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Vicariate Apostolic

The following is an account of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and of those changed so recently as not to have been included in the earlier volumes of this work.

BAGAMOYO in Equatorial Africa.--By a decree dated 7 May, 1913, the boundary between the Vicariates Apostolic of Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salam or Zanzibar was changed so as to conform with civil limits; the new boundary is the line separating Bagamoyo and Morogoro from Dar-es-Salam and Ruffi, then the Rivers Ruaha, and Umeroke, and finally the railway from the Indian Ocean to the town of Tabora.

BANGUELO, in Equatorial Africa, erected on 27 Jan., 1913, and committed to the care of the White Fathers. It was previously the northern portion of the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyassa .

BASUTOLAND, in South Africa.--The Prefecture Apostolic of Basutoland was erected into a vicariate Apostolic with unchanged boundaries by a Decree dated 18 Feb., 1909. The vicariate at the close of the year 1912 contained 23 priests, all Oblates of Mary Immaculate, 5 Oblate brothers, 7 Marist brothers, 41 European and 21 native nuns, 21 churches, chapels, and stations, 12 convents (9 of the Sisters of the Holy Family, and 3 of Sisters of the Holy Cross ), 17 schools, about 10,000 Catholics and 800 catechumens out of 400,000 inhabitants. The first vicar Apostolic is the right Rev. Jules Joseph Cenez, O.M.I, titular Bishop of Nicopolis, who was born at Hampont, Lorraine, on 9 May, 1865; was ordained, 8 Sept., 1890; head of the mission since 1895, appointed to the titular see 27 Feb., 1909, and consecrated at Metz on 1 May following.

BROWNSVILLE, in the United States of America , was erected into the Diocese of Corpus Christi, on 23 March, 1912.

CAROLINE ISLANDS. See below MARIANA AND CAROLINE ISLANDS.

CENTRAL AFRICA, VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF. See below KHARTUM.

CHE-KIANG, WESTERN, in China, erected on 10 May, 1910. At the request of Mgr. Paul-Marie Reynaud, Vicar Apostolic of Che-kiang, the western portion of his mission was erected into a new vicariate, that of Western Che-kiang; at the same time the word "Eastern" was added to the official title of the old vicariate. The mission of Western Che-kiang comprises the civil prefectures of Kia-shing, Hu-chu, Hang-che, Yen-che, Hin-chu, and King-hoa. Its boundaries are: on the north the Vicariate of Kiang-nan, and Lake T'al-hu; to the west, the Vicariates of Kiang-nan, and Eastern Kiang-Si ; to the south the Vicariates of Eastern Che-kiang and Fu-kien; and to the east, the Vicariate of Eastern Che-kiang and the Chinese Sea, or the Bay of Han-chu. The first mission is entrusted to the Lazarists. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Paul-Albert Faveau, C.M., b. at Crochte, France, 5 April, 1859; appointed to the vicariate, 10 May, 1910, with the title of Bishop of Tamassus.

CHI-LI, MARITIME, in China, erected on 27 April, 1912; it comprises the civil prefecture of Tientsin-fu, previously part of the Vicariate of Northern Chi-li or Peking. Boundaries: on the north the Vicariate of Peking, on the east the Gulf of Chi-li; on the south the missions of Changteng and Southeastern Chi-li; on the west the missions of Southwestern Chi-li and Northern Chi-li. It is entrusted to the care of the Lazarists. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Paul Dumond, C.M., born at Lyons, 2 April, 1864; ordained, 10 Aug., 1888; appointed Vicar Apostolic of Maritime Chi-li, 27 April 1912 and consecrated at Peking titular Bishop of Durubis on 30 June, following.

CHI-LI, CENTRAL, in China, erected on 14 Feb., 1910; comprises the civil Prefectures of Pao-ting-fu, and Y-tchu, formerly part of the Vicariate of Northern Chi-Li. Its boundaries are: on the north the prefecture of Suen-hoa-fu, on the east, Chun-tren-fu, on the south, Ho-kiang-fu; on the west, Ting-chu, Chang-ting-fu, and Shan-Si. The cathedral at Pao-ting-fu is dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul. The mission is undertaken by the Lazarists, and contains about 72,530 Catholics 38 priests, 255 churches and chapels, and 914 schools. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Joseph Fabregues, C.M., born at Montpellier, France, 26 Nov., 1872, appointed to the vicariate, 26 Feb., 1910, and consecrated titular Bishop of Alali on 22 May, 1910 by Mgr. Stanislas Jarlin, at Pao-ting-fu.

CONGO, UPPER.--The mission of the Upper Congo was begun on 21 Sept., 1880; it was erected into a vicariate Apostolic on 10 Dec., 1895, its boundaries being: on the north, a line from the mouth of the Elila to Lake Edward Nyanza at the 30 degree E. long.; on the east the Congo Free State frontier to the mouth of the river Kafu at Lake Tanganyka; thence along its course and the western boundaries of Urungu and Loemba to Lake Banguelo; on the south and west Lake Banguelo and the river Congo to the mouth of the Lira. On 8 April, 1911, a decree was published changing the eastern and southern lines separating the Vicariate of the Upper Congo from the missions of N. and S. Victoria Nyanza, Unyanyembe, Tanganika, and Nyassa. The boundary now is: on the east, the Belgo-British and Germano-Belgian frontiers, that is, a line from the south shore of Lake Albert Edward to Sabingo Mountain, thence by Lake Kion, along the Rusizi, and through Lake Tanganika; on the south, a line from Lake Tanganika to Lake Moero; that is, the Belgo-British frontier. The mission is entrusted to the White Fathers. It contains 300,000 inhabitants, of whom 5520 are Catholics, 5148 neophytes, and 29,019 catechumens ; there are 7 chief stations and 27 chapels, 31 missionary priests, 8 lay brothers , 9 White Sisters of Notre-Dame d'Afrique, 45 negro catechists teaching 2960 children in 55 schools, 14 orphanages, 7 hospitals, 22 dispensaries, and 1 home for widows. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Victor Roelens, b. at Ardoye, Belgium, 21 Feb., 1853; appointed to the vicariate on 30 March, 1895; he resides at Baudoinville, and is titular Bishop of Girba. On 24 March, 1909, he received as coadjutor Mgr. Auguste-Leopold Huys, b. at Bruges, 9 July, 1871, who has been working as a missionary in the Congo since 1897. He is titular Bishop of Rusicade.

COREA.--The name of this vicariate has been changed to SEOUL (q.v.).

DELTA OF THE NILE, in Egypt, erected 17 Sept., 1909; the boundaries of the mission remained unchanged. It is entrusted to the care of the Society of African Missions of Lyons. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Auguste Duret, b. in the Diocese of Nantes, 2 Jan., 1846; ordained, 17 Dec., 1870; missionary in Oran in 1878; Prefect Apostolic of the Delta of the Nile in 1885; appointed vicar Apostolic on 17 Sept., 1909, and consecrated titular Bishop of Bubastis on 24 Feb., 1910.

DIEGO SUAREZ, in Madagascar.--By a Decree of Propaganda dated 20 May, 1913, the name of the Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Madagascar (q.v.) was changed to Diego Suarez, which is the name of the chief town in the mission.

ERITHREA, in East Africa.--On 13 Sept., 1894, the Italian colony of Erythrea or Eritrea, previously part of the Lazarast mission of Abyssinia, was formed into a prefecture Apostolic, with R. P. Michele da Carbonara (b. at Carbonara, Italy, 10 Oct., 1836; d. there, 24 June, 1910), a Capuchin, as superior. The mission comprises the territory on the coast of the Red Sea from Ras Kasar (18 degrees 2 minutes N.) to the French Possessions at the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb (12 degrees 30 minutes N.) and is bounded on the interior by the Sudan, Abyssinia, and French Somaliland. It includes likewise all the islands in the adjacent part of the Red Sea, subject to the Italians. The inhabitants, mostly of a semi-nomadic disposition, number about 450,000. Of these 12,200 belong to the Latin Rite, about one-half being Italians ; 15,000 are Copto-Ethiopians, about 80,000 are Monophysites, and the remainder fetishists or Mohammedans. The ordinary people speak Arabic, Tigrai, and Tigre, and the upper classes Amaric; while Ghez is the liturgical language. On Feb. 7, 1911, after the death of R. P. Michele da Carbonara, the mission was made a vicariate Apostolic. It contains 9 Capuchin fathers and 6 brothers, with 5 residences, 42 native priests, 22 Daughters of St. Anne, some Franciscan tertiary lay sisters (native), 8 churches, 30 chapels in the back-country, served by native Catholic priest of Copto-Ethiopic Rite, 2 seminaries (at Achur and Asherem) with 48 students, 5 schools with over 200 pupils and 2 orphanages. The mission is confided to the Capuchins of the province of Rome. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Francesco Carrara, Capuchin, b. at Albino, in the Diocese of Bergamo, Italy, on 14 March, 1871; professed on 8 Sept., 1887; minister provincial of Lombardy in 1902; appointed to the vicariate in January, 1911, and consecrated at Milan, 26 Feb. following, as titular Bishop of Agathopolis.

FERNANDO PO, in West Africa.--In 1855 a mission was established in the island of Annobon, Corisco, and Fernando Po under R. P. Miguel Martinez, of Toledo. In 1857 the mission became a prefecture Apostolic and was entrusted to the Jesuits ; in 1860 their jurisdiction was extended to the mainland. After thirteen years' labour they gave up the mission owing to difficulties with the Spanish Government, as well as to the severity of the climate. Till 1883 there was only one priest in the mission, the parish priest of Santa Elisabeth in Fernando Po. In 1883 the prefecture was revived and the mission entrusted to the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. On 25 April, a large territory on the continent was added to the mission, which on 5 May, 1904, was made a vicariate Apostolic . The vicariate now comprises the Islands of Annobon (11 sq. miles), Corisco (11 sq. miles), Elobey, Fernando Po (780 sq. miles), and Spanish Guinea (12,000 sq. miles), extending from the Muni river to the Campo and to Kamerun, the eastern boundary being the meridian of 11 degrees 20 minutes E.; it has in all an area of about 12,814 sq. miles and a population of 235,000. The languages ordinarily spoken in the mission are: Bubi in Fernando Po; Benga in Corisco; Ambu in Annabon, and Pamwe and Kombe on the mainland. The climate in the mission territory is torrid and enervating, and malaria is prevalent. There are 6274 Catholics and 370 catechumens ; 42 missionary priests ; 10 catechists; 13 churches ; 9 chapels, 27 stations; 18 parochial schools with 1170 pupils; 4 hospitals. The Sisters of the Immaculate Conception have 6 houses with 26 nuns. The first Vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Pedro Armengaudio Coll, of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, appointed on 10 May, 1904. He is titular Bishop of Thignica, and resides at Santa Isabel, Fernando Po.

FIANARANTSOA, in Madagascar, erected on 10 May, 1913, and committed to the care of the Jesuits, formed previously the southern part of the Vicariate of Central Madagascar. Its boundaries are: on the north the 20 degree S. lat., the southern limits of Autsirabe, the 20 degree S. lat. again, and then to the Indian Ocean; on the east the Indian Ocean from 20 degrees to 22 degrees S. lat.; on the south the Vicariate Apostolic of Fort Dauphin (formerly Southern Madagascar ); on the west the Mozambique Channel from 20 degrees to 22 degrees S. lat. On 16 May, 1913, R. P. Charles Givelet, S.J., was appointed first vicar Apostolic.

FORT-DAUPHIN, in Madagascar.--In order to distinguish more easily the various vicariates in Madagascar, the Holy See decreed on 20 May, 1913, that the vicariates should be called in future by the name of the town in which the vicars reside. Hence the name of the Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Madagascar was changed to Fort-Dauphin.

GUAM, ISLAND OF, in the Mariana Islands.--The Mariana Islands with the exception of Guam belong to Germany ; Guam is held by the United States of America. By a Decree dated 1 March, 1911, Guam was withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the Prefect Apostolic of the Mariana Islands, and made a vicariate Apostolic, to prevent troubles arising from differences of nationality. The new vicariate was entrusted to the Capuchins, and Mgr. Francisco Xavier Ricardo Vila y Mateu, O.F.M. Cap., b. at Arenys de Mar, Spain, was appointed on 25 Aug., 1911, vicar Apostolic and titular Bishop of Adraa. In 1911 the population was 12,240, of whom 11,877 were natives; there are about 2500 non-Catholics. The vicariate has 10 Capuchin priests, 3 lay brothers , 6 parishes, and 10 churches. The Island of Guam lies at the Southern end of the Mariana group and was ceded to the United States in 1898; it is about 30 miles long and 6.5 miles wide, and has an area of about 200 sq. miles. The natives are Chamorros, with a mixture of Tagal and Spanish blood. Education has been compulsory since the American occupation; San Ignacio de Agana (population over 7000) is the capital of the island.

HO-NAN, WESTERN, in China.--The Prefecture Apostolic of Western Ho-nan was erected into a vicariate Apostolic by a Decree of 2 May, 1911, its boundaries remaining unchanged, that is, on the north, the yellow River, on the east, the Shen-si, on the south the prefecture of Nan-Yang-fu; on the west that of Kai-fong-fu. The mission is entrusted to the missionaries of the Parma Seminary of St. Francis Xavier for the Foreign Missions. It contains about eight million inhabitants, of whom 2727 are Catholics, 4006 catechumens ; 9 priests, 3 churches, 9 chapels, and 5 schools. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Luigi Calza, b. at Rocca Prebalza, Italy, 26 July, 1872; ordained in 1909; appointed Prefect Apostolic of Western Ho-nan, 23 June, 1906, and vicar Apostolic on 18 Sept., 1911. He was consecrated at Parma on 21 April, 1912, as titular Bishop of Termessus.

IVORY COAST, in Equatorial Africa.--On 17 Nov., 1911, the Prefecture Apostolic of the Ivory Coast was erected into a vicariate Apostolic. The mission had been formerly part of the Prefecture Apostolic of the Gold Coast, from which it was separated on 28 June, 1895. Its boundaries are: on the east, the Gold Coast; on the south, the sea from the Gold Coast to Liberia; on the west, Liberia. The inhabitants number over 3,000,000, of whom 1100 are Catholics, 400 catechumens, about 400 Protestants, and the remainder fetishists. The vicariate is under the care of the Society of the African Mission of Lyons, and has 13 churches and chapels, 12 stations, 6 schools, 10 orphanages, 7 Sisters of the Queen of Angels, and 27 missionary priests. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Jules-Joseph Moury, titular Bishop of Ariassus. He was born at Agnat, France, 11 Oct., 1873, and ordained 30 May, 1897; set out for the Ivory Coast on 25 Sept., 1899; founded the mission of Abidjan in 1904 and that of Katiola in 1908; was appointed prefect Apostolic of the Ivory Coast, 18 Jan., 1910, and vicar Apostolic, 17 Nov., 1911; he was consecrated at Lyons on 6 June, 1912. The episcopal residence is at Abidjan.

KHARTUM, in the Sudan.--On 26 May, 1914, the Prefecture Apostolic of Bar-el-Gazal was formed from the Vicariate of the Sudan or of Central Africa; and by a Decree four days later, the name of the Vicariate was changed to that of Khartum.

KIEN-CHANG, in China, was formed on 12 Aug., 1910, by separating from the Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Sze-ch'wan, the southwestern portion called Kien-chang; its boundaries were fixed as those of the civil Province of Nin-yuen-fu. At the request of the vicar Apostolic of Southern Sze-ch'wan, the civil sub-prefecture Tsinkyhiem was transferred from his jurisdiction to that of the Vicar of Kien-chang, on 30 April, 1912. The mission is under the care of the Society of Foreign Mission of Paris. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Jean-Baptiste-Marie de Guebriant, b. at Paris, 11 Dec., 1860; ordained 5 July, 1885; appointed vicar Apostolic 12 Aug., 1910, and consecrated at Su-fu on 20 Nov. following. He resides at Nin-yuen-fu.

KILIMA-NJARO, in Equatorial Africa, erected from the northern part of the Vicariate Apostolic of Bagamoyo, by a Decree of 13 Sept., 1910. Its boundaries are: on the north, the Vicariate of Zanzibar ; on the east, the Indian Ocean; on the west, the Vicariate of Unyanyembe, near Lake Balangidda, north of Irangi. The vicariate is entrusted to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost and the Immaculate Heart of Mary . It has 9 missions, with 20 priests, 12 lay brothers , 25 nuns, more than 4500 Catholics. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Louis Munsch, b. at Felleringen, Alsatia, 5 Oct., 1869; ordained in 1896, after which he went on the East African mission; he was appointed to the vicariate, 13 Sept., 1910, and was consecrated as titular Bishop of Magnesia on 5 Feb., 1911. He resides at Kilema (founded 1891), the oldest station in the mission; it contains over 1500 Catholics.

KIVU, in Equatorial Africa, erected on 12 Dec., 1912, and committed to the care of the Society of African Missionaries. The district of Kivu lies beyond the western limits of the Vicariate of Southern Victorian Nyanza and Unyanyembe. The boundaries of the new vicariate are: on the north, the British frontier from the river Kagera to the Belgian frontier, thence to Lake Kivu; on the west, the Belgian frontier; on the south, the northern boundaries of Uvinza and Ujiji; on the east, the Kagera and Ruinvu, then the western boundary of Ussurvi and the eastern boundary of Uha. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Jean-Joseph Hirth, titular Bishop of Theveste, appointed on 12 Dec., 1912; he was at the time of this appointment Vicar Apostolic of Southern Victoria Nyanza.

LIBYA, in North Africa.--On 23 Feb., 1913, the Prefecture Apostolic of Tripoli was erected into a vicariate Apostolic and its name changed to Libya. The boundaries of the old prefecture remained as before.

MADAGASCAR.--By a Decree dated 20 May, 1913, the Propaganda to prevent any ambiguity as to the vicariates in Madagascar, ordered that they should be called by the name of the place of residence of the vicar Apostolic. Therefore the vicariate Apostolic of Northern Madagascar takes the name of Diego Francisco Suárez; that of Central Madagascar the name of Tananarive; and that of Southern Madagascar the name of Fort-Dauphin.

MARIANA AND CAROLINE ISLANDS.--By a Decree of 1 March, 1911, the Prefectures Apostolic of the Mariana Islands and of the Caroline Islands were suppressed, and in their stead a new vicariate was erected, embracing both groups of islands, except the Island of Guam. The mission is under the care of the Capuchins of Westphalia. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Peter Salvator Walleser, O.F.M. Cap., b. at Wieden, near Freibourg im Breisgau, 22 Oct., 1874; professed, 4 Oct., 1898; ordained, 15 Aug., 1901; missionary in the Palau Isles in 1906; appointed vicar Apostolic and titular Bishop of Tanagra on 21 Aug., 1912. He is the author of a Palau grammar and dictionary. The vicariate in 1911 contained 4500 Catholics 15 capuchin priests, 14 lay brothers , 11 nuns, 14 stations, 14 churches and chapels. There were mission schools in the Caroline Islands, but none in the Mariana group, as the Government claims there a monopoly in educational matters.

MOROCCO.--On 14 April, 1908, the Prefecture Apostolic of Morocco was erected into a vicariate. Mgr. Francisco Maria Cervera, of the Friars Minor , titular Bishop of Fessa, is the first vicar Apostolic. He was born at Valencia, Spain, 13 March, 1858; was professed, 19 Nov., 1878; ordained in 1880 and made Prefect Apostolic of Morocco in 1906; appointed vicar Apostolic, 8 April, 1908, and consecrated at Madrid, 23 May, 1908. He resides at Tangiers.

NAPO, in Ecuador, erected on 3 Feb., 1893, and confided to the Jesuits. The superior of the mission is R.P. Andres Perez, S.J.

NORWAY AND SPITZBERG.--By a Decree of 1 June, 1913, the archipelago of Spitzbergen was placed under the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of Norway, and at the same time the words "and Spitzberg" were ordered to be added to the official title of the vicariate.

NYASSA, in Equatorial Africa.--The portion of this vicariate lying north of the watershed between the Luangwa and the Zambesi, and then of the 13 degree S. Lat., was separated on 28 Jan., 1913, and formed into the Vicariate Apostolic of Banguelo; the remaining part of the vicariate retains its old name.

SEOUL, in Corea.--On 7 April, 1911, two civil prefectures, Kieng-siang-to and Tiyen-la-to, were separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Corea and formed into a new mission, Tai-kou. In consequence of this the official name of the old vicariate was changed from Corea to Seoul.

SHENSI, CENTRAL, in China.--By a Decree of 12 April, 1911, the Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Shensi was divided, and the northern portion formed into a new mission. The name of the vicariate therefore was changed from Northern Shensi to Central Shensi.

SHENSI, NORTHERN, in China.--On 12 April, 1911, two civil prefectures, Yu-lin-fu and Yen-an-fu, with 14 subprefectures and two towns were detached from the vicariate of Central (then called Northern) Shensi, and erected into a new vicariate, which from its position with regard to the old vicariate was given the name of Northern Shensi. The mission is confided to the Friars Minor. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Celestius Ibanez Aparicio, titular Bishop of Bagi, who was appointed on 12 April, 1911.

SOLOMON ISLANDS, SOUTHERN.--The Prefecture Apostolic of the Southern Solomon Islands was erected into a vicariate Apostolic on 1 June, 1912, its boundaries remaining unchanged. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Jean-Ephrem Bertreux, Marist, b. at Saint-Jean-de-Boseau, France, in Jan., 1853; ordained in June, 1878; went on the foreign mission in the Fiji Islands, 1879; appointed 2 June, 1912, and consecrated at Nantes on 28 Oct. following. He is titular Bishop of Musti, and resides at Rua-Sura.

SUDAN.--By a Decree of 14 Feb., 1911, the northern limits of the Prefecture Apostolic of Ubanghi-Chari were extended to the 13 degree N. Lat., the new territory being taken away from the Vicariate Apostolic of the Sudan. Furthermore, as on May, 1913, the Prefecture Apostolic of Bar-el-Gazal was formed by separation from the Sudan mission, it was decreed on 30 May, 1913, that the official name of this mission should be changed to the Vicariate Apostolic of Khartum.

SZE-CH'WAN, SOUTHERN, in China.--On 30 April, 1912, the civil subprefecture of Tsinkyhiem was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of Southern Sze-ch'wan to that of the Vicar Apostolic of Kien-chang.

TAIKU comprises Kieng-siang-to and Tiyen-la-to, two civil prefectures formerly part of the Vicariate of Corea (now Seoul). It was erected on 7 April, 1911, and committed to the care of the Society of Foreign Missions in Paris. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Florien Demange, b. at Saulxures-les-Salles, France, 25 April, 1875; ordained, 26 June, 1898; set out for the foreign mission in Corea on 3 Aug. following; appointed vicar Apostolic, 8 April, 1911; and consecrated at Seoul on 11 June, 1911, as titular Bishop of Adrassus.

TANARIVE, in Madagascar.--This new name was given by a decree of 20 May, 1913, to the Vicariate Apostolic of Central Madagascar

TIENTSIN, in China.--This is another name for the Vicariate Apostolic of Maritime Chi-li

ZANZIBAR (ZANGUEBAR), NORTHERN.--In 1869 a mission was begun in the island of Zanzibar through the efforts of Mgr. Armand Maupoint, Bishop of St. Denis (Reunion); on 12 Nov., 1862, this was made a prefecture Apostolic under Mgr. Maupoint as Apostolic delegate . The mission was confided to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost on 9 Sept., 1872; on 13 Nov., 1883, it was erected into a vicariate Apostolic, from which were separated later the Prefectures Apostolic of Benadir and Kenia, the Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Zanzibar and on 11 May, 1906, that of Bagamoyo or Central Zanzibar. It now comprises the British East Africa territory (except the district of Kenia ) and the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. The chief languages spoken are Kiswahili and Kikuya. There are about 3,000,000 inhabitants, of whom 4450 are Catholics, and 4800 catechumens ; the mission has 34 priests, 22 lay brothers , 8 catechists, 31 nuns (sisters of St. Joseph, and Dominican Tertiaries ), 17 stations, 12 schools with 1000 children, 26 orphans, 1 leper asylum, 2 hospitals, and 11 pharmacies. An agreement was made on 24 Oct., 1906, between the Sultan of Zanzibar and the vicar Apostolic by which the bishop was to take care of all the lepers and the poor of Zanzibar, to feed them and care for them, and provide Sisters to look after their wants, while the Government was to build and furnish two homes. The vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Emile-Auguste Allgeyer, b. at Rixheim in Alsatia, in 1856, appointed to the vicariate, 17 Feb., 1897; as titular Bishop of Ticelia.

ZANZIBAR, SOUTHERN or DAR-ES-SALEM, in German East Africa.-- This mission was erected into a prefecture Apostolic , under the care of the German Benedictines of St. Odila for the Foreign Missions, on 16 Nov., 1887. Previously it had formed part of the Vicariate of Zanguebar (Zanzibar). On 10 July, 1897, its southern boundaries were extended to Cape Delgado, and its inland limits made to embrace Magwangwara. On 10 Sept., 1902, it was made a vicariate Apostolic ; the first vicar being R. P. Cassian Spiess, who was slain by the natives in Aug., 1905. Mgr. Speiss was born at Sankt Jacob in Austria, 12 July, 1866. He was appointed vicar Apostolic and titular Bishop of Ostracina on 15 Sept., 1902. With him were slain two lay brothers and two Benedictine Sisters. The name of the vicariate was changed on 10 Aug., 1906, to Dar-es-Salem — the name of the town where the vicar Apostolic resides. The boundary between the Vicariates of Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salem was modified by a Decree of 7 May, 1913; it is now the line separating Bagamoyo and Morogoro from Dar-es-Salem and Rufiji; then the rivers Ruaha and Umeroke and finally the railway from the Indian Ocean to Tabora. The vicariate contains about 1,000,000, most of whom speak Kiswahili, which language was reduced to writing and a grammar and dictionary of two of its dialects compiled by the missionaries in 1904; there are 3967 Catholics, 2600 catechumens, 14 missionary priests, 18 lay brothers , 55 catechists, 11 chief and 36 secondary stations, 66 schools with 2577 pupils, 15 orphanages, and 18 Benedictine nuns. The second and present vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Thomas Spreiter, O.S.B., b. at Ratisbon, 28 Dec., 1865; professed, 2 Feb., 1888; ordained, 28 July, 1897; sent to the Zanzibar mission in 1900; appointed vicar, 13 March, 1906, and consecrated at Augsburg, on 6 Dec., 1906, as titular Bishop of Thænæ.

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Professor of geology and mineralogy at the Catholic University of Louvain (1863), doctor honoris ...

Valla, Lorenzo

(DELLA VALLE). Humanist and philosopher, b. at Rome, 1405; d. there, 1 Aug., 1457. His ...

Valladolid, Archdiocese of

(VALLISOLETANA). Bounded on the north by Palencia, east by Burgos and Segovia, south by ...

Valladolid, University of

The name of the founder and the date of foundation of the University of Valladolid are not known ...

Vallarsi, Dominic

An Italian priest, born at Verona, 13 November, 1702; died there, 14 August, 1771. He studied ...

Valle, Pietro della

Italian traveller in the Orient, b. at Rome, 2 April, 1586; d. there, 21 April, 1652. He ...

Valleyfield, Diocese of

(CAMPIVALLENSIS.) Valleyfield is a thriving city of about 10,000 inhabitants, situated at the ...

Vallgornera, Thomas de

Dominican theologian and ascetical writer, renowned for his learning and piety, born in ...

Valliscaulian Order

("Vallis Caulium", or "Val-des-Choux", the name of the first monastery of that order, in Burgundy ...

Vallo and Capaccio

(CAPUTAQUENSIS ET VALLENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Salerno. Capaccio is a city in the ...

Vallumbrosan Order

The name is derived from the motherhouse, Vallombrosa (Latin Vallis umbrosa, shady valley), ...

Valois, Henri

(HENRICUS VALESIUS). Philologist, b. at Paris, 10 Sept., 1603; d. at Paris, 7 May, 1676. He ...

Valona

Titular see, suffragan of Dyrrachium, in Epirus Nova. The ancient name was Aulon, mentioned for ...

Valroger, Hyacinthe de

French Oratorian, born at Caen, 6 January, 1814; died 10 October, 1876. He first studied ...

Valva and Sulmona, Dioceses of

(VALVEN. ET SULMONEN.) Located in Italy ; united aeque principaliter . Valva, a medieval ...

Valverde, Vincent de

Born at Oropesa, Spain towards the close of the fifteenth century; d. at the Island of ...

Van Beethoven, Ludwig

Born at Bonn, probably on 16 December, 1770; died at Vienna, 26 March, 1827. The date of his ...

Van Beneden, Pierre-Joseph

Born at Mechlin, Belgium, 19 Dec., 1809; died at Louvain, 8 Jan., 1894. Educated for the ...

Van Buren, William Home

Distinguished American surgeon, b. at Philadelphia, 5 April, 1819; d. at New York, 25 March, 1883. ...

Van Cleef, Jan

A Flemish painter, b. in Guelderland in 1646, d. at Ghent, 18 December, 1716. He was a pupil of ...

Van Cleef, Joost

(JOSSE VAN CLEVE). The "Madman", a Flemish painter born in Antwerp c. 1520, died c. 1556. ...

Van Cleef, Martin

A Flemish painter, born at Antwerp in 1520; died in 1570; was the son of the painter William ...

Van de Velde, Peter

(PEDRO CAMPAÑA). Painter, b. at Brussels, 1503; d. in that city in 1580. This artist ...

Van De Vyver, Augustine

Sixth Bishop of Richmond, Virginia ; b. at Haesdonck, East Flanders, Belgium, 1 Dec., 1844; ...

Van den Broek, Theodore J.

Priest and missionary, b. at Amsterdam, Holland, 5 Nov., 1783; d. at Little Chute, Wisconsin, 5 ...

Van der Bundere, Joannes

(VAN DEN BUNDERE). A Flemish theologian and controversialist, born of distinguished parents ...

Van der Sandt, Maximilian

(SANDAUS). Born at Amsterdam, 17 April, 1578; d. at Cologne, 21 June, 1656. He entered the ...

Van der Weyden, Rogier

Painter, b. at Tournai, 1399 or 1400; d. at Brussels, 1464. His original name was De la Pasture, ...

Van Eyck, Hubert and Jan

Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...

Vancouver

(VANCOUVERIENSIS). Archdiocese ; includes that part of the mainland of the Province of British ...

Vandal, Albert

French writer, b. at Paris, 7 July, 1853; d. there, 30 Aug., 1910. His father was director ...

Vandals

A Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans. According to Tacitus, they were ...

Vane, Thomas

The place and time of his birth and death are not known; but he was educated at Christ's ...

Vannes, Diocese of

(VENETENSIS). Comprises the Department of Morbihan, and was re-established by the Concordat ...

Vanni, Andrea

Painter and statesman, b. at Siena, 1320; d. 1414. He entered politics after the democratic ...

Vanni, Francesco

Painter, b. at Siena, 1565; d. there, 1609. Vanni was one of the better class of artists of the ...

Varani, Blessed Baptista

(Varano). An ascetical writer, b. at Camerino, in the Camerino, belonged to an illustrious ...

Vargas y Mexia, Francisco de

Spanish diplomat and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Madrid, date unknown; d. At the ...

Vargas, Luis de

Painter, b. at Seville, in 1502; d. there in 1568. He has two claims upon our attention; he was ...

Vasari, Giorgio

Painter, architect, and writer, b. at Arezzo, 1511; d. at Florence, 1574. Although an artist of ...

Vase, Altar

Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar. The Cæremoniale Episcoporum (I, xii, ...

Vasquez, Gabriel

Theologian, b. at Villaescusa de Haro, near Belmonte, Cuenca, 1549 or 1551; d. at Alcalá, ...

Vatable, François

(Or better WATEBLED, the name is also written GASTEBLED or OUATEBLE). French Hellenist and ...

Vatican as a Scientific Institution, The

Regarded from the point of view of scientific productivity, the Vatican is the busiest ...

Vatican Council

The Vatican Council, the twentieth and up to now [1912] the last ecumenical council, opened on 8 ...

Vatican Observatory

The Vatican Observatory now bears the official title, "Specola Astronomica Vaticana". To ...

Vatican, The

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Introduction; II. Architectural ...

Vaticanus, Codex

(CODEX B), a Greek manuscript, the most important of all the manuscripts of Holy Scripture . ...

Vaudreuil

Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil Governor of Canada, born in Languedoc, France, in the ...

Vaughan, Herbert

Cardinal, and third Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Gloucester, 15 April, 1832; d. at St. ...

Vaughan, Roger William

(B EDE ). Second Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Courtfield, Herefordshire, 9 January, 1834; ...

Vauquelin, Louis-Nicolas

Born at Saint-André d'Hebertot, Normandy, 16 May, 1763; died 14 Nov., 1829. In youth as ...

Vaux, Laurence

(V OSE ). Canon regular, author of a catechism, martyr in prison, b. at Blackrod, ...

Vaux-de-Cernay

A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in the Diocese of Versailles, Seine-et-Oise, in what was ...

Vavasour, Thomas

English Catholic physician, pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, b. about 1536-7; d. at ...

Vavasseur, François

Humanist and controversialist, b. at Paray-le-Monial, 8 Dec., 1605; d. at Paris, 16 Dec., ...

Vaz, Blessed Joseph

A Goanese priest, Apostle of Ceylon [ Sri Lanka ], b. at Goa, 21 April, 1651; d. at Kandy, 16 ...

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Ve 75

Vecchietta, Lorenzo di Pietro

Painter, sculptor, goldsmith, and architect, b. at Castiglione di Val d'Orcia, 1412; d. there, ...

Vedas

The sacred books of ancient India. The Sanskrit word veda means "knowledge", more particularly ...

Vega, Andreas de

Theologian and Franciscan Observantine, b. at Segovia in Old Castile, Spain, at unknown date ...

Veghe, Johannes

German preacher and religious writer, b. at Münster in Westphalia about 1435; d. there, 21 ...

Vegio, Maffeo

(MAPHEUS VEGIUS.) Churchman, humanist, poet, and educator, b. at Lodi, Italy, 1406; d. at ...

Veglia, Diocese of

(VEGIENSIS ET ARBENSIS). In Austria, suffragan of Görz-Gradisca. Parallel to the Dinaric ...

Vehe, Michael

Born at Bieberach near Wimpfen; died at Halle, April, 1559. He joined the Dominicans at Wimpfen, ...

Veil, Humeral

This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

Veil, Religious

In ancient Rome a red veil, or a veil with red stripes, distinguished newly-married women from ...

Veit, Philipp

Painter, b. at Berlin, 13 Feb., 1793; d. at Mainz, 18 Dec., 1877. Veit was a grandson of the ...

Veith, Johann Emanuel

Preacher, b. of Jewish parents at Kuttenplan, Bohemia, 1787; d. at Vienna, 6 Nov., 1876. In ...

Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y

Spanish painter, b. at Seville 5 June, 1599 (the certificate of baptism is dated 6 June); d. at ...

Venezuela

A republic formed out of the provinces which, under Spanish rule, constituted the captaincy ...

Veni Creator Spiritus

The "most famous of hymns " (Frere), is assigned in the Roman Breviary to Vespers (I and II) ...

Veni Sancte Spiritus Et Emitte Coelitus

The sequence for Pentecost (the "Golden Sequence "). It is sung at Mass from Whitsunday until ...

Veni Sancte Spiritus Reple

A prose invocation of the Holy Ghost . The Alleluia following the Epistle of Whitsunday ...

Venice

Venice, the capital of a province in Northern Italy, is formed of a group of 117 small islands ...

Venosa

(VENUSIN.) Diocese in Southern Italy. The city is situated on a high precipitous hill, one of ...

Ventimiglia

(VENTIMILIENSIS) Located in the Province of Porto Maurizio, northern Italy. The city is ...

Ventura di Raulica, Gioacchino

Italian pulpit orator, patriot, phyilosopher, b. at Palermo, 8 Dec., 1792; d. at Versailles, 2 ...

Venturino of Bergamo

Preacher, b. at Bergamo, 9 April, 1304; d. at Smyrna, 28 March, 1346. He received the habit of ...

Venusti, Raffaele

(VENOSTA.) Born at Tirano, Valtellina, northern Italy, about the end of the fifteenth ...

Vera Cruz

(VERAE CRUCIS or JALAPENSIS). Diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the Archbishopric ...

Verapoly, Archdiocese of

(VERAPOLITANA.) Located on the Malabar Coast, India, having the Diocese of Quilon as ...

Verbiest, Ferdinand

Missionary and astronomer, b. at Pitthem near Coutrai, Also spelled "Kortrijk" Belgium, 9 ...

Verbum Supernum Prodiens

The first line of two hymns celebrating respectively the Nativity of Christ and the Institution ...

Vercelli

(VERCELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy. The city of Vercelli ...

Vercellone, Carlo

Biblical scholar, born at Biella, Milan ; died at Rome, 19 January, 1869. He entered the Order ...

Verdaguer, Jacinto

Poet, b. at Riudeperas, Province of Barcelona, Spain, 17 April, 1845; d. at Vallvidrera, ...

Verdi, Giuseppe

Composer, b. at Le Roncole, Parma, Italy, 10 October, 1813; d. at S. Agata, near Busseto, 27 ...

Verdun, Diocese of

(VIRODUNENSIS.) Comprises the Department of the Meuse. Suppressed by the Concordat of 1802, ...

Verecundus

sentence --> Bishop of Junca, in the African Province of Byzacena, in the middle of the ...

Vergani, Paolo

Italian political economist, b. in Piedmont, 1753; d. in Paris, about 1820. As a student, he ...

Vergerio, Pier Paolo, the Elder

Humanist, statesman, and canonist, b. at Capodistria, 23 July, 1370; d. at Budapest, 8 July, 1444 ...

Vergil, Polydore

Born at Ubino about 1470; died there probably in 1555. Having studied at Bologna and Padua, he ...

Vergilius of Salzburg, Saint

Irish missionary and astronomer, of the eighth century. Vergilius (or Virgilius, in Irish ...

Vering, Friedrich Heinrich

A German canonist, b. at Liesborn in Westphalia, 9 March, 1833; d. at Prague, 30 March, 1896. ...

Vermont

One of the New England states, extends from the line of Massachusetts, on the south 42° 44' N. ...

Verna, La

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...

Vernazza, Tommasina

Born at Genoa, 1497; died there, 1587. Her father, Ettore Vernazza, was a patrician, founder of ...

Verne, Jules

Novelist, b. at Nantes, France, 1828; d. at Amiens, 1905. His first literary venture was a ...

Vernier, Pierre

Inventor of the instrument which bears his name, b. at Ornans, Franche-Comte, c. 1580; d. there, ...

Veroli, Diocese of

(VERULANA). Located in the Province of Rome. The city of Veroli (Verulae) is situated on the ...

Verona

(VERONENSIS.) Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The city, situated on both branches of ...

Veronica Giuliani, Saint

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

Veronica, Saint

In several regions of Christendom there is honored under this name a pious matron of ...

Verot, Augustin

Third Bishop of Savannah, first of St. Augustine, b. at Le Puy, France, May, 1804; d. at St. ...

Verrazano, Giovanni da

Navigator, b. about 1485, of good family, at Val di Greve, near Florence ; executed at Puerto ...

Verreau, Hospice-Anthelme

A French-Canadian priest, educator, and historian, b. at l'Islet, P.Q., 6 Sept., 1828, of Germain ...

Verri, Count Pietro

Economist, b. at Milan, Dec., 1728; d. there, 29 June, 1797. After studying at Monza, Rome, and ...

Verrocchio, Andrea del

Born at Florence, 1435; d. at Venice, 1488. He was called Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' ...

Versailles

(VERSALIENSIS). Diocese ; includes the Department of Seine-et-Oise, France. Created in ...

Versions of the Bible

Synopsis GREEK : Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions. VERSIONS FROM THE ...

Versions of the Bible, Coptic

DIALECTS The Coptic language is now recognized in four principal dialects, Bohairic (formerly ...

Verstegan, Richard

( Alias ROWLANDS). Publisher and antiquarian, born at London, about 1548; died at Antwerp ...

Vertin, John

Third Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A. b. at Doblice, Diocese of Laibach (Carniolia), Austria, 17 ...

Vertot, Réné-Aubert, Sieur de

French historian, b. at Benetot, Normandy, 25 Nov., 1655; d. in Paris, 15 June, 1735. He was for ...

Veruela

A celebrated Cistercian monastery and church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. It is situated ...

Vesalius, Andreas

(WESALIUS.) The reorganizer of the study of anatomy ; b. at Brussels, 31 Dec., 1514; d. in a ...

Vespasian

(TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS). Roman Emperor, b. at Reate (now Rieti ), the ancient capital of ...

Vespasiano da Bisticci

( Or FIORENTINO.) Florentine humanist and librarian, b. in 1421; d. in 1498. He was ...

Vespers

This subject will be treated under the following headings: I. Vespers in the sixth century; II. ...

Vespers, Music of

The texts (e.g. antiphons, psalms, hymn ) sung in Vespers vary according to the feast or the ...

Vespers, Sicilian

The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 ...

Vespucci, Amerigo

A famous Italian navigator, born at Florence, 9 March, 1451; died at Seville, 22 February, 1512. ...

Vessels, Altar

The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained. ...

Vestibule (in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Vestments

IN WESTERN EUROPE By liturgical vestments are meant the vestments that, according to the rules ...

Veszprém

(VESPRIMIENSIS.) Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, one of the sees founded about 1009 by ...

Veto, The Royal

(In the appointment of Bishops in Ireland and England.) Although the penal laws enacted ...

Vetter, Conrad

Preacher and polemical writer, b. at Engen in the present Grand Duchy of Baden, 1547; d. at ...

Veuillot, Louis

Journalist and writer, b. at Boynes, Loiret, 11 Oct., 1813; d. in Paris, 7 April, 1883. He was ...

Vexiö, Ancient See of

(WEPIONENSIS.) The Ancient See of Vexiö, in Sweden, comprised the County of Kronoberg ...

Vexilla Regis Prodeunt

This "world-famous hymn, one of the grandest in the treasury of the Latin Church " (Neale), and ...

Vezzosi, Antonio Francesco

Member of the Theatine Congregation and biographical writer, born at Arezzo, Italy, 4 October, ...

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Vi 116

Via Crucis

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Via Dolorosa

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Viader, José

Born at Gallimes, Catalonia, 27 August, 1765. He received the habit of St. Francis at Barcelona ...

Vianney, Saint Jean-Baptiste-Marie

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...

Viaticum

Name Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a ...

Viator, Clerics of Saint

St. Viator, lector of the cathedral at Lyons, France, lived in the fourth century and is the ...

Viborg, Ancient See of

(VIBERGAE, VIBERGENSIS.) The ancient See of Viborg, in Denmark, comprised the Province of ...

Vicar

( Latin vicarius , from vice , "instead of") In canon law, the representative of a person ...

Vicar Apostolic

(1) In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the ...

Vicar Capitular

The administrator of a vacant diocese, elected by a cathedral chapter. On the death of a ...

Vicar of Christ

(Latin Vicarius Christi ). A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal ...

Vicar-General

The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary. He is a cleric legitimately deputed to ...

Vicari, Hermann von

Archbishop of Freiburg in Baden, b. at Aulendorf in Wurtemberg, 13 May, 1773; d. at Freiburg, ...

Vicariate Apostolic (Updated List)

The following is an account of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and of those changed so ...

Vice

( Latin vitium , any sort of defect) is here regarded as a habit inclining one to sin. It is ...

Vicelinus, Saint

Bishop of Oldenburg, apostle of Holstein, b. at Hameln about 1086; d. 12 Dec., 1154. Orphaned ...

Vicente, Gil

Portuguese dramatist, b. about 1470; he was living in 1536. He took up the study of law but ...

Vicenza, Diocese of

(VICENTINA). The city is the capital of a province in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The ...

Vich, Diocese of

(Vicensis, Ausonensis). Suffragan of Tarragona, bounded on the north by Gerona, on the east ...

Vico, Francescoe de

Astronomer, b. at Macerata, States of the Church, 19 May, 1805; d. at London, England, 15 Nov., ...

Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani

The first stanza of the Easter sequence. Medieval missals placed it on various days within the ...

Victor

Bishop of Tunnunum (Tonnenna, Tunnuna) in Northern Africa and zealous supporter of the Three ...

Victor I, Pope Saint

(189-198 or 199), date of birth unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" makes him a native of Africa ...

Victor II, Pope

(GEBHARD, COUNT OF CALW, TOLLENSTEIN, AND HIRSCHBERG.) Born about 1018; died at Arezzo, 28 ...

Victor III, Pope Blessed

(DAUFERIUS or DAUFAR). Born in 1026 or 1027 of a non-regnant branch of the Lombard dukes of ...

Victor IV

Two antipopes of this name. I. Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II ...

Victor of Capua

A sixth-century bishop about whose life nothing is known except what is found in his epitaph ...

Victor Vitensis

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Victoria

(VICTORIEN. IN INS. VANCOUVER.) Diocese in southwestern British Columbia, of which province it ...

Victoria Nyanza, Northern

The Mission of Victoria Nyanza, founded in 1878 by the White Fathers of Cardinal Lavigerie, was ...

Victoria Nyanza, Southern

Vicariate apostolic erected from the mission of Nyanza, 13 June, 1894, lies north of the ...

Victorinus, Caius Marius

(Called also VICTORINUS MARIUS, or MARIUS FABIUS VICTORINUS, and frequently referred to as ...

Victorinus, Saint

An ecclesiastical writer who flourished about 270, and who suffered martyrdom probably in 303, ...

Vida, Marco Girolamo

Italian Humanist, b. at Cremona about 1490; d. in 1566. He came to Rome under Julius II ; a ...

Vieira, Antonio

Missionary, diplomat, orator, b. at Lisbon, 6 February, 1608; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 July, 1697. ...

Viel, Nicholas

Died 1625, the first victim of apostolic zeal on the shores of the St. Lawrence. After ...

Vienna

Vienna -- the capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin ...

Vienna, University of

Foundation of the University Next to the University of Prague that of Vienna is the oldest ...

Vienne, Council of

Pope Clement V, by the Bull "Regnans in coelis" of 12 Aug., 1308, called a general council to ...

Vierthaler, Franz Michael

A distinguished Austrian pedagogue, b. at Mauerkirchen, Upper Austria, 25 September, 1758; d. ...

Vieta, François

(VIÈTE.) Father of modern algebra, b. at Fontenay-le-Comte (Poitou), 1540; d. in ...

Viger, Denis-Benjamin

French-Canadian statesman and writer, b. at Montreal, 19 Aug., 1774; d. 1861. After studying ...

Viger, Jacques

French-Canadian antiquarian and archaeologist, b. at Montreal, 7 May, 1787; d. 12 Dec., 1858. ...

Vigevano

(VIGLEVANENSIS.) Diocese in Lombardy, Province of Pavia. The city is a great agricultural ...

Vigilius

Bishop of Tapsus, in the African Province of Byzacena. Mentioned in the "Notitia" appended to ...

Vigilius, Pope

Reigned 537-55, date of birth unknown; died at Syracuse, 7 June 555. He belonged to a ...

Vigilius, Saint

Bishop of Trent, martyr, patron of Trent and of Tyrol, b. c. 353; d. 26 June, 405; feast 26 ...

Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi da

A theoretical and practical architect of the Transition Period between the Renaissance and ...

Vigor, Simon

French bishop and controversialist, b. at Evreux, Normandy, about 1515; d. at Carcassonne, 1 ...

Vikings

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

Villalpandus, Juan Bautista

Born at Cordova, Spain, in 1552; entered the Society of Jesus in 1575; died on 22 May, 1608. His ...

Villani, Giovanni

Florentine historian, b. about 1276; d. of the plague in 1348. Descended from a wealthy family ...

Villanovanus, Arnaldus

(ARNALDUS OF VILLANUEVA, or VILLENEUVE, or BACHUONE). Celebrated in his day as a physician, ...

Villefranche, Jacques-Melchior

Publicist, b. at Couzon-sur-Saone, 17 Dec., 1829; d. at Bourg, 10 May, 1904. After excellent ...

Villehardouin, Geoffroi de

Maréchal de Champagne, warrior, and first historian in the French language, b. about 1150; ...

Villeneuve-Barcement, Jean-Paul-Alban

Vicomte de, b. at Saint-Auban, Var, 8 Aug., 1784; d. at Paris, 8 June, 1850. After having taken ...

Villermé, Louis-René

French economist, b. at Paris, 10 March, 1782; d. there, 16 Nov., 1863. He was devoted to ...

Villers, Cistercian Abbey of

Situated on the confines of Villers and Tilly, Duchy of Brabant, present Diocese of Namur ...

Vilna

(VILENSIS). Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, is situated at the junction of the Rivers ...

Vincent de Paul, Saint

Born at Pouy, Gascony, France, in 1580, though some authorities have said 1576; died at Paris, ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint

A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint (New York)

(Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of ...

Vincent de Paul, Society of Saint

An international association of Catholic laymen engaging systematically in personal service of ...

Vincent Ferrer, Saint

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

Vincent Kadlubek, Blessed

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Vincent of Beauvais

Priest and encyclopedist. Little is known of his personal history. The years of his birth and ...

Vincent of Lérins, Saint

Feast on 24 May, an ecclesiastical writer in Southern Gaul in the fifth century. His work is ...

Vincent, Saint

(MALDEGARIUS). Founder and abbot of the monasteries of Hautmont and Soignies, b. of a noble ...

Vincent, Saint

Deacon of Saragossa, and martyr under Diocletian, 304; mentioned in the Roman Martyrology, 22 ...

Vincentians

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Vincenzo de Vit

Latinist, b. at Mestrina, near Padua, 10 July, 1810; d. at Domo d'Ossola, 17 Aug., 1892. He made ...

Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Vindicianus, Saint

Bishop of Cambrai - Arras, b. if tradition is to be believed, perhaps at Beaulaincourt, near ...

Vineam Domini

An Apostolic Constitution issued by Clement XI against the Jansenists on 16 July, 1705. It ...

Violence

Violence ( Latin vis ), an impulse from without tending to force one without any concurrence on ...

Viotti, Giovanni Battista

Founder of the modern school of violinist, b. at Fontanetto, Piedmont, 23 May, 173; d. 3 ...

Viraggio, Jacopo di

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Virgilius, Saint

(VIRGILE). Archbishop of Arles, died c. 610. According to a life written in the eighth ...

Virgin Birth of Christ

The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, ...

Virgin Mary, Devotion to the

Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...

Virgin Mary, Name of

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...

Virgin Mary, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

Virginia

Surnamed "The Old Dominion", "The Mother of States and of Statesmen", one of the thirteen original ...

Virginity

Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous ...

Virtue

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Definitions; II. Subjects; III. ...

Virtue, Heroic

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

Vischer, Peter

Sculptor and metal founder, b. at Nuremberg about 1460; d. in 1529. His father Hermann, who ...

Visdelou, Claude de

Born at the Château de Bienassis, Pléneuf, Brittany, 122 Aug., 1656; died at ...

Visigoths

One of the two principal branches of the Goths. Until 375 their history is combined with that of ...

Visions

This article will deal not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to ...

Visit ad Limina

(Sc. Apostolorum ) The visit ad limina means, technically, the obligation incumbent on ...

Visitation Convent, Georgetown

Located in the District of Columbia , United States of America . This convent was founded by ...

Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

I. THE EVENT Assuming that the Annunciation and the Incarnation took place about the vernal ...

Visitation Order

The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and ...

Visitation, Canonical

The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or ...

Visitors Apostolic

Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates. Visitors differ from other Apostolic ...

Visits to the Blessed Sacrament

By this devotional practice, which is of comparatively modern development, the presence of ...

Vitalian, Pope Saint

(Reigned 657-72). Date of birth unknown; d. 27 January, 672. Nothing is known of Vitalian's ...

Vitalini, Bonifazio

(DE VITALINIS). Jurist, b. at Mantua, Italy, about 1320; d. at Avignon after 1388. After ...

Vitalis and Agricola, Saints

Martyred at Bologna about 304 during Diocletian's persecution. Agricola, who was beloved for ...

Vitalis of Savigny, Saint

Founder of the monastery and Congregation of Savigny (1112), b. at Tierceville near Bayeaux ...

Vitalis, Saint

Martyr. His legend, which is of little historical value, relates that he was martyred by order ...

Vitelleschi, Muzio

Born at Rome 2 Dec., 1563; died there 9 Feb., 1645. He belonged to a distinguished family but ...

Vitellius, Lucius

Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, ...

Vitensis, Victor

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Vitoria

(VICTORIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Burgos, in Spain, bounded on the north by the Bay of ...

Vittorino da Feltre

(VITTORINO DE' RAMBALDONI). Humanist educator, b. at Feltre, 1397; d. at Mantua, 1446. He was ...

Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia, Saints

According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...

Viva, Domenico

Writer, b. at Lecce, 19 Oct., 1648; d. 5 July, 1726. He entered the Society of Jesus 12 May, ...

Vivarini

A family of Italian painters. Alvise Vivarini Born in 1446 or 1447; died in 1502. He was the ...

Vives, Juan Luis

Spanish humanist and philosopher, b. at Valencia, 6 March, 1492; d. at Bruges, 6 May, 1540. ...

Viviers

(VIVARIUM). Diocese ; includes the Department of Ardèche, France. It was suppressed ...

Vivisection

Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures; ordinarily it ...

Vizagapatam, Diocese of

Located in the east of India, suffragan to Madras. It is bounded on the north by the River ...

Vizeu

(VISENSIS). Diocese in north central Portugal. The bishopric dates from the sixth century and ...

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Vladimir the Great, Saint

(VLADIMIR or VOLODOMIR). Grand Duke of Kieff and All Russia, grandson of St. Olga, and the ...

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Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious

An ecclesiastical or religious vocation is the special gift of those who, in the Church of God, ...

Vogüé, Eugène-Melchior, Vicomte de

Critic, novelist, and historian, born at Nice, 25 February, 1848; died in Paris, 24 February, ...

Vogler, George Joseph

Theorist, composer and organist, b. at Würzburg, 15 June 1749, d. at Darmstadt, 6 May, ...

Volk, Wilhelm

(Pseudonym, LUDWIG CLARUS). Born at Halberstadt 25 Jan., 1804; died at Erfurt 17 March, 1869. ...

Volksverein

(PEOPLE'S UNION) FOR CATHOLIC GERMANY. A large and important organization of German Catholics ...

Volta, Alessandro

Physicist, b. at Como, 18 Feb., 1745; d. there, 5 March, 1827. As his parents were not in ...

Volterra

(VOLTARRANENSIS). Diocese in Tuscany. The city stands on a rocky mountain 1770 feet above the ...

Volterra, Daniele da

(RICCIARELLI). Italian painter, b. at Volterra, 1509; d. in Rome, 1566. Ricciarelli was called ...

Voluntarism

Voluntarism ( Latin voluntas , will) in the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which ...

Voluntary

Wilful, proceeding from the will. It is requisite that the thing be an effect of the will ...

Voluntary Association, Right of

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

Von Gagern, Max, Freiherr

Born at Weilburg (in Nassau), Germany, 25 March, 1810; died at Vienna, 17 October, 1889. He was ...

Vondel, Joost van Den

Netherland poet and convert, b. at Cologne, 17 Nov., 1587, of parents whose residence was ...

Voragine, Jacopo de

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Votive Mass

( Missa votiva ) A Mass offered for a votum , a special intention. So we frequently find ...

Votive Offerings

The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in ...

Votive Offices

A votive office is one not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying ...

Vows

I. GENERAL VIEW A vow is defined as a promise made to God. The promise is binding, and so differs ...

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Vrau, Philibert

"The holy man of Lille ", organizer of numerous Catholic activities; b. at Lille, 19 Nov., ...

Vrie, Theodoric

Historian of the Council of Constance . He describes himself as a brother of the Order of ...

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