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Revelation

I. MEANING OF REVELATION

Revelation may be defined as the communication of some truth by God to a rational creature through means which are beyond the ordinary course of nature.

The truths revealed may be such as are otherwise inaccessible to the human mind -- mysteries, which even when revealed, the intellect of man is incapable of fully penetrating. But Revelation is not restricted to these. God may see fit to employ supernatural means to affirm truths, the discovery of which is not per se beyond the powers of reason. The essence of Revelation lies in the fact that it is the direct speech of God to man. The mode of communication, however, may be mediate. Revelation does not cease to be such if God's message is delivered to us by a prophet, who alone is the recipient of the immediate communication. Such in brief is the account of Revelation given in the Constitution "De Fide Catholica" of the Vatican Council . The Decree "Lamentabili" (3 July, 1907), by its condemnation of a contrary proposition, declares that the dogmas which the Church proposes as revealed are "truths which have come down to us from heaven " ( veritates e coelo delapsoe ) and not "an interpretation of religious facts which the human mind has acquired by its own strenuous efforts" (prop., 22). It will be seen that Revelation as thus explained differs clearly from:

  • inspiration such as is bestowed by God on the author of a sacred book; for this, while involving a special illumination of the mind in virtue of which the recipient conceives such thoughts as God desires him to commit to writing, does not necessarily suppose a supernatural communication of these truths ;
  • from the illustrations which God may bestow from time to time upon any of the faithful to bring home to the mind the import of some truth of religion hitherto obscurely grasped; and,
  • from the Divine assistance by which the pope when acting as the supreme teacher of the Church, is preserved from all error as to faith or morals. The function of this assistance is purely negative: it need not carry with it any positive gift of light to the mind. Much of the confusion in which the discussion of Revelation in non-Catholic works is involved arises from the neglect to distinguish it from one or other of these.

During the past century the Church has been called on to reject as erroneous several views of Revelation irreconcilable with Catholic belief. Three of these may here be noted.

  • The view of Anton Guenther (1783-1863). This writer denied that Revelation could include mysteries strictly so-called, inasmuch as the human intellect is capable of penetrating to the full all revealed truth. He taught, further, that the meaning to be attached to revealed doctrines is undergoing constant change as human knowledge grows and man's mind develops; so that the dogmatic formul which are now true will gradually cease to be so. His writings were put on the Index in 1857, and his erroneous propositions definitively condemned in the decrees of the Vatican Council.
  • the Modernist view (Loisy, Tyrrell). According to this school, there is no such thing as Revelation in the sense of a direct communication from God to man. The human soul reaching up towards the unknowable God is ever endeavouring to interpret its sentiments in intellectual formul . The formul it thus frames are our ecclesiastical dogmas. These can but symbolize the Unknowable; they can give us no real knowledge regarding it. Such an error is manifestly subversive of all belief, and was explicitly condemned by the Decree "Lamentabili" and the Encyclical "Pascendi" (8 Sept., 1907).
  • With the view just mentioned is closely connected the Pragmatist view of M. Leroy ("Dogme et Critique", Paris, 2nd ed. 1907). Like the Modernists, he sees in revealed dogmas simply the results of spiritual experience, but holds their value to lie not in the fact that they symbolize the Unknowable, but that they have practical value in pointing the way by which we may best enjoy experience of the Divine. This view was condemned in the same documents as the last mentioned.

II. POSSIBILITY OF REVELATION

The possibility of Revelation as above explained has been strenuously denied from various points of view during the last century. For this reason the Church held it necessary to issue special decrees on the subject in the Vatican Council. Its antagonists may be divided into two classes according to the different standpoints from which they direct their attack, viz:

  • Rationalists (under this class we include both Deist and Agnostic writers). Those who adopt this standpoint rely in the main on two fundamental objections: they either urge that the miraculous is impossible, and that Revelation involves miraculous interposition on the part of the Deity ; or they appeal to the autonomy of reason, which it is maintained can only accept as truths the results of its own activities.
  • Immanentists. To this class may be assigned all those whose objections are based on Kantian and Hegelian doctrines as to the subjective character of all our knowledge. The views of these writers frequently involve a purely pantheistic doctrine. But even those who repudiate pantheism, in place of the personal God, Ruler, and Judge of the world, whom Christianity teaches, substitute the vague notion of the "Spirit" immanent in all men, and regard all religious creeds as the attempts of the human soul to find expression for its inward experience. Hence no religion, whether pagan or Christian, is wholly false ; but none can claim to be a message from God free from any admixture of error. (Cf. Sabatier, "Esquisse", etc., Bk. I, cap. ii.) Here too the autonomy of reason is invoked as fatal to the doctrine of Revelation properly so called. In the face of these objections, it is evident that the question of the possibility of Revelation is at present one of the most vital portions of Christian apologetic.
If the existence of a personal God be once established, the physical possibility at least of Revelation is undeniable. God, who has endowed man with means to communicate his thoughts to his fellows, cannot be destitute of the power to communicate His own thoughts to us. [Martineau, it is true, denies that we possess faculties either to receive or to authenticate a divine revelation concerning the past or the future (Seat of Authority in Religion, p. 311); but such an assertion is arbitrary and extravagant in the extreme.] However, numerous difficulties have been urged on grounds other than that of physical possibility. In estimating their value it seems desirable to distinguish three aspects of Revelation, viz: as it makes known to us; (1) truths of the natural law,
(2) mysteries of the faith,
(3) positive precepts, e.g. regarding Divine worship.

(1) The revelation of truths of the natural law is certainly not inconsistent with God's wisdom. God so created man as to bestow on him endowments amply sufficient for him to attain his last end. Had it been otherwise, the creation would have been imperfect. If over and above this He decreed to make the attainment of beatitude yet easier for man by placing within his reach a far simpler and far more certain way of knowing the law on the observance of which his fate depended, this is an argument for the Divine generosity; it does not disprove the Divine wisdom. To assume, with certain Rationalists, that exceptional intervention can only be explained on the ground that God was unable to embrace His ultimate design in His original scheme is a mere petitio principii . Further, the doctrine of original sin supplies an additional reason for such a revelation of the natural law. That doctrine teaches us that man by the abuse of his free will has rendered his attainment of salvation difficult. Though his intellectual faculties are not radically vitiated, yet his grasp of truth is weakened; his recognition of the moral law is constantly clouded by doubts and questionings. Revelation gives to his mind the certainty he had lost, and so far repairs the evils consequent on the catastrophe which had befallen him.

(2) Still more difficulty has been felt regarding mysteries. It is freely asserted that a mystery is something repugnant to reason, and therefore something intrinsically impossible. This objection rests on a mere misunderstanding of what is signified by a mystery. In theological terminology a conception involves a mystery when it is such that the natural faculties of the mind are unable to see how its elements can coalesce. This does not imply anything contrary to reason. A conception is only contrary to reason when the mind can recognize that its elements are mutually exclusive, and therefore involve a contradiction in terms. A more subtle objection is that urged by Dr. J. Caird, to the effect that every truth that can be partially communicated to the mind by analogies is ultimately capable of being fully grasped by the understanding. "Of all such representations, unless they are purely illusory, it must hold good that implicitly and in undeveloped form they contain rational thought and therefore thought which human intelligence may ultimately free from its sensuous veil. . . . Nothing that is absolutely inscrutable to reason can be made known to faith " (Philosophy of Religion, p. 71). The objection rests on a wholly exaggerated view regarding the powers of the human intellect. The cognitive faculty of any nature is proportionate to its grade in the scale of being. The intelligence of a finite intellect can only penetrate a finite object; it is incapable of comprehending the Infinite. The finite types through which the Infinite is made known to it can never under any circumstances lead to more than analogous knowledge. It is further frequently urged that the revelation of what the mind cannot understand would be an act of violence to the intellect ; and that this faculty can only accept those truths whose intrinsic reasonableness it recognizes. This assertion, based on the alleged autonomy of reason, can only be met with denial. The function of the intellect is to recognize and admit any truth which is adequately presented to it, whether that truth be guaranteed by internal or by external criteria. The reason is not deprived of its legitimate activity because the criteria are external. It finds ample scope in weighing the arguments for the credibility of the fact asserted. The existence of mysteries in the Christian religion was expressly taught by the Vatican Council (De Fide Cath., cap. ii, can. ii). "If anyone shall say that no mysteries properly so called are contained in the Divine revelation, but that all the dogmas of the faith can be understood and proved from natural principles by human reason duly cultivated -- let him be anathema."

(3) The older ( Deist ) School of Rationalists denied the possibility of a Divine revelation imposing any laws other than those which natural religion enjoins on man. These writers regarded natural religion as, so to speak, a political constitution determining the Divine government of the universe, and held that God could only act as its terms prescribed. This error likewise was proscribed at the same time (De Fide Cath., cap. ii, can. ii). "If any one shall say that it is impossible or that it is inexpedient that man should be instructed regarding God and the worship to be paid to Him by Divine revelation -- let him be anathema."

It can hardly be questioned that the "autonomy of reasons" furnishes the main source of the difficulties at present felt against Revelation in the Christian sense. It seems desirable to indicate very briefly the various ways in which that principle is understood. It is explained by M. Blondel, an eminent member of the Immanentist School, as signifying that "nothing can enter into a man which does not proceed from him, and which does not correspond in some manner to an interior need of expansion; and that neither in the sphere of historic facts nor of traditional doctrine, nor of commands imposed by authority, can any truth rank as valid for a man or any precept as obligatory, unless it be in some way autonomous and autochthonous" (Lettre sur les exigences, etc., p. 601). Although M. Blondel has in his own case reconciled this principle with the acceptance of Catholic belief, yet it may readily be seen that it affords an easy ground for the denial not merely of the possibility of external Revelation, but of the whole historic basis of Christianity. The origin of this erroneous doctrine is to be found in the fact that within the sphere of the natural speculative reason, truths which are received purely on external authority, and which are in no way connected with principles already admitted, can scarcely be said to form part of our knowledge. Science asks for the inner reason of things and can make no use of truths save in so far as it can reach the principles from which they flow. The extension of this to religious truths is an error directly traceable to the assumption of the eighteenth-century philosophers that there are no religious truths save those which the human intellect can attain unaided. The principle is, however, sometimes applied with a less extensive signification. It may be understood to involve no more than that reason cannot be compelled to admit any religious doctrine or any moral obligation merely because they possess extrinsic guarantees of truth ; they must in every case be able to justify their validity on intrinsic grounds. Thus Prof. J. Caird writes: "Neither moral nor religious ideas can be simply transferred to the human spirit in the form of fact, nor can they be verified by any evidence outside of or lower than themselves" (Fundamental Ideas of Christianity, p. 31). A somewhat different meaning again is implied in the canon of the Vatican Council in which the right of the intellect to claim absolute independence (autonomy) is denied. "If anyone shall say that human reason is independent in such wise that faith cannot be commanded it by God -- let him be anathema " (De Fide Cath., cap. iii, can. i). This canon is directed against the position maintained as already noted by the older Rationalists and the Deists, that human reason is amply sufficient without exterior assistance to attain to absolute truth in all matters of religion (cf. Vacant, "Etudes Théologiques", I, 572; II, 387).

III. NECESSITY OF REVELATION

Can it be said that Revelation is necessary to man ? There can be no question as to its necessity, if it be admitted that God destines man to attain a supernatural beatitude which surpasses the exigencies of his natural endowments. In that case God must needs reveal alike the existence of that supernatural end and the means by which we are to attain it. But is Revelation necessary even in order that man should observe the precepts of the natural law ? If our race be viewed in its present condition as history displays it, the answer can only be that it is, morally speaking, impossible for men unassisted by Revelation, to attain by their natural powers such a knowledge of that law as is sufficient to the right ordering of life. In other words, Revelation is morally necessary. Absolute necessity we do not assert. Man, Catholic theology teaches, possesses the requisite faculties to discover the natural law . Luther indeed asserted that man's intellect had become hopelessly obscured by original sin, so that even natural truth was beyond his reach. And the Traditionalists of the nineteenth century ( Bautain, Bonnetty, etc.) also fell into error, teaching that man was incapable of arriving at moral and religious truth apart from Revelation. The Church, on the contrary, recognizes the capacity of human reason and grants that here and there pagans may have existed, who had freed themselves from prevalent errors, and who had attained to such a knowledge of the natural law as would suffice to guide them to the attainment of beatitude. But she teaches nevertheless that this can only be the case as regards a few, and that for the bulk of mankind Revelation is necessary. That this is so may be shown both from the facts of history and from the nature of the case. As regards the testimony of history, it is notorious that even the most civilized of pagan races have fallen into the grossest errors regarding the natural law ; and from these it may safely be asserted they would never have emerged. Certainly the schools of philosophy would not have enabled them to do so; for many of these denied even such fundamental principles of the natural law as the personality of God and the freedom of the will. Again, by the very nature of the case, the difficulties involved in the attainment of the requisite knowledge are insuperable. For men to be able to attain such a knowledge of the natural law as will enable them to order their lives rightly, the truths of that law must be so plain that the mass of men can discover them without long delay, and possess a knowledge of them which will be alike free from uncertainty and secure from serious error. No reasonable man will maintain that in the case of the greater part of mankind this is possible. Even the most vital truths are called in question and are met by serious objections. The separation of truth from error is a work involving time and labour. For this the majority of men have neither inclination nor opportunity. Apart from the security which Revelation gives they would reject an obligation both irksome and uncertain. It results that a revelation even of the natural law is for man in his present state a moral necessity.

IV. CRITERIA OF REVELATION

The fact that Revelation is not merely possible but morally necessary is in itself a strong argument for the existence of a revelation, and imposes on all men the strict obligation of examining the credentials of a religion which presents itself with prima facie marks of truth. On the other hand if God has conferred a revelation on men, it stands to reason that He must have attached to it plain and evident criteria enabling even the unlettered to recognize His message for what it is, and to distinguish it from all false claimants.

The criteria of Revelation are either external or internal: (1) External criteria consist in certain signs attached to the revelation as a divine testimony to its truth, e.g., miracles. (2) Internal criteria are those which are found in the nature of the doctrine itself in the manner in which it was presented to the world, and in the effects which it produces on the soul. These are distinguished into negative and positive criteria. (a) The immunity of the alleged revelation from any teaching, speculative or moral, which is manifestly erroneous or self-contradictory, the absence of all fraud on the part of those who deliver it to the world, provide negative internal criteria. (b) Positive internal criteria are of various kinds. One such is found in the beneficent effects of the doctrine and in its power to meet even the highest aspirations which man can frame. Another consists in the internal conviction felt by the soul as to the truth of the doctrine (Suarez, "De Fide", IV, sect. 5, n. 9.) In the last century there was in certain schools of thought a manifest tendency to deny the value of all external criteria. This was largely due to the Rationalist polemic against miracles. Not a few non-Catholic divines anxious to make terms with the enemy adopted this attitude. They allowed that miracles are useless as a foundation for faith, and that they form on the contrary one of the chief difficulties which lie in faith's path. Faith, they admitted, must be presupposed before the miracle can be accepted. Hence these writers held the sole criterion of faith to lie in inward experience -- in the testimony of the Spirit. Thus Schleiermacher says: "We renounce altogether any attempt to demonstrate the truth and the necessity of the Christian religion. On the contrary we assume that every Christian before he commences inquiries of this kind is already convinced that no other form of religion but the Christian can harmonize with his piety " (Glaubenslehre, n. 11). The Traditionalists by denying the power of human reason to test the grounds of faith were driven to fall back on the same criterion (cf. Lamennais, "Pensées Diverses", p. 488).

This position is altogether untenable. The testimony afforded by inward experience is undoubtedly not to be neglected. Catholic doctors have always recognized its value. But its force is limited to the individual who is the subject of it. It cannot be employed as a criterion valid for all; for its absence is no proof that the doctrine is not true. Moreover, of all the criteria it is the one with regard to which there is most possibility of deception. When truth mingled with error is presented to the mind, it often happens that the whole teaching, false and true alike, is believed to have a Divine guarantee, because the soul has recognized and welcomed the truth of some one doctrine, e.g., the Atonement. Taken alone and apart from objective proof it conveys but a probability that the revelation is true. Hence the Vatican Council expressly condemns the error of those who teach it to be the only criterion (De Fide Cath., cap. iii, can. iii).

The perfect agreement of a religious doctrine with the teachings of reason and natural law, its power to satisfy, and more than satisfy, the highest aspirations of man, its beneficent influence both as regards public and private life, provide us with a more trustworthy test. This is a criterion which has often been applied with great force on behalf of the claims of the Catholic Church to be the sole guardian of God's Revelation. These qualities indeed appertain in so transcendent a degree to the teaching of the Church, that the argument must needs carry conviction to an earnest and truth-seeking mind. Another criterion which at first sight bears some resemblance to this claims a mention here. It is based upon the theory of Immanence and has of recent years been strenuously advocated by certain of the less extreme members of the Modernist School. These writers urge that the vital needs of the soul imperatively demand, as their necessary complement, Divine co-operation, supernatural grace, and even the supreme magisterium of the Church. To these needs the Catholic religion alone corresponds. And this correspondence with our vital needs is, they hold, the one sure criterion of truth. The theory is altogether inconsistent with Catholic dogma. It supposes that the Christian Revelation and the gift of grace are not free gifts from God, but something of which the nature of man is absolutely exigent; and without which it would be incomplete. It is a return to the errors of Baius. (Denz. 1021, etc.)

While the Church, as we have said, is far from undervaluing internal criteria, she has always regarded external criteria as the most easily recognizable and the most decisive. Hence the Vatican Council teaches: "In order that the obedience of our faith might be agreeable to reason, God has willed that to the internal aids of the Holy Spirit, there should be joined external proofs of His Revelation, viz: Divine works ( facta divina ), especially miracles and prophecy, which inasmuch as they manifestly display the omnipotence and the omniscience of God are most certain signs of a Divine revelation and are suited to the understanding of all" (De Fide Cath., cap. iii). As an instance of a work evidently Divine and yet other than miracle or prophecy, the council instances the Catholic Church, which, "by reason of the marvellous manner of its propagation, its surprising sanctity, its inexhaustible fruitfulness in all good works, its catholic unity and its invincible stability, is a mighty and perpetual motive of credibility and an irrefragable testimony to its own divine legation" (l. c.). The truth of the teaching of the council regarding external criteria is plain to any unprejudiced mind. Granted the presence of the negative criteria, external guarantees establish the Divine origin of a revelation as nothing else can do. They are, so to say, a seal affixed by the hand of God Himself, and authenticating the work as His. (For a fuller treatment of their apologetic value, and for a discussion of objections, see MIRACLES ; APOLOGETICS.)

V. THE CHRISTIAN REVELATION

It remains here to distinguish the Christian Revelation or "deposit of faith " from what are termed private revelations. This distinction is of importance: for while the Church recognizes that God has spoken to His servants in every age, and still continues thus to favour chosen souls, she is careful to distinguish these revelations from the Revelation which has been committed to her charge, and which she proposes to all her members for their acceptance. That Revelation was given in its entirety to Our Lord and His Apostles. After the death of the last of the twelve it could receive no increment. It was, as the Church calls it, a deposit -- "the faith once delivered to the saints " (Jude, 2) -- for which the Church was to "contend" but to which she could add nothing. Thus, whenever there has been question of defining a doctrine, whether at Nicæa, at Trent, or at the Vatican, the sole point of debate has been as to whether the doctrine is found in Scripture or in Apostolic tradition. The gift of Divine assistance (see I), sometimes confounded with Revelation by the less instructed of anti-Catholic writers, merely preserves the supreme pontiff from error in defining the faith ; it does not enable him to add jot or tittle to it. All subsequent revelations conferred by God are known as private revelations, for the reason that they are not directed to the whole Church but are for the good of individual members alone, They may indeed be a legitimate object for our faith ; but that will depend on the evidence in each particular case. The Church does not propose them to us as part of her message. It is true that in certain cases she has given her approbation to certain private revelations . This, however, only signifies:

  • that there is nothing in them contrary to the Catholic Faith or to the moral law, and,
  • that there are sufficient indications of their truth to justify the faithful in attaching credence to them without being guilty of superstition or of imprudence.
It may however be further asked, whether the Christian Revelation does not receive increment through the development of doctrine. During the last half of the nineteenth century the question of doctrinal development was widely debated. Owing to Guenther's erroneous teaching that the doctrines of the faith assume a new sense as human science progresses, the Vatican Council declared once for all that the meaning of the Church's dogmas is immutable (De Fide Cath., cap. iv, can. iii). On the other hand it explicitly recognizes that there is a legitimate mode of development, and cites to that effect (op. cit., cap. iv) the words of Vincent of Lirins: "Let understanding science and wisdom [regarding the Church's doctrine ] progress and make large increase in each and in all, in the individual and in the whole Church, as ages and centuries advance: but let it be solely in its own order, retaining, that is, the same dogma, the same sense, the same import" (Commonit. 28). Two of the most eminent theological writers of the period, Cardinal Franzelin and Cardinal Newman, have on very different lines dealt with the progress and nature of this development. Cardinal Franzelin in his "De Divina Traditione et Scriptura" (pt. XXII VI) has principally in view the Hegelian theories of Guenther. He consequently lays the chief stress on the identity at all points of the intellectual datum, and explains development almost exclusively as a process of logical deduction. Cardinal Newman wrote his "Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine " in the course of the two years (1843 45) immediately preceding his reception into the Catholic Church. He was called on to deal with different adversaries, viz., the Protestants who justified their separation from the main body of Christians on the ground that Rome had corrupted primitive teaching by a series of additions. In that work he examines in detail the difference between a corruption and a development. He shows how a true and fertile idea is endowed with a vital and assimilative energy of its own, in virtue of which, without undergoing the least substantive change, it attains to an ever completer expression, as the course of time brings it into contact with new aspects of truth or forces it into collision with new errors : the life of the idea is shown to be analogous to an organic development. He provides a series of tests distinguishing a true development from a corruption, chief among them being the preservation of type, and the continuity of principles; and then, applying the tests to the case of the additions of Roman teaching, shows that these have the marks not of corruptions but of true and legitimate developments. The theory, though less scholastic in its form than that of Franzelin, is in perfect conformity with orthodox belief. Newman no less than his Jesuit contemporary teaches that the whole doctrine, alike in its later as in its earlier forms, was contained in the original revelation given to the Church by Our Lord and His Apostles, and that its identity is guaranteed to us by the infallible magisterium of the Church. The claim of certain Modernist writers that their views on the evolution of dogma were connected with Newman's theory of development is the merest figment.

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(RACEBURGUM, RACEBURGENSIS.) In Germany, suffragan to Hamburg. The diocese embraced the ...

Ratzinger, Georg

Political economist and social reformer, b. at Rickering, near Deggendorf, in lower Bavaria, 3 ...

Rauscher

Prince- Archbishop of Vienna, born at Vienna, 6 Oct., 1797; died there 24 Nov., 1875. He ...

Ravalli, Antonio

Missionary, b. in Italy, 1811; d. at St. Mary's, Montana, U. S. A., 2 Oct., 1884. He entered ...

Ravenna

Archdiocese of Ravenna (Ravennatensis) The city of Ravenna is the capital of a province in ...

Ravesteyn, Josse

Born about 1506, at Tielt, a small town in Flanders, hence often called T ILETANUS (J ODACUS ...

Ravignan, Gustave Xavier Lacroix de

French Jesuit, orator, and author, b. at Bayonne (Basses-Pyrénées), 1 Dec. 1795; ...

Rawes, Henry Augustus

Oblate of St. Charles, hymn-writer and preacher, b. at Easington near Durham, England, 11 Dec., ...

Raymbault, Charles

Missionary, b. in France, 1602; entered the Society of Jesus at Rouen (1621); d. at Quebec, ...

Raymond IV, of Saint-Gilles

Count of Toulouse and of Tripoli, b. about 1043; d. at Tripoli in 1105. He was the son of ...

Raymond Lully

(RAMON LULL) "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, ...

Raymond Martini

Dominican, theologian, Orientalist, b. at Subirats, Catalonia, c. 1220; d. after July, 1284. In ...

Raymond Nonnatus, Saint

(In Spanish SAN RAMON). Born 1200 or 1204 at Portello in the Diocese of Urgel in Catalonia ...

Raymond of Peñafort, Saint

Born at Villafranca de Benadis, near Barcelona, in 1175; died at Barcelona, 6 January, 1275. He ...

Raymond of Sabunde

(SABONDE, SEBON, SEBEYDE, etc.) Born at Barcelona, Spain, towards the end of the fourteenth ...

Raymond VI

Count of Toulouse, b. 1156; d. 1222; succeeded his father, Raymond V, in 1195. He was a ...

Raymond VII

Count of Toulouse, son of Raymond VI, b. at Beaucaire, 1197; d. at Milhaud, 1249; had espoused a ...

Raynaldi, Odorico

Oratorian, b. at Treviso in 1595; d. at Rome, 22 January, 1671. Of patrician birth, he studied ...

Raynaud, Théophile

Theologian and writer, b. at Sospello near Nice, 15 Nov., 1583; d. at Lyons, 31 Oct., 1663. He ...

Raynouard, Françpois-Juste-Marie

A French poet, dramatist, and philologist, b. at Brignoles, Var, 8 September, 1761; d. at Passy, ...

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Re 118

Reading Abbey

Reading Abbey in Surrey, England, was founded by Henry I in 1121, who built it, writes ...

Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Realism, Nominalism, Conceptualism

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...

Reason

GENERAL MEANINGS Both in ordinary life and in philosophical discussions the term reason is of ...

Reason, Age of

The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally ...

Recanati and Loreto

DIOCESE OF RECANATI AND LORETO (RECINETENSIS) Province of Ancona, Central Italy, so called ...

Rechab and the Rechabites

Rechab was the father of Jonadab who in 2 Kings 10:15-28 , appears as a fervent supporter of ...

Recollection

Recollection, as understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of ...

Reconciliation, Sacrament of

Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

Rector

(From the Latin regere , to rule). Priests who preside over missions or quasi- parishes ...

Rector Potens, Verax Deus

The daily hymn for Sext in the Roman Breviary finds its theme in the great heat and light of ...

Recusants, English

The first statute in which the term "Popish Recusants" is used is 35 Eliz. c. 2, "An Act for ...

Red Sea

(Hebrew Yâm-Sûph; Septuagint ‘e ’eruthrà thálassa; ...

Redeemer, Feast of the Most Holy

The feast is found only in the special calendar of some dioceses and religious orders, and ...

Redeemer, Knights of the

A secular community founded in 1608 by the Duke of Mentone, Vincent Gonzaga, on the occasion of ...

Redemption

The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God ...

Redemption in the Old Testament

Redemption means either strictly deliverance by payment of a price or ransom, or simply ...

Redemptions, Penitential

Penitential redemptions are the substitution of exercises (especially alms-deeds), either easier ...

Redemptoristines

The cradle of the Redemptoristines is Scala, not far from Amalfi, Italy. Father Thomas Falcoia, of ...

Redemptorists

(CONGREGATION OF THE MOST HOLY REDEEMER) A society of missionary priests founded by St. ...

Redford, Sebastion

Born 27 April, 1701; died 2 January, 1763. Educated at St. Omer , Watten, and Liège, ...

Redi, Francesco

Italian poet, b. at Arezzo, 18 February, 1626; d. at Pisa 1 March, 1698. After taking his ...

Reding, Augustine

Prince-Abbot of Einsiedeln and theological writer, born at Lichtensteig, Switzerland, 10 ...

Reductions of Paraguay

The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay, one of the most singular and beautiful creations of Catholic ...

Referendarii

The papal office of the referendarii (from refero , to inform) existed at the Byzantine ...

Reform of a Religious Order

Reform of a Religious Order, in the true sense of the word, is a return or bringing back of the ...

Reformation, The

The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the ...

Reformed Churches

The name given to Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the ...

Refuge, Cities of

Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had ...

Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the

The Institute of Our Lady of Charity was founded (1641) by [St. Jean] Eudes, at Caen, Normandy, ...

Regale, Droit de

( jus regaliœ, jus regale, jus deportus; German Regalienrecht ) Droit de Regale ...

Regalia

According to the usage current in the British Isles the term regalia is almost always employed to ...

Regeneration

(Latin regeneratio ; Greek anagennesis and paliggenesia ). Regeneration is a ...

Regensburg

DIOCESE OF RATISBON (RATISBONENSIS), also called REGENSBURG. Suffragan of Munich-Freising. It ...

Regesta, Papal

Papal Regesta are the copies, generally entered in special registry volumes, of the papal ...

Reggio dell' Emilia

DIOCESE OF REGGIO DELL' EMILIA (REGINENSIS) Suffragan of Modena in central Italy. The city is ...

Reggio di Calabria

ARCHDIOCESE OF REGGIO DI CALABRIA (RHEGIENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, southern Italy. The ...

Regina

DIOCESE OF REGINA (REGINENSIS) A newly created (4 March, 1910) ecclesiastical division, ...

Regina Coeli

The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin, the recitation of which is ...

Reginald of Piperno

Dominican, theologian, companion of St. Thomas Aquinas, b. at Piperno about 1230; d. about 1290. ...

Regino of Prüm

Date of birth unknown; d. at Trier in 915. According to the statements of a later era Regino was ...

Regionarii

The name given in later antiquity and the early Middle Ages to those clerics and officials of ...

Regis, John Francis, Saint

Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...

Registers, Parochial

One having the cure of souls is commanded by Divine precept to know his subjects (Conc. Trid., ...

Regnault, Henri Victor

Chemist and physicist, b. at Aachen, 21 July, 1810; d. in Paris, 19 Jan., 1878. Being left an ...

Regulæ Juris

("Rules of Law") General rules or principles serving chiefly for the interpretation of laws. ...

Regulars

( Latin regula, rule). The observance of the Rule of St. Benedict procured for the monks ...

Reichenau

Reichenau, called Augia Dives in medieval Latin manuscripts and possessing a once ...

Reichensperger, August

Politician and author, born at Coblenz, 22 March, 1808; died at Cologne, 16 July, 1895. He studied ...

Reichensperger, Peter

Jurist and parliamentarian, b. at Coblenz, 28 May, 1810; d. at Berlin, 31 December, 1892. He ...

Reifenstein

A former Cistercian abbey in Eichsfeld, founded on 1 August, 1162 by Count Ernst of Tonna. It ...

Reiffenstuel, Johann Georg

In religion A NACLETUS Theologian and canonist; b. at Kaltenbrunn (Tegernsee) 2 July, 1641; d. ...

Reims

ARCHDIOCESE OF REIMS (RHEMENSIS) The Archdiocese of Reims comprises the district of Reims in ...

Reims, Synods of

The first synod said to have been held at Reims by Archbishop Sonnatius between 624 and 630 ...

Reinmar of Hagenau

A German minnesinger of the twelfth century, surnamed in the manuscripts der Alte (the old) to ...

Reisach, Carl von

Born at Roth, Bavaria, 7 July, 1800; died in the Redemptorist monastery of Contamine, France, ...

Reisch, Gregor

Born at Balingen in Wurtemberg, about 1467; died at Freiburg, Baden, 9 May, 1525. In 1487 he ...

Relationship

(CARNAL AND SPIRITUAL) The theologians understand by relationship in general a certain ...

Relatives, Duties of

The general precept of charity obliging us to love our neighbour as ourselves is of course ...

Relativism

Any doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the ...

Relics

The word relics comes from the Latin reliquiae (the counterpart of the Greek leipsana ) ...

Religion

I. Derivation, Analysis, and Definition. II. Subjective Religion. III. Objective ...

Religion, Virtue of

Of the three proposed derivations of the word "religion", that suggested by Lactantius and ...

Religions, Statistics of

I. DEFINITION This study concerns itself with religious bodies, the number of their members, and ...

Religious Life

I. GENERAL VIEW AND EVANGELICAL IDEA OF THE RELIGIOUS LIFE A. GENERAL VIEW We all have within us ...

Religious Profession

HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

Reliquaries

It would follow of necessity from the data given in the article RELICS that ...

Remesiana

A titular see in Dacia Mediterranea, suffragan of Sardica. Remesiana is mentioned by the ...

Remigius of Auxerre

A Benedictine monk, b. about the middle of the ninth century; d. 908. Remigius, or Remi, was a ...

Remigius, Saint

Apostle of the Franks, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Cerny or Laon, 437; d. at Reims, 13 January ...

Remiremont

Vosges, France, monastery and nunnery of the Rule of St. Benedict, founded by Sts. Romaricus ...

Remuzat, Ven. Anne-Madeleine

Born at Marseilles, 29 Nov., 1696; died 15 Feb., 1730. At nine years of age she asked her parents ...

Remy, Abbey of Saint

Founded at Reims before 590. Its early history is very obscure; at first a little chapel ...

Renaissance, The

The Renaissance may be considered in a general or a particular sense, as (1) the achievements of ...

Renaudot, Eusebius

An apologetical writer and Orientalist, b. at Paris, 22 July, 1648; d. there, 1 Sept., 1720. He ...

Renaudot, Théophraste

Born at Loudun, 1586; died at Paris, 25 October, 1653. Doctor of the medical faculty at ...

Reni, Guido

Italian painter, b. at Calvenzano near Bologna, 4 Nov., 1575; d. at Bologna, 18 Aug. 1642. At one ...

Rennes

(RHEDONENSIS) Rennes includes the Department of Ille et Vilaine. The Concordat of 1802 ...

Renty, Gaston Jean Baptiste de

Born 1611 at the castle of Beni, Diocese of Bayeux in Normandy ; died 24 April, 1649. The only ...

Renunciation

( Latin renuntiare ). A canonical term signifying the resignation of an ecclesiastical ...

Reordinations

I. STATE OF THE QUESTION The Oratorian Jean Morin , in the seventeenth century, and Cardinal ...

Reparation

Reparation is a theological concept closely connected with those of atonement and satisfaction, ...

Repington, Philip

( Also Repyngdon). Cardinal-priest of the title of SS. Nereus and Achilleus, Bishop of ...

Repose, Altar of

(Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository). The altar ...

Reputation (as Property)

It is certain that a man is indefeasibly the owner of what he has been able to produce by his ...

Requiem, Masses of

Masses of Requiem will be treated under the following heads: I. Origins; II. Formulary ; III. ...

Rerum Crerator Optime

The hymn for Matins of Wednesday in the Divine Office. It comprises four strophes of four ...

Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor

The daily hymn for None in the Roman Breviary, comprises (like the hymns for Terce and Sext ...

Rerum Novarum

The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the ...

Rescripts, Papal

( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

Reservation

The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an ...

Reserved Cases

A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor, but is ...

Residence, Ecclesiastical

A remaining or abiding where one's duties lie or where one's occupation is properly carried on, ...

Respicius, Tryphon, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

Respighi, Lorenzo

Born at Cortemaggiore, Province of Piacenza, 7 October, 1824; died at Rome, 10 December, 1889. He ...

Responsorium

Responsory, or Respond, a series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and ...

Restitution

Restitution has a special sense in moral theology. It signifies an act of commutative justice ...

Resurrection of Jesus Christ

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...

Resurrection, General

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. The Fourth Lateran ...

Rethel, Alfred

Born at Aachen, 1816; died at Düsseldorf, 1859. He combined in a brilliant and forcible ...

Retreat of the Sacred Heart, Congregation of

(DAMES DE LA RETRAITE) Originally founded in 1678 under the name of the Institute of Retreat, ...

Retreats

If we call a retreat a series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of ...

Retz, Cardinal de

ARCHBISHOP OF PARIS Born at the Château of Montmirail, Oct., 1614; died in Paris, 24 ...

Reuben

(REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

Reuchlin, Johannes

( Græcized , Capnion). Celebrated German humanist, b. at Pforzheim, Baden, 22 ...

Reumont, Alfred von

Statesman and historian, b. at Aachen, 15 August, 1808; d. there, 27 April, 1887. After finishing ...

Reusens, Edmond

Archeologist and historian, b. at Wijneghem (Antwerp), 25 April, 1831; d. at Louvain, 25 Dec., ...

Reuss

Name of the two smallest states of the German Confederation, which lie almost in the centre of ...

Revelation

I. MEANING OF REVELATION Revelation may be defined as the communication of some truth by God ...

Revelation, Book of

Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto , to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the ...

Revelations, Private

There are two kinds of revelations: (1) universal revelations, which are contained in the Bible ...

Revocation

The act of recalling or annulling, the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the making ...

Revolution, English

James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...

Revolution, French

The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

Rex Gloriose Martyrum

Rex Gloriose Martyrum, the hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs (Commune plurimorum ...

Rex Sempiterne Cælitum

The Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time (from ...

Rey, Anthony

An educator and Mexican War chaplain, born at Lyons, 19 March, 1807; died near Ceralvo, Mexico, ...

Reynolds, William

(RAINOLDS, RAYNOLDS, REGINALDUS) Born at Pinhorn near Exeter, about 1544; died at Antwerp, ...

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Rh 18

Rhætia

(RHÆTORUM). Prefecture Apostolic in Switzerland ; includes in general the district ...

Rhaphanæa

A titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Rhaphanæa is mentioned in ancient ...

Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel

A composer and organist, born at Vaduz, in the Principality of Lichtenstein, Bavaria, 17 March, ...

Rhenish Palatinate

( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

Rhesæna

A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. Rhesæna (numerous variations of the name ...

Rhinocolura

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium. Rhinocolura or Rhinocorura was a ...

Rhithymna

(RHETHYMNA) A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, mentioned by Ptolemy, III, 15, ...

Rhizus

( Rizous .) A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus suffragan of Neocæsarea, ...

Rho, Giacomo

Missionary, born at Milan, 1593; died at Peking 27 April, 1638. He was the son of a noble and ...

Rhode Island

The State of Rhode Island and xxyyyk.htm">Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original ...

Rhodes

(RHODUS) A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades. It is an island opposite to Lycia and ...

Rhodes, Alexandre De

A missionary and author, born at Avignon, 15 March, 1591; died at Ispahan, Persia, 5 Nov., 1660. ...

Rhodesia

A British possession in South Africa, bounded on the north and north-west by the Congo Free ...

Rhodiopolis

A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, called Rhodia by Ptolemy (V, 3) and Stephanus ...

Rhodo

A Christian writer who flourished in the time of Commodus (180-92); he was a native of Asia ...

Rhosus

A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba. Rhosus or Rhossus was a seaport ...

Rhymed Bibles

The rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms. The oldest ...

Rhythmical Office

I. DESCRIPTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND DIVISION By rhythmical office is meant a liturgical horary ...

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Ri 66

Ribadeneira, Pedro de

(Or RIBADENEYRA and among Spaniards often RIVADENEIRA) Pedro De Ribadeneira was born at ...

Ribas, Andrés Pérez De

A pioneer missionary, historian of north-western Mexico; born at Cordova, Spain, 1576; died in ...

Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland)

(RIPAE, RIPENSIS.) The diocese (29 deaneries, 278 parishes ) consisted of the modern ...

Ribeirao Preto

(DE RIBERAO PRETO) A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of São Paulo , Brazil, ...

Ribera, Jusepe de

Called also SPAGNOLETTO, L'ESPAGNOLET (the little Spaniard) Painter born at Jativa, 12 Jan., ...

Ricardus Anglicus

Ricardus Anglicus, Archdeacon of Bologna, was an English priest who was rector of the law ...

Riccardi, Nicholas

A theologian, writer and preacher; born at Genoa, 1585; died at Rome, 30 May, 1639. Physically ...

Ricci, Lorenzo

General of the Society of Jesus b. at Florence, 2 Aug., 1703; d. at the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ...

Ricci, Matteo

Founder of the Catholic missions of China, b. at Macerata in the Papal States, 6 Oct. 1552; ...

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista

Italian astronomer, b. at Ferrara 17 April, 1598; d. at Bologna 25 June, 1671. He entered the ...

Rice, Edmund Ignatius

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as "Irish ...

Rich, St. Edmund

Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...

Richard

A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and ...

Richard de Bury

Bishop and bibliophile, b. near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, England, 24 Jan., 1286; d. at ...

Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin

Archbishop of Paris, born at Nantes, 1 March, 1819; died in Paris, 28 January, 1908. ...

Richard de Wyche, Saint

Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

Richard Fetherston, Blessed

Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

Richard I, King Of England

Richard I, born at Oxford, 6 Sept, 1157; died at Chaluz, France, 6 April, 1199; was known to ...

Richard of Cirencester

Chronicler, d. about 1400. He was the compiler of a chronicle from 447 to 1066, entitled "Speculum ...

Richard of Cornwall

(RICHARD RUFUS, RUYS, ROSSO, ROWSE). The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but he ...

Richard of Middletown

(A MEDIA VILLA). Flourished at the end of the thirteenth century, but the dates of his birth ...

Richard of St. Victor

Theologian, native of Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are unknown; d. 1173 and ...

Richard Thirkeld, Blessed

Martyr ; b. at Coniscliffe, Durham, England ; d. at York, 29 May, 1583. From Queen's College, ...

Richard Whiting, Blessed

Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

Richard, Charles-Louis

Theologian and publicist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 1711; d. at Mons, ...

Richardson, Ven. William

( Alias Anderson.) Last martyr under Queen Elizabeth; b. according to Challoner at Vales in ...

Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de

Cardinal ; French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 1585; d. there 4 December 1642. At first ...

Richmond, Diocese of

(RICHMONDENSIS.) Suffragan of Baltimore, established 11 July, 1820, comprises the State of ...

Ricoldo da Monte di Croce

(PENNINI.) Born at Florence about 1243; d. there 31 October, 1320. After studying in various ...

Riemenschneider, Tillmann

One of the most important of Frankish sculptors, b. at Osterode am Harz in or after 1460; d. at ...

Rienzi, Cola di

(i.e., NICOLA, son of Lorenzo) A popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure. His ...

Rieti

(REATINA). Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See. The city is ...

Rievaulx, Abbey of

(RIEVALL.) Thurston, Archbishop of York, was very anxious to have a monastery of the newly ...

Riffel, Caspar

Historian, b. at Budesheim, Bingen, Germany, 19 Jan., 1807, d. at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1856. He ...

Rigby, John, Saint

English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

Rigby, Nicholas

Born 1800 at Walton near Preston, Lancashire; died at Ugthorpe, 7 September, 1886. At twelve years ...

Right

Right, as a substantive (my right, his right), designates the object of justice. When a person ...

Right of Exclusion

(Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

Right of Option

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...

Right of Voluntary Association

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

Rimbert, Saint

Archbishop of Bremen - Hamburg, died at Bremen 11 June, 888. It is uncertain whether he was ...

Rimini

DIOCESE OF RIMINI (ARIMINUM). Suffragan of Ravenna. Rimini is situated near the coast between ...

Rimini, Council of

The second Formula of Sirmium (357) stated the doctrine of the Anomoeans, or extreme Arians. ...

Rimouski

DIOCESE OF RIMOUSKI (SANCTI GERMANI DE RIMOUSKI) Suffragan of Quebec, comprises the counties of ...

Ring of the Fisherman, The

The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

Rings

Although the surviving ancient rings, proved by their devices, provenance, etc., to be of ...

Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista

Born at Rome, 1592; d. at Fermo, 1653; was the son of a Florentine patrician, his mother being a ...

Rio Negro

Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil, bounded on the south by a line running westwards from the ...

Rio, Alexis-François

French writer on art, b. on the Island of Arz, Department of Morbihan, 20 May, 1797; d. 17 June, ...

Riobamba

Diocese of (Bolivarensis), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, erected by Pius IX, 5 January, 1863. ...

Rioja, Francisco de

A poet, born at Seville, 1583; died at Madrid, 1659. Rioja was a canon in the cathedral at ...

Ripalda, Juan Martínez de

Theologian, b. at Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. at Madrid, 26 April, 1648. He entered the Society ...

Ripatransone

(RIPANENSIS). Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy. The city is situated on five hills, ...

Ripon, Marquess of

George Frederick Samuel Robinson, K.G., P.C., G.C.S.I., F.R.S., Earl de Grey, Earl of Ripon, ...

Risby, Richard

Born in the parish of St. Lawrence, Reading, 1489; executed at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1534. ...

Rishanger, William

Chronicler, b. at Rishangles, Suffolk, about ú d. after 1312. He became a Benedictine at ...

Rishton, Edward

Born in Lancashire, 1550; died at Sainte-Ménehould, Lorraine, 29 June, 1585. He was ...

Rita of Cascia, Saint

Born at Rocca Porena in the Diocese of Spoleto , 1386; died at the Augustinian convent of ...

Rites

I. NAME AND DEFINITION Ritus in classical Latin in means primarily, the form and manner of any ...

Rites in the United States

Since immigration from the eastern portion of Europe and from Asia and Africa set in with ...

Ritschlianism

Ritschlianism is a peculiar conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in ...

Ritter, Joseph Ignatius

Historian, b. at Schweinitz, Silesia, 12 April, 1787; d. at Breslau, 5 Jan., 1857. He pursued his ...

Ritual

The Ritual ( Rituale Romanum ) is one of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all ...

Ritualists

The word "Ritualists" is the term now most commonly employed to denote that advanced section of ...

Rivington, Luke

Born in London, May, 1838; died in London, 30 May, 1899; fourth son of Francis Rivington, a ...

Rizal, José Mercado

Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor ; b. at Calamba, Province of La Laguna, ...

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Ro 133

Robbers, Seven

(Septem Latrones), martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their ...

Robbia, Andrea della

Nephew, pupil, assistant, and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 1528. It is ...

Robbia, Lucia di Simone

Sculptor, b. at Florence, 1400; d. 1481. He is believed to have studied design with a goldsmith, ...

Robert Bellarmine, Saint

(Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at ...

Robert Johnson, Blessed

Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

Robert of Arbrissel

Itinerant preacher, founder of Fontevrault, b. c. 1047 at Arbrissel (now Arbressec) near ...

Robert of Courçon

(DE CURSONE, DE CURSIM, CURSUS, ETC.). Cardinal, born at Kedleston, England ; died at ...

Robert of Geneva

Antipope under the name of Clement VII, b. at Geneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, 16 Sept., 1394. He ...

Robert of Jumièges

Archbishop of Canterbury (1051-2). Robert Champart was a Norman monk of St. Ouen at Rouen ...

Robert of Luzarches

(LUS). Born at Luzarches near Pontoise towards the end of the twelfth century; is said to have ...

Robert of Melun

(DE MELDUNO; MELIDENSIS; MEIDUNUS). An English philosopher and theologian, b. in England ...

Robert of Molesme, Saint

Born about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who bore the names of Thierry ...

Robert of Newminster, Saint

Born in the district of Craven, Yorkshire, probably at the village of Gargrave; died 7 June, 1159. ...

Robert Pullus

(PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

Robert, Saint

Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurilac, Auvergne, about 1000; d. in ...

Roberts, Saint John

First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

Robertson, James Burton

Historian, b. in London 15 Nov., 1800; d. at Dublin 14 Feb., 1877, son of Thomas Robertson, a ...

Robinson, Venerable Christopher

Born at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date unknown; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. ...

Robinson, William Callyhan

Jurist and educator, b. 26 July, 1834, at Norwich, Conn.; d. 6 Nov., 1911, at Washington, D.C. ...

Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de

Theologian, b. of a noble family at Perelada, in Catalina, c. 1624; d. at Madrid 13 June, 1699. ...

Rocamadour

Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the ...

Rocca, Angelo

Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome, b. at Rocca, now Arecevia, near Ancone, 1545; d. at ...

Roch, Saint

Born at Montpellier towards 1295; died 1327. His father was governor of that city. At his birth ...

Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien

Marshal, b. at Vendôme, France, 1 July, 1725; d. at Thoré, 10 May, 1807. At the age ...

Roche, Alanus de la

( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

Rochester, Ancient See of

(ROFFA; ROFFENSIS). The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was ...

Rochester, Blessed John

Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

Rochester, Diocese of

This diocese, on its establishment by separation from the See of Buffalo, 24 January, 1868, ...

Rochet

An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), ...

Rochette, Désiré Raoul

Usually known as Raoul-Rochette, a French archeologist, b. at St. Amand (Cher), 9 March, 1789; d. ...

Rock, Daniel

Antiquarian and ecclesiologist, b. at Liverpool, 31 August, 1799; d. at Kensington, London, 28 ...

Rockford, Diocese of

(ROCKFORDIENSIS). Created 23 September, 1908, comprises Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, ...

Rockhampton

Diocese in Queensland, Australia. In 1862 Father Duhig visited the infant settlement on the banks ...

Rococo Style

This style received its name in the nineteenth century from French émigrés , who ...

Rodez

(RUTHENAE) The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of ...

Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre

A Brazilian natural scientist and explorer, b. at Bahia in 1756; d. at Lisbon in 1815. He ...

Rodriguez, Alonso

Born at Valladolid, Spain, 1526; died at Seville 21 February, 1616. When twenty years of age he ...

Rodriguez, Joao

(GIRAM, GIRAO, GIRON, ROIZ). Missionary and author, b. at Alcochete in the Diocese of Lisbon ...

Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus

(Also Alonso). Born at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1532; died at Majorca, 31 October, 1617. ...

Roe, Bartholomew

(VENERABLE ALBAN). English Benedictine martyr, b. in Suffolk, 1583; executed at Tyburn, 21 ...

Roermond

(RUBAEMUNDENSIS). Diocese in Holland ; suffragan of Utrecht. It includes the Province of ...

Rogation Days

Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger ...

Roger Bacon

Philosopher, surnamed D OCTOR M IRABILIS , b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at ...

Roger Cadwallador, Venerable

English martyr, b. at Stretton Sugwas, near Hereford, in 1568; executed at Leominster, 27 Aug., ...

Roger of Wendover

Benedictine monk, date of birth unknown; d. 1236, the first of the great chroniclers of St. ...

Roger, Bishop of Worcester

Died at Tours, 9 August, 1179. A younger son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, he was educated ...

Roh, Peter

Born at Conthey (Gunthis) in the canton of Valais ( French Switzerland ), 14 August, 1811; d. at ...

Rohault de Fleury

A family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century, of which the most ...

Rohrbacher, Réné François

Ecclesiastical historian, b. at Langatte (Langd) in the present Diocese of Metz, 27 September, ...

Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de

Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Toledo, 4 Oct., 1607; d. 1680. Authentic information regarding the ...

Rokewode, John Gage

Born 13 Sept., 1786; died at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, 14 Oct., 1842. He was the fourth son of ...

Rolduc

(RODA DUCIS, also Roda, Closterroda or Hertogenrade). Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands. ...

Rolfus, Hermann

Catholic educationist, b. at Freiburg, 24 May, 1821; d. at Buhl, near Offenburg, 27 October, ...

Rolle de Hampole, Richard

Solitary and writer, b. at Thornton, Yorkshire, about 1300; d. at Hampole, 29 Sept., 1349. The ...

Rollin, Charles

Born in Paris, 1661; died there, 1741. The son of a cutler, intended to follow his father's ...

Rolls Series

A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official ...

Rolph, Thomas

Surgeon, b. 1800; d. at Portsmouth, 17 Feb., 1858. He was a younger son of Dr. Thomas Rolph and ...

Roman Catacombs

This subject will be treated under seven heads: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. ...

Roman Catechism

This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the ...

Roman Catholic

A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those ...

Roman Catholic Relief Bill

IN ENGLAND With the accession of Queen Elizabeth (1558) commenced the series of legislative ...

Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early

This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome. For ...

Roman Colleges

This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ...

Roman Congregations

Certain departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the ...

Roman Curia

Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff ...

Roman Processional

Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

Roman Rite, The

( Ritus romanus ). The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, ...

Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio

The restoration by Pius IX, 29 Sept. 1850, by letters Apostolic "Universalis ecclesiæ" of ...

Romanos, Saint

Surnamed ho melodos and ho theorrhetor , poet of the sixth century. The only authority for ...

Romans, Epistle to the

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. ...

Romanus, Pope

Of this pope very little is known with certainty, not even the date of his birth nor the exact ...

Romanus, Saints

(1) A Roman martyr Romanus is mentioned in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 155) ...

Rome

The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop ...

Rome, University of

The University of Rome must be distinguished from the "Studium Generale apud Curiam", established ...

Romero, Juan

Missionary and Indian linguist, b. in the village of Machena, Andalusia, Spain, 1559; d. at ...

Romuald, Saint

Born at Ravenna, probably about 950; died at Val-di-Castro, 19 June, 1027. St. Peter Damian, his ...

Romulus Augustulus

Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. His reign was purely ...

Ronan, Saint

There are twelve Irish saints bearing the name of Ronan commemorated in the "Martyrology of ...

Ronsard, Pierre de

French poet, b. 2 (or 11) Sept., 1524, at the Château de la Poissonniere, near ...

Rood

(Anglo-Saxon Rod, or Rode, "cross"), a term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, ...

Roothaan, Johann Philipp

Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus , b. at Amsterdam, 23 November, 1785; d. at Rome, ...

Roper, William

Biographer of St. Thomas More, born 1496; died 4 January, 1578. Both his father and mother ...

Rorate Coeli

(Vulgate, text), the opening words of Isaiah 45:8 . The text is used frequently both at Mass and ...

Rosa, Salvatore

(Also spelled SALVATOR; otherwise known as RENNELLA, or ARENELLA, from the place of his birth). ...

Rosalia, Saint

Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she in patroness. ...

Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the

The proper office granted by Leo XIII (5 August, 1888) to the feast contains four hymns ...

Rosary, Confraternity of the

In accordance with the conclusion of the article ROSARY no sufficient evidence is forthcoming to ...

Rosary, Feast of the Holy

Apart from the signal defeat of the Albigensian heretics at the battle of Muret in 1213 which ...

Rosary, Seraphic

( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

Rosary, The

Please see our How to Recite the Holy Rosary sheet in PDF format, and feel free to copy and ...

Rosate, Alberico de

(Or ROSCIATE). Jurist, date of birth unknown; died in 1354. He was bom in the village of ...

Roscelin

Roscelin, a monk of Compiègne, was teaching as early as 1087. He had contact with ...

Roscommon

Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland ; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman ...

Rose of Lima, Saint

Virgin, patroness of America, born at Lima, Peru 20 April, 1586; died there 30 August, 1617. ...

Rose of Viterbo, Saint

Virgin, born at Viterbo, 1235; died 6 March, 1252. The chronology of her life must always remain ...

Rose Window

A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

Rosea

A titular see. The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of ...

Roseau

(ROSENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I. The different islands of ...

Rosecrans, William Starke

William Born at Kingston, Ohio, U.S.A. 6 Sept., 1819; died near Redondo California, 11 March, ...

Roseline, Saint

(Rossolina.) Born at Château of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. 17 January, 1329. ...

Rosenau

( Hungarian ROZSNYÓ; Latin ROSNAVIENSIS). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, ...

Rosh Hashanah

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Rosicrucians

The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic- theosophic "Rosicrucian ...

Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark

(ROSCHILDIA, ROSKILDENSIS.) Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536. The ...

Roskoványi, August

Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology, b. at Szenna in the County ...

Rosmini and Rosminianism

Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, ...

Rosminians

The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata , is a religious ...

Ross

(ROSSENSIS). Diocese in Ireland. This see was founded by St. Fachtna, and the place-name ...

Ross, School of

The School of Ross &151; now called Ross-Carbery, but formerly Ross-Ailithir from the large ...

Rossano

(ROSSANENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy. The city is ...

Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico

The youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stone cutters, family name Gamberelli (1427-78). He ...

Rosselino, Bernardo

(Properly BERNARDO DI MATTEO GAMBARELLI.) B. at Florence, 1409; d. 1464. Rosselino occupies ...

Rosselli, Cosimo

(LORENZO DI FILIPPO). Italian fresco painter, b. at Florence, 1439; d. there in 1507. The ...

Rossi, Bernardo de

(DE RUBEIS, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BERNARDO MARIA). Theologian and historian; b. at Cividale del ...

Rossi, Giovanni Battista de

A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman ...

Rossi, Pellegrino

Publicist, diplomat, economist, and statesman, b. at Carrara, Italy, 13 July, 1787; assassinated ...

Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio

Born 29 February, 1792, at Pesaro in the Romagna; died 13 November, 1868, at Passy, near Paris. ...

Rostock, Sebastian von

Bishop of Breslau, b. at Grottkau, Silesia, 24 Aug. 1607; d. at Breslau, 9 June, 1671. He ...

Rostock, University of

Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419 through the united efforts of Dukes John ...

Roswitha

A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

Rota, Sacra Romana

In the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" (29 June, 1908), II, 2, Pins X re-established the Sacra ...

Roth, Heinrich

Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar, b. of illustrious parentage at Augsburg, 18 December, ...

Rothe, David

Bishop of Ossory ( Ireland ), b. at Kilkenny in 1573, of a distinguished family ; d. 20 ...

Rottenburg

(ROTTENBURGENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine. It ...

Rotuli

Rotuli, i.e. rolls — in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one ...

Rouen, Archdiocese of

(ROTHOMAGENSIS) Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and ...

Rouen, Synods of

The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650. ...

Rouquette, Adrien

Born in Louisiana in 1813, of French parentage; died as a missionary among the Choctaw Indians ...

Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste

French poet, b. in Paris, 16 April 1670; d. at La Genette, near Brussels, 17 May, 1741. ...

Rovezzano, Benedetto da

Sculptor and architect, b. in 1490, either at Rovezzano, near Florence, or, according to some ...

Rowsham, Stephen

A native of Oxfordshire, entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. He took orders in the English ...

Royal Declaration, The

This is the name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in ...

Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul

Philosopher and French politician, b. at Sompuis (Marne), 21 June, 1763; d. at ...

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Ru 42

Ruadhan, Saint

One of the twelve "Apostles of Erin" ; died at the monastery of Lorrha, County Tipperary, ...

Ruben

(REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

Rubens, Peter Paul

Eminent Flemish painter, b. at Siegen, Westphalia, 28 June, 1577; d. at Antwerp, 30 May, 1640. ...

Rubrics

I. IDEA Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica , ...

Rubruck, William

(Also called William of Rubruck and less correctly Ruysbrock, Ruysbroek, and Rubruquis), ...

Rudolf of Fulda

Chronicler, d. at Fulda, 8 March, 862. In the monastery of Fulda Rudolf entered the ...

Rudolf of Habsburg

German king, b. 1 May 1218; d. at Speyer, 15 July, 1291. He was the son of Albert IV, the founder ...

Rudolf of Rüdesheim

Bishop of Breslau, b. at Rüdesheim on the Rhine, about 1402; d. at Breslau in Jan., 1482. ...

Rudolf von Ems

[Hohenems in Austria ]. A Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century. Almost ...

Rueckers, Family of

Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp. Hans Rueckers, the founder, lived in ...

Ruffini, Paolo

Physician and mathematician, b. at Valentano in the Duchy of Castro, 3 Sept., 1765; d. at Modena, ...

Rufford Abbey

A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about ...

Rufina, Saints

The present Roman Martyrology records saints of this name on the following days: (1) On ...

Rufinus, Saint

The present Roman Martyrology records eleven saints named Rufinus: (1) On 28 February, a ...

Rufus, Saint

The present Roman Martyrology records ten saints of this name. Historical mention is made of ...

Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de

Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Mexico City, about 1580; d. at Madrid, 4 August, 1639. He received ...

Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio

One of the most distinguished pioneers of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay, and a ...

Ruiz de Montoya, Diego

Theologian, b. at Seville, 1562; d. there 15 March, 1632. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Rule of Faith, The

The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...

Rule of St. Augustine

The title, Rule of Saint Augustine , has been applied to each of the following documents: ...

Rule of St. Benedict

This work holds the first place among monastic legislative codes, and was by far the most ...

Rumania

A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian ...

Rumohr, Karl Friedrich

Art historian, b. at Dresden, 1785; d. there, 1843. He became a Catholic in 1804. He was ...

Rupe, Alanus de

( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

Rupert, Saint

(Alternative forms, Ruprecht, Hrodperht, Hrodpreht, Roudbertus, Rudbertus, Robert, Ruprecht). ...

Rusaddir

A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana. Rusaddir is a Phoenician settlement whose name ...

Rusicade

A titular see of Numidia. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (IV, 3), Mela (I, 33), Pliny (V, 22), ...

Ruspe

Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the "Tabula" of ...

Russell, Charles

(BARON RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN). Born at Newry, Ireland, 10 November, 1832; died in London, 10 ...

Russell, Charles William

Born at Killough, Co. Down, 14 May, 1812; died at Dublin 26 Feb., 1880. He was descended from the ...

Russell, Richard

Bishop of Vizéu in Portugal, b. in Berkshire, 1630; d. at Vizéu, 15 Nov., 1693. He ...

Russia

GEOGRAPHY Russia ( Rossiiskaia Imperiia; Russkoe Gosudarstvo ) comprises the greater part of ...

Russia, The Religion of

A. The Origin of Russian Christianity There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity ...

Russian Language and Literature

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE; ANCIENT POPULAR ...

Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint

Born either at Marseilles or at Narbonnaise, Gaul; died 26 Oct., 461. According to biographers, ...

Ruth, Book of

One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine ...

Ruthenian Rite

There is, properly speaking, no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but inasmuch as ...

Ruthenians

(Ruthenian and Russian: Rusin , plural Rusini ) A Slavic people from Southern Russia, ...

Rutter, Henry

( vere BANISTER) Born 26 Feb., 1755; died 17 September, 1838, near Dodding Green, ...

Ruvo and Bitonto

(RUBENSIS ET BITUNTINENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, ...

Ruysbroeck, Blessed John

Surnamed the Admirable Doctor, and the Divine Doctor, undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish ...

Ruysch, John

Astronomer, cartographer, and painter, born at Utrecht about 1460; died at Cologne, 1533. Little ...

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Ry 4

Ryan, Father Abram J.

The poet-priest of the South, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 15 August, 1839; died at Louisville, ...

Ryan, Patrick John

Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia, b. At Thurles, County Tipperary, ...

Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley

English Oratorian priest and controversialist, b. 3 Jan., 1837; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 7 ...

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