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Established Church of Scotland

The religious organization which has for three centuries and a half claimed the adherence of the majority of the inhabitants of Scotland, may be said to date from August 1560, in which month the Scottish Parliament, assembled in Edinburgh without any writ from the sovereign, decided that the Protestant Confession of Faith (drawn up on much the same lines as the Confession of Westminster ) should henceforth be the established, and only authorized, creed of the Scottish Kingdom. The same Parliament abolished papal jurisdiction, and forbade the celebration or hearing of Mass under penalty of death; but it made no provision for the appointment of the new clergy nor for their maintenance. At the first General Assembly, however, of the newly-constituted body, held in December, 1560, the First Book of Discipline was approved in which not only doctrinal questions and the conduct of worship were minutely legislated for, but detailed regulations were drawn up for the election and admission of ministers, and for their support on a generous scale from the confiscated revenues of the ancient Church. Scotland was divided ecclesiastically into ten districts, for each of which was appointed a superintendent to travel about, institute ministers, and generally set the Church in order. A scheme of popular and higher education was also sketched out, for which the early Scottish Reformers have been highly lauded; but it was never carried out, and the whole educational work of the founders of the Kirk consisted in purging the schools and universities of " idolatrous regents" (i.e. Catholic teachers), more than a century being allowed to elapse before there was any attempt at national education in Presbyterian Scotland.

The fact was that the greedy nobles who had fallen on and divided amongst themselves the possessions of the Catholic Church, absolutely refused to disgorge them, notwithstanding their professed zeal for the new doctrines. Only a sixth part of the ecclesiastical revenues was grudgingly doled out for the support of the ministers, and even that was paid with great irregularity. The grasping avarice of the nobles was also responsible for all delay and difficulties in settling the system of church government on Presbyterian principles, as desired by the Protestant leaders. The barons saw with dismay the life-interest of the old bishops and abbots (preserved to them by the legislation of 1560) gradually lapsing, and their possessions falling to the Church. In a convention held in 1572 the lords actually procured the restoration of the old hierarchical titles, the quasi-bishops thus created being merely catspaws to the nobles, who hoped through them to get possession of all the remaining ecclesiastical endowments. Although the General Assembly refused to recognize this sham episcopate, the fact of its existence kept alive the idea that Episcopacy might eventually be the established form of government in the Scottish, as in the English, Protestant Church ; and the question of Prelacy versus Presbytery remained a burning one for more than a century longer. During the long reign of James VI, whose vacillating character induced him first to cajole the Church with promises of spiritual independence and then to harass her by measures of the most despotic Erastianism, the religious condition of Scotland was in a state of continual ferment. The king succeeded in getting the bishops authorized to sit in Parliament in 1600; and when, three years later, he succeeded to the Crown of England, he openly proclaimed his favorite maxim, "No bishop, no king", declared Presbyterianism incompatible with the monarchy, suppressed the right of free assembly, and tried and punished the leaders of the Scottish Church for high treason. The discontent caused in Scotland by these high-handed measures came to a head after his death, when his son and successor, Charles I, visited Scotland in 1633, and professed himself pained by the baldness of public worship. His imposition, four years later, of the English liturgy on every congregation in Scotland, on pain of deprivation of the minister, was the signal for a general uprising, not less formidable because restrained. The Privy Council permitted (being powerless to prevent) the formation of a provisional government, whose first act was to procure the renewal of the National Covenant, first drawn up in 1580, engaging its subscribers to adhere to and defend the doctrine and discipline of the Scotch Protestant Church. The Covenant was signed by all classes of the people, and the General Assembly of 1638, in spite of the protest of the king's high commissioner, Lord Hamilton, abolished the episcopacy, annulled the royal ordinance as to the service-book, and claimed a sovereign right to carry out the convictions of the national church as to its position and duty.

These high pretensions of the General Assembly, of which King Charles was, through his commissioner, a constituent part, were bound to come in conflict with Charles' lofty idea of his royal prerogative. He absolutely refused to concede the right of his Scottish subjects to choose their own form of church government, and marched an army to the border to enforce submission to his authority. The Scotch, however, possessed themselves of Newcastle; the king was ultimately obliged to sign a treaty favourable to them and their claims; and his own downfall, followed by the dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell, a sworn opponent of Prelacy, brought the leaders of the Scottish Church into important relations with the new order of things in England. The Scottish Commissioners took a prominent part in the Westminster Assembly of 1643, convened to draw up the new standards of doctrine and church government for England under the Commonwealth; and it was then and there that was framed the "Shorter Catechism" which still remains the recognized religious text-book of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. The latter years of the Commonwealth were, in fact, an epoch of prosperity hitherto unknown for Scottish Presbyterianism ; but the restoration of Charles II, who was nowhere more warmly welcomed than in his northern dominions, was a rude blow to their Church's hopes of continued peace and spiritual independence.

Within a year of his assumption of the royal authority, Charles rescinded through his Parliaments all the acts approving the national covenant and abolishing the hierarchy ; and a few months later his Scottish subjects were bidden by proclamations to "compose themselves to a cheerful acquiescence" in the re-establishment of the "right government of bishops :, on pain of imprisonment. Four new prelates were consecrated by English bishops for Scotland, and all occupiers of benefices had to get presentation from the patrons and collation from the bishops, or else be ejected from their livings, as nearly four hundred actually were. From this time until Charles II's death in 1685, an era of persecution prevailed in Scotland, large numbers of the Presbyterians refusing to conform to the Episcopal Church, and being treated in consequence with every kind of indignity, hounded from their houses, tortured, and in many cases massacred. The worship of the Covenanters was prohibited under pain of death, but was nevertheless largely attended all over the country, and the armed risings of the people against their oppressors were forcibly put down, the Covenanting forces being hopelessly defeated in several engagements. At length, on the king's death, came a few years' breathing-time and peace; for his Catholic successor, James II, himself of course a dissenter from the established religion, immediately conceded toleration and liberty of worship all over the kingdom, although some of his more fanatical subjects refused to accept a boon which they regarded as coming from a polluted source.

The Revolution of 1688, and the flight of the Catholic king, opened the way to the abolition of the Prelatical government which was odious to the majority of Scotsmen; and one of the first acts of the Parliament assembled in the first year of the reign of William III (July, 1689) was to repeal all previous acts in favour of Episcopacy. The Presbyterian form of church government was not settled by this Parliament; but, in the following year, the Jacobite and Prelatical cause having been rendered hopeless by the death of its leader, Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, the king and queen and the three estates of the realm formally ratified the Westminster Confession, and re-established the Presbyterian form of government and discipline. Lord Melville, a zealous Presbyterian, had already replaced Hamilton as the king's commissioner to the General Assembly, and the Restoration Act of Parliament, asserting the supremacy of the Crown in ecclesiastical cause, had been repealed. Another act ordered all professors and masters in every university and school to subscribe the Confession, and the popular election of ministers took the place of private patronage to benefices. The secular power thus re-established the Church as a fully-organized Presbyterian body, just as it had re-established Episcopacy thirty years before; but the new settlement was made not by the arbitrary will of the sovereign, but (according to the principles of the Revolution ) as being that most in accordance with the will of the people, as indeed there is no reason to doubt that it was. A very considerable section, however, especially in the east and northeast of Scotland, and more particularly among the wealthy and aristocratic classes, remained attached to Episcopalian principles; and though those of the clergy who refused to conform to the Establishment were treated with considerable harshness, no attempt was made to compel the laity to attend Presbyterian worship, or submit to the rigid Presbyterian discipline.

The majority of the Episcopalians were also Jacobites at heart, praying, if not working, for the restoration of the Stuart dynasty, and were thus a disturbing element in the country not only from a religious, but from a political point of view. The four Scottish universities (Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, St. Andrews) were believed, and with reason, to be very unfavourably affected towards the new order of things in Church and State ; and the visitation of them conducting in the closing years of the seventeenth century resulted in the majority of the principals being ejected from office for refusing to comply with the test ordered by the statute of 1690. The effect of this state of things was that when the General Assembly met for the first time after nearly forty years, the universities were unrepresented save by a single member, while there were hardly any members belonging to the nobility or higher gentry, or representing the wide district of Scotland north of the Tay. The Assembly ordered all ministers and elders to subscribe the Westminster Confession, and appointed a solemn fast-day in expiation of the national sins, among which was expressly mentioned the introduction of Prelacy. But in view of the divided state of the country, it showed its prudence by not attempting to renew the general obligation of the National Covenant. The efforts of the Assembly, through its commissioners, to purge out the old incumbents throughout the kingdom, and replace them by orthodox ministers, proved quite ineffectual in Aberdeen and other strongholds of Episcopacy; but on the whole, the established religion, backed by the authority of the State and supported by the majority of the people, held its own, and increased in strength and numbers during the reigns of William II and his successor Queen Anne. The latter, while herself a strong adherent of the Episcopal Church of England, showed no inclination to favour the hopes and schemes of the Episcopalian minority in Scotland. A proposal in the Scottish Parliament of 1703 that the free exercise of religious worship should be conceded to all Protestant Nonconformists ( Catholics, of course, were carefully excluded) was met by a violent protest from the authorities of the Established Church, and was consequently dropped. The Episcopal body, however, continued its private worship, though not sanctioned by law, and provided for its continued organization by the consecration of two more bishops (the old hierarchy being almost extinct) in 1705, without, however, claiming for them any diocesan jurisdiction.

The Union of England and Scotland into one kingdom in 1707, a measure unpopular with the great body of the Scottish nation, was resisted by many Presbyterians, through fear of the effect on their Church of a closer connection with a kingdom where Prelacy was legally established. Parliament, however, enacted, as a fundamental and essential condition of the Treaty of Union, that the Confession of Faith and the Presbyterian form of church government were "to continue without any alteration to all succeeding generations"; the religious tests were to be continued in the case of all holding office in universities and schools, and every succeeding sovereign was to swear at his accession to preserve inviolate the existing settlement of religion, worship, government, and discipline in Scotland. It was a rude shock to those who believed the unchallenged supremacy of the Scottish Church to be thus permanently secured to find the British Parliament, a few years later, not only passing an act tolerating Episcopalian worship in Scotland, but restoring that right of private patronage to benefices which, revived at the Restoration, had been abolished, it was thought forever, at the Revolution. The importance of the latter measure, from the point of view of the history of the Established Church, can hardly be exaggerated; for it was the direct incentive to, and the immediate cause of, the beginning of the long series of schisms within the body, the result of which has been, in the words of a Presbyterian historian, the "breaking-up of the church into innumerable fragments". There were already included within the pale of the establishment two widely differing parties: the old orthodox Presbyterians or "evangelicals", who upheld the national covenant to the letter, and looked upon the toleration of Episcopacy as a national sin crying to heaven ; and the new and semi-prelatical party subsequently known as "moderates", who gradually became dominant in the government of the church, regarded their opponents as fanatics, declined to check, if they did not actually encourage, the Arminian or latitudinarian doctrines which were taking the place of the old Calvinistic tenets, and submitted without a murmur to the restoration of lay patronage, which struck at the very root of the essential principle of Presbyterian church government. The policy of the moderates prevailed; the revolt of the presbyteries was quelled, and the popular clamour to a great extent silenced. But at the same time thousands of people were alienated from the establishment, so that by the middle of the eighteenth century there were in every centre of population schismatic meeting-houses thronged with dissentient worshippers.

The long period of ascendancy of the Moderate party in the Church of Scotland, which lasted from the reign of Queen Anne well into the nineteenth century -- a period of nearly a hundred years -- was on the whole an uneventful one. Faithful to the Hanoverian settlement, and closely allied with the state, the establishment grew in power and dignity, and produced not a few scholars and philosophers of considerable eminence. Principal William Robertson, the historian of Scotland, of America and of Charles V, was one of the most distinguished products of this period; and he may be taken also as typical of the cultured Presbyterian divines of the eighteenth century, whose least conspicuous side was the theological or spiritual element which one might have expected to find in the religious leaders of the time. Spirituality, in truth, was not the strong point of the prominent Scottish churchmen of that epoch, whose doctrinal laxity has been acknowledged and deplored by their modern admirers and fellow-churchmen. Rationalism was rife in manse and pulpit throughout Scotland ; and the sermons of Hugh Blair, which were translated into almost every European language, and were praised as the most eloquent utterances of the age, are purely negative from any theological point of view, however admirable as rhetorical exercises. Whatever spiritual fervour or devotional warmth there was in the Presbyterianism of the eighteenth century is to be looked for not within the pale of the dominant church, but in the ranks of the seceders from the establishment -- the burghers and Anti-burghers, and other strangely-named dissentient bodies, who were at least possessed with an intense and very real evangelical zeal, and exercised a proportionate influence on those with whom they came in contact. That influence was exerted not only personally, and in their pulpits, but also in their devotional writings, which undoubtedly did more to keep the essential principles of Christianity alive in the hearts of their countrymen, in an unbelieving age, than anything effected by the frigid scholarship, philosophy, and rhetoric which were engendered by the established church of the country during the period under review.

It is singular that the state Church of Scotland, whose own religious spirit was at so generally low an ebb during the greater part of the eighteenth century, should nevertheless have during that period made more or less persistent efforts to uproot the last vestiges of the ancient Faith in the northern parts of the kingdom, many of which had remained absolutely unaffected by the Reformation. It was in 1725 that the yearly gift called the Royal Bounty, still bestowed annually by the Sovereign, was first forthcoming, with the express object of Protestantizing the still Catholic districts of the Highlands. Schools were set up, Gaelic teachers and catechists instituted, copies of the Protestant Bible, translated into Gaelic, widely disseminated, and every effort made to win over to the Presbyterian tenets the poor people who still clung to the immemorial faith and practices of their fathers. Want of means prevented as much being done in this direction as was desired and intended; and for that reason, as well as owing to the unexpected reluctance of the Catholic Highlanders to exchange their ancient beliefs for the new evangel of the Kirk, the efforts of the proselytizers were only very partially successful, the inhabitants of several of the western islands, and of many isolated glens and straths in the western portion of the Highland mainland still persisting in their firm attachment to the old religion.

Meanwhile the general revival of Evangelicalism, which was in part a reaction from the excesses and negations of the French Revolution, was beginning to stir the dry bones of Scottish Presbyterianism, which had almost lost any influence it had formerly exercised on the religious life of the people. The personal piety, ardent zeal, and rugged pulpit eloquence of men like Andrew Thomson and Thomas Chalmers awoke the Established Church from its apathy, and one of the first evidences of its new fervour was the official sanction given to foreign mission work, which had been condemned as "improper and absurd" by the General Assembly of 1796. The business of church extension at home was at the same time energetically undertaken; and though it was long hindered by the hopelessness of obtaining increased endowments from the Government -- the only means, curiously enough, by which the Church seemed for years to think the extension could be brought about -- private munificence came to the rescue, and within seven years more than two hundred churches were added to those already existing in Scotland. The first half of the nineteenth century, however, though a period of progress, was by no means a period of peace within the establishment. Side by side with the evangelical revival had sprung up again the old agitation about the essential evil of lay private patronage. Internally the church was torn by doctrinal controversies, resulting in the condemnation and expulsion of some ministers of distinction and repute, while in open opposition were the nonconforming bodies which had, at least temporarily, coalesced under the title of the United Seceders, preached uncompromising voluntaryism, and denounced all state connection with churches, and state endowments of religion, as intrinsically unscriptural and impious.

It was, however, the age-long grievance about patronage which proved the rock on which the Established Church was to split asunder and to be wellnigh shattered. The Veto Act, passed by the General Assembly in 1833, provided that the minister presented by the patron was not to be instituted unless approved by a majority of heads of families in the congregation; but the highest legal tribunals in Scotland absolutely refused to sanction this enactment, as did the House of Lords, to which the Assembly appealed. The claim of the Church to legislative independence was rudely brushed aside by the President of the Court of Session, in his famous declaration that "the temporal head of the Church is Parliament, from whose acts alone it exists as the national Church, and from which alone it derives all its powers". The result of this momentous conflict was what was known as the "Disruption" of 1843, when 451 out of 1203 ministers quitted the church, together with fully a third of its lay members, and initiated a new religious organization thenceforth known as the Free Church (see FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND).

The Established Church, shorn by the Disruption, of all the men who had been most prominent in promoting the evangelical revival, swept from its statute-book everything disallowed by the civil courts, became again "moderate" in its polity, and frankly Erastian in its absolute subservience to the civil power. With its national reputation seriously impaired, and abandoned by its labourers in the mission field, who all, with one solitary exception, joined the rival Church, its task was for many years a difficult and ungrateful one. It is to its credit as an organizing body that it promptly set to work, and with some measure of success, to repair the breaches of 1843, to recruit its missionary staff, to extend its borders at home, to fill up the many vacancies caused by the latest schism, and to erect and endow new parishes. In 1874, thirty-two years after the Disruption, the Assembly petitioned Parliament for the abolition of the system of patronage, so long the great bone of contention in the Church. The prayer was granted, and the right of electing their own ministers conferred on the congregations -- a democratic arrangement which, however gratifying to the electors, often places the candidate for their suffrages in a position both humiliating and undignified, and is not infrequently accompanied by incidents as ludicrous as they are disedifying. Nor has the new order of things apparently brought appreciably nearer the prospects of reunion between the Established and Free Churches, although the question of patronage, and not that of State recognition was the main point of cleavage between them. A union of a kind, though not a complete one, there has been of some of the religious bodies outside the pale of the Establishment ; but the State Church herself seems powerless to recall or reunite the numerous sects which have wandered from her fold, difficult or impossible as it seems to the outside observer to discover what essential points of difference there are between them in matters either of doctrine, discipline, or church government.

The Established Church of Scotland maintains that her system of government, by kirk-sessions, presbyteries, synods, and the General Assembly, is "agreeable to the Word of God and acceptable to the people"; but she does not claim for it exclusively the Divine sanction and authority. There is no doubt as to its general popularity in Scotland, to whose people the democratic element in Presbyterianism strongly appeals. In the lowest judicatory body, the kirk-session, the laymen or "elders" greatly preponderate, and they are as numerous as the ministers in presbyteries and synods ; while the members of the supreme body, the General Assembly, are chosen by popular election. The Sovereign is represented at the Assembly by his Lord High commissioner; but his presidency is merely formal, and the Assembly is opened and dissolved not by him in the first place, but by the elected head or "moderator", in the name of Christ, the "head of the Church ". It is needless however, to add that popular election and democratic government notwithstanding, the Scottish Established Church is, like its English sister, the creature of the State and absolutely subject to it; and nothing in its parliamentary creed can be changed except with the sanction of the authority to which it owes its existence. Viewed in the light of the history of the past three centuries, the passionate claim made by a section of Scottish Presbyterians to "spiritual independence" is as ludicrous as it is pathetic. Their Church enjoys exactly as much independence -- neither less nor more -- as may be conceded to it by the State which created and upholds it.

Present-day Statistics

The number of ecclesiastical parishes in Scotland (1911) is 1441; of chapels, 80; of mission stations, 170; total, 1691; and the increase of church sitting since 1880 is stated to be 196,000. The total endowments of the Church from all sources (i.e. the national exchequer, local funds, "teinds" or tithes, either in kind or commuted, and funds raised within the Church ) are reckoned at about X360,000 annually. The number of communicants, as returned to the General Assembly in May, 1910, was 711,200; and there were 2222 Sunday schools taught by about 21,000 teachers, with a roll of children amounting to nearly 301,000. It is claimed in the official returns of the Church that her membership has increased 52 per cent in 36 years, during which period the growth of the total population of Scotland has increased only 33 per cent. The Established church performed in 1908 45 per cent of Scottish marriages, as compared with 26 per cent (United Free) and 10 per cent (Catholic). Reckoning the population of Scotland in 1911 as about 4, 750,000, the proportion of communicants of the Establishment would be about 14 per cent of the whole. The church of Scotland has in recent years displayed much energy in the extension of her work both at home and abroad. Since 1878 the Home and foreign Missions have doubled their incomes; 460 new parishes have been erected, and 380 new churches built; missions have been established in Africa and China, and a Universities Foreign Mission started; and guilds and associations have been founded in connection with a great variety of religious objects. During the same period of thirty-six years a sum of between sixteen and seventeen millions sterling (exclusive of government grants, school fees, and interest on capital) has been voluntarily contributed for parochial, missionary, and charitable purposes in connection with the Established Church.

The four Scottish Universities all possess faculties of "divinity", with well-endowed professors lecturing on theological or quasi-theological subjects; and a degree at one of these universities, or at least a certificate of having attended courses of lectures therein, as a rule required for students aspiring to the Presbyterian ministry. Many "bursaries" or scholarships are available for students of divinity; and the course of studies prescribed for them is comprehensive and carefully arranged. It is impossible, however, to deny the fact, or to view it without apprehension, that the hold of dogmatic truth is becoming constantly weaker in the Established as in the Free Church, among teachers and learners alike. German rationalistic ideas have penetrated deeply into the divinity halls of the Kirk; and half an hour's conversation with a Scotch professor of Biblical criticism or systematic theology, or with the ablest of the younger generation of ministers who have sat at their feet, will be sufficient to show how wide has been the departure from the old orthodox standards of belief within the Church. The latest formula of subscription imposed on ministers at their ordination still professes a belief in the "fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith " contained in the Presbyterian Confession; but this does not apparently include any real acceptance either of the Divinity of Christ or of the inspiration of Holy Scripture , at least in the sense in which those doctrines are understood by Catholics. "In Presbyterian Scotland ", writes a modern critic, "there are many good Christians, but Presbyterian Scotland is emphatically not a Christian country, any more than Protestant England." That such a deliberate verdict should be possible in the twentieth century of the Christian era is melancholy indeed.

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Ea 11

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Eb 7

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Ec 27

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Ed 23

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King of England, son to Edgar the Peaceful, and uncle to St. Edward the Confessor ; b. about ...

Edwin, Saint

(Æduini.) The first Christian King of Northumbria, born about 585, son of Ælla, ...

Edwy

(Or Eadwig.) King of the English, eldest son of Edmund and St. Aelfgifu, born about 940; died ...

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Eg 15

Egan, Boetius

Archbishop of Tuam, born near Tuam, Ireland, 1734; died near Tuam, 1798. He belonged to a ...

Egan, Michael

First bishop of Philadelphia, U.S.A. b. in Ireland, most probably in Galway, in 1761; d. at ...

Egbert

(ECGBERHT or ECGBRYHT) Frequently though incorrectly called "First King of England ", died ...

Egbert, Archbishop of Trier

Died 8 or 9 December, 993. He belonged to the family of the Counts of Holland. His parents, ...

Egbert, Archbishop of York

Archbishop of York, England, son of Eata, brother of the Northumbrian King Eadbert and cousin ...

Egbert, Saint

A Northumbrian monk, born of noble parentage c. 639; d. 729. In his youth he went for the sake ...

Egfrid

(Also known as ECFRID, ECHGFRID, EGFERD). King of Northumbria, b. 650; d. 685. He ascended the ...

Eginhard

(Less correctly EGINHARD), historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the ...

Egloffstein, Frederick W. von

Born at Aldorf, near Nuremberg, Bavaria, 18 May, 1824; died in New York, 1885. He served in the ...

Egmont, Lamoral, Count of

Born at the Château de La Hamaide, in Hainault, 18 Nov., 1522; beheaded at Brussels, 5 ...

Egoism

( Latin ego, I, self), the designation given to those ethical systems which hold self-love to ...

Eguiara y Eguren, Juan José

Born in Mexico towards the close of the seventeenth century; died 29 January, 1763. He received ...

Egwin, Saint

Third Bishop of Worcester ; date of birth unknown; d. (according to Mabillon ) 20 December, ...

Egypt

This subject will be treated under the following main divisions: I. General Description; II. ...

Egyptian Church Ordinance

The Egyptian Church Ordinance is an early Christian collection of thirty-one canons regulating ...

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Ei 8

Eichendorff, Josef Karl Benedikt

JOSEF KARL BENEDIKT, FREIHERR VON EICHENDORFF. "The last champion of romanticism", b. 10 March, ...

Eichstätt

DIOCESE OF EICHSTÄTT (EYSTADIUM) [EYSTETTENSIS or AYSTETTENSIS] The Diocese of ...

Eimhin, Saint

Abbot and Bishop of Ros-mic-Truin ( Ireland ), probably in the sixth century. He came of the ...

Einhard

(Less correctly EGINHARD), historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the ...

Einsiedeln, Abbey of

A Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of the ...

Eisengrein, Martin

A learned Catholic theologian and polemical writer, born of Protestant parents at Stuttgart, 28 ...

Eithene, Saint

Styled "daughter of Baite", with her sister Sodelbia; commemorated in the Irish calendars under ...

Eithne, Saint

St. Eithne, styled "of the golden hair", is commemorated in the Irish martyrologies under the 11th ...

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Ek 2

Ekkehard

Name of five monks of the (Swiss) Abbey of St. Gall from the tenth to the thirteenth century. ...

Ekkehard of Aura

(URAUGIENSIS) Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1050; d. after 1125. Very little is ...

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El 46

El Cid

(Rodrigo, or Ruy, Diaz, Count of Bivar). The great popular hero of the chivalrous age of ...

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Elaea

A titular see of Asia Minor. Elaea, said to have been founded by Menestheus, was situated at a ...

Elba

Elba, the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, is today a part of the Italian province of ...

Elbel, Benjamin

A first-class authority in moral theology , b. at Friedberg, Bavaria, in 1690; d. at ...

Elcesaites

(Or H ELKESAITES ). A sect of Gnostic Ebionites, whose religion was a wild medley of ...

Elder, George

Educator, b. 11 August, 1793, in Kentucky, U.S.A.; d. 28 Sept., 1838, at Bardstown. His parents, ...

Elder, William Henry

Third Bishop of Natchez, Mississippi, U.S.A. and second Archbishop of Cincinnati, b. in ...

Eleazar

( Hebrew al‘wr , God's help). 1. Eleazar, son of Aaron Elizabeth, daughter of Aminadab ...

Elect

Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological ...

Election

( Latin electio , from eligere , to choose from) This subject will be treated under the ...

Election, Papal

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Eleutherius, Pope Saint

Pope (c. 174-189). The Liber Pontificalis says that he was a native of Nicopolis, Greece. From ...

Eleutherius, Saint

( French ELEUTHERE). Bishop of Tournai at the beginning of the sixth century. Historically ...

Eleutheropolis

A titular see in Palaestina Prima. The former name of this city seems to have been Beth Gabra, ...

Elevation, The

What we now know as par excellence the Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively ...

Elhuyar y de Suvisa, Fausto de

A distinguished mineralogist and chemist, born at Logroño, Castile, 11 October, 1755; ...

Eli

Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

Elias

Elias (Hebrew 'Eliahu , "Yahveh is God "; also called Elijah). The loftiest and most ...

Elias of Cortona

Minister General of the Friars Minor , b., it is said, at Bevilia near Assisi, c. 1180; d. at ...

Elias of Jerusalem

Died 518; one of the two Catholic bishops (with Flavian of Antioch) who resisted the attempt of ...

Elie de Beaumont, Jean-Baptiste-Armand-Louis-Léonce

Geologist, b. at Canon (Dép. Calvados), near Caen, France, 25 Sept., 1798; d. at Canon, 21 ...

Eligius, Saint

( French Eloi). Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, born at Chaptelat near Limoges, France, c. 590, of ...

Elijah

Elias (Hebrew 'Eliahu , "Yahveh is God "; also called Elijah). The loftiest and most ...

Elined, Saint

Virgin and martyr, flourished c. 490. According to Bishop Challoner (Britannia Saneta, London, ...

Eliseus

(E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...

Elishé

A famous Armenian historian of the fifth century, place and date of birth unknown, d. 480. ...

Elisha

(E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...

Eliud, Saint

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

Elizabeth

(" God is an oath " -- Exodus 6:23 ). Zachary's wife and John the Baptist's mother; was ...

Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint

Foundress and first superior of the Sisters of Charity in the United States ; born in New York ...

Elizabeth Associations

( Elisabethenvereine .) Charitable associations of women in Germany which aim for the ...

Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint

Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, born in Hungary, probably at Pressburg, 1207; died at ...

Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint

Queen (sometimes known as the PEACEMAKER); born in 1271; died in 1336. She was named after her ...

Elizabeth of Reute, Saint

Member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born 25 November, 1386, at Waldsee in Swabia, of John ...

Elizabeth of Schönau, Saint

Born about 1129; d. 18 June, 1165.-Feast 18 June. She was born of an obscure family, entered the ...

Elizabeth, Sisters of Saint

Generally styled "Grey Nuns ". They sprang from an association of young ladies established by ...

Ellis, Philip Michael

First Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, subsequently Bishop of Segni, ...

Ellwangen Abbey

The earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Wurtemberg, situated in the ...

Elohim

See also GOD. ( Septuagint, theos ; Vulgate, Deus ). Elohim is the common name for ...

Elphege, Saint

(Or ALPHEGE). Born 954; died 1012; also called Godwine, martyred Archbishop of Canterbury, ...

Elphin

D IOCESE OF E LPHIN (E LPHINIUM ) Suffragan of Tuam, Ireland, a see founded by St. ...

Elusa

A titular see of Palaestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. This city is called Chellous in the ...

Elvira, Council of

Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far ...

Ely

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF ELY (ELIENSIS; ELIA OR ELYS). Ancient diocese in England. The earliest ...

Elzéar of Sabran

Baron of Ansouis, Count of Ariano, born in the castle of Saint-Jean de Robians, in Provence, ...

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Emanationism

The doctrine that emanation (Latin emanare , "to flow from") is the mode by which all things ...

Emancipation, Ecclesiastical

In ancient Rome emancipation was a process of law by which a slave released from the ...

Ember Days

Ember days (corruption from Lat. Quatuor Tempora , four times) are the days at the beginning of ...

Embolism

(Greek: embolismos , from the verb, emballein , "to throw in") Embolism is an insertion, ...

Embroidery

ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY That in Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ...

Emerentiana, Saint

Virgin and martyr, d. at Rome in the third century. The old Itineraries to the graves of the ...

Emery, Jacques-André

Superior of the Society of St-Sulpice during the French Revolution , b. 26 Aug., 1732, at Gex; ...

Emesa

A titular see of Phœnicia Secunda, suffragan of Damascus, and the seat of two Uniat ...

Emigrant Aid Societies

Records of the early immigration to the North American colonies are indefinite and ...

Emiliana and Trasilla, Saints

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

Emiliani, Saint Jerome

Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...

Emmanuel

Emmanual ( Septuagint Emmanouel ; A.V., Immanuel ) signifies " God with us" ( Matthew 1:23 ), ...

Emmaus

A titular see in Pa1æstina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is mentioned for the ...

Emmeram, Saint

Bishop of Poitiers and missionary to Bavaria, b. at Poitiers in the first half of the seventh ...

Emmeram, Saint, Abbey of

A Benedictine monastery at Ratisbon (Regensburg), named after its traditional founder, the ...

Emmerich, Anne Catherine

An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near ...

Empiricism

(Lat. empirismus, the standpoint of a system based on experience). Primarily, and in its ...

Ems, Congress of

The Congress of Ems was a meeting of the representatives of the German Archbishops Friedrich ...

Emser, Hieronymus

The most ardent literary opponent of Luther, born of a prominent family at Ulm, 20 March, 1477; ...

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En 34

Encina, Juan de la

(JUAN DE LA ENZINA). Spanish dramatic poet, called by Ticknor the father of the Spanish ...

Enciso, Diego Ximenez de

Dramatic poet, b. in Andalusia, Spain, c. 1585; date of death unknown. All trace of him is lost ...

Enciso, Martín Fernández de

Navigator and geographer, b. at Seville, Spain, c. 1470; d. probably about 1528 at Seville. It ...

Encolpion

(Greek egkolpion , that which is worn on the breast). The name given in early Christian ...

Encratites

[ ’Egkrateîs (Irenæus) ’Egkratetai (Clement of Alexandria, ...

Encyclical

( Latin Litterœ Encyclicœ ) According to its etymology, an encyclical (from the ...

Encyclopedia

An abridgment of human knowledge in general or a considerable department thereof, treated from a ...

Encyclopedists

(1) The writers of the eighteenth century who edited or contributed articles to the ...

Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus

Austrian botanist (botanical abbreviation, Endl. ), linguist, and historian, b. at Pressburg, ...

Endowment

( German Stiftung , French fondation , Italian fondazione , Latin fundatio ) An ...

Energy, The Law of Conservation of

Amongst the gravest objections raised by the progress of modern science against Theism, the ...

Engaddi

( Septuagint usually ’Eggadí ; Hebrew ‘En Gédhi, "Fountain of the ...

Engel, Ludwig

Canonist, b. at Castle Wagrein, Austria ; d. at Grillenberg, 22 April 1694. He became a ...

Engelberg, Abbey of

A Benedictine monastery in Switzerland, formerly in the Diocese of Constance, but now in that ...

Engelbert

Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Admont in Styria, b. of noble parents at Volkersdorf ...

Engelbert of Cologne, Saint

Archbishop of that city (1216-1225); b. at Berg, about 1185; d. near Schwelm, 7 November, 1225. ...

Engelbrechtsen, Cornelis

(Also called ENGELBERTS and ENGELBRECHT, and now more usually spelt ENGELBRECHTSZ). Dutch ...

England (1066-1558)

This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the ...

England (After 1558)

The Protestant Reformation is the great dividing line in the history of England, as of Europe ...

England (Before 1066)

I. ANGLO-SAXON OCCUPATION OF BRITAIN The word Anglo-Saxon is used as a collective name for ...

England, John

First Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; b. 23 September, 1786, in Cork, Ireland ...

Englefield, Sir Henry Charles, Bart.

Antiquary and scientist, b. 1752; d. 21 March, 1822. He was the eldest son of Sir Henry ...

English College, The, in Rome

I. FOUNDATION Some historians (e.g., Dodd, II, 168, following Polydore Vergil, Harpsfield, ...

English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729)

Though the resistance of the English as a people to the Reformation compares very badly with the ...

English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the

On 29 September, 1850, by the Bull "Universalis Ecclesiae", Pius IX restored the Catholic ...

English Literature

It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

English Revolution of 1688

James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...

Ennodius, Magnus Felix

Rhetorician and bishop, b. probably at Arles, in Southern Gaul, in 474; d. at Pavia, Italy, 17 ...

Enoch

(Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

Enoch, Book of

The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

Ensingen, Ulrich

(ULRICH ENSINGER) Belonged to a family of architects who came from Einsingen near Ulm, ...

Entablature

A superstructure which lies horizontally upon the columns in classic architecture. It is divided ...

Enthronization

(From Greek ’enthronízein , to place on a throne). This word has been employed ...

Envy

Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...

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Eo 1

Eoghan, Saints

(1) EOGHAN OF ARDSTRAW was a native of Leinster, and, after presiding over the Abbey of ...

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Ep 26

Epée, Charles-Michel de l'

A philanthropic priest and inventor of the sign alphabet for the instruction of the deaf and ...

Epact

(Greek épaktai hemérai; Latin dies adjecti ). The surplus days of the ...

Eparchy

( eparchia ). Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire. Diocletian ...

Eperies

DIOCESE OF EPERIES (EPERIENSIS RUTHENORUM). Diocese of the Greek Ruthenian Rite, suffragan to ...

Ephesians, Epistle to the

This article will be treated under the following heads: I. Analysis of the Epistle; II. ...

Ephesus

A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century ...

Ephesus, Council of

The third ecumenical council, held in 431. THE OCCASION AND PREPARATION FOR THE COUNCIL The ...

Ephesus, Robber Council of

(L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of

The story is one of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after ...

Ephod

( Hebrew aphwd or aphd ; Greek ’ís, ’ephód, ...

Ephraem, Saint

(EPHREM, EPHRAIM). Born at Nisibis, then under Roman rule, early in the fourth century; died ...

Ephraemi Rescriptus, Codex

(Symbol C). The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, ...

Ephraim of Antioch

( Ephraimios ). One of the defenders of the Faith of Chalcedon (451) against the ...

Epicureanism

This term has two distinct, though cognate, meanings. In its popular sense, the word stands for a ...

Epiklesis

Epiklesis ( Latin invocatio ) is the name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies ...

Epimachus and Gordianus, Saints

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

Epiphania

A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, in Asia Minor, suffragan of Anazarbus. This city is ...

Epiphanius

Surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, or in modern terms, THE PHILOLOGIST, a translator of various Greek works in ...

Epiphanius of Constantinople

Died 535. Epiphanius succeeded John II (518-20) as Patriarch of Constantinople. It was the time ...

Epiphanius of Salamis

Born at Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, after 310; died in 403. While very young he ...

Epiphany

Known also under the following names: (1) ta epiphania , or he epiphanios , sc. hemera ...

Episcopal Subsidies

( Latin subsidia , tribute, pecuniary aid, subvention) Since the faithful are obliged to ...

Episcopalians

The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

Epistemology

( Epistéme , knowledge, science, and lógos , speech, thought, discourse). ...

Epistle (in Scripture)

Lat. epistola ; Greek ’epistolé ; in Hebrew, at first only the general term ...

Epping, Joseph

German astronomer and Assyriologist, b. at Neuenkirchen near Rhine in Westphalia, 1 Dec., 1835; ...

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Er 24

Erasmus, Desiderius

The most brilliant and most important leader of German humanism, b. at Rotterdam, Holland, 28 ...

Erastus and Erastianism

The name "Erastianism" is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience ...

Erbermann, Veit

(Or Ebermann). Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in ...

Ercilla y Zúñiga, Alonso de

Spanish soldier and poet, born in Madrid, 7 August, 1533; died in the same city, 29 November, ...

Erconwald, Saint

Bishop of London, died about 690. He belonged to the princely family of the East Anglian Offa, ...

Erdeswicke, Sampson

Antiquarian, date of birth unknown; died 1603. He was born at Sandon in Staffordshire, his ...

Erdington Abbey

Erdington Abbey, situated in a suburb of Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, belongs to the ...

Erhard of Ratisbon, Saint

Bishop of that city in the seventh century, probably identical with an Abbot Erhard of ...

Erie

DIOCESE OF ERIE (ERIENSIS). Established 1853; it embraces the thirteen counties of ...

Erin, The Twelve Apostles of

By this designation are meant twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the ...

Eriugena, John Scotus

An Irish teacher, theologian, philosopher, and poet, who lived in the ninth century. NAME ...

Ermland

Ermland, or Ermeland (Varmiensis, Warmia), a district of East Prussia and an exempt bishopric. ...

Ernakulam, Vicariate Apostolic of

In May, 1887, the churches of Syrian Rite in Malabar were separated from those of the Latin ...

Ernan, Saints

Name of four Irish saints. O'Hanlon enumerates twenty-five saints bearing the name Ernan, ...

Ernst of Hesse-Rheinfels

Landgrave, b. 9 Dec., 1623, at Cassel; d. 12 May, 1693, at Cologne. He was the sixth son of ...

Ernulf

Architect, b. at Beauvais, France, in 1040; d. 1124. He studied under Lanfranc at the monastery ...

Errington, William

Priest, founder of Sedgley Park School, b. 17 July, 1716; d. 28 September, 1768. He was son of ...

Error

Error, reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides ...

Erskine, Charles

Cardinal, b. at Rome, 13 Feb., 1739; d. at Paris, 20 March, 1811. He was the son of Colin ...

Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

Prince- Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg, b. at Lohr on the Main, 16 September, 1730; d. at ...

Erthal, Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr von

Last Elector and Archbishop of Mainz, b. 3 Jan., 1719, at Mainz ; d. 25 July, 1802, at ...

Erwin of Steinbach

One of the architects of the Strasburg cathedral, date of birth unknown; d. at Strasburg, 17 ...

Erythrae

A titular see in Asia Minor. According to legend the city was founded by colonists from Crete. ...

Erzerum (Theodosiopolis)

DIOCESE OF ERZERUM (ERZERUMIENSIS ARMENIORUM). The native name, Garin (Gr. Karenitis ; ...

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Es 11

Esau

( ‘sw , hairy). The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob. The ...

Esch, Nicolaus van

(ESCHIUS) A famous mystical theologian, b. in Oisterwijk near Hertogenbosch (Boisle-Duc), ...

Eschatology

That branch of systematic theology which deals with the doctrines of the last things ( ta ...

Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio

Born at Valladolid in 1589; died there, 4 July, 1669. In his sixteenth year he entered the ...

Escobar, Marina de

Mystic and foundress of a modified branch of the Brigittine Order b. at Valladolid, Spain, 8 ...

Escorial, The

A remarkable building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about ...

Esdras

(Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...

Esglis, Louis-Philippe Mariauchau d'

Eighth Bishop of Quebec, Canada ; born Quebec, 24 April, 1710; died 7 June, 1788. After ...

Eskil

Archbishop of Lund, Skåne, Sweden ; b. about 1100; d. at Clairvaux, 6 (7?) Sept., 1181; ...

Eskimo

A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook ...

Esnambuc, Pierre Belain, Sieur d'

Captain in the French marine, b. 1565, at Allouville, near Yvetot (Seine-Inferieure); d. at St. ...

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ES 1

ESP

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

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Es 14

Espejo, Antonio

A Spanish explorer, whose fame rests upon a notable expedition which he conducted into New ...

Espen, Zeger Bernhard van

(also called ESPENIUS) A Belgian canonist, born at Louvain, 9 July, 1646; died at ...

Espence, Claude D'

(ESPENCÆUS) A French theologian, born in 1511 at Châlons-sur-Marne; died 5 Oct., ...

Espinel, Vincent

Poet and novelist; born at Ronda (Malaga), Spain, 1544; died at Madrid, 1634. He studied at ...

Espinosa, Alonso De

Spanish priest and historian of the sixteenth century. Little is known of his early life. He is ...

Espousals

An Espousal is a contract of future marriage between a man and a woman, who are thereby ...

Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary

(DESPONSATIO BEATÆ MARIÆ VIRGINIS) A feast of the Latin Church. It is certain ...

Essence and Existence

( Latin essentia, existentia ) Since they are transcendentals, it is not possible to put ...

Essenes

One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century ...

Est, Willem Hessels van

(ESTIUS.) A famous commentator on the Pauline epistles, born at Gorcum, Holland, in 1542; ...

Establishment, The

(Or ESTABLISHED CHURCH) The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive ...

Estaing, Comte d'

JEAN-BAPTISTE-CHARLES-HENRI-HECTOR, COMTE D'ESTAING (MARQUIS DE SAILLANS). A French admiral, ...

Esther

(From the Hebrew meaning star, happiness ); Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is ...

Estiennot de la Serre, Claude

Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, b. at Varennes, France, 1639; d. at Rome, 1699. ...

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Et 11

Eternity

( aeternum , originally aeviternum, aionion, aeon -- long). Eternity is defined by ...

Ethelbert

Archbishop of York, England, date of birth uncertain; d. 8 Nov., 781 or 782. The name also ...

Ethelbert, Saint

Date of birth unknown; d. 794; King of the East Angles, was, according to the "Speculum ...

Ethelbert, Saint

King of Kent; b. 552; d. 24 February, 616; son of Eormenric, through whom he was descended from ...

Etheldreda, Saint

Queen of Northumbria; born (probably) about 630; died at Ely, 23 June, 679. While still very young ...

Ethelwold, Saint

St. Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, was born there of good parentage in the early years of the ...

Etherianus, Hugh and Leo

Brothers, Tuscans by birth, employed at the court of Constantinople under the Emperor Manuel I ...

Ethethard

(ÆTHELHEARD, ETHELREARD) The fourteenth Archbishop of Canterbury, England, date of ...

Ethics

I. Definition Many writers regard ethics (Gr. ethike ) as any scientific treatment of the ...

Ethiopia

The name of this region has been derived, through the Greek form, aithiopia , from the two ...

Etschmiadzin

A famous Armenian monastery, since 1441 the ecclesiastical capital of the schismatic Armenians, ...

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Eu 66

Euaria

A titular see of Phoenicia Secunda or Libanensis, in Palestine. The true name of this city ...

Eucarpia

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris in Asia Minor. Eucarpia ( Eukarpia ), mentioned by Strabo ...

Eucharist, as a Sacrament

Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the ...

Eucharist, as a Sacrifice

The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...

Eucharist, Early Symbols of the

Among the symbols employed by the Christians of the first ages in decorating their tombs, those ...

Eucharist, Introduction to the

See also EUCHARIST AS SACRIFICE , EUCHARIST AS SACRAMENT , and REAL PRESENCE . (Greek ...

Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Eucharistic Congresses

Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of ecclesiastics and laymen for the purpose of ...

Eucharistic Prayer

This article will be divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of ...

Eucharius, Saint

First Bishop of Trier (Treves) in the second half of the third century. According to an ...

Eucherius, Saint

Bishop of Lyons, theologian, born in the latter half of the fourth century; died about 449. On ...

Euchologion

The name of one of the chief Service-books of the Byzantine Church ; it corresponds more or less ...

Eudes, Blessed Jean

French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...

Eudists

(Society of Jesus and Mary) An ecclesiastical society instituted at Caen, France, 25 March, ...

Eudocia

(E UDOKIA ). Ælia Eudocia, sometimes wrongly called Eudoxia, was the wife of ...

Eudoxias

A titular see of Galatia Secunda in Asia Minor, suffragan of Pessinus. Eudoxias is mentioned ...

Eugendus, Saint

(AUGENDUS; French OYAND, OYAN) Fourth Abbot of Condat (Jura), b. about 449, at Izernore, ...

Eugene I, Saint, Pope

Eugene I was elected 10 Aug., 654, and died at Rome, 2 June, 657. Because he would not submit to ...

Eugene II, Pope

Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827. On the death of Pascal I (Feb.-May, 824) there took place ...

Eugene III, Pope

Bernardo Pignatelli, born in the neighbourhood of Pisa, elected 15 Feb., 1145; d. at Tivoli, 8 ...

Eugene IV, Pope

Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 ...

Eugenics

Eugenics literally means "good breeding". It is defined as the study of agencies under social ...

Eugenius I

Archbishop of Toledo, successor in 636 of Justus in that see ; d. 647. Like his predecessor he ...

Eugenius II (the Younger)

Archbishop of Toledo from 647 to 13 Nov., 657, the date of his death. He was the son of a Goth ...

Eugenius of Carthage, Saint

Unanimously elected Bishop of Carthage in 480 to succeed Deogratias (d. 456); d. 13 July, 505. ...

Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint

A Spanish martyr in the persecution of Diocletian (12 February, 304), patron of the ...

Eulogia

(Greek eulogia , "a blessing"). The term has been applied in ecclesiastical usage to the ...

Eulogius of Alexandria, Saint

Patriarch of that see from 580 to 607. He was a successful combatant of the heretical errors ...

Eulogius of Cordova, Saint

Spanish martyr and writer who flourished during the reigns of the Cordovan Caliphs, Abd-er-Rahman ...

Eumenia

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana in Asia Minor, and suffragan to Hierapolis. It was founded ...

Eunan, Saint

(Or Eunan). Abbot of Iona, born at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland, c. 624; died at the ...

Eunomianism

A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 ...

Euphemius of Constantinople

Euphemius of Constantinople (490-496) succeeded as patriarch Flavitas (or Fravitas, 489-490), who ...

Euphrasia, Saint

Virgin, b. in 380; d. after 410. She was the daughter of Antigonus, a senator of Constantinople, ...

Euphrosyne, Saint

Died about 470. Her story belongs to that group of legends which relate how Christian virgins, in ...

Euroea

A titular see of Epirus Vetus in Greece, suffragan of Nicopolis. Euroea is mentioned by ...

Europe

NAME The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and ...

Europus

A titular see in Provincis Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis. The former name of this city ...

Eusebius Bruno

Bishop of Angers, b. in the early part of the eleventh century; d. at Angers, 29 August, 1081. ...

Eusebius of Alexandria

Ecclesiastical writer and author of a number of homilies well known in the sixth and seventh ...

Eusebius of Cæsarea

Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine, the "Father of Church History "; b. ...

Eusebius of Dorylæum

Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylæum in Asia Minor, was the prime mover on behalf of Catholic ...

Eusebius of Laodicea

An Alexandrian deacon who had some fame as a confessor and became bishop of Laodicea in ...

Eusebius of Nicomedia

Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the ...

Eusebius, Chronicle of

Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the "Chronograph" or ...

Eusebius, Saint

Bishop of Vercelli, b. in Sardinia c. 283; d. at Vercelli, Piedmont, 1 August, 371. He was ...

Eusebius, Saint

Bishop of Samosata (now Samsat) in Syria ; date of birth unknown: d. in 379 or 380. History ...

Eusebius, Saint

A presbyter at Rome ; date of birth unknown; d. 357(?). He was a Roman patrician and ...

Eusebius, Saint, Pope

Successor of Marcellus, 309 or 310. His reign was short. The Liberian Catalogue gives its duration ...

Eustace, John Chetwode

Antiquary, b. in Ireland, c. 1762; d. at Naples, Italy, 1 Aug., 1815. His family was English, ...

Eustace, Maurice

Eldest son of Sir John Eustace, Castlemartin, County Kildars, Ireland, martyred for the Faith, ...

Eustace, Saint

Date of birth unknown; died 29 March, 625. He was second abbot of the Irish monastery of ...

Eustachius and Companions, Saints

Martyrs under the Emperor Hadrian, in the year 188. Feast in the West, 20 September; in the East, 2 ...

Eustachius, Bartolomeo

A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period — "one of the greatest anatomists ...

Eustathius of Sebaste

Born about 300; died about 377. He was one of the chief founders of monasticism in Asia Minor, ...

Eustathius, Saint

Bishop of Antioch, b. at Side in Pamphylia, c. 270; d. in exile at Trajanopolis in Thrace , ...

Eustochium Julia, Saint

Virgin, born at Rome c. 368; died at Bethlehem, 28 September, 419 or 420. She was the third of ...

Euthalius

( ) A deacon of Alexandria and later Bishop of Sulca. He lived towards the middle of ...

Euthanasia

(From Greek eu , well, and thanatos , death), easy, painless death. This is here considered ...

Euthymius, Saint

(Styled THE GREAT). Abbot in Palestine; b. in Melitene in Lesser Armenia, A.D. 377; d. A.D. ...

Eutropius of Valencia

A Spanish bishop ; d. about 610. He was originally a monk in the Monasterium Servitanum , ...

Eutyches

An heresiarch of the fifth century, who has given his name to an opinion to which his teaching and ...

Eutychianism

Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some ...

Eutychianus, Saint, Pope

He succeeded Pope Felix I a few days after the latter's death, and governed the Church from ...

Eutychius

Melchite Patriarch of Alexandria, author of a history of the world, b. 876, at Fustat (Cairo); ...

Eutychius I

Patriarch of Constantinople, b. about 512, in Phrygia; d. Easter Day , 5 April, 582. He became ...

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Evagrius

Ecclesiastical historian and last of the continuators of Eusebius of Caesarea, b. in 536 at ...

Evagrius

Born about 345, in Ibora, a small town on the shores of the Black Sea; died 399. He is numbered ...

Evangeliaria

Liturgical books containing those portions of the Gospels which are read during Mass or in the ...

Evangelical Alliance, The

An association of Protestants belonging to various denominations founded in 1846, whose object, ...

Evangelical Church

(IN PRUSSIA) The sixteenth-century Reformers accused the Catholic Church of having ...

Evangelical Counsels

( Or COUNSELS OF PERFECTION). Christ in the Gospels laid down certain rules of life and ...

Evangelist

In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; ...

Evaristus, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; died about 107. In the Liberian Catalogue his name is given as Aristus. In ...

Eve

( Hebrew hawwah ). The name of the first woman, the wife of Adam, the mother of Cain, Abel, ...

Eve of a Feast

(Or VIGIL; Latin Vigilia ; Greek pannychis ). In the first ages, during the night before ...

Evesham Abbey

Founded by St. Egwin, third Bishop of Worcester, about 701, in Worcestershire, England, and ...

Evil

Evil, in a large sense, may be described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to ...

Evin, Saint

St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...

Evodius

The first Bishop of Antioch after St. Peter. Eusebius mentions him thus in his "History": ...

Evolution, Catholics and

One of the most important questions for every educated Catholic of today is: What is to be ...

Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of

The world of organisms comprises a great system of individual forms generally classified ...

Evora

Located in Portugal, raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1544, at which time it was given as ...

Evreux

DIOCESE OF EVREUX (EBROICENSIS) Diocese in the Department of Eure, France ; suffragan of the ...

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Ew 3

Ewald, Saints

(Or HEWALD) Martyrs in Old Saxony about 695. They were two priests and natives of ...

Ewin, Saint

St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...

Ewing, Thomas

Jurist and statesman, b. in West Liberty, Virginia (now West Virginia ), U.S.A. 28 December, ...

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Ex Cathedra

Literally "from the chair", a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is ...

Examination

A process prescribed or assigned for testing qualification; an investigation, inquiry. ...

Examination of Conscience

By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ...

Examiners, Apostolic

So called because appointed by the Apostolic See for service in Rome. In 1570 Pius V ...

Examiners, Synodal

So called because chosen in a diocesan synod. The Council of Trent prescribes at least six ...

Exarch

(Greek Exarchos ). A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically. In ...

Excardination and Incardination

(Latin cardo, a pivot, socket, or hinge--hence, incardinare, to hang on a hinge, or fix; ...

Exclusion, Right of

(Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

Excommunication

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notions and Historical ...

Executor, Apostolic

A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order ...

Exedra

A semicircular stone or marble seat; a rectangular or semicircular recess; the portico of the ...

Exegesis, Biblical

Exegesis is the branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred ...

Exemption

Exemption is the whole or partial release of an ecclesiastical person, corporation, or ...

Exequatur

(Synonymous with REGIUM PLACET) Exequatur, as the Jansenist Van Espen defines it, is a ...

Exeter, Ancient Diocese of

(EXONIA, ISCA DAMNONIORUM, CAER WISE, EXANCEASTER; EXONIENSIS). English see, chosen by Leofric, ...

Exmew, Blessed William

Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...

Exodus ( See Pentateuch)

Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

Exorcism

( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCIST, POSSESSION.) Exorcism is (1) the act of driving ...

Exorcist

( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, POSSESSION.) (1) In general, any one who ...

Expectation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

( Exspectatio Partus B.V.M. ) Celebrated on 18 December by nearly the entire Latin Church. ...

Expectative

(From the Latin expectare , to expect or wait for.) An expectative, or an expectative grace, ...

Expeditors, Apostolic

(Latin Expeditionarius literarum apostolicarum, Datariae Apostolicae sollicitator atque ...

Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament

Exposition is a manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing It, with proper solemnity, to ...

Extension

(From Latin ex-tendere , to spread out.) That material substance is not perfectly ...

Extension Society, The Catholic Church

IN THE UNITED STATES The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society ...

Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP)

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

Extravagantes

( Extra , outside; vagari , to wander.) This word is employed to designate some papal ...

Extreme Unction

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

Exul Hibernicus

The name given to an Irish stranger on the Continent of Europe in the time of Charles the ...

Exultet

The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy ...

Exuperius, Saint

(Also spelled Exsuperius). Bishop of Toulouse in the beginning of the fifth century; place ...

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Ey 7

Eyb, Albrecht von

One of the earliest German humanists, born in 1420 near Anabach in Franconia; died in 1475. After ...

Eyck, Hubert and Jan van

Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...

Eycken, Jean Baptiste van

Painter, born at Brussels, Belgium, 16 September, 1809; died at Schaerbeek, 19 December, 1853. ...

Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien

Founder of the Society of the Blessed Sacrament , and of the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament, ...

Eymeric, Nicolas

Theologian and inquisitor, born at Gerona, in Catalonia, Spain, c. 1320; died there 4 January, ...

Eyre, Thomas

First president of Ushaw College ; born at Glossop, Derbyshire; in 1748; died at Ushaw, 8 May, ...

Eyston, Charles

Antiquary, born 1667; died 5 November, 1721; he was a member of the ancient family of Eyston, ...

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Ez 6

Ezechias

Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

Ezekiel

Ezekiel, whose name, Yehézq'el signifies "strong is God ", or "whom God makes strong" ...

Ezion-geber

More properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the ...

Eznik

A writer of the fifth century, born at Golp, in the province of Taikh, a tributary valley of the ...

Ezra

(Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...

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