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Giovanni Battista de Rossi

A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman catacombs, born at Rome, 23 February, 1822; died at Castel Gandolfo on Lake Albano, 20 September, 1894. De Rossi, the modern founder of the science of Christian archaeology, was well-skilled in secular archaeology, a master of epigraphy, an authority on the ancient and medieval topography of Rome, an excellent historian, and a very productive and many-sided author. In addition to his professional acquaintance with archaeology De Rossi had a thorough knowledge of law, philology, and theology. He was the son of Commendatore Camillo Luigi De Rossi and Marianna Marchesa Bruti, his wife, who had two sons, Giovanni and Michele Stefano. Two days after birth Giovanni was baptized in the parish church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva and, according to Roman custom was confirmed while still very young, by Cardinal Franzoni, Prefect of the Propaganda. Up to 1838 De Rossi attended the preparatory department of the well-known Jesuit institution, the Collegio Romano, and through his entire course ranked as its foremost pupil. From 1838 to 1840 he studied philosophy there, and jurisprudence (1840-44) at the Roman University (Sapienza), where he was a disciple of the celebrated professors Villani and Capalti. At the close of his university studies he received, after a severe examination, the degree of doctor utriusque juris ad honorem.

De Rossi showed so strong an interest in Christian antiquity that on his eleventh birthday his father wished to give him the great work of Antonio Bosio, "La Roma Sotterranea". In 1843, before he received the doctor's degree, he matured a plan for a systematic and critical collection of all Christian inscriptions. In 1841, notwithstanding the protests of his anxious father, he visited, for the first time, under the guidance of the Jesuit Father Marchi, one of the then much neglected catacombs. After this De Rossi and Marchi pursued their archaeological studies together, so that they were no as the inseparable friends", though the difference in years was great. As soon as he had finished his studies De Rossi was appointed scriptor at the Vatican Library and bore this modest but honourable title, in which he took especial pride, all his life. Great credit is due him for his careful cataloguing of hundreds of Vatican manuscripts. The free use of the treasures of the Vatican Library and archives was a rich source of development for his intellectual powers, especially in the sense of breadth and catholicity of interest. His official duties were not heavy, and he was able to carry on his private studies without hindrance. In 1838, in company with his parents, he went on his first journey and visited Tuscany, where the innumerable treasures of art completely absorbed his attention. During the summers of 1844-50 he visited the territory of the ancient Hernici in Latium and also Naples ; in this way the knowledge he attained of the period of the Roman Republic was not purely theoretical. In 1853 he travelled for the first time by himself and went again to Tuscany, also to the Romagna, Lombardy, and Venice. In 1856 he visited Liguria, Piedmont, Switzerland, France, and Belgium ; in 1858 he went again to Piedmont, visited the western part of Switzerland, and the district of the Rhine as far as Cologne; from Cologne he went by way of Aachen, Trier, and Frankfort to Bavaria and Austria, and back to Rome by way of Venice and the Romagna. On a second trip to France in 1862 he visited the northern part of that country, and after going for a short time to London returned by way of Paris and Switzerland to Rome. In 1864 he went to Naples for a second time, and in 1865 was in France for the third time, visiting particularly the southern French cities. In 1868 he was again in France, and in 1869 and 1870 he went to Tuscany and Umbria; in 1872-75 he explored the vicinity of Rome ; in 1876 and 1879 he investigated the treasures of Naples and the surrounding country, and in 1878 he made a trip again to Venice and Lombardy.

These journeys of De Rossi are of much importance for the proper appreciation of his scientific labours. Such long and fatiguing expeditions were undertaken solely in order to inspect museums, libraries, galleries, archives, and other institutions of learning and art, to form personal relations with the scholars of the countries visited, and to increase the range of his mental outlook, always fixed on a subject as a whole. De Rossi's extraordinary knowledge of the most obscure monuments of the civilized countries of Europe, and his thorough familiarity with manuscript sources, made it possible for him, as undisputed leader and master, to guide the science of Christian archaeology, during several decades, into new paths. These journeys help to explain De Rossi's remarkable literary productiveness, when considered in connection with his minute investigation of all the monuments, both on the surface and underground, of the city of Rome and the Roman Campagna. These investigations covered the ancient pagan life of Rome, the early Christian period, also the Middle Ages.

De Rossi's personal relations with the leading scholars of Italy and other countries began in his early youth. When he was fourteen the famous Cardinal Mai, Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, found him copying Greek inscriptions in the inscription gallery of the Vatican and became greatly interested in the lad; the acquaintance later ripened into a warm friendship. In 1847 began his connection as a scholar with the famous egpigraphist Bartolommeo Borghesi of San Marino ; at a later date Borghesi's works were issued at the expense of Napoleon III under De Rossi's direction. A few years after forming the acquaintance of Borghesi a correspondence was begun between De Rossi and the Benedictine Dom Pitra, of Solesmes, later Cardinal, and Librarian the Holy Roman Church, which ended in a warm friendship with Pitra. This, however, led to an estrangement between Leo XIII and De Rossi. Father Bruzza, the learned Barnabite, was also an intimate friend of De Rossi. Wilhelm Henzen, long director of the German archaeological institute at Rome, lived in friendship and daily communication with De Rossi for forty years. When the Berlin Academy of Sciences, urged by Theodor Mommsen, undertook its monumental publication, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum", it sent a flattering letter to De Rossi to request his co-operation. This led to an intimate friendship with Mommsen. The latter's numerous collaborators on the "Corpus", among them Edwin Bormann, the noted authority of epigraphy, found De Rossi ever ready to assist and guide them. Martigny, the editor of the Bullettino (see below), as well as Paul Allard, editor of the French edition of "Roma Sotterranea", and Desbassyns de Richemont, were all closely united to De Rossi by the interests of their common work. To these must be added Louis Duchesne, the brilliant director of the Ecole de Rome, and collaborator with De Rossi on the recent edition (1894) of the "Martyrologium Hieronymianum". Léopold Delisle, the celebrated savant, palaeographer, and historian, for many years the head of the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris, was a man of the same learned tastes as De Rossi; their meeting led to a very active scientific correspondence, and later to a strong attachment, based on their scholarly interests. When, about 1850, Edouard Le Blant formed the acquaintance of De Rossi, he was totally ignorant of archaeology, but an accidental remark of De Rossi led him to take up this science ; eventually he became a distinguished archaeologist and the director of the Ecole de Rome.

Among German Catholics De Rossi's closest friendship as a scholar was with Franz Xaver Kraus. The cool reception he had from Döllinger, whom he once met at Munich, prevented the forming of any lasting relations. From 1884 Joseph Wilpert came into closer relations with De Rossi, who, up to his death, gave this scholar all the possible aid and showed the younger man the greatest friendship. The same may be said of Johann Peter Kirsch, archaeologist, patrologist, and historian. De Rossi also encouraged the labours of Anton de Waal, the founder and editor of the "Römische Quartalschrift", and was a helpful friend to numerous other German scholars. For many years De Rossi's relations were especially intimate with Giuseppe Gatti, his assistant in various kinds of learned work. Gatti's fine scholarship enabled De Rossi to carry on daily confidential discussions of learned questions which, after the death of Henzen, had apparently come to an end. Gatti continues De Rossi's labours in the province of ancient inscriptions. Henry Stevenson, who died too soon, Mariano Armellini, an enthusiast in archeology, Luigi Scagliosi, the numismatist, Orazio Marucchi, a popularizer of Christian archeology , Cosimo Stornaiolo, the "Grecian", besides many other Italians, among whom Gennaro Aspreno Galante of Naples deserves to be named, found in De Rossi a fatherly friend and counsellor. Among his English disciples and friends were especially J. Spencer Northcote and W. R. Brownlow who made known to the English-speaking world the results of De Rossi's scholarly investigations and publications. For years Northcote and Brownlow, and Lewis at Oxford, were in constant correspondence with De Rossi.

Stress is thus laid on the important personal acquaintance and friendships of De Rossi, in order to emphasize with what skill he stimulated interest in Christian archeology in all directions. Equally important, perhaps, were the relations established by him in the years 1850-70 during which he conducted many strangers, often of high rank, through the catacombs, or acted as their guide among the monumental ruins of Rome. The friendships thus made often secured for him the loan of monuments and documents which otherwise would never have been sent, even temporarily to a foreign country, but which were brought to him at Rome by the diplomatic couriers of all countries, not excepting Russia, using his opportunity to examine these objects at his leisure. The immediate superiors of De Rossi in the Vatican Archives treated him always as a friend and an equal, and allowed him entire freedom in all his studies. Pius IX honoured him with a fatherly affection, striking evidence of which was given on more than one occasion. Though the science of Christian archaeology was rather foreign to the mental temper of Leo XIII that pope often showed that, on the proper occasion, he could do justice to De Rossi's great reputation. In Rome De Rossi was exceedingly popular; nearly all the educated citizens, as well as the foreign residents, knew and honoured him. Without some knowledge of these facts De Rossi's learned labours and extraordinary success would be only superficially understood.

By his peculiar training, therefore, De Rossi was well fitted to understand sympathetically the early Christian literature, as well the rise and development of the Roman State as shown in the monuments it has left. In regard to the Roman State, he never held the somewhat mechanical and no longer undisputed theory of Mommsen. He penetrated also with marvellous insight the growth of the primitive Christian hierarchy. Amid his books and papers De Rossi pondered over the ruins of the temples and palaces of antiquity; reviewed his own subterranean explorations; followed the early Christians in their thoughts, wishes, hopes, and ideals; contemplated the triumph of the Church, liberated by Constantine the Great and entering triumphantly the basilicas ; and gathered from yellowed manuscripts the traditions that a learned multitude of pious and painstaking monks had written concerning the Christian past, and in addition the accounts they have left us of their own times. In this way De Rossi was soon universally acknowledged, even in his lifetime, as the prince of Christian archaeologists.

Owing to his extraordinary literary productivity, which was the natural result of the conditions outlined above, a distinction must be drawn between his minor and his greater works. The list of his minor writings (monographs) begins in 1849 with the memoir: "Inscrizione onoraria di Nicomaco Flaviano", which appeared in the Annali dell Instituto di corrispondenza archeologica (pp. 283-363). These archaeological and ecclesiastico-historical papers number 203, not including the so-called literary letters in which De Rossi answered the questions addressed him by various scholars. Most of these letters were given publicity in books or periodicals by those to whom they were sent. Nor does this total include an almost countless series of Latin inscriptions, expressions of literary homage, congratulatory epigrams, etc. Most of the monographs, often quite lengthy, appeared in "Bulletino dell Instituto di corrispondenza archeologica"; "Bullettino archeologico Napolitano"; "Revue archéologique"; "Bullettino della commissione archeologica communale di Roma"; "Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes"; "Ephemeris epigraphica"; "Studi e documenti di storia e diritto"; "Dissertazioni dell accademia romana pontificia di archeologia"; "Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire de l'école française de Rome"; "Römische Quartalschrift", and in other Italian and foreign periodicals and reviews. A few of these papers appeared as separate volumes or as learned tributes on anniversary occasions. They vary in length from one to one hundred and thirty-two printed pages.

The titles of his larger and monumental works are as follows:

  • "Inscriptiones christianae Urbis Romae septimo saeculo antiquiores" (vol. I, Rome, 1861; part I of vol. II, Rome, 1888); Giuseppe Gatti is completing this work (cf. "Archivio dell R. SocietàRomana di storia patria", 1887, 696 sqq.; also the same society's "Conferenze pel corso di metodologia della storia", part III, Rome, 1888).
  • "La Roma Sotterranea Cristiana" (vol. I with an atlas of forty plates, Rome, 1864; vol. II with an atlas of sixty-two and A, B, C, D plates, Rome, 1867; vol. III with an atlas of fifty-two plates, Rome, 1877). The plates for the fourth volume were already printed in part when De Rossi died (see "Bullettino di archeologia cristiana", 1864, I, 1864, 63-64; 1867, II, 89-90; 1876, III, 155--57).
  • "Bullettino di archeologia cristiana"; the first series, in quarto, appeared in monthly numbers (1863-69), with illustrations in the text and coloured plates; it consisted of one hundred and twenty-six monographs and communications. The second series, in octavo, appeared quarterly (1870-75), with twelve lithographic plates in each volume, and contained altogether fifty-three papers. The third series, also in octavo, appeared (1876-81), in quarterly numbers, each volume having twelve lithographic plates; the papers numbered altogether fifty-one. The fourth series, in octavo, appeared in yearly volumes (1882-89), each volume having twelve lithographic plates; the six volumes contain altogether forty-three papers. The fifth series, in octavo, appeared annually (1889-94), with zincotype plates and illustrations in the text; the last number was issued in 1894 by Giuseppe Gatti. The final volume of each series contained a full index which De Rossi prepared with the greatest care.
  • "Musaici delle chiese di Roma anteriori al secolo XV" (Rome, 1872), an imperial folio consisting of chromolithographic plates with a text in French and Italian. The work closed with the twenty-fifth number, issued after De Rossi's death.
  • "Codicum latinorum bibliothecae Vaticanae", vol. X, Pt. I, Nos. 7245-8066, Pt. II, Nos. 8067-8471; vol. XI, Nos. 8472-9019; vol. XII, Nos. 9020-9445; vol. XIII, Nos. 9446-9849. The indexes to vols. XI, XII, XIII, "Codicum lat. Vat." are: Pt. I, index of authors; Pt. II, index of places, things, and persons. These manuscript indexes are used as reference books in the Vatican Library.
  • "Inscriptiones Urbis Romae latinae. Collegerunt Gulielmus Henzen et Johannes Baptista de Rossi. Ediderunt Eugenius Bormann et Gulielmus Henzen" (Berlin, 1876--). This constitutes the sixth volume of the "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum consilio et auctoritate academiae litterarum regiae Borussicae editum" (Berlin). The invitation to De Rossi to act as one of the leading editors was given 22 January, 1854.
  • The five annual reports (1854-58), concerning the preparatory work for the above-mentioned "Corpus Inscriptionum", which appeared in the monthly bulletins of the Royal Academy of Science of Berlin. The other annual reports have not been published; this is also the case with De Rossi's synopses of the epigraphical manuscripts in the libraries of Italy, France, Germany Switzerland, and Austria. The last named summaries are of the greatest importance.
  • "Oeuvres complètes de Bartolommeo Borghesi" (9 vols., Paris, 1862-84). Napoleon III entrusted the task of collecting and editing the works and letters of the celebrated Borghesi to a committee of French, German, and Italian scholars, among whom De Rossi may be said to have been the most important and assiduous.
  • "Martyrologium Hieronymianum", prepared and edited in collaboration with Louis Duchesne in vol. 1, November, of the Acta SS. (Brussels, 1894). This edition is a masterpiece and most of the objections raised against it by German scholars are of little importance.

The works briefly described above give some conception of the learned labours De Rossi carried on during his life. They are proofs of the genius with which he grasped a subject, of his extraordinary industry, his learned mastery of the most varied subjects, and the unwavering determination with which he unearthed obscure points; they also show the triumphs with which his toils were so richly crowned. The estimation in which his work was field is proved by the two international celebrations in 1882 and 1892 upon his sixtieth and seventieth birthdays.

De Rossi's father died in 1850, and his mother in 1861. In the latter year he married Costanza, daughter of Count Pietro Bruno di San Giorgio Tornafort of Piedmont, by whom he had two daughters; Marianna, the elder, died in 1864. The second, Natalia, born in 1866, married the Marchese Filippo Ferraioli. De Rossi's brother Michele Stefano was his zealous assistant in the exploration of the catacombs ; the geological questions connected with these subterranean places of burial and all kindred subjects are treated by Michele in separate papers in "Roma Soterranea". He also prepared the very accurate plans of the catacombs De Rossi was a portly man of fine appearance, somewhat over the middle height. The full, well-proportioned face was surrounded by a grayish beard which left the chin free. The clear, calm eyes lost much of their strength, so that he could not always supervise properly the work of his painters and this explains the numerous inaccurate illustrations in his works which Wilpert has corrected. The smoothly brushed hair gave greater prominence to the high domed forehead. In walking De Rossi bent slightly forward, which mannerism gave to his gait an appearance of much deliberateness. On the street he was generally busy with a book or pamphlet. De Rossi heard Mass every day and went to Communion nearly every week. Generous, unobtrusive charity was a second nature with him. Every evening he gathered all the members of his household about him for the recitation of the rosary. Although he very often received tempting offers to desert the cause of the Holy See and join the party of United Italy, he rejected all such proposals, even when they came from the highest authorities. On this point he was absolutely immovable. A few months after the international celebration of his seventieth birthday in 1892, De Rossi had an attack of apoplexy from which he never entirely recovered. Unable after this to use his right hand he continued to write with the left for the "Bullettino" and in making the corrections to the "Martyrologium". But his days were numbered. In the summer of 1894 Leo XIII offered him the use of an apartment in the papal palace at Castel Gandolfo, where he peacefully passed away, a true son of the Church. He was buried in the Agro Verano (general cemetery ) at Rome.

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(Garnett.) English martyr, b. 1553-4; d. 1606, son of Brian Garnet, master of Nottingham ...

Garnet, Saint Thomas

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Garnier, Charles

Jesuit Missionary, born at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; died 7 December, 1649. He ...

Garnier, Jean

Church historian, patristic scholar, and moral theologian ; b. at Paris, 11 Nov., 1612; d. at ...

Garnier, Julien

Jesuit missionary, born at Connerai, France, 6 January, 1642; d. in Quebec, 1730. He entered ...

Garrucci, Raffaele

A historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, 22 January, 1812; d. at Rome, 5 May, 1885. He ...

Garzon

(GARZONENSIS.) Suffragan diocese of Popayan in the Republic of Colombia . It comprises the ...

Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed

Founder of the Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood (C.P.P.S.); b. at Rome on the feast of ...

Gaspe, Philippe-Aubert de

A French Canadian writer, b. at Quebec, 30 Oct., 1786, of a family ennobled by Louis XIV in ...

Gassendi, Pierre

(GASSENDY, GASSEND.) A French philosopher and scientist ; b. at Champtercier, a country ...

Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph

An Austrian sculptor, b. 22 Nov., 1816 at Prägraten, Tyrol; d. 28 Oct., 1900. He was first ...

Gassner, Johann Joseph

A celebrated exorcist ; b. 22 Aug., 1727, at Braz, Vorarlberg, Austria ; d. 4 April, 1779, at ...

Gaston, William

Jurist; b. at Newbern, North Carolina , U.S.A. 19 Sept., 1778: d. at Raleigh, North Carolina ...

Gatianus, Saint

Founder and bishop of Tours ; b. probably at Rome ; d. at Tours, 20 December, 301. He came ...

Gau, Franz Christian

Architect and archeologist, b. at Cologne, 15 June, 1790; d. at Paris, January, 1854. In 1809 he ...

Gaubil, Antoine

A French Jesuit and missionary to China, b. at Gaillac (Aveyron), 14 July, 1689; d. at Peking, ...

Gaudentius of Brescia

(GAUDENTIUS BRIXIENSIS or BONTEMPS.) A theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins ; ...

Gaudentius, Saint

Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on ...

Gaudete Sunday

The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass ( Gaudete ...

Gaudier, Antoine de

A writer on asectic theology ; b. at Château-Thierry, France, 7 January, 1572; d. at ...

Gaudiosus

Bishop of Tarazona (Turiasso), Spain ; died about 540. Our information concerning the life ...

Gaul, Christian

The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under ...

Gaultier, Aloisius-Edouard-Camille

Priest and schoolmaster; b. at Asti, Piedmont, about 1745, of French parents ; d. at Paris, 18 ...

Gaume, Jean-Joseph

French theologian and author, b. at Fuans (Franche-Comté) in 1802; d. in 1879. While ...

Gavantus, Bartolommeo

(GAVANTO) Liturgist, a member of the Barnabite Order ; b. at Monza, 1569; d. at Milan, 14 ...

Gaza

( Hebrew 'Azzah , "the strong") A titular see of Palaestina Prima, in the Patriarchate ...

Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria

A theologian, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 3 March, 1722; d. at Vicenza, 11 Dec., 1799. At a very ...

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Gebhard (III) of Constance

Bishop of that city and strenuous defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments ...

Gebhart, Emile

A French professor and writer, b. 19 July, 1839, at Nancy ; d. 22 April, 1908, in Paris. He was ...

Gedeon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

Gegenbauer, Josef Anton

An accomplished German historical and portrait painter, b. 6 March, 1800, at Wangen, ...

Geiler von Kayserberg, Johann

A celebrated German pulpit orator, b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 16 March, 1445; d. at ...

Geissel, Johannes von

Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 5 February, 1796, at Gimmeldingen, in the Palatinate; d. 8 ...

Gelasius I, Pope Saint

Died at Rome, 19 Nov., 496. Gelasius, as he himself states in his letter to the Emperor ...

Gelasius II, Pope

Born at Gaeta, year unknown; elected 24 Jan., 1118; died at Cluny, 29 Jan., 1119. No sooner had ...

Gelasius of Cyzicus

Ecclesiastical writer. He was the son of a priest of Cyzicus, and wrote in Bithynia, about 475, ...

Gemblours

(Gembloux, Gemblacum) A suppressed Benedictine monastery about nine miles north-west of ...

Genealogy (in the Bible)

The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament : I Tim., i, 4, and Tit., iii, 9. ...

Genealogy of Christ

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...

General Chapter

( Latin capitulum , a chapter). The daily assembling of a community for purposes of ...

General Judgment

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Generation

( Latin Vulgate, generatio ). This word, of very varied meaning, corresponds to the two ...

Genesareth

( Gennesaret .) This is the name given to the Lake of Tiberias in Luke 5:1; called ...

Genesius

(1) Genesius (of Rome) A comedian at Rome, martyred under Diocletian in 286 or 303. Feast, 25 ...

Genevieve, Saint

Patroness of Paris, b. at Nanterre, c. 419 or 422; d. at Paris, 512. Her feast is kept on 3 ...

Genezareth, Land of

By this name is designated in Mark, vi, 53, a district of Palestine bordering on the Sea of ...

Genga, Girolamo

A painter, born at Urbino in 1476; died at the same place, 1551. This talented craftsman was ...

Gennadius I, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople (458-471), has left scarcely any writings. Facundus (Defensio, II, ...

Gennadius II

Patriarch of Constantinople (1454-1456). His original name was George Scholarius ( Georgios ...

Gennadius of Marseilles

(GENNADIUS SCHOLASTICUS). A priest whose chief title to fame is his continuation of St. ...

Gennings, Edmund and John

The first, a martyr for the Catholic Faith, and the second, the restorer of the English province ...

Genoa

ARCHDIOCESE OF GENOA (JANUENSIS) Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy. The city is situated ...

Gentile da Fabriano

Italian painter ; b. probably about 1378 in the District of the Marches; d. probably 1427. The ...

Gentiles

( Hebrew Gôyîm ; Greek ethne, ethnikoi , Hellenes ; Vulgate Gentes, Gentiles, ...

Gentili, Aloysius

Born 14 July, 1801, at Rome ; died 26 September, 1848, at Dublin. He was proficient in poetry, ...

Genuflexion

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

Geoffrey of Clairvaux

A disciple of Bernard, was b. between the years 1115 and 1120, at Auxerre; d. some time after ...

Geoffrey of Dunstable

Also known as GEOFFREY OF GORHAM. Abbot of St. Alban's, d. at St. Alban's, 26 Feb., 1146. He ...

Geoffrey of Monmouth

(GAUFRIDUS ARTURUS, GALFRIDUS MONEMETENSIS, GALFFRAI or GRUFFYD AB ARTHUR). Bishop of St. ...

Geoffrey of Vendôme

(GOFFRIDUS ABBAS VINDOCINENSIS.) A cardinal, b. in the second half of the eleventh century of ...

Geography and the Church

The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never ...

Geography, Biblical

With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater ...

George Hamartolus

A monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some ...

George of Trebizond

A Greek scholar of the early Italian Renaissance ; b. in Crete (a Venetian possession from ...

George Pisides

(Or THE PISIDIAN). A Byzantine poet lived in the first half of the seventh century. From his ...

George the Bearded

(Also called THE RICH.) Duke of Saxony, b. at Dresden, 27 August, 1471; d. in the same city, ...

George, Orders of Saint

Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...

George, Saint

Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, ...

Georgetown University

Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia , "is the oldest Catholic literary ...

Georgia

STATISTICS The area of Georgia is 59,475 sq. m., and it is the largest of the original thirteen ...

Georgius Syncellus

(Greek Georgios ho Sygkellos ). Died after 810; the author of one of the more important ...

Gerace

DIOCESE OF GERACE (HIERACENSIS). Diocese in the province of Reggio in Calabria (Southern Italy ...

Gerald, Saint

Bishop of Mayo, an English monk, date of birth unknown; died 13 March, 731; followed St. ...

Geraldton

DIOCESE OF GERALDTON (GERALDTONENSIS). Diocese in Australia, established in 1898, comprises ...

Gerard Majella, Saint

Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...

Gerard of Cremona

A twelfth-century student of Arabic science and translator from Arabic into Latin; born at ...

Gerard, Archbishop of York

Date of birth unknown; died at Southwell, 21 May, 1108. He was a nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of ...

Gerard, Bishop of Toul, Saint

Born at Cologne, 935; died at Toul, 23 April, 994. Belonging to a wealthy and noble family, he ...

Gerard, John

Jesuit ; born 4 October, 1564; died 27 July, 1637. He is well known through his autobiography, a ...

Gerard, Richard

Confessor ; born about 1635; died 11 March, 1680 (O.S.). The Bromley branch of the Gerard ...

Gerard, Ven. Miles

Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

Gerardus Odonis

Also Geraldus Othonis , or Ottonis , a medieval theologian and Minister General of the ...

Gerasa

A titular see in the province of Arabia and the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ...

Gerberon, Gabriel

A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation ; b. at St-Calais, Department of Sarthe, France, 12 ...

Gerbet, Olympe-Phillipe

A French bishop and writer; b. at Poligny (Jura), 1798; d. at Perpignan (Pyrénées ...

Gerbillon, Jean-François

French missionary; born at Verdun, 4 June, 1654; died at Peking, China, 27 March, 1707. He ...

Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Samoëns in Savoy, 20 June, 1718; d. at Rome, 12 August ...

Gerhard of Zütphen

(ZERBOLT OF ZUTPHEN) Born at Zütphen, 1367; died at Windesheim, 1398; a mystical writer ...

Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Provost of that place and Austin canon , one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany ...

Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

Bishop of Auxerre, born at Auxerre c. 380; died at Ravenna, 31 July, 448. He was the son of ...

Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris

Bishop of Paris ; born near Autun, Saône-et-Loire, c. 496; died at Paris, 28 May, 576. ...

Germaine Cousin, Saint

Born in 1579 of humble parents at Pibrac, a village about ten miles from Toulouse ; died in ...

German Gardiner, Blessed

Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1544; ...

German Literature

I. FROM OLDEST PRE-CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO 800 A.D. There are no written monuments before the eighth ...

Germanicia

A titular see in the province of Euphratensis and the patriarchate of Antioch; incorrectly ...

Germanicopolis

A titular see in the province of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. The city took its name from ...

Germans in the United States

Germans, either by birth or descent, form a very important element in the population of the ...

Germanus I, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople (715-30), b. at Constantinople towards the end of the reign of ...

Germany

I. BEFORE 1556 From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented ...

Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

(VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN MISSIONS) Its jurisdiction covers the Grand Duchies of ...

Germia

A titular see of Galatia Secunda, a suffragan of Pessinus ; mentioned by Hierocles in the ...

Gerona

DIOCESE OF GERONA (GERUNDENSIS) The Diocese of Geronia in Catalonia, Spain, suffragan of ...

Gerrha

A titular see in the province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium in the Patriarchate ...

Gerson, Jean de Charlier de

The surname being the name of his native place; b. in the hamlet of Gerson 14 December, 1363; d. ...

Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed

Abbess of the Premonstratensian convent of Aldenberg, near Wetzlar, in the Diocese of Trier ; ...

Gertrude of Hackeborn

Cistercian Abbess of Helfta, near Eisleben; born near Halberstadt in 1232; died towards the end ...

Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

Virgin, and Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles; born in 626; died 17 March, 659. ...

Gertrude the Great, Saint

Benedictine and mystic writer; born in Germany, 6 Jan., 1256; died at Helfta, near Eisleben, ...

Gertrude van der Oosten, Venerable

Beguine ; born at Voorburch, Holland ; died at Delft, 6 Jan., 1358. She was born of peasant ...

Gervaise, Dom François Armand

Discalced Carmelite, b. at Paris, 1660; d. at Reclus, France, 1761. After completing his ...

Gervase of Canterbury

(GERVAS US DOROBORNENSIS) English chronicler, b. about 1141; d. in, or soon after, 1210. If ...

Gervase of Tilbury

(TILBERIENSIS) Medieval writer, b. probably at Tilbury, in the County of Essex, England, ...

Gervase, George

(Jervise.) Priest and martyr, born at Boscham, Suffolk, England, 1571; died at Tyburn, 11 ...

Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

Gesellenvereine

German Catholic societies for the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young men. ...

Gesta Dei per Francos

Gesta Dei per Francos is the title adopted by Guibert de Nogent (died about 1124) for his history ...

Gesta Romanorum

A medieval collection of anecdotes, to which moral reflections are attached. It was compiled ...

Gethsemane

Gethsemani (Hebrew gat , press, and semen , oil) is the place in which Jesus Christ ...

Gethsemane, Abbey of Our Lady of

An abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, commonly called Trappists, established in ...

Gezireh

Gezireh (or Djezireh), seat of two Catholic residential sees, one Chaldean, the other Syrian. ...

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Gf 1

Gfrörer, August Friedrich

German historian; b. at Calw, Würtemberg, 5 March, 1803; d. at Karlsbad, 6 July, 1861. ...

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Gh 7

Ghardaia

Prefecture Apostolic in the French Sahara, separated in 1901 from the Vicariate Apostolic of ...

Ghent

DIOCESE OF GHENT (GANDENSIS or GANDAVENSIS). The Diocese of Ghent at present comprises the ...

Ghibellines and Guelphs

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione

Sculptor ; b. at Florence about 1381; d. there, December, 1455. He ushered in the early ...

Ghirlandajo

(D OMENICO DI T OMMASO B IGORDI ). A famous Florentine painter ; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., ...

Ghislain, Saint

Confessor and anchorite in Belgium ; b. in the first half of the seventh century; d. at ...

Ghost Dance

The principal ceremonial rite of a peculiar Indian religion with originated about 1887 with ...

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Giannone, Pietro

Italian historian, born 7 May, 1676, at Ischitella in the province of Capinata, Naples ; died ...

Gibail and Batrun

A Maronite residential see. Gibail is merely the modern name of Byblos a titular see of ...

Gibault, Pierre

Missionary, b. at Montreal, Canada, 1737; d. at New Madrid, about 1804; son of Pierre Gibault ...

Gibbons, John

Jesuit theologian and controversialist; b. 1544, at or near Wells, Somersetshire; died 16 Aug. or ...

Gibbons, Richard

Brother of Father John Gibbons, born at Winchester, 1550 or 1549; died at Douai, 23 June, 1632. ...

Giberti, Gian Matteo

Cardinal, and Bishop of Verona, the natural son of Francesco Giberti, a Genoese naval ...

Giberti, Jean-Pierre

Canonist; b. at Aix, Provence, in 1660; d. at Paris in 1736. He became a cleric at an early ...

Gibraltar

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar is a rugged promontory in the province of ...

Gideon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

Giffard, Bonaventure

Born at Wolverhampton, England, 1642; died at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 12 March, 1734; second son ...

Giffard, Godfrey

Bishop of Worcester, b. about 1235; d. 26 Jan., 1301. He was the son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton ...

Giffard, William

Second Norman Bishop of Winchester from 1100 to 1129. Little is known of his history anterior ...

Gifford, William

Archbishop of Reims ; b. in Hampshire, 1554; d. at Reims, 11 April, 1629. He was the son of ...

Gift of Miracles

The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

Gift, Supernatural

A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...

Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo

A renowned cardinal, general, and statesman; b. about 1310 at Cuenca in New Castile ; d. 23 ...

Gil of Santarem, Blessed

A Portuguese Dominican : b. at Vaozela, diocese of Viseu, about 1185; d. at Santarem, 14 May, ...

Gilbert de la Porrée

(Gilbertus Porretanus) Bishop of Poitiers, philosopher, theologian and general scholar; b. ...

Gilbert Foliot

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

Gilbert Islands

Vicariate apostolic ; comprises the group of that name, besides the islands of Ellice and ...

Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint

Founder of the Order of Gilbertines , b. at Sempringham, on the border of the Lincolnshire fens, ...

Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent

Poet, b. at Fontenoy-le-Château, 1751; d. at Paris, 12 November, 1780. His parents were ...

Gilbert, Sir John Thomas

Irish archivist and historian, b. in Dublin, 23 January, 1829; d. there, 23 May, 1898. He was ...

Gilbertines, Order of

Founded by St. Gilbert, about the year 1130, at Sempringham, Gilbert's native place, where he was ...

Gildas, Saint

Surnamed the Wise; b. about 516; d. at Houat, Brittany, 570. Sometimes he is called "Badonicus" ...

Giles, Saint

(Latin Ægidius.) An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage ...

Gillespie, Eliza Maria

(In religion Mother Mary of St. Angela). Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 21 ...

Gillespie, Neal Henry

Brother of Eliza Maria Gillespie ; b. in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 19 January 1831; d. at ...

Gillis, James

Scottish bishop ; b. at Montreal, Canada, 7 April, 1802; d. at Edinburgh, 24 February 1864. He ...

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield

A musician, born at Ballygar Galway, Ireland, 25 Dec., 1829; died at St. Louis, 24 Sept., 1892; ...

Gindarus

A titular see of Syria Prima, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Pliny (Hist. nat. V, 81) ...

Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie-Achille

A French bishop ; b. at Montpellier (department of Herault) 3 Dec., 1806; d. there 17 Nov., ...

Gioberti, Vincenzo

An Italian statesman and philosopher ; b. at Turin, 5 April, 1801; d. at Paris, 26 October, ...

Giocondo, Fra Giovanni

An Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, b. in Verona, c. 1445; ...

Giordani, Tommasso

A composer, b. at Naples in 1738; d. at Dublin, Ireland, February 1806. The family came to ...

Giordano, Luca

Neapolitan painter ; b. at Naples, 1632; d. in the same place, 12 Jan., 1705. He was esteemed ...

Giorgione

(GIORGIO BARBARELLI, ZORZO DA CASTELFRANCO) Italian painter, b. at Castelfranco in or before ...

Giotto di Bondone

A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in 1266 ...

Giovanelli, Ruggiero

Composer, b. at Velletri, near Rome, in 1560; d. at Rome, 7 January, 1625. In 1584 he was ...

Giovanni Dominici, Blessed

(BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...

Giraldi, Giovanni Battista

(Surnamed CINTIO) Italian dramatist and novelist; b. at Ferrara, Italy, 1504; d. there, ...

Giraldi, Ubaldo

(UBALDUS A SANCTO CAJETANO). An Italian canonist; b. in 1692; d. in 1775. He was a member of ...

Giraldus Cambrensis

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry) was a distinguished writer, historian, and ecclesiastic of ...

Girard, Jean-Baptiste

Known as Père Girard, a Swiss pedagogue, b. at Fribourg, 17 December, 1765; d. there, 6 ...

Girardon, François

A noted sculptor of the reign of Louis XIV, b. at Troyes, France, 1630; d. at Paris, 1715. The ...

Giraud de Borneil

A Provençal troubadour, b. about the middle of the twelfth century, at Excideuil in the ...

Girba

A titular see in the province of African Tripoli. It is an island, in ancient times called ...

Girgenti

DIOCESE OF GIRGENTI (AGRIGENTINA). Girgenti is the capital of a province in Sicily and is ...

Gisbert, Blaise

French rhetorician and critic; born at Cahors, 21 February, 1657; died at Montpellier, 21 ...

Giuliani, Veronica

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

Giulio Romano

Properly GIULIO DEI GIANNUZZI, also known as GIULIO PIPPI. A famous architect and painter, the ...

Giuseppe Giusti

A poet and patriot ; b. 1809, at Monsumano near Pescia, Italy ; d. 31 March, 1850, at ...

Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

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Gl 19

Glaber, Raoul

Benedictine chronicler; b. in Burgundy before 1000; d. at Cluny about 1050. In early boyhood he ...

Glabrio, Manius Acilius

Consul at Rome during A.D. 91, with Trajan. He belonged to one of the noblest families of ...

Glagolitic

(Or G LAGOLITSA ; Slavonic glagol, a word; glagolati, to speak). An ancient alphabet ...

Glaire, Jean-Baptiste

Priest, hebraist, and Biblical scholar; b. at Bordeaux, 1 April, 1798; d. at Issy, near Paris, ...

Glanville, Ranulf de

Chief Justiciar of England ; b. at Stratford, Suffolk, England, date unknown; d. before Acre, ...

Glarean, Henry

(LORITI) The most distinguished of Swiss humanists, poet, philosopher, geographer, ...

Glasgow

I. ARCHDIOCESE OF GLASGOW (GLASGUENSIS) Archdiocese in the south-west of Scotland, comprising at ...

Glastonbury Abbey

[G LESTINGABURH; called also Y NISWITRIN (Isle of Glass) and A VALON (Isle of Apples)] ...

Glebe

Glebe ( Latin gleba ) originally signified, in common law , any farm, estate, or parcel of ...

Glendalough, School of

Glendalough (the Valley of the Two Lakes) is a picturesque and lonely glen in the heart of the ...

Gloria in Excelsis Deo

The great doxology ( hymnus angelicus ) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form". ...

Gloria, Laus et Honor

A hymn composed by St. Theodulph of Orléans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of which the ...

Glory

This word has many shades of meaning which lexicographers are somewhat puzzled to differentiate ...

Glory Be

In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...

Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

(IN CANON LAW) A gloss (Gk. glossa , Lat. glossa , tongue, speech) is an interpretation ...

Glosses, Scriptural

I. ETYMOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL MEANINGS The modern English word gloss is derived directly from the ...

Glossolalia

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Gloves, Episcopal

Liturgical gloves ( chirothecœ , called also at an earlier date manicœ , wanti ...

Gluttony

(From Lat. gluttire , to swallow, to gulp down), the excessive indulgence in food and drink. ...

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Gn 2

Gnesen-Posen

Archdiocese in the Kingdom of Prussia. The archdiocese includes the Dioceses of Gnesen and ...

Gnosticism

The doctrine of salvation by knowledge. This definition, based on the etymology of the word ( ...

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Go 89

Goa

(GOANENSIS.) Patriarchate of the East Indies, the chief see of the Portuguese dominions in the ...

Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of

Goajira is the most northern portion of South America is a peninsula running into the Caribbean ...

Goar, Jacques

A Dominican and hellenist, b. at Paris, 1601, d. 23 September, 1653. He entered the convent of ...

Goar, Saint

An anchorite of Aquitaine; b. about 585; d. near Oberwesel (Germany), 6 July, 649. He came of a ...

Gobat, George

Moral theologian ; born at Charmoilles, in the Diocese of Basil, now in the Department of the ...

Gobban Saer

Regarded in traditional lore as the greatest Irish architect of the seventh century, and ...

Gobelinus, Person

(Persona.) Born in 1358; died 17 November, 1421. He was a Westphalian and was known as an ...

God

Etymology of the Word "God" Discusses the root-meaning of the name "God", which is derived from ...

God, Existence of

The topic will be treated as follows: I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. The Problem Stated1. ...

God, Nature and Attributes of

I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...

God, Relation of the Universe to

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

God, Three Persons of

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Godard, Saint

(Also spelled GOTHARD, GODEHARD). Bishop of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony ; born about the ...

Godden, Thomas

(True name Tylden.) Born at Addington, Kent, 1624; died in London, 1 Dec., 1688. His father, ...

Godeau, Antoine

Bishop, poet and exegete ; b. at Dreux in the diocese of Chartres, 1605; d. at Vence, 21 ...

Godeberta, Saint

Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France ; died about the ...

Godelina, Saint

(GODELINA.) Born at Hondeforte-lez-Boulogne, c. 1049; died at Ghistelles, 6 July, 1070. The ...

Godet des Marais, Paul

Bishop of Chartres, France ; b. at Talcy, near Blois, 1647; d. at Chartres, 1709. He studied ...

Godfrey Goodman

Born at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 28 February, 1582-3; died at Westminster, 19 January, 1656. He was ...

Godfrey of Bouillon

Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and ...

Godfrey of Fontaines

(GODEFRIDUS DE fontIBUS, DOCTOR VENERANDUS) A scholastic philosopher and theologian ; born ...

Godfrey of Viterbo

German writer of the twelfth century. Nothing is known as to the place or date of his birth, ...

Godinez

(GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...

Godric

The name of two Abbots of Croyland. Godric I (870-941) Godrick I was the successor of the Abbot ...

Goesport, John Wessel

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Goetz, Marie Josephine

Second superior-general of the Society of the Sacred Heart, daughter of Joseph Goetz of ...

Goffe, Stephen

(Or Gough) Oratorian; b. 1605; d. at Paris, Christmas Day, 1681. He was the son of Stephen ...

Goffine, Leonard

(Or G OFFINÉ ). Born at Cologne, or according to some, at Broich, 6 December, 1648; ...

Gog and Magog

Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 ...

Golden Bull

(Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...

Golden Calf

An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Exodus 32 where ...

Golden Rose

A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have ...

Goldoni, Carlo

Dramatist; b. at Venice, 25 Feb., 1707; d. at Paris, 6 Jan., 1793. Goldoni is especially ...

Goldwell, Thomas

Bishop of St. Asaph, the last survivor of the ancient hierarchy of England ; b. probably at ...

Golgotha

The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. NAME Etymology and Use The word Calvary ( ...

Gomes De Amorim, Francisco

Portuguese poet, dramatist, and novelist; b. at Avelomar, near Oporto, 13 August, 1827; d. 4 ...

Gondulphus

(GUNDULFUS). The name of three saints, of whom one was Bishop of Tongres (Maestricht), the ...

Gonet, Jean Baptiste

Theologian, b. about 1616 at Beziers, in the province of Languedoc; d. there 24 Jan., 1681. From ...

Gonnelieu, Jérôme de

Theologian, ascetical writer, and preacher; born at Soissons, 8 Sept., 1640; died at Paris, 28 ...

González de Santalla, Thyrsus

Theologian and thirteenth general of the Society of Jesus, b. at Arganda, Spain, 18 January, ...

González, Zeferino

Dominican, cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province and Diocese ...

Gonzaga, Ercole

(Hercules.) Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 23 November, 1505; d. 2 March, 1563. He was the Son of ...

Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius

Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...

Gonzaga, Scipione

Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593. He belonged to ...

Gonzalez, Saint Peter

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

Gonzalo de Berceo

Spanish poet, active between 1220 and 1242. Born in the closing years on twelfth century, he ...

Good

"Good" is one of those primary ideas which cannot be strictly defined. In order to fix its ...

Good Faith

A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively ...

Good Friday

Definition and etymology Good Friday, called Feria VI in Parasceve in the Roman Missal, he ...

Good Hope, Cape of (Eastern)

The Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope was established in 1847, when the Vicariate of the ...

Good Hope, Cape of (Western)

The Western vicariate and the Central prefecture, although different in name, are virtually one. ...

Good Samaritan, Sisters of the

A congregation of Tertiaries Regular of St. Benedict, established 2 February, 1857, at Sydney, ...

Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

Good, Highest, The

"We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the ...

Goodman, Ven. John

Priest and martyr ; born in the Diocese of Bangor, Wales, 1590; died 1642. He was educated at ...

Goossens, Pierre-Lambert

Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin (Belgium), b. at Perck, near Vilvorde, 18 July, 1827; d. at ...

Gordian

( Latin GORDIANUS.) There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. ...

Gordianus and Epimachus, Saints

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

Gordon Riots

This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, ...

Gordon, Andrew

A Benedictine monk, physicist ; b. 15 June, 1712, at Cofforach in Forfarshire, Scotland ; d. ...

Gordos

A titular see in the province of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. The city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

Gorgonius, Saint

Martyr, suffered in 304 at Nicomedia during the persecution of Diocletian. Gorgonius held a high ...

Gorkum, The Martyrs of

The year 1572, Luther and Calvin had already wrested from the Church a great part of Europe. ...

Gortyna

A titular see, and in the Greek Church metropolitan see, of the Island of Crete. The city, ...

Goscelin

(Or GOTSELIN, according to the spelling in the earliest manuscripts of his works.) A ...

Gospel and Gospels

The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds. It is very ...

Gospel in the Liturgy

I. HISTORY From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important ...

Gospel of Mark

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

Goss, Alexander

Second Bishop of Liverpool ; born at Ormskirk, Lancashire, 5 July, 1814; died. at St. Edward's ...

Gossaert, Jan

Called M ABUSE from Maubeuge in Hainaut. Flemish painter ; b. about 1472; d. at Middelburg ...

Gosselin, Jean-Edmé-Auguste

Ecclesiastical author; b. at Rouen, France, 28 Sept., 1787; d. at Paris, 27 Nov., 1858. He ...

Gother, John

(Or JOHN GOTER) Priest and controversialist; b. at Southampton, date unknown; d. at sea on a ...

Gothic Architecture

The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...

Gottfried von Strasburg

One of the greatest of Middle High German epic poets. Of his life we know absolutely nothing; ...

Gotti, Vincent Louis

Cardinal and theologian, b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 1742. He received ...

Gottschalk of Orbais

A medieval theologian ; b. about 800, d. after 866, probable 30 October, 868 (or 869), in the ...

Gottschalk, Saint

(GODESCALCUS). Martyr Prince of the Wends; d. at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast ...

Goulburn

(Gulburnensis). One of the six suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical province of Sydney, ...

Gounod, Charles-François

One of the most distinguished French musicians and composers of the nineteenth century, b. in ...

Goupil, René

Jesuit missionary; born 1607, in Anjou; martyred in New York State, 23 September, 1642. Health ...

Gousset, Thomas-Marie-Joseph

French cardinal and theologian ; b. at Montigny-les-Charlieu, a village of ...

Government Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

Gower, John

Poet; born between 1327-1330, probably in Kent; died October, 1408. He was of gentle blood and ...

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco José de

Painter and etcher, b. in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 31 March, 1746; d. in Bordeaux, 16 ...

Goyaz, Diocese of

(Goyasiensis). Co-extensive with the state of the same name, one of the twenty states which, with ...

Gozo, Diocese of

The diocese of Gozo (Goulos-Gaudisiensis), comprises the Island of Gozo in the Mediterranean ...

Gozzi, Carlo

Italian author, born at Venice, 1720; died 1806. He spent in military service three years that ...

Gozzoli

(BENOZZO DI LESE DI SANDRO, surnamed GOZZOLI). Painter ; b. at Florence, 1420; d. at Pisa ...

Gozzolini, Saint Sylvester

Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...

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Gr 107

Grässel, Lorenz

Coadjutor-elect of Baltimore ; born at Ruemannsfelden, Bavaria, 18 August, 1753; died at ...

Gröne, Valentin

A Catholic theologian, b. at Paderborn, 7 December, 1817; d. at Irmgarteichen, in the district ...

Grün, Anastasius

A pseudonym for Anton Alexander (Maria), Count von Auersperg, an Austrian poet; b. at Laibach in ...

Grace

Actual Grace Explains the concept of actual grace, which is defined in the article as "a ...

Grace at Meals

In Apostolic times St. Paul counsels the faithful: "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever ...

Grace, Actual

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...

Grace, Controversies on

These are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will. How can the ...

Grace, Supernatural

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...

Grace, William Russell

Philanthropist and merchant, born at Cork, Ireland, 10 May, 1832; died at New York, 21 March, ...

Gradual

( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step) Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the ...

Gradual Psalms

Fifteen psalms -- namely, Psalms 119-133 (in Hebrew 120-134) -- bear a Hebrew inscription which ...

Gradwell, Robert

Bishop; b. at Clifton-in-the-Fylde, Lancashire, 26 Jan., 1777; d. in London, 15 March, 1833; went ...

Graffiti

The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched ...

Graham, Patrick

First Archbishop of St. Andrews and Metropolitan of Scotland, date of birth uncertain; d. ...

Grail, The Holy

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

Gramont, Eugénie de

Religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart ; b. at Versailles, 17 September, 1788; d. at ...

Gran

( Hungarian ESZTERGOM; Latin STRIGONIUM, STRIGONIENSIS) Located in Hungary. From the ...

Granada

Archdiocese of Granada (Granatensis). Archdiocese in Spain, founded by St. Cecilius about ...

Granada, University of

The origin of this university is to be traced to the Arab school at Cordova, which, when the ...

Grancolas, Jean

Doctor of the Sorbonne, theologian, liturgist; b. near Chateaudun, about 1660; d. at Paris, 1 ...

Grand Rapids

(Grandormensis) Diocese created 12 May, 1882 out of the diocese of Detroit, and made to ...

Grande Chartreuse, La

The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an ...

Granderath, Theodor

Born 19 June, 1839, at Giesenkirchen, Rhine Province; died 19 March, 1902, at Valkenburg, ...

Grandidier, Philippe-André

Priest and historian, b. at Strasburg, Alsace, 9 Nov., 1752; d. at the Abbey of Luntzel ...

Grandmont, Abbey and Order of

Abbey and Order in the department of Hte-Vienne, France. The exact date of the foundation of the ...

Grant, Thomas

First Bishop of Southwark ; b. at Ligny-les-Aires, Arras, France, 25 Nov., 1816; d. at Rome, ...

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

Known in history as CARDINAL DE GRANVELLE (GRANVELLA). Born at Ornans in Franche-Comté, ...

Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Grasse, François-Joseph-Paul

Count and Marquess de Grasse-Tilly, lieutenant-general of the naval forces; b. near Toulon, 1723; ...

Grassis, Paris de

Master of ceremonies to Julius II and Leo X ; b. at Bologna, about 1470; d. at Rome, 10 June, ...

Gratian

Roman Emperor; son of Valentinian I; born at Sirmium, 359; died at Lyons, 383. Before he had ...

Gratian, Jerome

Spiritual director of St. Teresa and first Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites ; born at ...

Gratian, Johannes

(GRATIANUS). The little that is known concerning the author of the "Concordantia discordantium ...

Gratianopolis

A titular see in Caesarea Mauretania, Africa. This city does not figure in a list of the ...

Gratius, Ortwin

(VAN GRAES) Humanist ; b. 1475 at Holtwick, near Coesfeld, Westphalia ; d. at Cologne, 22 ...

Gratry, Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse

French priest and writer; b. at Lille, 30 March, 1805; d. at Montreux, Switzerland, 7 February, ...

Gratz, Peter Aloys

Schoolmaster and exegete, b. 17 Aug., 1769, at Mittelberg, Allgäu, Bavaria ; d. at ...

Gravier, Jacques

Jesuit missionary; born 1651 at Moulins, where he studied classics and philosophy under the ...

Gravina and Montepeloso

DIOCESE OF GRAVINA AND MONTEPELOSO (GRAVINENSIS ET MONTIS PELUSII). Gravina is a town in the ...

Gravina, Dominic

Theologian ; b. in Sicily, about 1573; d. in the Minerva, at Rome, 26 Aug., 1643. He entered the ...

Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo

Italian jurist and littérateur of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. at ...

Graz, University of

The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its ...

Great Falls

DIOCESE OF GREAT FALLS (GREATORMENSIS). Created by Pope Pius X, 18 May, 1904; comprises the ...

Greco, El

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Greece

Greece will be treated in this article under the following heads: I. The Land and the People; II. ...

Greek Catholics in America

The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States ...

Greek Church

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Explanation of Terms; II. The Greek ...

Greek Orthodox Church in America

The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are ...

Greek Rites

(1) Rite, Language, Religion These are three things that must always be distinguished. A rite is ...

Green Bay

(SINUS VIRIDIS) The Diocese of Green Bay — established 3 March, 1868, from the territory ...

Green, Hugh

Martyr ; born about 1584; martyred 19 August, 1642. His parents, who were Protestants, sent him ...

Green, Thomas Louis

Priest and controversialist; b. at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, 1799; d. at Newport, Shropshire, ...

Greenland

An island stretching from within the Arctic Circle south to about 59 degrees N. latitude, being ...

Gregorian Chant

The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of ...

Gregory Bæticus

Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...

Gregory I, Pope Saint

Doctor of the Church ; born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. Gregory is certainly one of ...

Gregory II, Pope Saint

(Reigned 715-731). Perhaps the greatest of the great popes who occupied the chair of Peter ...

Gregory III, Pope Saint

(Reigned 731-741.) Pope St. Gregory III was the son of a Syrian named John. The date of his ...

Gregory IV, Pope

Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a ...

Gregory IX

(UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Born about 1145, at Anagni in the Campagna; died 22 August, 1241, ...

Gregory of Heimburg

Humanist and Statesman, b. at Würzburg in the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at ...

Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint

Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. He ...

Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint

Known at THAUMATURGUS, ( ho Thaumatourgos , the miracle-worker). Born at Neocæsarea in ...

Gregory of Nyssa, Saint

Date of birth unknown; died after 385 or 386. He belongs to the group known as the "Cappadocian ...

Gregory of Rimini, Saint

An Augustinian theologian ; born at Rimini, Italy, in the second half of the thirteenth ...

Gregory of Tours, Saint

Born in 538 or 539 at Arverni, the modern Clermont-Ferrand; died at Tours, 17 Nov., in 593 or ...

Gregory of Utrecht, Saint

Abbot; b. about 707 or 708; d. 775 or 780. Gregory was born of a noble family at Trier. His ...

Gregory of Valencia

Professor of the University of Ingolstadt , b. at Medina, Spain, March, 1550 (1540, 1551?); d. ...

Gregory the Illuminator

Born 257?; died 337?, surnamed the Illuminator (Lusavorich). Gregory the Illuminator is the ...

Gregory V, Pope

Born c. 970; died 4 February, 999. On the death of John XV the Romans sent a deputation to Otto ...

Gregory VI

On the death of Sergius IV in June, 1012, "a certain Gregory", opposed the election of ...

Gregory VI, Pope

(JOHN GRATIAN). Date of birth unknown; elected 1 May 1045; abdicated at Sutri, 20 December, ...

Gregory VII, Pope Saint

(HILDEBRAND). One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men ...

Gregory VIII

Antipope. He was Mauritius Burdinus (Bordinho, Bourdin), who was placed upon the papal chair by ...

Gregory VIII, Pope

(ALBERTO DI MORRA). Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento ; elected ...

Gregory X

Born 1210; died 10 January, 1276. The death of Pope Clement IV (29 November, 1268) left the ...

Gregory XI

(PIERRE ROGER DE BEAUFORT). Born in 1331, at the castle of Maumont in the Dioceses of Limoges ...

Gregory XII

(ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism ; born at Venice, of a ...

Gregory XIII, Pope

(UGO BUONCOMPAGNI). Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied ...

Gregory XIV, Pope

(N ICCOLÒ S FONDRATI ). Born at Somma, near Milan, 11 Feb., 1535; died at Rome, 15 ...

Gregory XV, Pope

(ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. ...

Gregory XVI, Pope

(MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 ...

Greifswald, University of

The oldest university of Prussia, founded in 1456. Even before this, Greifswald had, for a short ...

Greith, Karl Johann

Bishop and church historian, b. at Rapperswyl, Switzerland, 25 May, 1897; d. at St. Gall, 17 ...

Gremiale

A square or oblong cloth which the bishop, according to the "Cæremoniale" and ...

Grenoble

DIOCESE OF GRENOBLE (GRATIANOPOLITANA) Now comprises the Department of Isère and the Canton ...

Gresemund, Dietrich

German humanist ; b. in 1477, at Speyer ; d. 1512, at Mainz. His father, also named Dietrich, ...

Greslon, Adrien

French missionary; b. at Perigueux, in 1618; entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 5 ...

Gresset, Jean Baptiste

Born 29 August, 1709; died 16 June, 1777, at Amiens. Having finished his studies at the college ...

Gretser, Jacob

A celebrated Jesuit writer; b. at Markdorf in the Diocese of Constance in 1562; d. at ...

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste

French painter, b. at Tournus in Ardeche, 21 August, 1725; d. at Paris, 21 March, 1805. His ...

Grey Nuns

The Order of Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal, commonly ...

Grey Nuns of the Cross

A community founded in 1745 at Monteal by Madame d'Youville, known as the Grey Sisters, or Grey ...

Griffin, Gerald

A novelist, dramatist, lyricist; b. 12 December, 1803, at Limerick, Ireland ; d. at Cork, 12 ...

Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph

Journalist, historian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 10 Nov., 1911. In early ...

Griffiths, Thomas

Born in London, 2 June, 1791; died 19 August, 1847; the first and only Vicar Apostolic of the ...

Grillparzer, Franz

An Austrian poet, b. at Vienna, 15 January, 1791, d. 21 January, 1872. After desultory ...

Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

Italian physicist, b. at Bologna, 2 April, 1618; d. in the same city, 28 Dec., 1663. He entered ...

Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco

An eclectic painter of the Bolognese school ; b. at Bologna, 1606; d. at Rome, 1680. He was a ...

Grimmelshausen, Johann Jacob Christoffel von

The greatest German novelist of the seventeenth century. What we know of his life is largely ...

Groote, Gerard

( Or Geert De Groote; Gerhardus Magnus.) Founder of the "Brethren of the Common Life" , b. ...

Gropper, John

An eminent jurist and theologian, b. 24 Feb., 1503, at Soest, Westphalia ; d. at Rome, 13 March, ...

Grosseteste, Robert

Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages ; b. about 1175; d. 9 ...

Grosseto

(Grossetana) Grosseto, suffragan diocese of Siena, has for its episcopal city the capital ...

Grosswardein

( Hungarian Nagy-Várad; Magno-Varadinensis) A diocese of the Latin Rite in ...

Grottaferrata, Abbey of

( Latin Crypta ferrata .) A Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site ...

Grueber, Johann

A German Jesuit missionary in China and noted explorer of the seventeenth century; b. at Linz, ...

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Gu 49

Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal

Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sablé-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 ...

Guérard, Robert

Born at Rouen, 1641; died at the monastery of Saint-Ouen, 2 January, 1715. For some time he ...

Guérin

(1) Eugénie de Guérin A French writer; b. at the château of La Cayla, in ...

Guérin, Anne-Thérèse

(In religion, Mother Theodore) Born at Etables (Côte du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 ...

Guadalajara

(Guadalaxara) Archdiocese in Mexico, separated from the Diocese of Michoacan by Paul III, 31 ...

Guadalupe, Shrine of

Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the ...

Guadeloupe

(Or Basse Terre; Guadalupensis; Imæ Telluris) Diocese in the West Indies, comprises the ...

Guadix, Diocese of

(GUADICENSIS) The Diocese of Guadix, in Spain, comprises the greater part of the Province of ...

Guaicuri Indians

(Pronounced Waikuri .) A group of small tribes, speaking dialectic forms of a common ...

Guamanga, Diocese of

( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...

Guaraní Indians

(Pronounced Waraní .) One of the most important tribal groups of South America, ...

Guarantees, Law of

(LA LEGGE DELLE GUARENTIGIE) A name given to the law passed by the senate and chamber of the ...

Guarda, Diocese of

(EGITANIENSIS.) Province of Beira, Portugal. Near the episcopal city are the ruins of Idanha, ...

Guardi, Francesco

Venetian painter ; born at Venice, 1712; died in the same city, 1793. He was a pupil of ...

Guardian Angels

( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...

Guardian Angels, Feast of

This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar. It was not ...

Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

Guardianship is "the condition or fact of being a guardian; the office or position of guardian" ...

Guarini, Battista

An Italian poet, b. at Ferrara, 1538, d. at Venice, 7 Oct., 1612. His father, Francesco ...

Guarino da Verona

A humanist, b. 1370, at Verona, Italy ; d. 1460, at Ferrara. He studied Latin in the school ...

Guastalla, Diocese of

(GUASTELLENSIS). In the province of Reggio Emilia (Central Italy ) on the left bank of the Po ...

Guastallines

Luigia Torelli, Countess of Guastalla (b. about 1500; d. 29 Oct., 1559 or 1569), widowed for ...

Guatemala, Santiago de

(Sancti Jacobi majoris de Guatemala) Archdiocese conterminous with the Republic of Guatemala, ...

Guayaquil

A RCHDIOCESE OF G UAYAQUIL (G UAYAQUILENSIS ). Guayaquil, the capital of the Ecuadorian ...

Gubbio

Diocese of Eugubinensis, in the province of Perugia in Umbria (Central Italy ). The city ...

Gudenus, Moritz

A German convert to the Catholic faith from the Protestant ministry; b. 11 April, 1596, at ...

Gudula, Saint

(Latin, Guodila ). Born in Brabant, Belgium, of Witger and Amalberga, in the seventh ...

Guelphs and Ghibellines

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

Guglielmini, Giovanni Battista

Scientist, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1763; d. in the same city, l5 December, 1817. He is known as ...

Guiana

(Or Guayana .) Guiana was the name given to all that region of South America which extends ...

Guibert of Ravenna

An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at ...

Guicciardini, Francesco

An historian and statesman; born at Florence, 1483; died there, 23 May, 1540. His parents, Piero ...

Guido of Arezzo

(Guido Aretinus). A monk of the Order of St. Benedict, b. (according to Dom Morin in the ...

Guigues du Chastel

(Guigo de Castro). Fifth prior of the Grande Chartreuse, legislator of the Carthusian Order ...

Guijon, André

Bishop and orator; born in November, 1548, at Autun ; died in September, 1631. He was the son ...

Guilds

Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These ...

Guiney, Patrick Robert

Second and eldest surviving son of James Roger Guiney and Judith Macrae; born at Parkstown, Co. ...

Guiscard, Robert

Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; born about 1016; ...

Guise, House of

The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the ...

Guitmund

A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius ; born at an ...

Gulf of St. Lawrence

Vicariate erected 12 September, 1905, and formed from the prefecture Apostolic of the same name ...

Gunpowder Plot, The

(Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605). Robert Catesby, the originator of the ...

Gunther, Blessed

A hermit in Bohemia in the eleventh century; b. about 955; d. at Hartmanitz, Bohemia, 9 ...

Gurk

(GURCENSIS) A prince-bishopric of Carinthia, suffragan to Salzburg, erected by Archbishop ...

Gury, Jean-Pierre

Moral theologian ; b. at Mailleroncourt, Haute-Saône, 23 January, 1801; d. at Merc ur, ...

Gusmão, Bartholomeu Lourenço de

Naturalist, and the first aeronaut; b. in 1685 at Santos in the province of São Paulo , ...

Gutenberg, Johann

(Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg). Inventor of printing; born about ...

Guthlac, Saint

Hermit; born about 673; died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life ...

Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte-

A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...

Guzmán, Fernando Pérez de

Señor de Batres; Spanish historian and poet (1376-1458). He belonged to a family ...

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