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Westphalia

A province of Prussia situated between the Rhine and the Weser. It is bounded on the northwest and north by the Netherlands and Hanover, on the east by Schaumburg-Lippe, Hanover, Lippe-Detmold, Brunswick, Hesse-Nassau, and Waldeck, on the south and southwest by Hesse-Nassau, on the west by the province of the Rhine and the Netherlands. It is the tenth in size and the third in population of the Prussian provinces, having an area of 7804 square miles, and 4,125,096 inhabitants. Of its population 2,121,534 are Catholics, and 1,947,672 Evangelicals. The province has 107 cities and 1468 village communities. In the south and northeast it is mountainous, in the other sections it is level. The chief industries are agriculture, breeding of cattle, mining, and manufactures. The industrial section on the Ruhr River contains the most productive coal beds of Germany and also the most valuable iron mines. Consequently this district is the seat of the most extensive mining industry, large iron forges, and innumerable factories for the manufacture of machinery and the working of iron. The relatively small district of 386 square miles contains some twenty towns of more than 20,000 inhabitants with altogether a population of 750,000. The other manufactures are chiefly linen and other textile products. 53.4 per cent of the inhabitants make their living in mining and manufacturing industries, 26.2 per cent in agriculture, 10 per cent in commerce and traffic. Still 42.4 per cent of the area is given up to farming and gardening.

HISTORY

In the earliest era the province was inhabited by the German tribes of the Sicambri, Bructeri, Marsi, and Cherusci. For a short time it was held by the Romans, having been conquered by Drusus and Tiberius, the sons of Augustus, in a series of campaigns during the years 12 B.C. to A.D. 5. The Romans were defeated in the great battle in the Teutoburg Forest (A.D. 9), and Germanicus was not able to reconquer the country. In the third century the Saxons pushed their way into the province from the Cimbrian peninsula; other tribes joined them, either voluntarily or under compulsion, and thus there arose a large confederation of tribes which bore the name of Saxons. The western part of the province between the Weser and the Lower Rhine appears from about the year 800 in the historical sources under the name of Westphalia, while the district on both banks of the Weser was called Engern, and the district between the Weser and the Elbe bore the name of Eastphalia. In the later Middle Ages the name Engern disappeared and the region of the Weser was then considered a part of Westphalia. No one has yet been able to give a satisfactory explanation of the names Westphalia and Eastphalia. Among the various meanings suggested have been: fâl , horse; fale , inhabitant of a lowland; vallum , boundary wall, etc.

The Westphalians were brought into contact with Christianity in the seventh century. The first apostles (about A.D. 695) were the two Ewalds, known from the colour of their hair as the White and the Black Ewald. However, the account of Bede (Hist. eccl. gent. Angl., lib. V, c.x) is uncertain and contradictory. At a later date the conversion of the Saxons especially engaged the attention of St. Boniface. He was not, however, able to carry out his desire, although Westphalian folk-lore has stories of the preaching of Boniface and even of his founding of churches. Probably, even though the proof is lacking, the attempts to found missions among the Saxons proceeded from Cologne. No permanent success was gained by the campaigns of the Frankish King Pepin (751-68) against the Saxons. The country was finally subdued after several bloody wars (772-804) by Pepin's son Charlemagne, who, as an apostle of the sword, brought the Saxons to Christianity. The questions asked the Saxon candidates for baptism are still in existence, as well as the answers that were to be made in which they were obliged to renounce the gods Donar, Wodan, and Saxnot. The baptism of the Saxon Duke Widukind (785) was of much importance; for after baptism he was unswervingly loyal to Christianity and its zealous promoter. The same is true of the Westphalians in general. After they had once accepted the Christian faith , which "had been preached to them with an iron tongue by their bitterest enemies", hardly any other people were as loyally and devotedly attached to Christianity. Charlemagne's chief assistants in the missionary work were Sturm (who converted the country around Paderborn ), Lebwin (who brought the western districts of Westphalia to Christianity ), and Liudger (who converted the district surrounding Münster). At the end of the eighth and the beginning of the ninth centuries the missionary districts of Osnabrück, Münster, Minden, and Paderborn were raised to dioceses. The southern part of the province, in the neighbourhood of Ruhr and Lippe, fell to the Archdiocese of Cologne. Louis the Pious continued the work of his father. During his reign the first monasteries were founded; the most celebrated of these are the Benedictine Abbey of Corvey (815), and the Abbey of Herford (819) for Benedictine nuns.

Westphalia, as has already been said, was only a part of Saxony, and in about the year 900 Saxony was made a duchy, after Ludolf, the ancestor of the ducal house, had been made a margrave in 850 during the reign of Louis the German. The duchy continued to exist until 1180. The last and greatest of the dukes was Henry the Lion, who lost the duchy through disloyalty to the emperor. This led to the division of Westphalia into numerous principalities. The southern part, the "Sauerland", fell as the Duchy of Westphalia to the Archdiocese of Cologne which retained it until 1803. This duchy had its own constitution and its own diet. The head of the ecclesiastical government was the court of the officiality. Up to 1434 the court was held at Arnsberg, and after that at Werl. The attempts of the Archbishops of Cologne to extend the ducal power even over the northern part of the province were unsuccessful. Instead of the jurisdiction of Cologne, the Bishops of Münster, Osnabrück, Paderborn, and Minden, who had long had secular sovereignty, became independent ruling princes. At the same time numerous smaller principalities were created, such as the countships of Mark, Ravensberg, Tecklenburg, Rietberg, and Steinfurt, the free imperial city of Dortmund, the principality of the Abbot of Corvey. In 1394 the Countship of Mark was united with Cleves. In 1346 the Countship of Ravensberg was united with Julich and in 1511 also with Cleves. In this article the Diocese of Osnabrück , as is generally the case, is not taken into consideration, although it belongs to the original territory of Westphalia and in earlier ages included large districts of the present dioceses of Münster and Paderborn, because from 1648 it was entirely independent, and in 1815 it became a part of the Kingdom of Hanover with which, in 1866, it was incorporated into Prussia.

In the meantime the Church had developed in all directions. The number of monasteries and religious foundations that were established during the Middle Ages exceeded 250. Among these should be mentioned: the Benedictine abbeys at Grafschaft (1072), Marienmünster (1128), St. Moritz at Minden (1042), Abdinghof at Paderborn (1015); the Cistercian abbeys at Bredclar (1196), Hardchausen (1140), and Marienfeld (1185); the Premonstratensian abbeys at Kappenberg (1122), Klarholz (1133), and Varlar (1128); the Augustinian monasteries at Osnabrück (1288), Herford (before 1288), and Lippstadt (1281); the Dominican monasteries at Dortmund (1310), Minden (1236), Münster (1346), Soest (1231), and Warburg (1280); the Minorite monasteries at Soest (1232), Paderborn (1232), Münster (about 1247), and Herford (1223?). In the Conflict of Investitures the Westphalian bishops, with few exceptions, held to the Emperors Henry IV and Henry V, and only at times, and then under strong compulsion, did they support the Church. In the same way they were partisans of Emperor Frederick I (1152-90) in his quarrel with the pope. During the reign of Frederick II (1215- 1250), on the contrary, they were actively connected with the pope. The strong religious feeling of the medieval Westphalians is shown by the large number of ecclesiastical institutions dependent upon the charity of the people. Thus Lippstadt, with a population of 2700, had four parish churches, and there were hospitals in very small places. Numerous pilgrimages were undertaken as far as Spain and France. Many also took part in the Crusades. In 1217 one of the leaders was Count Gottfried II of Arnsberg. In the fourteenth century the object of the Crusades was the heathen land of the Prussians. Thus in 1337 the Counts of Lippe, Arnsberg, and Wittgenstein joined the expeditions against the Prussians.

The Carthusian Werner Rolevinck (b. in 1425 in the District of Münster; d. in 1502) said of his countrymen: "I am bold to assert that the people are genuinely pious, especially in fasting, in hearing the Divine Word, in attendance at church, in the acceptance of their pastors, in frequent pilgrimages, in the giving of alms, hospitality to strangers, and other works of Christian charity ". It is probable, however, that Rolevinck describes the beautiful and earlier period of the fathers. At the beginning of the fourteenth century Westphalia was in a terrible state of disorganization caused by the political schemes of its ecclesiastical princes, as, for instance, by the three counts of Mors who occupied the sees of Cologne, Paderborn, Osnabrück, and Münster, or more especially by the Soest feud (1441-49), and the Münster feud (150-56). After 1456 better conditions prevailed for a time; order was restored in the monasteries ; the bishops encouraged religious life ; the diocesan synods were more regularly held, and favourably influenced both clergy and people. But conditions again grew bad when suddenly, in the year 1508, all the Westphalian sees were vacant and the former competent bishops were succeeded by persons unequal to the duties of their office. Until towards the end of the Middle Ages Westphalia in intellectual matters was under the influence of Cologne and its university. Yet in the era of Humanism a vigorous independent life was developed in the province. Many Westphalians attended the school at Deventer which flourished under the guidance of Alexander Hegius, a native of Westphalia. At Münster, Rudolf of Langen and Johannes Murmellius exerted an active and far-reaching influence for the spread of humanistic training. The Westphalian Hermann von dem Busche was one of the greatest wanderers among the itinerant humanistic teachers. Although a eulogist like Hermann Hamelmann goes too far when he asserts, as Hamelmann continually does, that the Westphalians were the first to revive Classical learning in Germany, nevertheless a large share must be ascribed to them in this revival.

During the first years of the era of the Reformation Westphalia was little affected. It is true that here, as elsewhere in Germany, a strong anti-clerical opposition had been in existence for a long time, but this antagonism did not at once join the new dogmatic opposition of Luther. The revolts which in 1525 arose in Minden and Münster, were social in the main, and were aimed both against abuses in the lives of the upper and lower clergy which were inconsistent with the dignity of the clerical calling and which had become intolerable, and against historically sanctioned privileges of ecclesiastics in civil and political affairs. The earliest adherents of Luther in Westphalia were Augustinian monks and Humanists. The Augustinians studied at the University of Wittenberg and brought the new doctrine home with them. Thus in 1524 the Lutheran opinions were preached at Lippstadt by the prior Westermann, and the lector Koiten, and at Herford by the prior Kropp. Among the Humanists who maintained the Lutheran cause were Hermann Marburg von dem Busche, who watched and supported from Marburg the advance of the new dogma in his native region, Jacob Montanus at Herford, and a large number of school teachers of the younger generation of Humanists, as Gerhard Cotius, John Glandorp, and Adolf Clarenbach at Münster. It was not until after 1525 that Lutheranism gained ground among the common people in Westphalia. As the common people had little comprehension of the dogmatic controversies, the success of the Reformation is rather explicable by the fact that the old popular opposition to the life and constitution of the Church learned to look upon Luther as its leader. The adherents of the movement continually grew in number by means of the accounts given by itinerant merchants, by the agitation carried on by preachers and students of Wittenberg University, and by popular literature. Among the cities, Lippstadt, Soest, and Herford were the first to introduce the Evangelical Confession; Tecklenburg was the first of the countships. The secular principalities gradually became Protestant. In the ecclesiastical principalities the position of the ruler was of great importance. Münster was won for the new doctrine by the preacher Bernhard Rothmann; it was recognized as a Lutheran city by the bishop in the Treaty of 14 February, 1533. The Protestant faith was also established in a number of country towns in the Diocese of Münster . However, in the years 1534-35, the Anabaptists carried on their wild regime at Münster, and their overthrow put an end for a time to the progress of the Reformation. The Archbishop of Cologne and Bishop of Paderborn, Hermann von der Wied, sought to introduce the Reformation in the Duchy of Westphalia and in the Diocese of Paderborn , but he was deposed in 1547 and his successor re-established Catholicism in both districts. In Minden the bishops themselves were friends of the new doctrine, consequently Protestantism was able to maintain itself. The check given by the Augsburg Interim (1548) to Protestantism was only a partial and temporary one, especially as a number of the princes rejected it altogether. After the Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555) the Church lost Dortmund, a large part of the Diocese of Münster, as is shown by the visitation of 1571, and Paderborn, which was under the Protestant Bishop of Lauenburg (1577-85).

Lutheranism was also partially superseded by Calvinism, as in the countships of Mark and Tecklenburg, in the Diocese of Münster, and in Southern Westphalia (Wittgenstein and Nassau-Siegen), while the flourishing cities of Soest, Lippstadt, Herford, Bielefeld, and Dortmund held to the Lutheran faith, the stronghold and pattern of Lutheranism being Soest. However, after the Church had been re-invigorated by the Council of Trent , it took more decisive steps against Protestantism in Westphalia as well as other regions. Here also the Jesuits deserve the most credit for the Counter-Reformation. Their first collegium was established at Paderborn in 1580, the next at Münster at 1589. During the following century other collegiate foundations and missions were added to these. By means of their gymnasial schools they gained over the rising generation and brought large numbers back to the Church, in districts far beyond the places of their settlement, by means of missions, retreats, brotherhoods, and sodalities. The new Capuchin and Franciscan monasteries, a fairly large number of which were founded between 1600 and 1650, exerted influence in the same manner. It must, however, be said, that the "secular arm" had a large share in the Counter-Reformation, often a larger one than spiritual weapons. The exercise of the Evangelical religion was forbidden and the non-Catholic clergy, teachers, and officials were deposed and expelled. The Counter-Reformation was begun in the Diocese of Münster by Bishop John von Hoya (1566-74), and brought to a victorious close by Ernst of Bavaria (1585-1612), and Ferdinand of Bavaria (1612-50).

In Paderborn Henry of Lauenburg was followed by Theodore of Fürstenberg (1585-1618), who defeated the Protestant opposition by the taking of Paderborn in 1604; he restored Catholicism with the aid of the Jesuits, and gave the Counter-Reformation a centre by founding the University of Paderborn in 1614. In 1623 Paderborn was once more entirely Catholic. The Archbishop of Cologne, Gebhard Truchess of Waldburg (1577-84), made a second fruitless attempt to introduce Protestantism in the Duchy of Westphalia. The three successors of Truchess made the duchy once more completely Catholic. The Counter-Reformation was introduced in the domains of the Abbey of Corvey by the Prince Abbot Dietrich of Beringhauses (1585-1616), but it made little progress under the inactive and incapable Abbot Henry of Aschebrock (1616-1624), and Hoxter remained Protestant. In the same way the attempts of the dukes of Cleves, who had returned to the Church, to drive Protestantism out of the countships of Mark and Ravensberg failed, especially as in 1614 both countships became a part of Brandenburg. Rietberg was completely regained for Catholicism by the conversion to Catholicism of the heiress of the Countship of Rietberg, Sabina Katharina, and by her marriage with the convert John III of East Freisland, a grandson of King Gustavus Vasa. In 1610 the exercise of Protestantism was forbidden in Rietberg. The ruler of Buren, Elizabeth, was converted in 1613; her son Moritz became a Jesuit, and presented his seigniorial domain to the order. The attempts to re-establish Catholicism which were undertaken during the Thirty Years War, on account of the Edict of Restitution of 1629, had only a temporary success. Among these efforts were the one at Minden, where the Jesuits laboured for a short time and where in 1632 a diocesan synod was held, and that at Herford.

The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) established as the basis of ecclesiastical affairs the conditions of the year 1624. Accordingly, since then the territories of Minden, Ravensberg, Mark, Tecklenburg, Rheda, Hohenlimburg, Siegen-Hilchenbach, Wittgenstein, and the imperial city of Dortmund have been entirely or mainly Protestant, while Münster, Paderborn, the Duchy of Westphalia, and Rietberg have been Catholic. The Countship of Steinfurt and the Seigniory of Gemen gradually became for the most part Catholic. Until modern times territorial boundaries were also denominational boundaries, especially in Westphalia. With the present era the denominational compactness was broken by the growth of the cities and the immigration of large numbers of factory hands from all parts of Germany. In 1648 Brandenburg-Prussia received by the Treaty of Westphalia the Diocese of Minden, in 1702 the Countship of Lingen by inheritance from the line of Orange, and in 1707 the Countship of Tecklenburg by purchase. From the end of the seventeenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century Church life was torpid and little progress was made. The cathedral chapters at Münster and Paderborn withdrew more and more from their spiritual duties. From the fifteenth century they were open only to members of the old families of the nobility, of whom but a few were ordained. The others did not live differently from the secular nobility. The old Benedictine and Cistercian abbeys had also become very worldly, but little was done for the training of their inmates in learning, although,in general, good discipline and order were maintained. Only the mendicant orders, especially the Franciscans, laboured actively for the cure of souls. The system of schools was very defective. In the Diocese of Münster the seminary for priests founded by the Prince-Bishop Ferdinand in 1613 was allowed to fall into decay, so that the training of priests was very unsatisfactory.

Much was done at the end of the eighteenth century for the improvement of education by the distinguished minister and Vicar- General of Münster, Freiherr Franz von Fürstenberg. His work affected at first only the Diocese of Münster , but the example had an influence on the whole of Westphalia, and indeed was felt throughout Germany. He reorganized the entire school system of Münster from the lowest elementary instruction up to the university on a well constructed plan, founded the University of Münster in 1771, re-established the seminary for priests, and founded the normal school over which he placed Overberg. The era of the French Revolution and of the Napoleonic empire brought violent changes. On account of the Peace of Luneville (1801) and of the Enactment of the Imperial Delegation (1803), the secular sovereignty of the bishops was suppressed and their territories used to compensate the princes who were obliged to yield their possessions on the left bank of the Rhine to France. Thus Prussia received the Diocese of Paderborn and a part of the Diocese of Münster, that is the half of the upper section of the diocese with the capital. The other half was used to form petty principalities for the Princes of Salm, Croy, and Looz-Corswaren; the lower diocese and the district called Emsland were given to the Dukes of Oldenburg and of Arenberg. The Duchy of Westphalia went to the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The new rulers at once secularized the monasteries for men, a right given them by the enactment of the imperial delegation. Thus in the spring of 1803 Prussia suppressed the monasteries of Kapenberg, Marienfeld, Liesborn, Abdinghof, Hardehausen, Dalheim, and Boddeken. By an Edict of 17 October, 1803, Landgrave Louis of Hesse suppressed the monasteries in his territories.

In 1807 Prussia had to concede its Westphalian possessions to France. The western part of Westphalia was obliged to change its nationality several times, it belonged in part to the French Empire, in part to the Grand Duchy of Berg under Joachim Murat. The eastern section of Westphalia was made, in conjunction with territories taken from Prussia, Hesse, Hanover, and Brunswick, into the Kingdom of Westphalia, the name of which was a misnomer, as the larger part of the new kingdom was composed of lands that were not Westphalian. The Kingdom of Westphalia was given to Napoleon's brother Jerome. The French continued the secularization of the monasteries, nor did they spare the convents. On 13 May, 1809, Jerome decreed the suppression of six convents and on 1 November, 1809, ordered the suppression of all religious foundations, chapters, abbeys, and priories with exception of those devoted to education. Similar decrees were issued by Napoleon himself on 14 November, 1811, for the territories of Münster. As far as possible the lands were sold. In 1815, after the French had been driven out of the country, Prussia received, besides its earlier possessions, the former Duchy of Westphalia, the Abbey of Corvey, the former free imperial city of Dortmund and a number of mediatised principalities and seigniories. In 1816 the Province of Westphalia was formed from these acquisitions. At a later date (18510 the whole of Lippstadt, which up to then had been divided between Prussia and Lippe, was added to the province. Under Prussian administration the province has reached a high degree of prosperity.

The life of the Church has also greatly developed in connection with the revival of German Catholicism in general. There are in Westphalia a large number of religious, political, social, and charitable associations of Catholics, and brotherhoods which are very active and have many thousand members. the Catholic Press of Westphalia also is in a prosperous condition. There are 82 Catholic newspapers, of which the "Westfälischer Merkur" of Münster, the "Westfalisches Volksblatt" of Paderborn, and the "Tremonia" of Dortmund should be mentioned, besides numerous Catholic periodicals. A diocesan synod was held at Paderborn in 1868 and at Münster in 1897. Next to the province of the Rhine, Westphalia is the most important Catholic part of Prussia. The ecclesiastical divisions have been so arranged by the Bull "De salute animarum" of 1821, that the Diocese of Münster includes the government district of Münster, one parish in the government district of Minden, as well as three enclaves in the government district of Arnsberg; the County of Königssteele in the government district of Arnsberg belongs to the Archdiocese of Cologne , and all else to the Diocese of Paderborn. The government district of Münster contains 800,302 Catholics, and 182,044 Evangelicals; the government district of Arnsberg, 1,081,343 Catholics and 1,276,187 Evangelicals; the government district of Minden, 239,889 Catholics and 489,441 Evangelicals. For ecclesiastical statistics see articles MUNSTER and PADERBORN.

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The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...

Water, Holy, Fonts

Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

Water, Liturgical Use of

Besides the holy water which is used by the Church in so many of her rites of blessing, and ...

Waterford and Lismore

(Waterfordiensis et Lismorensis), suffragan of Cashel. This diocese is almost coterminous with ...

Waterson, Ven. Edward

Born at London ; martyred at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 7 January 1594 (1593 old style). A romantic ...

Waterton, Charles

Naturalist and explorer, born in Walton Hall near Wakefield, Yorkshire, England, in 1782; died ...

Waterworth, James

Born at St. Helen's, Lancashire, 1806; d. at Old Hall, Newark, 28 March, 1876. Educated at ...

Watteau, Jean Antoine

French painter, and founder and leader of the school usually known as that of the painters of Les ...

Waverley, Cistercian Abbey of

Situated in Surrey, near Farnham, founded by William Gifford, Bishop of Winchester, on 24 Nov., ...

Way of the Cross

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Way or State

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Way, Ven. William

( Alias MAY, alias FLOWER). English priest and martyr, born in Exeter Diocese ...

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We 52

Wealth, Use of

The term "wealth" is not used here in the technical sense in which it occurs in treatises on ...

Wearmouth Abbey

Located on the river Wear, in Durham, England ; a Benedictine monastery founded in 674 by St. ...

Weathers, William

Titular Bishop of Amyela; born 12 November, 1814; died at Isleworth, Middlesex, 4 March, 1895. ...

Webb, Benjamin Joseph

Editor, historian, born at Bardstown, Kentucky, 25 February, 1814; died at Louisville, Kentucky, ...

Webbe, Samuel

English composer, born in England in 1742; died in London, 29 May, 1816. He studied under ...

Weber, Beda

Benedictine professor, author, and member of the National German Parliament, born at Lienz in the ...

Weber, Friedrich Wilhelm

Physician, member of the Prussian House of Deputies, and poet, born at Alhausen, near Driburg, ...

Weber, Heinrich

German Church historian, born at Euerdorf in the Diocese of Würzburg , 21 June, 1834; died ...

Weber, Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst von

Composer, born at Eutin, Lower Saxony, 18 December, 1786; died in London, 5 June, 1826. His ...

Weedall, Henry

Born in London, 6 September, 1788; died at Oscott, 7 November, 1859. Both his parents died ...

Week, Liturgical

The week as a measure of time is a sufficiently obvious division of the lunar month, and the ...

Wegg-Prosser, Francis Richard

Only son of Rev. Prebendary Francis Haggit, rector of Newnham Coutney, born at Newnham Courtney, ...

Weingarten

(MONASTERIUM VINEARUM, AD VINEAS, or WEINGARTENSE). A suppressed Benedictine abbey, near ...

Weis, Nicolaus von

Bishop of Speyer, born at Rimlingen, Lorraine, 8 March, 1796; died at Speyer, 13 December, ...

Weislinger, Johann Nikolaus

Polemical writer, born at Puttlingen in German Lorraine, 1691; died at Kappel-Rodeck in Baden, 29 ...

Weiss, Johann Baptist

Born at Ettenheim, Baden, 17 July, 1820; died at Graz, 8 March, 1899. After completing his ...

Weissenau, Monastery of

(Originally OWE_AUGIA, then MINDERLAU-AUGIA MINOR, and finally WEISSEN AU-AUGIA ALBA or CANDIDA). ...

Weitenauer, Ignatius von

Litterateur, exegete, and Orientalist, born at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, 1 November, 1709; died at ...

Welbourne, Ven. Thomas

Martyred at York, 1 August, 1605. Nothing is known about about this martyr except the scanty ...

Weld

The name of an ancient English family (branches of which are found in several parts of England ...

Weld, Frederick Aloysius

Youngest son of Humphrey Weld, born at Chidcock Manor, Dorset, 1823; died there, 1891. He was ...

Welle, Prefecture Apostolic of

Located in the extreme north of Belgian Congo, Africa, separated by a Decree of the Propaganda ...

Wellington, Archdiocese of

(WELLINGTONIENSIS). Located in New Zealand, originally formed part of the Vicariate of ...

Wells in Scripture

It is difficult for inhabitants of a more humid climate to realize the importance which a country ...

Wells, Ven. Smithin

English martyr, born at Brambridge, Hampshire, about 1536; hanged at Gray's Inn Lane, London, ...

Welser, Bartholomeus

German merchant prince, born at Augsburg, 1488; died at Amberg, near Turkheim, Swabia, 1561. His ...

Welsh Church

In giving separate consideration to the Church of Wales, we follow a practice common among ...

Welsh Monastic Foundations

Few saints of the early British Church, as it existed before the Saxon invasion, are known to ...

Welte, Benedict

Exegete, born at Ratzenried in Würtemberg, 25 November, 1825; died 27 May, 1885. After ...

Wenceslaus, Saint

( Also Vaclav, Vaceslav.) Duke, martyr, and patron of Bohemia, born probably 903; died at ...

Wendelin of Trier, Saint

Born about 554; died probably in 617. His earliest biographies, two in Latin and two in German, ...

Weninger, Francis Xavier

Jesuit missionary and author, born at Wildhaus, Styria, Austria, 31 October, 1805; died at ...

Wenrich of Trier

German ecclesiastico-polical writer of the eleventh century. He was a canon at Verdun, and ...

Werburgh, Saint

(WEREBURGA, WEREBURG, VERBOURG). Benedictine, patroness of Chester, Abbess of Weedon, ...

Werden

(WERTHINA, WEERDA, WERDENA). A suppressed Benedictine monastery near Essen in Rhenish ...

Werner, Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias

Convert, poet, and pulpit orator, born at Konigsberg, Prussia, 18 November, 1768; died at ...

Wessel Goesport, John

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Wessenberg, Ignaz Heinrich von

Vicar-General and Administrator of the Diocese of Constance, born at Dresden, 4 November, 1774; ...

Wessobrunn

(WESSOGONTANTUM, AD FONTES WESSONIS). A suppressed Benedictine abbey near Weilheim in Upper ...

West Syrian Rite

The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin ...

West Virginia

A state of the American Union, bounded on the northeast by Pennsylvania and Maryland, on the ...

Westcott, Sebastian

English organist, born about 1524, was a chorister, under Redford, at St. Paul's Cathedral, ...

Westeraas, Ancient See of

(AROSI, AROSIENSIS). Located in Sweden. The Catholic diocese included the lands of ...

Western Schism

This schism of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries differs in all points from the Eastern ...

Westminster Abbey

This most famous of all English abbeys is situated within the precincts of the Royal Palace of ...

Westminster Cathedral

As a national expression of religious faith given by Roman Catholics to England since the ...

Westminster, Archdiocese of

(WESTMONASTERIENSIS). Erected and made metropolitan in 1850, comprises the Counties of ...

Westminster, Matthew of

The name given to the supposed author of a well-known English chronicle, the "Flores Historiarum". ...

Weston, William

Jesuit missionary priest, born at Maidstone, 1550 (?); died at Valladolid, Spain, 9 June, ...

Westphalia

A province of Prussia situated between the Rhine and the Weser. It is bounded on the northwest ...

Wettingen-Mehrerau, Abbacy Nullius of

A Cistercian abbey near Bregenz, Vorarlberg, Austria. The Cistercian monastery of Wettingen ...

Wetzer, Heinrich Joseph

Learned Orientalist, born at Anzefahr in Hesse-Cassel, 19 March, 1801; died at Freiburg in ...

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Wh 23

Wharton, Ven. Christopher

Born at Middleton, Yorkshire, before 1546; martyred at York, 28 March, 1600. He was the second ...

Wheeling, Diocese of

(WHELINGENSIS). Comprises the State of West Virginia except the following counties, which are ...

Whipple, Amiel Weeks

Military engineer and soldier, born at Greenwich, Massachusetts, 1818; died at Washington, D.C., ...

Whitaker, Venerable Thomas

Born at Burnley, Lancashire, 1614; martyred at Lancaster, 7 August, 1646. Son of Thomas ...

Whitbread, Venerable Thomas

( Alias HARCOURT). Born in Essex, 1618; martyred at Tyburn, 30 June, 1679. He was ...

Whitby, Abbey of

(Formerly called Streoneshalh). A Benedictine monastery in the North Riding of Yorkshire, ...

Whitby, Synod of

The Christianizing of Britain begun by St. Augustine in A.D. 597 was carried on with varying ...

White Fathers

(MISSIONARIES OF OUR LADY OF AFRICA OF ALGERIA). This society, known under the name of ...

White, Andrew

Missionary, b. at London, 1579; d. at or near London, 27 Dec., 1656 (O.S.). He entered St. ...

White, Charles Ignatius

Editor, historian, born at Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 1 February, 1807; died at Washington, ...

White, Edward

Grandfather of Stephen Mallory White , born in County Limerick, Ireland, in the latter part of ...

White, Eustace, Venerable

Martyr, born at Louth, Lincolnshire, in 1560; suffered at the London Tyburn, 10 December, 1591. ...

White, Richard, Venerable

( Vere GWYN). Martyr, born at Llanilloes, Montgomeryshire, about 1537; executed at Wrexham, ...

White, Robert

English composer, b. about 1530; d. Nov., 1574; was educated by his father, and graduated Mus. ...

White, Stephen

Antiquarian and polyhistor; b. at Clonmel, Ireland, in 1574; d. in Galway, 1646. He belonged to a ...

White, Stephen Mallory

American statesman; born at San Francisco , California, 19 January, 1853; died at Los Angeles ...

White, Thomas

( Alias BLACKLOW, BLACLOE, ALBIUS, ANGLUS). Born in Essex, 1593; died in London, 6 July, ...

Whithorn Priory

Located in Wigtownshire, Scotland, founded about the middle of the twelfth century, in the reign ...

Whiting, Blessed Richard

Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

Whitsunday

A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

Whitty, Ellen

In religion Mary Vincent, born at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, a village seven miles form the town of ...

Whitty, Robert

Born at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, 7 January, 1817; died 1 September, 1895. In 1830 he entered ...

Whitty, Rose

Born at Dublin, Ireland, 24 November, 1831; died 4 May, 1911. Of her two sisters one became a ...

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Wi 121

Wibald

Abbot of Stavelot ( Stablo ), Malmedy, and Corvey, b. near Stavelot in Belgium in 1098; d. ...

Wichita Indians

A confederacy of Caddoan stock, formerly dwelling between the Arkansas River, Kansas, and the ...

Wichita, Diocese of

(WICHITENSIS). Erected in 1887, from the Diocese of Leavenworth . The territory of the new ...

Wichmans, Francis

In religion AUGUSTINE, born at Antwerp, 1596; died 1661. Having finished his classical studies, ...

Widmer, Joseph

Catholic theologian, born at Hohenraim, Lucerne, Switzerland, 15 Aug., 1779; died at ...

Widow

I. Canonical prescriptions concerning widows in the Old Testament refer mainly to the question ...

Widukind

Saxon leader, and one of the heads of the Westphalian nobility. He was the moving spirit in the ...

Widukind of Corvey

Historian who lived in the tenth century in the Benedictine Abbey of Corvey, Germany. He was a ...

Wiener-Neustadt, Diocese of

(NEOSTADTIENSIS). A suppressed see in Lower Austria. Upon the request of Frederick III it was ...

Wiest, Stephan

Member of the Order of Cistercians, b. at Teisbach in Lower Bavaria, 7 March, 1748; d. at ...

Wigand, Saints

( Also rendered VENANTIUS). Three saints of this name are mentioned in the Roman ...

Wigbert, Saint

Companion of St. Boniface, born in England about 675; died at Hersfeld about 746. Positive ...

Wigbod

(WICBODUS, WIGBOLD, WIGBALD). Theological writer of the eighth century. Of his works there is ...

Wigley, George J.

Died in Rome, 20 January, 1866. By profession he was an architect, but subsequently devoted ...

Wilberforce, Henry William

Born at Clapham, 22 September, 1807; died at Stroud, Gloucestershire, 23 April, 1873. He was third ...

Wilberforce, Robert Isaac

Born at Clapham, 19 December, 1802; died at Albano, near Rome, 3 Feb. 1857. He was the second son ...

Wilcannia, Diocese of

(WILCANIENSIS). Located in New South Wales, one of the six suffragan sees of Sydney; consists ...

Wilcox, Robert, Venerable

English martyr, born at Chester, 1558; suffered at Canterbury, 1 October, 1588. He arrived at ...

Wild, Johann

Scriptural commentator and preacher, better known by his Latin name FERUS, b. in Swabia, 1497; d. ...

Wilfrid, Saint

Bishop of York, son of a Northumbrian thegn, born in 634; died at Oundle in Northamptonshire, ...

Wilgefortis

A fabulous female saint known also as UNCUMBER, KUMMERNIS, KOMINA, COMERA, CUMERANA, HULFE, ...

Wilhelm of Herle

Painter, born at Herle in Dutch Limburg at an unknown date in the fourteenth century; time and ...

Wilhelm V

Son of Duke Albrecht V. Born at Munich, 29 September, 1548; died at Schlessheim, 7 February, ...

Wilhering, Cistercian Abbey of

(HILARIA). Situated on the right bank of the Danube, in the Diocese of Linz, Austria. Ulric ...

Will

(Latin voluntas, Greek boúlesis, "willing" German Wille, French volonté ). ...

Will and Testament of Clerics

Roman law allowed clerics to dispose of their property by will or otherwise. Bishops, however, ...

Will, Free

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

Willaert, Adrian

Composer and founder of the Venetian school, b. at Bruges, or, according to other authorities, ...

Willehad, Saint

Bishop at Bremen, born in Northumberland before 745; died at Blecazze (Blexen) on the Weser, 8 ...

Willems, Pierre

Philologist, born at Maastricht, 6 January, 1840; died at Louvain, 23 February, 1898. Following ...

William

Born in Brittany, died at Marmoutiers, 23 May, 1124. For a time he was Archdeacon of Nantes, ...

William

Abbot of Saint-Bénigne at Dijon, celebrated Cluniac reformer, b. on the Island of ...

William Carter, Venerable

English martyr, born in London, 1548; suffered for treason at Tyburn, 11 January, 1584. Son of ...

William Exmew, Blessed

Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...

William Filby, Blessed

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

William Hart, Blessed

Born at Wells, 1558; suffered at York, 15 March, 1583. Elected Trappes Scholar at Lincoln ...

William Lacy, Blessed

Born at "Hanton", Yorkshire (probably Houghton or Tosside, West Riding); suffered at York, 22 ...

William of Auvergne

Bishop of Paris, medieval philosopher and theologian. Born at Aurillac in Auvergne towards ...

William of Auxerre

A thirteenth-century theologian and professor at the University of Paris . William's name ...

William of Champeaux

A twelfth-century Scholastic, philosopher, and theologian, b. at Champeaux, near Melun, in the ...

William of Conches

A twelfth-century Scholastic philosopher and theologian, b. about the year 1100. After having ...

William of Digulleville

(DEGULLEVILLE). A French poet of the fourteenth century. Nothing is known of his life, except ...

William of Ebelholt, Saint

(Also called WILLIAM OF PARIS and WILLIAM OF THE PARACLETE.) Died on Easter Sunday, 1203, and ...

William of Gellone, Saint

Born 755; died 28 May, c. 812; was the second count of Toulouse, having attained that dignity in ...

William of Jumièges

(Surnamed CALCULUS.) Benedictine historian of the eleventh century. Practically nothing seems ...

William of Maleval, Saint

(or ST. WILLIAM THE GREAT). Died 10 February, 1157; beatified in 1202. His life, written ...

William of Malmesbury

Born 30 November, about 1090; died about 1143. He was educated at Malmesbury, where he became a ...

William of Moerbeke

Scholar, Orientalist, philosopher, and one of the most distinguished men of letters of the ...

William of Nangis

(GUILHELMUS). A medieval chronicler, who takes his name from the City of Nancy, France. ...

William of Newburgh

Historian, b. at Bridlington, Yorkshire, 1136; d. at Newburgh, Yorkshire, 1198, where he went as ...

William of Norwich, Saint

Born 1132; died 22 March, 1144. On Holy Saturday, 25 March, 1144, a boy's corpse showing signs of ...

William of Ockham

Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village ...

William of Paris, Saint

Abbot of Eskill in Denmark, born 1105; died 1202. He was born of a noble French family, and ...

William of Perth, Saint

(Or ST. WILLIAM OF ROCHESTER). Martyr, born at Perth ; died about 1201. Practically all that ...

William of Poitiers

Norman historian, born of a noted family, at Préaux near Pont Audemer, Normandy, about 1020. ...

William of Ramsey

Flourished about 1219. Nothing is known of his life except that he was a monk of Crowland Abbey ...

William of Sens

A twelfth-century French architect, supposed to have been born at Sens. He is referred to in ...

William of Shoreham

( Or de Schorham.) An English religious writer of the Anglo-Norman period, born at ...

William of St-Amour

A thirteenth century theologian and controversialist, born in Burgundy in the first decades of ...

William of St-Thierry

Theologian and mystic, and so called from the monastery of which he was abbot, b. at ...

William of Turbeville

(TURBE, TURBO, or DE TURBEVILLE). Bishop of Norwich (1146-74), b. about 1095; d. at Norwich ...

William of Tyre

Archbishop of Tyre and historian, born probably in Palestine, of a European family which had ...

William of Vercelli

(Or WILLIAM OF MONTE VERGINE.) The founder of the Hermits of Monte Vergine, or Williamites, ...

William of Ware

(William de Warre, Guard, Guaro, Varro or Varron.) Born at Ware in Herts; the date of his ...

William of Wayneflete

Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of England, b. towards the end of the fourteenth century; ...

William of Wykeham

Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England and founder of Winchester College ; b. between ...

William Perault

(PERAULD, PERALDUS, PERALTUS). Writer and preacher, b. at Perault, France ; d. at Lyons ; ...

William the Clerk (of Normandy)

French poet of the thirteenth century. Nothing is known of his life except that he was a clerk of ...

William the Conqueror

King of England and Duke of Normandy. William was the natural son of Robert, Duke of ...

William the Walloon

Date of birth unknown; d. (probably) 22 Dec., 1089. He became Abbot of St. Arnoul at Metz in ...

William, Blessed

Abbot of Hirschau, monastic reformer, born in Bavaria ; died at Hirschau, 5 July 1091. He ...

William, Saint

(WILLIAM FITZHERBERT, also called WILLIAM OF THWAYT). Archbishop of York. Tradition ...

William, Saint

Bishop of St-Brieuc, born in the parish of St. Alban, Brittany, between 1178 and 1184; died ...

Williamites

There were two minor religious orders or congregations of this name: (1) a Benedictine ...

Willibald and Winnebald, Saints

(WUNIBALD, WYNNEBALD). Members of the Order of St. Benedict, brothers, natives probably of ...

Willibrord, Saint

Bishop of Utrecht, Apostle of the Frisians, and son of St. Hilgis, born in Northumbria, 658; ...

Willigis, Saint

Archbishop of Mainz, d. 23 Feb., 1011. Feast, 23 February or 18 April. Though of humble birth ...

Williram

(WALTRAM, WILTRAM). Scriptural scholar, b. in Franconia (near Worms), Germany ; d. in 1085 at ...

Wilmers, Wilhelm

Professor of philosophy and theology, b. at Boke in Westphalia, 30 January, 1817; d. at ...

Wilmington, Diocese of

(WILMINGTONIENSIS). Erected 3 March, 1868. It includes what is known as the Delmarvia ...

Wilton Abbey

A Benedictine convent in Wiltshire, England, three miles from Salisbury. A first foundation was ...

Wilton, Richard

Died December 21, 1239. He was a medieval scholar of whom little is known except that he was an ...

Wimborne Minster

( Also WIMBURN or WINBURN). Located in Dorsetshire, England. Between the years 705-23 a ...

Wimmer, Boniface

Archabbot, b. at Thalmassing, Bavaria, 14 January, 1809; d. at St. Vincent Archabbey, Beatty, ...

Wimpfeling, Jakob

Humanist and theologian, b. at Schlettstadt, Alsace, 25 July 1450; d. there, 17 Nov., 1528. He ...

Wimpina, Konrad

(WIMINAE, WIMINESIS). Theologian, b. at Buchen in Baden, about 1465; d. at Amorbach in Lower ...

Winchester, Ancient See of

(WINTONIA, WINTONIENSIS). This diocese came into existence in 635 when the great ...

Winckelmann, Johann Joachim

Archaeologist and historian of ancient art, born at Stendal near Magdeburg, in 1717; assassinated ...

Windesheim

An Augustinian monastery situated about four miles south of Zwolle on the Issel, in the Kingdom ...

Winding Sheet of Christ, Feast of the Holy

In 1206 one of the (supposed) Winding Sheets used at the burial of Christ was brought to ...

Windischmann, Friedrich Heinrich Hugo

Orientalist and exegete, b. at Aschaffenburg, 13 December, 1811; d. at Munich, 23 August, ...

Windischmann, Karl Joseph Hieronymus

Philosopher, b. at Mainz, 25 August, 1775; d. at Bonn, 23 April, 1839. He attended the gymnasium ...

Window, Rose

A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

Windows in Church Architecture

From the beginning Christian churches, in contrast to the ancient temples, were intended to be ...

Windsor

A town of great antiquity, on the Thames, in Berkshire, England ; quaintly rendered Ventus ...

Windthorst, Ludwig

Born near Osnabrück, 17 January, 1812; died 14 March, 1891. He came from a family of ...

Wine, Altar

Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid ...

Winefride, Saint

Born at Holywell, Wales, about 600; died at Gwytherin, Wales, 3 Nov., 660. Her father was ...

Wingham, Thomas

Born in London, 5 January, 1846; died there, 24 March, 1893. He studied music at Wylde's London ...

Winnebago Indians

A tribe of Siouan stock closely related in speech to the Iowa, Missouri, and Oto, and more ...

Winnebald and Willibald, Saints

(WUNIBALD, WYNNEBALD). Members of the Order of St. Benedict, brothers, natives probably of ...

Winnoc, Saint

Abbot or Prior or Wormhoult, died 716 or 717. Three lives of this saint are extant: the best of ...

Winona, Diocese of

(WINONENSIS). Established in 1889, suffragan of St. Paul, comprises the following counties in ...

Winslow, Jakob Benignus

(WINSLOW). Physician and anatomist, b. at Odense, Denmark, 27 April, 1669; d. in Paris, 3 ...

Winwallus, Saint

Abbot of Landevennec; d. 3 March, probably at the beginning of the sixth century, though the ...

Winzet, Ninian

Benedictine abbot and controversial writer, b. at Renfrew, Scotland, 1518; d. at Ratisbon, 21 ...

Wipo

(WIPPO). Apparently a native of Burgundy, lived in the first half of the eleventh century. He ...

Wireker, Nigel

Satirist, lived about 1190. He describes himself as old in the "Speculum Stultorum", which was ...

Wirt, Wigand

Theologian, born at Frankfort about 1460; died at Steyer, 30 June, 1519. He entered the ...

Wisconsin

Known as the "Badger State", admitted to the Union on 29 May, 1848, the seventeenth state ...

Wisdom, Book of

One of the deutero-canonical writings of the Old Testament, placed in the Vulgate between the ...

Wisdom, Daughters of

(LES FILLES DE LA SAGESSE). Founded at Poitiers by Blessed Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort ...

Wise Men (Magi)

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick

Cardinal, first Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Seville, 2 Aug., 1802; d. in London, 15 ...

Witchcraft

It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between magic and witchcraft. Both are concerned with ...

Witness

One who is present, bears testimony, furnishes evidence or proof. Witnesses are employed in ...

Witt, Francis Xavier

Reformer of church music, founder of the St. CeciliaSociety for German-speaking countries, ...

Wittenberg

The city is in Prussian Saxony and was founded by Albert the Bear (d. 1170). He had conquered ...

Wittman, George Michael

Bishop-elect of Ratisbon, b. near Pleistein, Oberpfalz, Bavaria, 22 (23?) Jan., 1760; d. at ...

Wittman, Patrizius

Catholic journalist, b. at Ellwanger, Würtemberg, 4 January, 1818; d. at Munich, 3 ...

Witzel, Georg

(WICELIUS). Theologian, b. at Vacha, Province of Hesse, 1501; d. at Mainz, 16 Feb., 1573. He ...

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Wl 1

Wladislaw, Diocese of

(Polish WLOCLAWEK; Latin VLADISLAVIENSIS ET POMERANLAE). The historical origin of this ...

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Wo 23

Wolff, George Dering

Editor, b. at Martinsburg, West Virginia , 25 Aug., 1822; d. at Norristown, Pennsylvania, 29 ...

Wolfgang, Saint

Bishop of Ratisbon (972-994), born about 934; died at the village of Pupping in upper Austria, ...

Wolfram von Eschenbach

Generally regarded as the greatest of Middle-High-German epic poets, date of birth unknown; d. ...

Wolgemut, Michael

Painter and engraver, b. at Nuremberg, 1434; d. there, 1519. He was the most prominent artist of ...

Wolowski, Louis-François-Michel-Reymond

Born at Warsaw, 31 Aug., 1810; d. at Gisors, Eure, 15 Aug., 1876. His father, a member of the ...

Wolsey, Thomas

Cardinal, Archbishop of York, b. at Ipswitch, the usually accepted date, 1471, being probably ...

Wolstan, Saint

Benedictine, and Bishop of Worcester, b. at Long Itchington, Warwickshire, England, about 1008; ...

Woman

Of late years the position of woman in human society has given rise to a discussion which, as part ...

Wood, Thomas

Priest and confessor, b. about 1499; d. in Wisbech Castle before 1588. After being prebendary ...

Wood-Carving

In general, the production from wood of objects of trade or art by means of sharp instruments, as ...

Woodcock, Venerable John

English Franciscan martyr, b. at Leyland, Lancashire, 1603; suffered at Lancaster, 7 August, ...

Woodhead, Abraham

Born at Almonbury, Yorkshire, about March, 1609; died at Hoxton, Middlesex, 4 May, 1678. This ...

Woodhouse, Blessed Thomas

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Woods, Julian Edmund Tenison

Priest and scientist, b. at Southwark, London, 15 Nov., 1832; d. at Sydney, New South Wales, 7 ...

Worcester, Ancient Diocese of

(WIGORNIENSIS.) Located in England, created in 680 when, at the Synod of Hatfield under ...

Words (in Canon Law)

To give the right value to words is a very important factor in the proper interpretation of ...

World, Antiquity of the

Various attempts have been made to establish the age of the world. Two groups of scientists have ...

Wormwood

( Hebrew la'anah .) Wormwood, known for its repulsive bitterness ( Jeremiah 9:15 ; 23:15 ; ...

Worship, Christian

NOTION AND CHARACTERISTICS The word worship (Saxon weorthscipe , "honour"; from worth , ...

Worsley, Edward

Born in Lancashire, England, 1605; died at Antwerp, 2 Sept., 1676. He is said to have been ...

Worthington, Thomas, D.D.

Third President of Douai College , b. 1549 at Blainscough Hall, near Wigan, Lancashire; d. at ...

Wounds, The Five Sacred

Devotion The revival of religious life and the zealous activity of St. Bernard and St. ...

Wouters, G. Henry

Historian, b. at Oostham, Belgian Limburg, 3 May, 1802; d. 5 January, 1872. In 1829 he became ...

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Wr 2

Wright, Venerable Peter

Martyr, b. at Slipton, Northamptonshire, 1603; suffered at Tyburn, 19 May, 1651. After spending ...

Wright, William

Born at York, 1562; died 18 Jan., 1639. Though he came late (23) to his studies, he then made ...

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Wu 2

Wulfen, Franz Xaver Freiherr von

Botanist, b. at Belgrade, 5 November, 1728; d. at Klagenfurt, 17 March, 1805. He was the son of ...

Wulfram, Saint

(VULFRAMNUS.) Bishop of Sens, missionary in Frisi, born at Milly near Fontainebleau, probably ...

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Wy 5

Wyart, Théophile-Louis-Henri

(In religion DOM SEBASTIAN). Abbot of Cîteaux and Abbot-General of the Order of ...

Wyche, Saint Richard de

Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

Wyclif, John

(WYCLIFFE, or WICLIF, etc.). Writer and "reformer", b. probably at Hipswell near Richmond, ...

Wyntoun, Andrew of

Scottish chronicler, born (as we know from the internal evidence of his writings) in the reign ...

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