decision (June, 1912) by the Supreme Court of the state, however, holds that one of the session laws destroys the rule of confidence between physician and patient, in regard to two matters concerning which the physician may be compelled to testify; and since the statutes protecting the seal of confession and the confidential character of communications between husband and wife, and lawyer and client are of the same nature, it may be doubted whether the seal of confession is now preserved as to those two matters by the statute thus changed and construed. The decision was rendered by a divided court, the dissenting opinion vigorously asserting that the law thus laid down would break the seal of the confessional and cause the imprisonment of priests for refusal to answer such questions.

Laws Affecting Religious Work

There are special provisions concerning the incorporation of Catholic churches. The bishop of each diocese is declared the only trustee of each church in his diocese, and he may cause any congregation to be incorporated by adding four more members as trustees. The bishop himself, the vicar-general of the diocese, the pastor of the congregation, and two laymen, to be elected by the congregation, are to constitute the five trustees of the corporation. Such corporations are given extensive powers as to acquiring and disposing of real estate and in general as to the management of their affairs. The bishop, vicar-general, and pastor remain trustees ex officio and their successors take their places. The laymen are elected for terms of two years. The bishop is president, the pastor vice-president, and the laymen are to serve as treasurer and secretary. In case of the dissolution of the corporation, its property is to vest in the bishop of the diocese. Personal property owned by any religious or benevolent association, used exclusively for the purposes of such association, and its real property, if not leased or not otherwise used for pecuniary profit, necessary for the location and convenience of its buildings and embracing the same but not exceeding ten acres, and the lands reserved for the grounds of a chartered college or university not exceeding forty acres and parsonages whether of local churches or districts and whether occupied permanently or tented for the benefit of the pastors, are exempt from taxation. The statute exempts "Ministers of the Gospel or of any religious society " from jury service.

Marriage

Marriage is declared to be a civil contract. Marriage licenses are required under penalty of the imposition of a fine on any person performing a marriage without the licence, but the lack of a licence apparently does not invalidate the marriage itself. Married women are given extensive property rights, and a married woman may convey, bequeath, and devise her separate estate without consent of her husband. He is, however, entitled to her services, and, with certain exceptions, her earnings belong to him. In case of the husband's death intestate, the wife has the right to his homestead not exceeding $5000 in value, net, during widowhood ; her dower, consisting of one-third of the net rents and profits of the real estate, for life; and a child's share of his personalty, in addition to certain special provisions and the right to an allowance during the settlement of the estate. In case no issue is born of a marriage, husband and wife inherit from each other in case of intestacy; where issue is born alive he has an estate by courtesy in case of her intestacy; but the wife, by will, may cut her husband off entirely, whereas the provisions for the wife are reserved to her in case she elects not to take under her husband's will, or is not provided for therein; with the one exception that, in case of a husband's death testate and his widow's election to take under the law, her share of his personality shall not exceed one-third. A woman attains her majority at the age of twenty-one, but the guardianship of her person is transferred to her husband if she marries while a minor ; and if she marries when over eighteen and under twenty-one, the court having jurisdiction may in its discretion terminate the guardianship of her property and turn the same over to her. Marriage may be contracted by males of eighteen and females of fifteen, but no marriage licence will be issued to a male under twenty-one, or a female under eighteen without the consent of parent or guardian, unless such party has been previously married. The judges may grant dispensations from the licence law. Marriage may be annulled for various causes existing at the time of marriage, namely:

  • incurable impotency, of which plaintiff was ignorant at the time of the marriage;
  • consanguinity or affinity, when the parties are nearer of kin than first cousins, computed according to the rules of the civil law, whether of the half or of the whole blood, provided that, when such marriage has not been annulled during the lifetime of the parties, the validity shall not be inquired into after the death of either party;
  • when either party has another spouse living;
  • when fraud, force, or coercion has been used; at the suit of the injured party, unless confirmed by his or her subsequent act;
  • insanity, idiocy, or such want of understanding as renders either party incapable of consenting, at the suit of the other, or of a guardian of the non compos, or at his own suit upon regaining reason, unless after regaining reason he has confirmed the marriage, provided that the party compos mentis, being the applicant, shall have been ignorant of the other's mental condition and shall not have confirmed it subsequent to such person regaining reason ;
  • at the suit of the wife, when she was under the age of sixteen at the time of the marriage, unless she has confirmed the marriage after arriving at such age;
  • at the suit of the husband when he was under eighteen at the time of the marriage unless he has confirmed it after arriving at such age.
  • Divorce

    Divorce is absolute or limited. Absolute divorce may be granted for any of the following causes:

  • adultery ;
  • impotency;
  • when either party, subsequent to the marriage, has been sentenced to imprisonment for three years or more and no pardon shall restore such party to conjugal rights ;
  • for wilful desertion for one year next preceding the commencement of the action;
  • for cruel and inhuman treatment of the wife by the husband, or the husband by the wife or when the wife is given to intoxication;
  • when the husband or wife has been an habitual drunkard for one year immediately preceding the commencement of the action;
  • whenever there has been a voluntary separation for five years next preceding the commencement of the action.
  • divorce may be granted for the fourth, fifth, and sixth causes above specified; for extreme cruelty of either party; or on the wife's complaint when the husband, being of sufficient ability, shall refuse or neglect to provide for her, or when his conduct towards her renders it improper and unsafe for her to live with him. In all divorce suits the county is to be represented by counsel. Under the amendments of 1911, when the matter is determined judgment is entered, fully determining the rights of the parties, but the same is not effective, except for the purposes of an appeal, until one year from the date of its entry. At the expiration of one year the judgment becomes absolute unless meantime reversed, modified, or vacated, or unless an appeal be pending or the court otherwise orders. Sentence to imprisonment for life (there is not capital punishment in Wisconsin) dissolves marriage ipso facto , and no subsequent pardon restores the felon to his marital rights. Sale of Liquor

    Local option prevails in Wisconsin. There is a Sunday closing law which is not enforced. No saloon may be located within 300 feet of a church or school house, or within one mile of a hospital for the insane ; a recent law restricts the number of saloons in each community and makes it unlawful to open saloons in certain new localities without the consent of a specified percentage of the neighbors.

    Prisons and Reformatories

    The state prison is located at Waupun, and there are several reform schools conducted or subsidized by the state. In Milwaukee a juvenile court has been established, before which are brought delinquent children, as well as dependent children, and in many instances delinquent children have been placed upon probation with good results. In the criminal courts the probation system has recently been introduced, particularly for the benefit of first offenders, and while it is too early to tell what the results will be, the prospects are very hopeful.

    Wills and Testaments

    A will (except a noncupative will) must be in writing, signed by the testator, and published and declared in the presence of at least two attesting witnesses who must sign in the presence of the testator and in the presence of each other; but beneficial devises, legacies, and gifts given to an attesting witness or to the husband or wife of an attesting witness are void unless there are two other competent witnesses to the will, provided that if such witness or the husband or wife of such witness would have been entitled to a share of the estate were the will not established; then such share, or so much thereof as will not exceed the legacy or bequest made in the will, shall be saved to him. No particular form of attestation is required. The power of alienating real estate may not be suspended for more than two lives in being and twenty-one years thereafter, except when granted to (a) a literary or charitable corporation organized under the laws of Wisconsin for its sole use and benefit; (b) a cemetery corporation, association, or society, or when granted (c ) as a contingent remainder in fee on certain conditions ; but there is no statute against perpetuities in personal property. There are no other restrictions upon the manner in which a woman may dispose of her estate by will, and the only other restrictions upon a man's right of disposition are the privileges reserved to his wife as specified above. Devises and bequests to charitable corporations organized under the laws of Wisconsin are except from inheritance tax, but such a disposition to foreign charities receives only the exemption and is subject to the same tax as though left to an individual, a stranger to the blood of the testator.

    Cemeteries

    Cemeteries may be owned by cemetery associations, churches, or individuals. If owned by such associations any lot therein is, after one interment, inalienable, without the consent of a majority of the trustees, and on the death of the owner descends to his heirs. In some cases an absolute deed to a lot in a Catholic cemetery is refused, and simply a certificate is issued giving certain rights to the holder of it.

    More Volume: W 303

    Click/Touch the sub-volume below to view encyclopedia articles within the sub-volume.

    1

    Wörndle, Von, Family

    Philip von Wörndle Of Adelsfried and Weierburg, major of a Tyrolese rifle-corps, commandant ...

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    4

    Würtemberg, Kingdom of

    In area the third and in population the fourth of the states of the German Empire. It is situated ...

    Würzburg Abbeys

    See also DIOCESE OF WÜRZBURG and UNIVERSITY OF WÜRZBURG ABBEYS ; The city of ...

    Würzburg, Diocese of

    (HERBIPOLENSIS). See also UNIVERSITY OF WÜRZBURG and WÜRZBURG ABBEYS ; Located ...

    Würzburg, University of

    See also DIOCESE OF WÜRZBURG and WÜRZBURG ABBEYS ; John I of Egloffstein ...

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    Wa 69

    Waagen, Wilhelm Heinrich

    Geologist, and palæontologist, born at Munich, 23 June, 1841; died at Vienna, 24 March, ...

    Wace, Robert

    Poet, born at Jersey, about 1100; died at Bayeux, 1174. His maternal grandfather, Toustein, was a ...

    Wachter, Eberhard

    Painter, born at Stuttgart, 29 February, 1762; died at Stuttgart, 14 August, 1852. He studied ...

    Wadding, Luke

    Historian and theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, 16 October, 1588; died at St. Isidore's ...

    Wadding, Michael

    (GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...

    Waire, Venerable

    English friar and martyr, hanged, drawn, and quartered at St. Thomas Waterings in Camberwell (a ...

    Waitzen, Diocese of

    (VÄCZ or VACIENSIS). Located in Hungary ; suffragan of Gran ; probably founded by King ...

    Wakash Indians

    A linguistic family inhabiting the western coast of British Columbia from 50° 30' to Garden ...

    Walafrid

    (Walahfrid; surnamed Strabo -- "the Squinter"). German poet and theologian of the ninth ...

    Walburga, Saint

    (WALTPURDE, WALPURGIS; at Perche GAUBURGE; in other parts of France VAUBOURG, FALBOURG). Born ...

    Waldeck, Principality of

    (Or WALDECK-PYRMONT). A former state of the German Empire , with an area of 433 square miles; ...

    Waldenses

    An heretical sect which appeared in the second half of the twelfth century and, in a ...

    Waldsassen, Abbey of

    ("Settlement in the woods"). Located on the River Wondreb, Upper Palatinate, near the border ...

    Waldseemüller, Martin

    (Graecized ILACOMILUS). Learned Humanist and celebrated cartographer, born at Wolfenweiler ...

    Walenburch, Adrian and Peter von

    Auxiliary bishops of Cologne and celebrated controversial theologians, born at Rotterdam at the ...

    Wales

    Wales is that western portion of Great Britain which lies between the Irish Sea and the River ...

    Walkenried

    Formerly one of the most celebrated Cistercian abbeys of Germany, situated in the Duchy of ...

    Wall, Venerable John

    Martyr, born in Lancashire, 1620; suffered near Worcester, 22 August, 1679; known at Douay and ...

    Walla-Walla Indians

    A Shahaptian tribe dwelling on the Walla-Walla (i.e. rushing water) River and the Columbia in ...

    Wallenstein, Albrecht von

    (WALDSTEIN). Born at Hermanic, Bohemia, 24 September, 1583; died at Eger, Bohemia, 24 ...

    Wallon Henri-Alexandre

    Historian and statesman, born at Valenciennes (Nord), in 1812); died at Paris, in 1904. Fellow of ...

    Walmesley, Charles

    Bishop of Rama, Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, b. 13 Jan., 1722; d. at Bath, ...

    Walpole, Ven. Henry

    English Jesuit martyr, born at Docking, Norfolk, 1558; martyred at York, 7 April, 1595. He was ...

    Walsh, Edward

    Irish poet, born at Derry actually Doire, near Kiskeam in County Cork in 1805; died at Cork, ...

    Walsh, Patrick

    Journalist, United States senator; born at Ballingary, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 1 January, 1840; ...

    Walsh, Peter

    Irish Franciscan, born at Mooretown, County Kildare, about 1608; died in London, 15 March, 1688. ...

    Walsh, Robert

    Publicist, diplomat, born at Baltimore, MD., 1785; died at Paris, 7 Feb., 1859. He was one of the ...

    Walsh, Thomas

    Born in London, October, 1777; d. there, 18 February, 1849. His father, an Irish merchant, ...

    Walsh, William

    Bishop of Meath, Ireland (1554-77); b. at Dunboyne, Co. Meath, about 1512; d. at Alcalá ...

    Walsingham Priory

    Walsingham Priory stood a few miles from the sea in the northern part of Norfolk, England. ...

    Walsingham, Thomas

    Benedictine historian, died about 1422. He is supposed to have been a native of Walsingham, ...

    Walter of Châtillon

    (GAUTIER DE LILLE, GUALTERUS DE INSULIS; also GAUTIER DE CHATILLON, GAULTERUS DE CASTILLIONE). ...

    Walter of Merton

    Bishop of Rochester and founder of Merton College, Oxford, b. probably at Merton in Surrey or ...

    Walter of Mortagne

    A twelfth-century Scholastic philosopher, and theologian, b. at Mortagne in Flanders in the ...

    Walter of St-Victor

    Mystic philosopher and theologian of the twelth century. Nothing is known about Walter except ...

    Walter of Winterburn

    An English Dominican, cardinal, orator, poet, philosopher, theologian, b. in the thirteenth ...

    Walter, Ferdinand

    Jurist, born at Wetzlar, 30 November, 1794; died at Bonn, 13 December, 1879. After studying at the ...

    Waltham Abbey

    The Abbey of Waltham Holy Cross stood in Essex, some ten miles to the northeast of London, on ...

    Walther von der Vogelweide

    Minnesinger and old poet, born about 1170; died in 1228. Only one old document mentions the name ...

    Walton, Brian

    Biblical scholar, editor of Walton's Polyglot Bible, born at Seymour, or Seamer, near York, in ...

    Wandelbert

    Benedictine monk and theological writer, born in 813; died at Prüm after 850. Little is ...

    Wangnereck, Heinrich

    (WAGNERECK). Theologian, preacher, author, born at Munich in July, 1595; died at Dillingen, ...

    War

    War, in its juridical sense, is a contention carried on by force of arms between sovereign states, ...

    Ward, Hugh

    ( Irish, ÆDH BUIDH MAC-AN-BHAIRD). Hagiographer, born in Donegal, about 1590; died 8 ...

    Ward, James Harman

    Born in Hartford, Connecticut, 1806; killed in attack on Matthias Point, Virginia, 27 June, ...

    Ward, Margaret, Saint

    Martyr, born at Congleton, Cheshire; executed at Tyburn, London, 30 Aug., 1588. Nothing is known ...

    Ward, Mary

    Foundress, born 23 January, 1585; died 23 January, 1645; eldest daughter of Marmaduke Ward and ...

    Ward, Thomas

    Born at Danby Castle near Guisborough, Yorkshire, 13 April, 1652; d. at St-Germain, France, ...

    Ward, Ven. William

    (Real name WEBSTER). Born at Thornby in Westmoreland, about 1560; martyred at Tyburn, 26 ...

    Ward, William George

    An English writer and convert, eldest son of William Ward, Esq., born in London, 21 March, ...

    Warde, Mary Francis Xavier

    Born at Belbrook House, Mountrath, Queen's County, Ireland, 1810; died at Manchester, N.H., 17 ...

    Warham, William

    Archbishop of Canterbury, born at Church Oakley, Hampshire, about 1450; died at Hackington, ...

    Warsaw, Archdiocese of

    (VARSAVIENSIS). Warsaw (Polish, Warszawa ), on the western bank of the Vistula, is the ...

    Wartenberg, Franz Wilhelm, Count von

    Bishop of Osnabrück and cardinal, eldest son of Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria and his ...

    Washing of Feet and Hands

    Owing to the general use of sandals in Eastern countries the washing of the feet was almost ...

    Washington, D.C.

    (DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA) Washington, the capital of the United States, is situated on the left ...

    Washington, State of

    One of the Pacific coast states, popularly known as the "Evergreen State", the sixteenth in size ...

    Water, Holy

    The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...

    Water, Holy, Fonts

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

    Water, Liturgical Use of

    Besides the holy water which is used by the Church in so many of her rites of blessing, and ...

    Waterford and Lismore

    (Waterfordiensis et Lismorensis), suffragan of Cashel. This diocese is almost coterminous with ...

    Waterson, Ven. Edward

    Born at London ; martyred at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 7 January 1594 (1593 old style). A romantic ...

    Waterton, Charles

    Naturalist and explorer, born in Walton Hall near Wakefield, Yorkshire, England, in 1782; died ...

    Waterworth, James

    Born at St. Helen's, Lancashire, 1806; d. at Old Hall, Newark, 28 March, 1876. Educated at ...

    Watteau, Jean Antoine

    French painter, and founder and leader of the school usually known as that of the painters of Les ...

    Waverley, Cistercian Abbey of

    Situated in Surrey, near Farnham, founded by William Gifford, Bishop of Winchester, on 24 Nov., ...

    Way of the Cross

    (Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

    Way or State

    The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

    Way, Ven. William

    ( Alias MAY, alias FLOWER). English priest and martyr, born in Exeter Diocese ...

    × Close

    We 52

    Wealth, Use of

    The term "wealth" is not used here in the technical sense in which it occurs in treatises on ...

    Wearmouth Abbey

    Located on the river Wear, in Durham, England ; a Benedictine monastery founded in 674 by St. ...

    Weathers, William

    Titular Bishop of Amyela; born 12 November, 1814; died at Isleworth, Middlesex, 4 March, 1895. ...

    Webb, Benjamin Joseph

    Editor, historian, born at Bardstown, Kentucky, 25 February, 1814; died at Louisville, Kentucky, ...

    Webbe, Samuel

    English composer, born in England in 1742; died in London, 29 May, 1816. He studied under ...

    Weber, Beda

    Benedictine professor, author, and member of the National German Parliament, born at Lienz in the ...

    Weber, Friedrich Wilhelm

    Physician, member of the Prussian House of Deputies, and poet, born at Alhausen, near Driburg, ...

    Weber, Heinrich

    German Church historian, born at Euerdorf in the Diocese of Würzburg , 21 June, 1834; died ...

    Weber, Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst von

    Composer, born at Eutin, Lower Saxony, 18 December, 1786; died in London, 5 June, 1826. His ...

    Weedall, Henry

    Born in London, 6 September, 1788; died at Oscott, 7 November, 1859. Both his parents died ...

    Week, Liturgical

    The week as a measure of time is a sufficiently obvious division of the lunar month, and the ...

    Wegg-Prosser, Francis Richard

    Only son of Rev. Prebendary Francis Haggit, rector of Newnham Coutney, born at Newnham Courtney, ...

    Weingarten

    (MONASTERIUM VINEARUM, AD VINEAS, or WEINGARTENSE). A suppressed Benedictine abbey, near ...

    Weis, Nicolaus von

    Bishop of Speyer, born at Rimlingen, Lorraine, 8 March, 1796; died at Speyer, 13 December, ...

    Weislinger, Johann Nikolaus

    Polemical writer, born at Puttlingen in German Lorraine, 1691; died at Kappel-Rodeck in Baden, 29 ...

    Weiss, Johann Baptist

    Born at Ettenheim, Baden, 17 July, 1820; died at Graz, 8 March, 1899. After completing his ...

    Weissenau, Monastery of

    (Originally OWE_AUGIA, then MINDERLAU-AUGIA MINOR, and finally WEISSEN AU-AUGIA ALBA or CANDIDA). ...

    Weitenauer, Ignatius von

    Litterateur, exegete, and Orientalist, born at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, 1 November, 1709; died at ...

    Welbourne, Ven. Thomas

    Martyred at York, 1 August, 1605. Nothing is known about about this martyr except the scanty ...

    Weld

    The name of an ancient English family (branches of which are found in several parts of England ...

    Weld, Frederick Aloysius

    Youngest son of Humphrey Weld, born at Chidcock Manor, Dorset, 1823; died there, 1891. He was ...

    Welle, Prefecture Apostolic of

    Located in the extreme north of Belgian Congo, Africa, separated by a Decree of the Propaganda ...

    Wellington, Archdiocese of

    (WELLINGTONIENSIS). Located in New Zealand, originally formed part of the Vicariate of ...

    Wells in Scripture

    It is difficult for inhabitants of a more humid climate to realize the importance which a country ...

    Wells, Ven. Smithin

    English martyr, born at Brambridge, Hampshire, about 1536; hanged at Gray's Inn Lane, London, ...

    Welser, Bartholomeus

    German merchant prince, born at Augsburg, 1488; died at Amberg, near Turkheim, Swabia, 1561. His ...

    Welsh Church

    In giving separate consideration to the Church of Wales, we follow a practice common among ...

    Welsh Monastic Foundations

    Few saints of the early British Church, as it existed before the Saxon invasion, are known to ...

    Welte, Benedict

    Exegete, born at Ratzenried in Würtemberg, 25 November, 1825; died 27 May, 1885. After ...

    Wenceslaus, Saint

    ( Also Vaclav, Vaceslav.) Duke, martyr, and patron of Bohemia, born probably 903; died at ...

    Wendelin of Trier, Saint

    Born about 554; died probably in 617. His earliest biographies, two in Latin and two in German, ...

    Weninger, Francis Xavier

    Jesuit missionary and author, born at Wildhaus, Styria, Austria, 31 October, 1805; died at ...

    Wenrich of Trier

    German ecclesiastico-polical writer of the eleventh century. He was a canon at Verdun, and ...

    Werburgh, Saint

    (WEREBURGA, WEREBURG, VERBOURG). Benedictine, patroness of Chester, Abbess of Weedon, ...

    Werden

    (WERTHINA, WEERDA, WERDENA). A suppressed Benedictine monastery near Essen in Rhenish ...

    Werner, Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias

    Convert, poet, and pulpit orator, born at Konigsberg, Prussia, 18 November, 1768; died at ...

    Wessel Goesport, John

    (GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

    Wessenberg, Ignaz Heinrich von

    Vicar-General and Administrator of the Diocese of Constance, born at Dresden, 4 November, 1774; ...

    Wessobrunn

    (WESSOGONTANTUM, AD FONTES WESSONIS). A suppressed Benedictine abbey near Weilheim in Upper ...

    West Syrian Rite

    The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin ...

    West Virginia

    A state of the American Union, bounded on the northeast by Pennsylvania and Maryland, on the ...

    Westcott, Sebastian

    English organist, born about 1524, was a chorister, under Redford, at St. Paul's Cathedral, ...

    Westeraas, Ancient See of

    (AROSI, AROSIENSIS). Located in Sweden. The Catholic diocese included the lands of ...

    Western Schism

    This schism of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries differs in all points from the Eastern ...

    Westminster Abbey

    This most famous of all English abbeys is situated within the precincts of the Royal Palace of ...

    Westminster Cathedral

    As a national expression of religious faith given by Roman Catholics to England since the ...

    Westminster, Archdiocese of

    (WESTMONASTERIENSIS). Erected and made metropolitan in 1850, comprises the Counties of ...

    Westminster, Matthew of

    The name given to the supposed author of a well-known English chronicle, the "Flores Historiarum". ...

    Weston, William

    Jesuit missionary priest, born at Maidstone, 1550 (?); died at Valladolid, Spain, 9 June, ...

    Westphalia

    A province of Prussia situated between the Rhine and the Weser. It is bounded on the northwest ...

    Wettingen-Mehrerau, Abbacy Nullius of

    A Cistercian abbey near Bregenz, Vorarlberg, Austria. The Cistercian monastery of Wettingen ...

    Wetzer, Heinrich Joseph

    Learned Orientalist, born at Anzefahr in Hesse-Cassel, 19 March, 1801; died at Freiburg in ...

    × Close

    Wh 23

    Wharton, Ven. Christopher

    Born at Middleton, Yorkshire, before 1546; martyred at York, 28 March, 1600. He was the second ...

    Wheeling, Diocese of

    (WHELINGENSIS). Comprises the State of West Virginia except the following counties, which are ...

    Whipple, Amiel Weeks

    Military engineer and soldier, born at Greenwich, Massachusetts, 1818; died at Washington, D.C., ...

    Whitaker, Venerable Thomas

    Born at Burnley, Lancashire, 1614; martyred at Lancaster, 7 August, 1646. Son of Thomas ...

    Whitbread, Venerable Thomas

    ( Alias HARCOURT). Born in Essex, 1618; martyred at Tyburn, 30 June, 1679. He was ...

    Whitby, Abbey of

    (Formerly called Streoneshalh). A Benedictine monastery in the North Riding of Yorkshire, ...

    Whitby, Synod of

    The Christianizing of Britain begun by St. Augustine in A.D. 597 was carried on with varying ...

    White Fathers

    (MISSIONARIES OF OUR LADY OF AFRICA OF ALGERIA). This society, known under the name of ...

    White, Andrew

    Missionary, b. at London, 1579; d. at or near London, 27 Dec., 1656 (O.S.). He entered St. ...

    White, Charles Ignatius

    Editor, historian, born at Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 1 February, 1807; died at Washington, ...

    White, Edward

    Grandfather of Stephen Mallory White , born in County Limerick, Ireland, in the latter part of ...

    White, Eustace, Venerable

    Martyr, born at Louth, Lincolnshire, in 1560; suffered at the London Tyburn, 10 December, 1591. ...

    White, Richard, Venerable

    ( Vere GWYN). Martyr, born at Llanilloes, Montgomeryshire, about 1537; executed at Wrexham, ...

    White, Robert

    English composer, b. about 1530; d. Nov., 1574; was educated by his father, and graduated Mus. ...

    White, Stephen

    Antiquarian and polyhistor; b. at Clonmel, Ireland, in 1574; d. in Galway, 1646. He belonged to a ...

    White, Stephen Mallory

    American statesman; born at San Francisco , California, 19 January, 1853; died at Los Angeles ...

    White, Thomas

    ( Alias BLACKLOW, BLACLOE, ALBIUS, ANGLUS). Born in Essex, 1593; died in London, 6 July, ...

    Whithorn Priory

    Located in Wigtownshire, Scotland, founded about the middle of the twelfth century, in the reign ...

    Whiting, Blessed Richard

    Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

    Whitsunday

    A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

    Whitty, Ellen

    In religion Mary Vincent, born at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, a village seven miles form the town of ...

    Whitty, Robert

    Born at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, 7 January, 1817; died 1 September, 1895. In 1830 he entered ...

    Whitty, Rose

    Born at Dublin, Ireland, 24 November, 1831; died 4 May, 1911. Of her two sisters one became a ...

    × Close

    Wi 121

    Wibald

    Abbot of Stavelot ( Stablo ), Malmedy, and Corvey, b. near Stavelot in Belgium in 1098; d. ...

    Wichita Indians

    A confederacy of Caddoan stock, formerly dwelling between the Arkansas River, Kansas, and the ...

    Wichita, Diocese of

    (WICHITENSIS). Erected in 1887, from the Diocese of Leavenworth . The territory of the new ...

    Wichmans, Francis

    In religion AUGUSTINE, born at Antwerp, 1596; died 1661. Having finished his classical studies, ...

    Widmer, Joseph

    Catholic theologian, born at Hohenraim, Lucerne, Switzerland, 15 Aug., 1779; died at ...

    Widow

    I. Canonical prescriptions concerning widows in the Old Testament refer mainly to the question ...

    Widukind

    Saxon leader, and one of the heads of the Westphalian nobility. He was the moving spirit in the ...

    Widukind of Corvey

    Historian who lived in the tenth century in the Benedictine Abbey of Corvey, Germany. He was a ...

    Wiener-Neustadt, Diocese of

    (NEOSTADTIENSIS). A suppressed see in Lower Austria. Upon the request of Frederick III it was ...

    Wiest, Stephan

    Member of the Order of Cistercians, b. at Teisbach in Lower Bavaria, 7 March, 1748; d. at ...

    Wigand, Saints

    ( Also rendered VENANTIUS). Three saints of this name are mentioned in the Roman ...

    Wigbert, Saint

    Companion of St. Boniface, born in England about 675; died at Hersfeld about 746. Positive ...

    Wigbod

    (WICBODUS, WIGBOLD, WIGBALD). Theological writer of the eighth century. Of his works there is ...

    Wigley, George J.

    Died in Rome, 20 January, 1866. By profession he was an architect, but subsequently devoted ...

    Wilberforce, Henry William

    Born at Clapham, 22 September, 1807; died at Stroud, Gloucestershire, 23 April, 1873. He was third ...

    Wilberforce, Robert Isaac

    Born at Clapham, 19 December, 1802; died at Albano, near Rome, 3 Feb. 1857. He was the second son ...

    Wilcannia, Diocese of

    (WILCANIENSIS). Located in New South Wales, one of the six suffragan sees of Sydney; consists ...

    Wilcox, Robert, Venerable

    English martyr, born at Chester, 1558; suffered at Canterbury, 1 October, 1588. He arrived at ...

    Wild, Johann

    Scriptural commentator and preacher, better known by his Latin name FERUS, b. in Swabia, 1497; d. ...

    Wilfrid, Saint

    Bishop of York, son of a Northumbrian thegn, born in 634; died at Oundle in Northamptonshire, ...

    Wilgefortis

    A fabulous female saint known also as UNCUMBER, KUMMERNIS, KOMINA, COMERA, CUMERANA, HULFE, ...

    Wilhelm of Herle

    Painter, born at Herle in Dutch Limburg at an unknown date in the fourteenth century; time and ...

    Wilhelm V

    Son of Duke Albrecht V. Born at Munich, 29 September, 1548; died at Schlessheim, 7 February, ...

    Wilhering, Cistercian Abbey of

    (HILARIA). Situated on the right bank of the Danube, in the Diocese of Linz, Austria. Ulric ...

    Will

    (Latin voluntas, Greek boúlesis, "willing" German Wille, French volonté ). ...

    Will and Testament of Clerics

    Roman law allowed clerics to dispose of their property by will or otherwise. Bishops, however, ...

    Will, Free

    RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

    Willaert, Adrian

    Composer and founder of the Venetian school, b. at Bruges, or, according to other authorities, ...

    Willehad, Saint

    Bishop at Bremen, born in Northumberland before 745; died at Blecazze (Blexen) on the Weser, 8 ...

    Willems, Pierre

    Philologist, born at Maastricht, 6 January, 1840; died at Louvain, 23 February, 1898. Following ...

    William

    Born in Brittany, died at Marmoutiers, 23 May, 1124. For a time he was Archdeacon of Nantes, ...

    William

    Abbot of Saint-Bénigne at Dijon, celebrated Cluniac reformer, b. on the Island of ...

    William Carter, Venerable

    English martyr, born in London, 1548; suffered for treason at Tyburn, 11 January, 1584. Son of ...

    William Exmew, Blessed

    Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...

    William Filby, Blessed

    Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

    William Hart, Blessed

    Born at Wells, 1558; suffered at York, 15 March, 1583. Elected Trappes Scholar at Lincoln ...

    William Lacy, Blessed

    Born at "Hanton", Yorkshire (probably Houghton or Tosside, West Riding); suffered at York, 22 ...

    William of Auvergne

    Bishop of Paris, medieval philosopher and theologian. Born at Aurillac in Auvergne towards ...

    William of Auxerre

    A thirteenth-century theologian and professor at the University of Paris . William's name ...

    William of Champeaux

    A twelfth-century Scholastic, philosopher, and theologian, b. at Champeaux, near Melun, in the ...

    William of Conches

    A twelfth-century Scholastic philosopher and theologian, b. about the year 1100. After having ...

    William of Digulleville

    (DEGULLEVILLE). A French poet of the fourteenth century. Nothing is known of his life, except ...

    William of Ebelholt, Saint

    (Also called WILLIAM OF PARIS and WILLIAM OF THE PARACLETE.) Died on Easter Sunday, 1203, and ...

    William of Gellone, Saint

    Born 755; died 28 May, c. 812; was the second count of Toulouse, having attained that dignity in ...

    William of Jumièges

    (Surnamed CALCULUS.) Benedictine historian of the eleventh century. Practically nothing seems ...

    William of Maleval, Saint

    (or ST. WILLIAM THE GREAT). Died 10 February, 1157; beatified in 1202. His life, written ...

    William of Malmesbury

    Born 30 November, about 1090; died about 1143. He was educated at Malmesbury, where he became a ...

    William of Moerbeke

    Scholar, Orientalist, philosopher, and one of the most distinguished men of letters of the ...

    William of Nangis

    (GUILHELMUS). A medieval chronicler, who takes his name from the City of Nancy, France. ...

    William of Newburgh

    Historian, b. at Bridlington, Yorkshire, 1136; d. at Newburgh, Yorkshire, 1198, where he went as ...

    William of Norwich, Saint

    Born 1132; died 22 March, 1144. On Holy Saturday, 25 March, 1144, a boy's corpse showing signs of ...

    William of Ockham

    Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village ...

    William of Paris, Saint

    Abbot of Eskill in Denmark, born 1105; died 1202. He was born of a noble French family, and ...

    William of Perth, Saint

    (Or ST. WILLIAM OF ROCHESTER). Martyr, born at Perth ; died about 1201. Practically all that ...

    William of Poitiers

    Norman historian, born of a noted family, at Préaux near Pont Audemer, Normandy, about 1020. ...

    William of Ramsey

    Flourished about 1219. Nothing is known of his life except that he was a monk of Crowland Abbey ...

    William of Sens

    A twelfth-century French architect, supposed to have been born at Sens. He is referred to in ...

    William of Shoreham

    ( Or de Schorham.) An English religious writer of the Anglo-Norman period, born at ...

    William of St-Amour

    A thirteenth century theologian and controversialist, born in Burgundy in the first decades of ...

    William of St-Thierry

    Theologian and mystic, and so called from the monastery of which he was abbot, b. at ...

    William of Turbeville

    (TURBE, TURBO, or DE TURBEVILLE). Bishop of Norwich (1146-74), b. about 1095; d. at Norwich ...

    William of Tyre

    Archbishop of Tyre and historian, born probably in Palestine, of a European family which had ...

    William of Vercelli

    (Or WILLIAM OF MONTE VERGINE.) The founder of the Hermits of Monte Vergine, or Williamites, ...

    William of Ware

    (William de Warre, Guard, Guaro, Varro or Varron.) Born at Ware in Herts; the date of his ...

    William of Wayneflete

    Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of England, b. towards the end of the fourteenth century; ...

    William of Wykeham

    Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England and founder of Winchester College ; b. between ...

    William Perault

    (PERAULD, PERALDUS, PERALTUS). Writer and preacher, b. at Perault, France ; d. at Lyons ; ...

    William the Clerk (of Normandy)

    French poet of the thirteenth century. Nothing is known of his life except that he was a clerk of ...

    William the Conqueror

    King of England and Duke of Normandy. William was the natural son of Robert, Duke of ...

    William the Walloon

    Date of birth unknown; d. (probably) 22 Dec., 1089. He became Abbot of St. Arnoul at Metz in ...

    William, Blessed

    Abbot of Hirschau, monastic reformer, born in Bavaria ; died at Hirschau, 5 July 1091. He ...

    William, Saint

    (WILLIAM FITZHERBERT, also called WILLIAM OF THWAYT). Archbishop of York. Tradition ...

    William, Saint

    Bishop of St-Brieuc, born in the parish of St. Alban, Brittany, between 1178 and 1184; died ...

    Williamites

    There were two minor religious orders or congregations of this name: (1) a Benedictine ...

    Willibald and Winnebald, Saints

    (WUNIBALD, WYNNEBALD). Members of the Order of St. Benedict, brothers, natives probably of ...

    Willibrord, Saint

    Bishop of Utrecht, Apostle of the Frisians, and son of St. Hilgis, born in Northumbria, 658; ...

    Willigis, Saint

    Archbishop of Mainz, d. 23 Feb., 1011. Feast, 23 February or 18 April. Though of humble birth ...

    Williram

    (WALTRAM, WILTRAM). Scriptural scholar, b. in Franconia (near Worms), Germany ; d. in 1085 at ...

    Wilmers, Wilhelm

    Professor of philosophy and theology, b. at Boke in Westphalia, 30 January, 1817; d. at ...

    Wilmington, Diocese of

    (WILMINGTONIENSIS). Erected 3 March, 1868. It includes what is known as the Delmarvia ...

    Wilton Abbey

    A Benedictine convent in Wiltshire, England, three miles from Salisbury. A first foundation was ...

    Wilton, Richard

    Died December 21, 1239. He was a medieval scholar of whom little is known except that he was an ...

    Wimborne Minster

    ( Also WIMBURN or WINBURN). Located in Dorsetshire, England. Between the years 705-23 a ...

    Wimmer, Boniface

    Archabbot, b. at Thalmassing, Bavaria, 14 January, 1809; d. at St. Vincent Archabbey, Beatty, ...

    Wimpfeling, Jakob

    Humanist and theologian, b. at Schlettstadt, Alsace, 25 July 1450; d. there, 17 Nov., 1528. He ...

    Wimpina, Konrad

    (WIMINAE, WIMINESIS). Theologian, b. at Buchen in Baden, about 1465; d. at Amorbach in Lower ...

    Winchester, Ancient See of

    (WINTONIA, WINTONIENSIS). This diocese came into existence in 635 when the great ...

    Winckelmann, Johann Joachim

    Archaeologist and historian of ancient art, born at Stendal near Magdeburg, in 1717; assassinated ...

    Windesheim

    An Augustinian monastery situated about four miles south of Zwolle on the Issel, in the Kingdom ...

    Winding Sheet of Christ, Feast of the Holy

    In 1206 one of the (supposed) Winding Sheets used at the burial of Christ was brought to ...

    Windischmann, Friedrich Heinrich Hugo

    Orientalist and exegete, b. at Aschaffenburg, 13 December, 1811; d. at Munich, 23 August, ...

    Windischmann, Karl Joseph Hieronymus

    Philosopher, b. at Mainz, 25 August, 1775; d. at Bonn, 23 April, 1839. He attended the gymnasium ...

    Window, Rose

    A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

    Windows in Church Architecture

    From the beginning Christian churches, in contrast to the ancient temples, were intended to be ...

    Windsor

    A town of great antiquity, on the Thames, in Berkshire, England ; quaintly rendered Ventus ...

    Windthorst, Ludwig

    Born near Osnabrück, 17 January, 1812; died 14 March, 1891. He came from a family of ...

    Wine, Altar

    Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid ...

    Winefride, Saint

    Born at Holywell, Wales, about 600; died at Gwytherin, Wales, 3 Nov., 660. Her father was ...

    Wingham, Thomas

    Born in London, 5 January, 1846; died there, 24 March, 1893. He studied music at Wylde's London ...

    Winnebago Indians

    A tribe of Siouan stock closely related in speech to the Iowa, Missouri, and Oto, and more ...

    Winnebald and Willibald, Saints

    (WUNIBALD, WYNNEBALD). Members of the Order of St. Benedict, brothers, natives probably of ...

    Winnoc, Saint

    Abbot or Prior or Wormhoult, died 716 or 717. Three lives of this saint are extant: the best of ...

    Winona, Diocese of

    (WINONENSIS). Established in 1889, suffragan of St. Paul, comprises the following counties in ...

    Winslow, Jakob Benignus

    (WINSLOW). Physician and anatomist, b. at Odense, Denmark, 27 April, 1669; d. in Paris, 3 ...

    Winwallus, Saint

    Abbot of Landevennec; d. 3 March, probably at the beginning of the sixth century, though the ...

    Winzet, Ninian

    Benedictine abbot and controversial writer, b. at Renfrew, Scotland, 1518; d. at Ratisbon, 21 ...

    Wipo

    (WIPPO). Apparently a native of Burgundy, lived in the first half of the eleventh century. He ...

    Wireker, Nigel

    Satirist, lived about 1190. He describes himself as old in the "Speculum Stultorum", which was ...

    Wirt, Wigand

    Theologian, born at Frankfort about 1460; died at Steyer, 30 June, 1519. He entered the ...

    Wisconsin

    Known as the "Badger State", admitted to the Union on 29 May, 1848, the seventeenth state ...

    Wisdom, Book of

    One of the deutero-canonical writings of the Old Testament, placed in the Vulgate between the ...

    Wisdom, Daughters of

    (LES FILLES DE LA SAGESSE). Founded at Poitiers by Blessed Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort ...

    Wise Men (Magi)

    (Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

    Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick

    Cardinal, first Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Seville, 2 Aug., 1802; d. in London, 15 ...

    Witchcraft

    It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between magic and witchcraft. Both are concerned with ...

    Witness

    One who is present, bears testimony, furnishes evidence or proof. Witnesses are employed in ...

    Witt, Francis Xavier

    Reformer of church music, founder of the St. CeciliaSociety for German-speaking countries, ...

    Wittenberg

    The city is in Prussian Saxony and was founded by Albert the Bear (d. 1170). He had conquered ...

    Wittman, George Michael

    Bishop-elect of Ratisbon, b. near Pleistein, Oberpfalz, Bavaria, 22 (23?) Jan., 1760; d. at ...

    Wittman, Patrizius

    Catholic journalist, b. at Ellwanger, Würtemberg, 4 January, 1818; d. at Munich, 3 ...

    Witzel, Georg

    (WICELIUS). Theologian, b. at Vacha, Province of Hesse, 1501; d. at Mainz, 16 Feb., 1573. He ...

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    Wl 1

    Wladislaw, Diocese of

    (Polish WLOCLAWEK; Latin VLADISLAVIENSIS ET POMERANLAE). The historical origin of this ...

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    Wo 23

    Wolff, George Dering

    Editor, b. at Martinsburg, West Virginia , 25 Aug., 1822; d. at Norristown, Pennsylvania, 29 ...

    Wolfgang, Saint

    Bishop of Ratisbon (972-994), born about 934; died at the village of Pupping in upper Austria, ...

    Wolfram von Eschenbach

    Generally regarded as the greatest of Middle-High-German epic poets, date of birth unknown; d. ...

    Wolgemut, Michael

    Painter and engraver, b. at Nuremberg, 1434; d. there, 1519. He was the most prominent artist of ...

    Wolowski, Louis-François-Michel-Reymond

    Born at Warsaw, 31 Aug., 1810; d. at Gisors, Eure, 15 Aug., 1876. His father, a member of the ...

    Wolsey, Thomas

    Cardinal, Archbishop of York, b. at Ipswitch, the usually accepted date, 1471, being probably ...

    Wolstan, Saint

    Benedictine, and Bishop of Worcester, b. at Long Itchington, Warwickshire, England, about 1008; ...

    Woman

    Of late years the position of woman in human society has given rise to a discussion which, as part ...

    Wood, Thomas

    Priest and confessor, b. about 1499; d. in Wisbech Castle before 1588. After being prebendary ...

    Wood-Carving

    In general, the production from wood of objects of trade or art by means of sharp instruments, as ...

    Woodcock, Venerable John

    English Franciscan martyr, b. at Leyland, Lancashire, 1603; suffered at Lancaster, 7 August, ...

    Woodhead, Abraham

    Born at Almonbury, Yorkshire, about March, 1609; died at Hoxton, Middlesex, 4 May, 1678. This ...

    Woodhouse, Blessed Thomas

    Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

    Woods, Julian Edmund Tenison

    Priest and scientist, b. at Southwark, London, 15 Nov., 1832; d. at Sydney, New South Wales, 7 ...

    Worcester, Ancient Diocese of

    (WIGORNIENSIS.) Located in England, created in 680 when, at the Synod of Hatfield under ...

    Words (in Canon Law)

    To give the right value to words is a very important factor in the proper interpretation of ...

    World, Antiquity of the

    Various attempts have been made to establish the age of the world. Two groups of scientists have ...

    Wormwood

    ( Hebrew la'anah .) Wormwood, known for its repulsive bitterness ( Jeremiah 9:15 ; 23:15 ; ...

    Worship, Christian

    NOTION AND CHARACTERISTICS The word worship (Saxon weorthscipe , "honour"; from worth , ...

    Worsley, Edward

    Born in Lancashire, England, 1605; died at Antwerp, 2 Sept., 1676. He is said to have been ...

    Worthington, Thomas, D.D.

    Third President of Douai College , b. 1549 at Blainscough Hall, near Wigan, Lancashire; d. at ...

    Wounds, The Five Sacred

    Devotion The revival of religious life and the zealous activity of St. Bernard and St. ...

    Wouters, G. Henry

    Historian, b. at Oostham, Belgian Limburg, 3 May, 1802; d. 5 January, 1872. In 1829 he became ...

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    Wr 2

    Wright, Venerable Peter

    Martyr, b. at Slipton, Northamptonshire, 1603; suffered at Tyburn, 19 May, 1651. After spending ...

    Wright, William

    Born at York, 1562; died 18 Jan., 1639. Though he came late (23) to his studies, he then made ...

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    Wu 2

    Wulfen, Franz Xaver Freiherr von

    Botanist, b. at Belgrade, 5 November, 1728; d. at Klagenfurt, 17 March, 1805. He was the son of ...

    Wulfram, Saint

    (VULFRAMNUS.) Bishop of Sens, missionary in Frisi, born at Milly near Fontainebleau, probably ...

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    Wy 5

    Wyart, Théophile-Louis-Henri

    (In religion DOM SEBASTIAN). Abbot of Cîteaux and Abbot-General of the Order of ...

    Wyche, Saint Richard de

    Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

    Wyclif, John

    (WYCLIFFE, or WICLIF, etc.). Writer and "reformer", b. probably at Hipswell near Richmond, ...

    Wyntoun, Andrew of

    Scottish chronicler, born (as we know from the internal evidence of his writings) in the reign ...

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