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Oblates of Mary Immaculate

I. NAME AND ORIGIN

The first members of this society, founded in 1816, were known as "Missionaries of Provence". They received the title of "Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate" and approbation as a congregation under simple vows in a Brief of Leo XIIdated 17 February, 1826. The founder, Charles Joseph Eugène de Mazenod (b. at Aix, 1 August, 1782), left France at an early age on account of the Revolution, and remained four years at Venice, one at Naples, and three at Palermo, before returning to Paris, where he entered St. Sulpice in 1808. He was ordained priest at Amiens on 21 December, 1811. In 1818 he had gathered a small community around him, and made his religious profession at the church of the Mission, Aix, with MM. Mounier, Tempier, Mye, and Moreau as fellow-priests, and MM. Dupuy, Courtès, and Suzanne as scholastic students. He became Vicar-General of Marseilles in 1823, titular Bishop of Icosia and coadjutor in 1834, and Bishop of Marseilles in 1837. In 1856 he was named senator and member of the Legion of Honour by Napoleon III, and died in 1861, having been superior-general of his congregation from 1816 to that date.

II. MEMBERS AND ORGANIZATION

The congregation consists of priests and lay-brothers, leading a common life. The latter act as temporal coadjutors, farm or workshop instructors in industrial and reformatory schools, and teachers and catechists on the foreign missions. The central and supreme authority of the society is two-fold:

(1) intermittent and extraordinary, as vested in the general chapter meeting once in six years, and composed of the general administrators, provincials, vicars of missions, and delegates from each province or vicariate;

(2) ordinary, as vested in the superior-general elected for life by the general chapter, and assisted by a council of four assistants and a bursar-general, named for a term of years, renewable by the same authority. The general administration was situated at Marseilles until 1861, when it was transferred to Paris ; the persecutions of 1902 obliged its removal to Liège in 1903, whence it was transferred to Rome in 1905. The congregation is officially represented at the Holy See by a procurator-general named by the central administration; this authority also elects the chaplain-general of the Holy Family Sisters of Bordeaux, founded by Abbé de Noailles, and by him confided to the spiritual direction of the Oblate Fathers. Until 1851 all Oblate houses were directly dependent on the central administration. The general chapter held in that year divided its dependencies into provinces and missionary vicariates, each having its own provincial or vicar aided by a council of four consultors and a bursar. At the head of each regularly constituted house is placed a local superior aided by two assessors and a bursar, all named by the provincial administration. The educational establishments also possess a special council of professors and directors.

III. RECRUITING

Recruiting is made by means of juniorates, novitiates, and scholasticates.

(a) Juniorates or Apostolic Schools

The first establishment of this description was founded in 1841 by the Oblates of Notre Dame des Lumières near Avignon, and their example, soon followed by the Jesuit Fathers at Avignon, became widely adopted in France. The congregation has at present thirteen juniorates situated: at Ottawa, Buffalo, San Antonio (Texas), St. Boniface (Manitoba) and Strathcona (Alberta) in the new world; St. Charles (Holland), Waereghem (Belgium), Sancta Maria a Vico and Naples ( Italy ), Urmieta (Spain), and Belcamp Hall ( Ireland ) in Europe ; Colombo and Jaffna in the Island of Ceylon.

(b) Novitiates

Novitiates are fed from the juniorates, and also from colleges, seminaries, and gymnasia. They are at present thirteen in number and situated at Lachine (Canada), Tewksbury (Massachusetts), San Antonio (Texas), St. Charles (Manitoba), St. Gerlach, Hünfeld, and Maria Engelport (Germany), Niewenhove (Belgium), Le Bestin (Luxemburg), St. Pierre d'Aoste ( Italy ), Urmieta (Spain), Stillorgan ( Ireland ), and Colombo (Ceylon).

(c) Scholasticates

Scholasticates receive novices who have been admitted to temporal vows at the end of a year's probation. The first Scholasticate of the congregation was dedicated to the Sacred Heart at Montolivet, Marseilles, in 1857; it was transferred to Autun in 1861, to Dublin in 1880, to St. Francis (Holland) in 1889, and to Liège in 1891. The ten establishments at present occupied are situated at Ottawa, Tewksbury, San Antonio, Rome, Liège, Hünfeld, Stillorgan, Turin, and Colombo (2).

IV. ENDS AND MEANS

The congregation was formed to repair the havoc caused by the French Revolution, and its very existence so soon afterwards was a sign of religious revival. Its multiple ends may thus be divided:

(a) Primary

(1) To revive the spirit of faith among rural and industrial populations by means of missions and retreats, in which devotion to the Sacred Heart and to Mary Immaculate is recommended as a supernatural means of regeneration. "He hath sent me to preach the Gospel to the poor ", has been adopted as the device of the congregation. (2) Care of young men's societies, Catholic clubs, etc. (3) Formation of clergy in seminaries.

(b) Secondary or Derived

To adapt itself to the different circumstances arising from its rapid development in new countries, the congregation has necessarily extended its sphere of action to parochial organization, to the direction of industrial or reformatory schools, of establishments of secondary education in its principal centres, and of higher institutions of learning, such as the University of Ottawa (see OTTAWA, UNIVERSITY OF).

V. PROMINENT MEMBERS, PAST AND PRESENT

(a) Superior Generals

Mgr. de Mazenod (1816); Very Rev. J. Fabre (1861); L. Soullier (1893); C. Augier (1898) A. Lavillardière (1906); Mgr A. Dontenwill (1908).

(b) Oblate Bishops

(1) Deceased: de Mazenod, Bishop of Marseilles ; Guibert (1802-86), Cardinal Archbishop of Paris ; Semeria (1813-68), Vicar Apostolic of Jaffna ; Guigues (1805-74), first Bishop of Ottawa ; Allard (1806-89), first Vicar Apostolic of Natal ; Faraud (1823-90), first Vicar Apostolic of Athabaska-Mackenzie; D'Herbomez (l822-90), first Vicar Apostolic of British Columbia; Bonjean (1823-92), first Archbishop of Colombo ; Taché (1823-94), first Archbishop of St. Boniface; Baläin (1828-1905), Archbishop of Auch ; Mélizan (1844-l905), Archbishop of Colombo ; Grandin (1829-1902), first Bishop of St. Albert ; Clut (1832-1903), Auxiliary Bishop of Athabaska-Mackenzie; Jolivet (1826-1903), Vicar Apostolic of Natal ; Durieu (1830-99), first Bishop of New Westminster ; Anthony Gaughren (1849-1901), Vicar Apostolic of Orange River Colony; (2) Living: Dontenwill, Augustin, titular Archbishop of Ptolemais, and actual superior general; Langevin, Archbishop of St. Boniface ( consecrated 1895); Coudert, Archbishop of Colombo (1898); Grouard, Vicar Apostolic of Athabaska (1891); Pascal, Bishop of Prince Albert (1891); Joulain, Bishop of Jaffna (1893); Legal, Bishop of St. Albert (1897); Breynat, Vicar Apostolic of Mackenzie (1902); Matthew Gaughren, Vicar Apostolic of Orange River Colony (1902); Delalle, Vicar Apostolic of Natal (1904); Miller, Vicar Apostolic of Transvaal (1904); Joussard, Coadjutor of Athabaska (1909); Cenez, Vicar Apostolic of Basutoland (1909); Fallon, Bishop of London, Ontario (1910); Charlebois, first Vicar Apostolic of Keewatin, Canada (1910).

VI. PRINCIPAL UNDERTAKINGS

(a) General

(1) In canonically constituted countries a parish church or public chapel is attached to each establishment of Oblates. The parishes are all provided with schools, while many have colleges or academies and a hospital. Several of the parochial residences (e.g., Buffalo, Montreal, Quebec, etc.) serve as centres for missionaries who assist the parochial clergy by giving retreats or missions and taking temporary charge of parishes. (2) In new or missionary countries, the posts are considered as fixed residences from which the missionaries radiate to surrounding fields of action (e.g., Edmonton Alberta). Each of these centres possesses fully equipped schools whilst many have convents, boarding schools, and hospitals. Instruction is given in English, French, or native tongues by religious communities or by the fathers and brothers themselves. Indigenous mission work is carried on by the periodical recurrence of missions or retreats, and the regular instructions of catechists. The printing press is much used, and the congregation has published complete dictionaries and other works in the native idioms among which it labours.

(b) Special

(1) Canada. -- Until recent years the evangelization of the Canadian West and of British Columbia was the almost exclusive work of the Oblate Fathers, as that of the extreme north still is. Cathedrals, churches, and colleges were built by them, and often handed over to secular clergy or to other religious communities (as in the case of the St. Boniface College, which is at present flourishing under the direction of the Society of Jesus ). The Archiepiscopal See of St. Boniface since 1853, and the episcopal Sees of St. Albert, Prince Albert, with the Vicariates of Athabaska and Mackenzie since their foundation, have been, and are still occupied by Oblates. That of New Westminster ceased to be so in 1908. The Diocese of Ottawa had an Oblate as first bishop, and owes the foundation of most of its parishes and institutions to members of the congregation, who have also founded a number of the centres in the new Vicariates of Temiskaming and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, as well as in the Diocese of Chicoutimi . Among the recent labours of the Oblates in the West a special mention must be given to the religious organization of Germans, Poles, and Ruthenians. The new Vicariate of Keewatin (1910) is entrusted to an Oblate bishop, whose missionaries are devoted to the regeneration of nomadic Indian tribes. (2) South Africa. -- The Oblates have founded and occupy the four vicariates Apostolic of Natal, Orange River, Basutoland and Transvaal, as also the Prefecture Apostolic of Cimbebasia. Its members served as military chaplains on both sides during the Boer war. (3) Asia. -- The immense Dioceses of Colombo and Jaffna, with their flourishing colleges and missions, are the achievement of the enterprising zeal of Oblate Fathers under Mgr Bonjean, O.M.I. (4) Western Australia. A missionary vicariate was founded from the British Province in 1894, and is actively engaged in parochial and reformatory work.

VII. ESTABLISHMENTS OF EDUCATION AND FORMATION

(a) For the Congregation

(1) Scholasticates affording a course of two years in philosophy and social science (three years in Rome ), and of four years in theology and sacred sciences according to the spirit and method of St. Thomas. The Roman scholastics follow the programme of the Gregorian University and graduate in philosophy, theology, canon law, and Scripture. The scholastics at Ottawa graduate in philosophy and theology at the university, of which they form an integral part. (2) Novitiates giving religious formation with adapted studies. (3) Juniorates providing a complete classical course preparatory to the sacred sciences. The Ottawa juniorists make their course at the neighbouring university, and graduate in the Faculty of Arts.

(b) Higher Education

(1) Concerning the Ottawa University see the special article. (2) Grand Seminaries. -- Until the persecution of 1902 the congregation was in charge of these establishments at Marseilles, Fréjus, Ajaccio, and Romans. It is at present entrusted with those of Ajaccio, Ottawa (in connexion with the university ), San Antonio, Colombo, and Jaffna. The two last-named are occupied in the formation of a native clergy and have already provided over forty priests.

(c) Secondary education

(1) classical colleges with a course in English are provided at Buffalo, St. Albert (Alberta), San Antonio, St. Louis (British Columbia), St. Charles (Natal). Two important institutions at Colombo are affiliated to the University of Cambridge ; most of the professors have been in residence there, and prepare their pupils for the London matriculation and Cambridge Local examinations. (2) Preparatory seminaries are established at St. Albert, San Antonio, Ceylon (2), and New Westminster. (3) Normal schools for lay teachers are conducted at Jaffna and Ceylon. (4) Industrial schools with full instruction in farming and craftsmanship by lay brothers and assistants in Manitoba (3), Alberta-Saskatchewan (3), British Columbia (3), and Australia (1). There are also about fifteen Indian boarding-schools in the Canadian West. (5) Reformatory schools at Glencree and Philipstown and Maggona in Ceylon.

VIII. CELEBRATED SANCTUARIES AND PILGRIMAGES

(a) Of the Sacred Heart

(1) The Basilica of the National Vow at Paris, a world centre of adoration and reparation, was directed by Oblate Fathers from 1876 until the expulsions of 1902. (2) The construction of a similar basilica for Belgium was entrusted to them by Leopold II in Jan., 1903. (3) The parishes of St. Sauveur, Quebec, and St. Joseph's, Lowell, are important centres of Sacred Heart devotion in the New World.

(b) To the Blessed Virgin

Until the expulsions of 1902 the Oblates directed the ancient pilgrimage shrines of Notre Dame des Lumières, Avinon; N. D. de l'Osier, Grenoble ; N. D. de Bon Secours, Viviers ; N. D. de la Garde (Marseilles); N. D. de Talence and N. D. d'Arcachon, Bordeaux ; N. D. de Sion, Nancy ; and the national pilgrimage of N. D. de Pontmain near Laval, erected after the Franco-Prussian war. During several years they revived the ancient glories of N. D. du Laus, Gap ; N. D. de Clery, Orléans ; N. D. de la Rovère, Mentone. In England they have the restored pre-Reformation shrine of Our Lady of Grace at Tower Hill, London, and in Canada the shrines of Our Lady of the Rosary at Cap de la Madeleine, Quebec, and Our Lady of Lourdes at Ville Marie and Duck Lake, Saskatoon. In Ceylon they have the national pilgrimage to Our Lady of Madhu.

(c) To various Saints

The ancient sanctuary of St. Martin of Tours was re-excavated and revived by Oblate Fathers under Cardinal Guibert in 1862 (see "Life of Léon Papin Dupont", London, 1882). Ceylon possesses votive churches to St. Anne at Colombo and St. Anthony at kochchikadai, and the Canadian West that of St. Anne at Lake St. Anne, which is largely frequented by Indians and half-breeds, 55 well as white people.

IX. FOUNDATION OF RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES

Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary (Longeuil, 1843); Grey Nuns of Ottawa, separated from the Montreal community by Bishop Guigues in 1845; Oblate Sisters of the Sacred Heart and Mary Immaculate founded at St. Boniface by Archbishop Langevin (1905); and a community of over 300 native sisters, and one of teaching brothers of St. Joseph in Ceylon.

X. APOSTOLATE OF THE PRESS

(a) Periodicals on the Work of the Congregation

"Missions des O.M.I.", printed at Rome for the congregation only; "Petites annales des 0.M.I." (Liège); "Maria Immaculata" (German), Hünfeld, New Brunswick ; the "Missionary Record", started in 1891, was discontinued in 1903.

(b) General Newspapers, etc

The "North West Review" (Winnipeg), "Western Catholic" (Vancouver), "Patriote de l'Ouest" (Duck Lake, Saskatoon), "Ami du Foyer" (St. Boniface), "Die West Canada" (German), "Gazeta Katolika" (Polish), and a recently established Ruthenian journal (Winnipeg), “Kitchiwa Mateh Sacred Heart Review in Cris" (Sacred Heart P.O. Alta), "Cennad Llydewig, Messenger of the Catholic Church in Welsh-English" (Llaanrwst, North Wales ); "Ceylon Catholic Messenger", separate editions in English and Cingalese and the "Jaffna Guardian" in English-Tamil; Parochial Bulletins at St. Joseph's, Lowell, Mattawa (Ontario), and St. Peter's, Montreal.

In connexion with the table given on page 186, the following points may be mentioned: (1) the "houses" are parochial establishments or missionary centres, not mission posts; (2) the table is calculated according to the provinces or vicariates of the congregation, which are not always coterminous with ecclesiastical divisions; (3) the figures given for France represent the state of affairs before 1902. Since that date a large number of religious remain in France, though isolated. Several establishments have been transferred to Belgium, Italy, and Spain ; (4) scholastics, novices, and juniorists are not included.

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Oils, Holy

(OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

Ointment in Scripture

That the use of oily, fragrant materials to anoint the body is a custom going back to remote ...

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Oj 1

Ojeda, Alonso de

Explorer; b. at Cuenca, Spain, about 1466; d. on the island of Santo Domingo , about 1508. He ...

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Ok 2

Okeghem, Jean d'

Also called Okekem, Okenghem, Okegnan, Ockenheim. Contrapuntist, founder and head of the second ...

Oklahoma

I. GEOGRAPHY Oklahoma, the forty-sixth state to be admitted to the Union, is bounded on the north ...

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Ol 28

Oláh, Nicolaus

(OLAHUS) Archbishop of Gran and Primate of Hungary, a distinguished prelate, born 10 ...

Olaf Haraldson, Saint

Martyr and King of Norway (1015-30), b. 995; d. 29 July, 1030. He was a son of King Harald ...

Olba

A titular see in Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. It was a city of Cetis in Cilicia Aspera, ...

Old Catholics

The sect organised in German-speaking countries to combat the dogma of Papal Infallibility. ...

Old Chapter, The

The origin of the body, fomerly known as the Old Chapter, dates from 1623, when after a period of ...

Old Hall (St. Edmund's College)

Located near Ware, Hertfordshire, England ; founded in 1793 after the fall of the English ...

Old Testament

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

Old Testament, Canon of the

Overview The word canon as applied to the Scriptures has long had a special and consecrated ...

Oldcorne, Ven. Edward

Martyr, b. 1561; d. 1606. His father was a Protestant, and his mother a Catholic. He was ...

Oldenburg

A grand duchy, one of the twenty-six federated states of the German Empire. It consists of three ...

Oldham, Hugh

Bishop of Exeter, b. in Lancashire, either at Crumpsell or Oldham; d. 25 June, 1519. Having ...

Oldoini, Augustino

Historian and bibliographer, b. 6 Jan., 1612; d. at Perugia, 23 March, 1683. He came from La ...

Olenus

A titular see and suffragan of Patras, in Achaia Quarta, one of the twelve primitive cities of ...

Olesnicki, Zbigniew

(Sbigneus) A Polish cardinal and statesman, b. in Poland, 1389; d. at Sandomir, 1 April, ...

Olier, Jean-Jacques

Founder of the seminary and Society of St-Sulpice, b. at Paris, 20 Sept., 1608; d. there, 2 ...

Olinda

Diocese in the north-east of Brazil, suffragan of San Salvador de Bahia. Erected into a vicariate ...

Oliva

A suppressed Cistercian abbey near Danzig in Pomerania, founded with the assistance of the ...

Oliva, Gian Paolo

Born at Genoa, 4 October, 1600; died at Rome, at Sant' Andrea Quirinale, 26 November, 1681. In ...

Olivaint, Pierre

Pierre Olivaint was born in Paris, 22 Feb., 1816. His father, a man of repute but an unbeliever, ...

Oliver, George

Born at Newington in Surrey in 1781; died at Exeter in 1861. After studying for some years at ...

Olivet, Mount

(Latin, Mons Olivertus .) Occurring also in the English Bibles as the Mount of Olives ( ...

Olivetans

A branch of the white monks of the Benedictine Order, founded in 1319. It owed its origin to ...

Olivi, Pierre Jean

(PETRUS JOHANNIS) A Spiritual Franciscan and theological author, born at Sérignan, ...

Olivier de la Marche

Chronicler and poet, b. 1426, at the Chateau de la Marche, in Franche-Comté; d. at ...

Ollé-Laprune, Léon

French Catholic philosopher, b. in 1839; d. at Paris, 19 Feb., 1898. Under the influence of the ...

Olmütz

(OLOMUCENSIS) Archdiocese in Moravia. It is probable that Christianity penetrated into ...

Olympias, Saint

Born 360-5; died 25 July, 408, probably at Nicomedia. This pious, charitable, and wealthy ...

Olympus

A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor. It was one of the chief cities of the "Corpus Lyciacum", ...

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Om 5

Omaha

(OMAHENSIS) The Diocese embraces all that part of the State of Nebraska north of the southern ...

Ombus

Titular see and suffragan of Ptolemais in Thebais Secunda. The city is located by Ptolemy (IV, ...

Omer, Saint

Born of a distinguished family towards the close of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh ...

Omission

(Latin omittere , to lay aside, to pass away). "Omission" is here taken to be the failure to ...

Omnipotence

(Latin omnipotentia , from omnia and potens , able to do all things). Omnipotence is ...

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On 4

Onias

( ’Onías ). Name of several Jewish pontiffs of the third and second centuries ...

Ontario

Ontario, the most populous and wealthy province of Canada, has an area of 140,000,000 acres, ...

Ontologism

(from on, ontos , being, and logos , science) Ontologism is an ideological system which ...

Ontology

( on, ontos , being, and logos , science, the science or philosophy of being). I. ...

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Oo 1

Oostacker, Shrine of

A miraculous shrine of the Blessed Virgin, and place of pilgrimage from Belgium, Holland, and ...

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Op 8

Opening Prayer (in the Mass)

The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at ...

Ophir

Ophir, in the Bible , designates a people and a country. The people, for whom a Semitic ...

Oporto

(Portucalensis) Diocese in Portugal ; comprising 26 civil concelhos of the districts of ...

Oppenordt, Gilles-Marie

(Oppenord) Born in Paris, 1672; died there, 1742; a celebrated rococo artist, known as "the ...

Oppido Mamertina

Diocese ; suffragan of Reggio Calabria, Italy, famous for its prolonged resistance to Roger ...

Optatus, Saint

Bishop of Milevis, in Numidia, in the fourth century. He was a convert, as we gather from St. ...

Optimism

Optimism (Latin optimus , best) may be understood as a metaphysical theory, or as an emotional ...

Option, Right of

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...

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Or 60

Oracle

( oraculum; orare , to speak). A Divine communication given at a special place through ...

Oran

(ORANENSIS). Diocese in Algiers, separated from the Archdiocese of Algiers, 26 July, 1866, to ...

Orange Free State

The Orange Free State, one of the four provinces of the Union of South Africa, lies between ...

Orange River

(also the PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF GREAT NAMAQUALAND) Located in South Africa. The vicariate was ...

Orange, Councils of

Two councils were held at Orange (Arausio), a town in the present department of Vaucluse in ...

Orans

(Orante) Among the subjects depicted in the art of the Roman catacombs one of those most ...

Orate Fratres

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

Oratorio

As at present understood, an Oratorio is a musical composition for solo voices, chorus, orchestra, ...

Oratory

(Latin oratorium , from orare , to pray ) As a general term, Oratory signifies a place ...

Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, The

Under this head are included the Italian, Spanish, English, and other communities, which follow ...

Oratory, French Congregation of the

Founded in Paris at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Cardinal Pierre de ...

Orbellis, Nicolas d'

Franciscan theologian and philosopher, Scotist ; born about 1400; died at Rome, 1475. He seems ...

Orcagna

(The conventional name in art history of A NDREA DI C IONE , also called A RCAGNUOLO or A ...

Orcistus

Titular see in Galatia Secunda. It is only mentioned in Peutinger's "Table". An inscription of ...

Ordeals

( Iudicium Dei ; Anglo-Saxon, ordâl ; German Urteil ). Ordeals were a means of ...

Ordericus Vitalis

Historian, b. 1075; d. about 1143. He was the son of an English mother and a French priest who ...

Orders, Holy

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

Orders, The Military

Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...

Ordinariate

(From Ordinary ). This term is used in speaking collectively of all the various organs ...

Ordinary

( Latin ordinarius , i. e., judex ) An Ordinary in ecclesiastical language, denotes any ...

Ordines Romani

The word Ordo commonly meant, in the Middle Ages, a ritual book containing directions for ...

Oregon

One of the Pacific Coast States, seventh in size among the states of the Union (1910). It received ...

Oregon City

(OREGONOPOLITAN). Includes that part of the state of Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, ...

Oremus

Invitation to pray, said before collects and other short prayers and occurring continually in ...

Orense

(AURIENSIS) A suffragan of Compostela, includes nearly all of the civil Province of Orense, ...

Oresme, Nicole

Philosopher, economist, mathematician, and physicist, one of the principal founders of modern ...

Organ

(Greek organon , "an instrument") A musical instrument which consists of one or several sets ...

Organic Articles, The

A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, ...

Oria

(URITANA) Oria, in the Province of Lecce [now the Province of Brindisi -- Ed. ], Apulia, ...

Oriani, Barnaba

Italian Barnabite and astronomer, b. at Carignano, near Milan, 17 July, 1752; d. at Milan, 12 ...

Oriental Study and Research

In the broadest sense of the term, Oriental study comprises the scientific investigation and ...

Orientation of Churches

According to Tertullian the Christians of his time were, by some who concerned themselves with ...

Orientius

Christian Latin poet of the fifth century. He wrote an elegiac poem ( Commonitorium ) of 1036 ...

Oriflamme

In verses 3093-5 of the "Chanson de Roland" (eleventh century) the oriflamme is mentioned as a ...

Origen and Origenism

I. LIFE AND WORK OF ORIGEN A. BIOGRAPHY Origen, most modest of writers, hardly ever alludes to ...

Original Sin

I. Meaning II. Principal Adversaries III. Original Sin in ScriptureIV. Original Sin in ...

Orihuela

DIOCESE OF ORIHUELA (ORIOLENSIS, ORIOLANA). The Diocese of Orihuela comprises all the civil ...

Oriol, Saint Joseph

Priest, "Thaumaturgus of Barcelona", b. at Barcelona, 23 November, 1650; d. there, 23 March, ...

Oristano

Diocese of Oristano (Arborensis) in Sardinia. Oristano was the capital of the giudicatura ...

Orkneys

A group of islands situated between 58° 41' and 59° 24' N. lat. and 2° 22' and 3° ...

Orléans

(AURELIANUM) This Diocese comprises the Department of Loiret, suffragan of Paris since 1622, ...

Orléans, Councils of

Six national councils were held at Orléans in the Merovingian period. I. — At the ...

Orlandini, Niccolò

Born at Florence, 1554; died 1606 at Rome, 17 May. He entered the Jesuit novitiate 7 Nov., ...

Orley, Barent Van

(Bernard) Painter, b. at Brussels, about 1491; d. there 6 January, 1542. He studied under ...

Orme, Philibert de l'

An architect, born about 1512; died 1570. His style, classical and of the more severe Italian ...

Oropus

Titular see, suffragan of Anazarbus in Cilicia Secunda. It never really depended on Anazarbus ...

Orosius, Paulus

Historian and Christian apologist ; b. probably at Bracara, now Braga, in Portugal, between 380 ...

Orphans and Orphanages

The death of one or both parents makes the child of the very poor a ward of the community. The ...

Orsi, Giuseppe Agostino

A cardinal, theologian, and ecclesiastical historian, born at Florence, 9 May, 1692, of an ...

Orsini

One of the most ancient and distinguished families of the Roman nobility, whose members often ...

Orsisius

( Arsisios , Oresiesis-Heru-sa Ast) Egyptian monk of the fourth century; was a disciple ...

Ortelius, Abraham

(OERTEL) A cartographer, geographer, and archeologist, born in Antwerp, 4 April, 1527; died ...

Orthodox Church

The technical name for the body of Christians who use the Byzantine Rite in various languages ...

Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy ( orthodoxeia ) signifies right belief or purity of faith. Right belief is not ...

Orthodoxy, Feast of

(or SUNDAY) The first Sunday of the Great Forty days ( Lent ) in the Byzantine Calendar ...

Orthosias

A titular see of Phœnicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. The city is mentioned for the first ...

Ortolano Ferrarese

Painter of the Ferrara School, b. in Ferrara, about 1490; d. about 1525. His real name was ...

Orval

(Aurea Vallis, Gueldenthal). Formerly a Cistercian abbey in Belgian Luxemburg, Diocese of ...

Orvieto

DIOCESE OF ORVIETO (URBEVETANA) Diocese in Central Italy. The city stands on a rugged mass of ...

Ory, Matthieu

Inquisitor and theologian, b. at La Caune, 1492; d. at Paris, 1557. Entering the Dominican ...

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Os 22

Osaka

(Osachensis). Osaka ( Oye , great river; saka , cliff), one of the three municipal ...

Osbald

King of Northumbria, d. 799. Symeon of Durham (Historia Regum) tells us that when Ecfwald, a ...

Osbaldeston, Edward, Venerable

English martyr, b. about 1560; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 16 November, 1594. Son of ...

Osbern

Hagiographer, sometimes confused with Osbert de Clare alias Osbern de Westminster, b. at ...

Oscott (St. Mary's College)

In 1793, a number of the Catholic nobility and gentry of England formed a committee for the ...

Osee

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

Osimo

DIOCESE OF OSIMO (AUXIMANA). Diocese in the Province of Ascoli Piceno, Italy. Osimo was ...

Oslo, Ancient See of

(ASLOIA, ASLOENSIS.) Oslo occupied part of the site of Christiania (founded 1624). After the ...

Osma

(OXOMENSIS) The Diocese borders Burgos and Logroño on the north, Soria and Saragossa ...

Osmund, Saint

Bishop of Salisbury, died 1099; his feast is kept on 4 December. Osmund held an exalted ...

Osnabrück

(OSNABRUGENSIS) This diocese, directly subject to the Holy See, comprises, in the Prussian ...

Ossat, Arnaud d'

French cardinal, diplomat, and writer, b. at Larroque-Magnoac (Gascony), 20 July, 1537; d. at ...

Ossory, Diocese of

(Ossoriensis.) In the Province of Leinster, Ireland, is bounded on the south by the Suir, on ...

Ostensorium

(From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...

Ostia and Velletri

SUBURBICARIAN DIOCESE OF OSTIA AND VELLETRI (OSTIENSIS ET VELITERNENSIS). Near Rome, central ...

Ostiensis

Surname of LEO MARSICANUS, Benedictine chronicler, b. about 1045; d. 22 May, 1115, 1116, or ...

Ostracine

Titular see and suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica prima. Pliny (Hist. naturalis, V, xiv) ...

Ostraka, Christian

Inscriptions on clay, wood, metal, and other hard materials. Like papyri, they are valuable ...

Ostrogoths

One of the two chief tribes of the Goths, a Germanic people. Their traditions relate that the ...

Oswald, Saint

Archbishop of York, d. on 29 February, 992. Of Danish parentage, Oswald was brought up by his ...

Oswald, Saint

King and martyr ; b., probably, 605; d. 5 Aug., 642; the second of seven brothers, sons of ...

Oswin, Saint

King and martyr, murdered at Gilling, near Richmond, Yorkshire, England, on 20 August, 651, ...

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Ot 16

Otfried of Weissenburg

He is the oldest German poet known by name, author of the "Evangelienbuch", a rhymed version of ...

Othlo

(OTLOH) A Benedictine monk of St. Emmeran's, Ratisbon, born 1013 in the Diocese of ...

Othmar, Saint

(Audomar.) Died 16 Nov., 759, on the island of Werd in the Rhine, near Echnez, Switzerland. ...

Otho, Marcus Salvius

Roman emperor, successor, after Galba, of Nero, b. in Rome, of an ancient Etruscan family ...

Otranto

ARCHDIOCESE OF OTRANTO (HYDRUNTINA). Otranto is a city of the Province of Lecce, Apulia, ...

Ottawa, Archdiocese of

Archdiocese of Ottawa (Ottawiensis). The Archdiocese of Ottawa, in Canada, originally ...

Ottawa, University of

Conducted by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate ; founded in 1848. It was incorporated in 1849 under ...

Otto I, the Great

Roman emperor and German king, b. in 912; d. at Memleben, 7 May, 973; son of Henry I and his ...

Otto II

King of the Germans and Emperor of Rome, son of Otto I and Adelaide, b. 955; d. in Rome, 7 ...

Otto III

German king and Roman emperor, b. 980; d. at Paterno, 24 Jan., 1002. At the age of three he was ...

Otto IV

German king and Roman emperor, b. at Argentau (Dept. of Orne), c. 1182; d. 19 May, 1218; son of ...

Otto of Freising

Bishop and historian, b. between 1111 and 1114, d. at Morimond, Champagne, France, 22 ...

Otto of Passau

All we know of him is in the preface of his work, in which he calls himself a member of the ...

Otto of St. Blasien

Chronicler, b. about the middle of the twelfth century; d. 23 July, 1223, at St. Blasien in the ...

Otto, Saint

Bishop of Bamberg, b. about 1060; d. 30 June, 1139. He belonged to the noble, though not ...

Ottobeuren

(OTTOBURA, MONASTERIUM OTTOBURANUM) Formerly a Benedictine abbey, now a priory, near ...

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Ou 9

Ouen, Saint

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...

Our Father, The

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

Our Lady of Good Counsel, Feast of

Records dating from the reign of Paul II (1464-71) relate that the picture of Our Lady, at ...

Our Lady of Perpetual Help

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Our Lady of the Fields, Brothers of

A Canadian congregation founded in 1902 at St-Damien de Buckland in the Diocese of Quebec by ...

Our Lady of the Snow

("Dedicatio Sanctæ Mariæ ad Nives"). A feast celebrated on 5 August to ...

Our Lady, Help of Christians, Feast of

The invocation Auxilium Christianorum (Help of Christians ) originated in the sixteenth ...

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Ov 4

Overbeck, Friedrich

Convert and painter of religious subjects, b. at Lübeck, 3 July, 1789; d. at Rome, 12 ...

Overberg, Bernhard Heinrich

A German ecclesiastic and educator, born 1 May, 1754; died 9 November, 1826. Of poor parents in ...

Overpopulation, Theories of

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

Oviedo

(OVETENSIS) This diocese comprises the civil province of the same name (the ancient Kingdom ...

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Ow 2

Owen, Saint

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...

Owen, Saint Nicholas

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...

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Ox 6

Oxenford, John

Dramatist, critic, translator, and song-writer, b. in London, 12 Aug., 1812; d. there 21 Feb., ...

Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe

An English controversialist and poet, born at Harrow, 15 Nov., 1829; died at Kensington, 23 ...

Oxford

Oxford, one of the most ancient cities in England, grew up under the shadow of a convent, said to ...

Oxford Movement, The

The Oxford Movement may be looked upon in two distinct lights. "The conception which lay at its ...

Oxford, University of

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The most extraordinary myths have at various times prevailed as to the ...

Oxyrynchus

Titular archdiocese of Heptanomos in Egypt. It was the capital of the district of its name, the ...

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Oz 3

Ozanam, Antoine-Frédéric

Great grand-nephew of Jacques Ozanam . Born at Milan, 23 April, 1813; died at Marseilles, 8 ...

Ozanam, Jacques

A French mathematician, born at Bouligneux (Ain), 1640; died in Paris, 3 April, 1717. He came of a ...

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