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Ontario

Ontario, the most populous and wealthy province of Canada, has an area of 140,000,000 acres, exclusive of the Great Lakes, of which approximately 24,700,000 acres have been sold, 115,300,000 remaining vested in the Crown. It is bounded on the south and south-west by Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and Superior, with their connecting waters, and Minnesota : on the north-east by Quebec, and the Ottawa River; on the north by James Bay; on the north-west by Keewatin ; and on the west by Manitoba. It is probable that a large part of Keewatin will soon be added to the province. Old Ontario (lying between the Ottawa River, the St. Lawrence River, and Lakes Ontario, Erie, and Huron ) is well settled and cultivated: New Ontario, lying north and west is sparsely inhabited.

CLIMATE

Moderate near the Great Lakes, subject to extremes of heat and cold in the north and north-west, the climate is everywhere healthful, the extremes being of short duration and easily endured owing to the dryness of the atmosphere inland.

HISTORICAL INCIDENTS

Held by France up to 1763, Quebec, including Ontario, was then ceded to Great Britain. Visited by Champlain in 1615, explored by French missionaries and voyageurs, it had been the scene of frightful Indian wars, and massacres, and of the martyrdom in 1649 of the Jesuits, Brébeuf and Lalemant. Except for missionaries and their entourage, trappers, soldiers in some isolated posts and a few settlers on the Detroit and Ottawa Rivers and near the Georgian Bay, Ontario in 1763 was an uninhabited wilderness roamed over by Ojibways and remnants of the Hurons and Algonquins. After the American War of Independence many colonial adherents of the British Crown crossed to Upper Canada. In 1786 some 4487 of them were settled on the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario. For twenty years immigration from the United States was extensive. With accessions from Ireland, Scotland, and England, it brought the population in 1806 up to 70,000. This was the nucleus of the Province of Ontario. In 1791 Upper Canada (Ontario) was separated from Quebec and given its own governor and legislature, which first met in 1792 at Newark, now Niagara-on-the-Lake. The laws of England were then introduced. In 1797 the capital was moved to York (Toronto). In 1812 Upper Canada sustained the brunt of the war between Great Britain and the United States and was the scene of several noted battles, Queenston Heights, Lundy's Lane, etc. In 1837 abuses by the dominant party and irresponsible executives provoked a rebellion in Upper and Lower Canada, which resulted in their union and the establishment of responsible government in 1841. In 1866 Fenian raids from the United States were successfully repelled. Difficulties of administration due largely to racial differences led to confederation in 1867, Upper Canada becoming a distinct province under the name of Ontario. Subsequent growth has been rapid; population has nearly doubled; known wealth has increased many fold; and development of industries and resources has been enormous.

POPULATION

The last census (1901) gives the population as 2,182,947. Municipal assessment returns for 1909 place it as 2,289,438, of which 1,049,240 was rural, 515,078 dwelt in towns and villages, and 725,120 in cities. The Ontario Department of Agriculture considers that the actual population exceeds these figures by 10 per cent. On this basis the population in 1909 is estimated at 2,518,362.

CITIES

The principal cities, with their estimated populations are: Toronto, the provincial capital, 360,000; Ottawa, the capital of Canada, 90,000; Hamilton, 77ú London, 55,000; Brantford, 22,750; Kingston, 21,000; Fort William, 20,000.

AGRICULTURE

In 1909 the value of farms, implements and live stock was $1,241,019,109; field crops were worth $167,966,577, hay and clover, oats, wheat, barley, corn, potatoes, peas, and mixed grains being the principal items; dairy produce was officially estimated at $31,000,000; live stock on hand was valued at $184,747,900, sold or slaughtered at $64,464,923. Peaches and grapes, grown chiefly in the south-west, are a large industry. The average yearly value of the apple crop for the years 1901-05 was $8,671,275. In 1910 the Government Agricultural College at Guelph had 975 students; the Macdonald Institute for farmers' daughters, 411. The Government maintains experimental farms and liberally aids agricultural institutes. 24,000,000 acres are now under cultivation.

MINING

The province is rich in minerals of various kinds. The figures given are for 1908, when mining products realized $39,232,814. The most important nickel deposits in America are in the Sudbury district, producing 18,636 tons, about 80 per cent of the world's output. Iron occurs in various places (principally hæmatite at Michipicoten on Lake Superior) yielding 231,453 tons. The output of gold bullion is 3246 oz. Important gold fields are being opened up at Porcupine. The fame of the silver mines of the Cobalt district is world-wide. Average ores carry from 2000 to 4000 oz. To the ton; 955 tons of silver yielded $15,436,994. Petroleum and natural gas are important products of the southwest. Portland cement brings $3,144,000. Arsenic, cobalt, copper, corundum, graphite, gypsum, marble, mica, salt and silver are also found.

FORESTS

The forest area is estimated at 102,000 sq. miles. The Department of Forests and Mines estimates that there is still standing on unlicensed Crown lands 13,500,000,000 feet of red and white pine, and 300,000,000 cords of spruce, jack-pine, and poplar, suitable for pulp-wood; and on licensed lands, 7,000,000 feet of timber. The output for 1910 was 605,000,000 feet b. m. of pine: of other woods 95,000,000 feet; of square timber 308,000 cubic feet; of pulp-wood 138,000 cords; of cord-wood, 40,000 cords; and of railway ties, 3,800,000 pcs. The province has an enlightened system of reforestation.

Forest Reserves cover 17,860 sq. miles, containing it is estimated 7,000,000,000 feet of pine. There are two large provincial parks, Rondeau in the south-west, and Algonquin in the north-west of old Ontario.

MANUFACTURES

The manufacturing output of Ontario is greater than that of any other Canadian province. For 1905 (the last return available) its value was $361,372,741. It is now considerably greater.

FISHERIES

The value of the commercial fisheries in 1908 was $2,100,079. The opportunities for sport are excellent, the trout-fishing in the Nepigon being exceptionally fine. Northern Ontario is much resorted to by sportsmen in the hunting season.

WATERS

In addition to the Great Lakes there are countless inland lakes of much beauty and utility, the largest, Lakes Nepigon, Nipissin, Simcoe, and the Lake of the Woods. Innumerable rivers and water-courses furnish abundant natural power, little of it developed. A hydro-electric government commission with municipal co-operation, supplies electric power from Niagara Falls throughout the south-west. This commission is charged with the development and supplying of power in other parts of the province.

TOURIST RESORTS

Niagara Falls, the Thousand Islands in the St. Lawrence, the Thirty Thousand Islands in the Georgian Bay, the Muskoka Lakes, and the Lake of the Woods are famous.

RAILWAYS AND CANALS

Ontario is covered by a network of railways, principally operated by the Grand Trunk, the Canadian Pacific, and the Canadian Northern. Now traversed by one transcontinental railway, it will shortly be crossed by two others. The mileage in 1909 was 8229. The St. Lawrence Canals, the Welland Canal, overcoming the fall of 326 feet in the Niagara River, and the great lock at Sault Sainte Marie permit of navigation from Montreal to the head of Lake Superior, about 1400 miles. The Rideau and the Trent Valley canals are also works of importance. All canals are free.

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT

The constitution of the province is found in the British North America Act, 1867 (Imperial). Although its legislative powers are confined to enumerated subjects, the constitution being "similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom", legislative jurisdiction over the matter assigned to it, except education, is restricted only by the limitation, that provincial enactments must not clash with Imperial statutes made applicable to the province, or with legislation of the Parliament of Canada within the field assigned to it.

Legislature

The legislature consists of a lieutenant-governor, appointed and paid by the Government of Canada, and a single chamber of 106 members elected for four years. The party system prevails. The franchise is on a manhood suffrage basis. Ontario has 86 members in the Dominion House of Commons, consisting of 221 members, and 24 in the Senate, of which the membership is 87.

Executive

The executive is directly responsible to the Legislative Assembly, in which it must always command a majority. It consists at present of a prime minister and ten colleagues. The ministers holding portfolios are: the president of the council (at present the prime minister ), the attorney-general, the secretary and registrar, the treasurer the minister of lands, forests, and mines, the minister of agriculture, the minister of public works, and the minister of education.

Judiciary

The Constitutional Act assigns to the province "the constitution, maintenance, and organization of the provincial courts", civil and criminal, and to the Dominion the appointment and remuneration of judges. Judges of the superior courts are appointed for life. Those of the county and district courts must retire at the age of eighty. The province appoints surrogate court judges, police magistrates, and justices of the peace. The Supreme Court of Judicature comprises the Court of Appeal, with five judges, and the High Court, with twelve judges. The county and district judges have limited powers as local judges of the High Court. In the Division Courts (small debt ) they try claims, ascertained by signature up to $200, upon contract up to $100, and other personal claims up to $60. In the County and District courts they have jurisdiction, speaking generally, in actions upon contract up to $800, in other personal actions up to $500, and in actions respecting rights of property, where the value of the property affected does not exceed $500. Unless the defendant disputes jurisdiction, these courts may deal with any civil case whatever the amount involved. The jurisdiction of the High Court in unlimited. In important cases an appeal lies from the provincial court of appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada, or to the Judicial Committee of the Imperial Privy Council.

Officials

Sheriffs, court officers, Division Court bailiffs, etc., are appointed by the provincial government.

Municipal System

The municipal system is based on American models. Municipal government is carried on by councils and presiding officers elected by popular vote. In large urban centers, Boards of Control elected by the municipalities at large have extensive powers. The councils appoint the administrative officers.

RELIGION

There is no State church. Legally all religions are on a footing of equality. Legislation however, is based on the fundamental principles of Christian morality. Sessions of the House of Assembly open with prayers read by the Speaker. Blasphemous libels, the obstruction of, or offering violence to, officiating clergymen, and disturbance of meeting for religious worship are criminal offences. Sunday is strictly observed.

Exemptions

Places of worship and lands used in connexion therewith, churchyards and burying-grounds, and buildings and grounds of educational and charitable institutions are exempt from taxation. Clergymen are exempt from jury duty and military service.

Incorporation

Religious organizations can readily obtain incorporation, with liberal powers of acquiring and holding real estate. Land may be given for "charitable uses", by deed made more than six months before the grantor's death, or by will, but must be sold within two years, unless the High Court, being satisfied that it is required for actual occupation for the purpose of the charity, sanctions its retention. All Catholic church property is vested in the bishop of the diocese who is a statutory corporation sole.

Catholicism

In 1763 the few French settlers were Catholics. Immigration from the United States after 1783 was almost exclusively Protestant. Some Scotch Catholics settled in Glengarry, and a considerable number of Irish Catholics, principally after the War of 1812 and particularly from 1847 to 1851, in various parts of Ontario. The See of Kingston, established in 1826, included the entire province. Rt. Rev. Alex. Macdonell was the first bishop. Kingston became an archdiocese in 1889. The Diocese of Toronto, erected in 1841, became an archdiocese in 1870. The Diocese of Ottowa, erected in 1847, became an archdiocese in 1886. The Province has now seven suffragan sees, Hamilton, London, Pembroke, Temiskaming (Vicariate), Peterborough, Alexandria, and Sault Sainte Marie. Portions of Ottawa, Pembroke and Temiskaming are in Quebec; the other dioceses are wholly in Ontario. Diocean priests number 383; priests of religious orders, 244 (1910).

The Catholic population in 1871 was 274,162; in 1881, 321,162; in 1891, 358,300; in 1901, 390,304; and in 1910 (est.) 450,000. Of these, 190,000 (est.) residing chiefly in Eastern Ontario, Essex, Nipissing, and Algoma, are French Canadians : the remainder principally of Irish descent. The Apostolic Delegate to Canada resides at Ottawa. The headquarters of the Catholic Church Extension Society of Canada (canonically established) are at Toronto. Catholic charitable institutions are numerous, and receive a fair share of government and municipal aid. As a minority, Catholics have reason to be satisfied with their status and recent treatment.

EDUCATION

At Confederation the British North America Act conferred on the province power to deal with education, saving rights and privileges, with respect to denominational schools then enjoyed. During the union of Protestant Upper Canada (Ontario) and Catholic Lower Canada (Quebec), from 1841 to 1867, provision was made for denominational schools for the religious minority in each province. The Ontario Separate Schools law, fundamentally as it stands today, was enacted in 1863. The rights then conferred on the Catholic minority are therefore constitutional.

Expenditure

The educational system is administered by the Department of Education. Out of $8,891,004.68 revenue, the Government in 1910 expended on education, exclusive of money spent through the Department of Agriculture, $2,220,796.75. In 1909 (1910 returns incomplete) $8,782,302.51 was raised by local taxation for primary and secondary education.

System

The system embraces free primary education in public and separate schools ; intermediate education in high schools, partly free; and university training at slight cost to the student. Every person between the ages of five and twenty-one years may, every child between eight and fourteen, unless lawfully excused, must, attend a public or separate school. The courses of study and textbooks are controlled by the Department, which sanctions fore separate schools only books approved by the Catholic authorities. Subject to departmental regulations, primary schools are managed by trustees locally elected, there being distinct boards for public and separate schools. Every teacher must hold a certificate of qualification from a provincial normal school. With its own taxes the municipality collects for each board the amount it requires for its purposes. For public schools, attended in 1910 by 401,268 pupils, government aid was $731,160.99 and local taxation (1909) $6,565,987.90. For separate schools, attended in 1910 by 55,034 pupils, government aid was $53,033.63 and local taxation (1909) $764,779.56. Where Catholics are the majority they sometimes use and control public schools ; in some localities they are too few to support a separate school. The separate school attendance is therefore substantially less than the number of Catholic school children.

High Schools

For High Schools attended in 1910, by 33,101 pupils, government aid was $157,383.03, and local taxation (1909) $1,451,535.05. There is no legal provision for separate high schools. On its Normal College (Hamilton) and two normal schools at Toronto and Ottawa the Government spent in 1910, $208,524.11, training 1198 students.

Separate Schools Law

Catholic separate schools are easily established. Their supporters are legally exempt from public school taxation. They elect their own trustees, who determine their rate of school taxation. Catholic teachers are employed and Catholic religious training is given. Separate school inspectors are specially appointed by the Government. Many of the teachers are Christian Brothers and Sisters of teaching orders, all holding government certificates. At the government examinations (1910) for entrance to high schools, in Toronto the percentage of public school candidates who passed was 54.59; that of separate school candidates was 57.81.

Universities

The University of Toronto is supported by the Government. In 1910 it had 4000 students. The revenue from succession duties, in 1910, $519,999.27, is devoted to it; it also received $15,000 for the faculty of education. With it is affiliated St. Michael's College, Toronto, conducted by the Basilian Fathers, the students of which in 1910 numbered over 250. The university is unsectarian. Catholic students take lectures in philosophy and history at St. Michael's. There are also: the Western University, London ; Queen's (Presbyterian), Kingston ; and McMaster ( Baptist ), Toronto. Victoria College (Methodist), Wycliffe ( Anglican ), Knox (Presbyterian), Trinity ( Anglican ), all at Toronto, are affiliated with the University of Toronto. Queen's University receives $42,000 from the Government for a school of mining, and $10,500 for its faculty of education.

The Catholic University of Ottawa, conducted by the Oblate Fathers, with complete French and English courses and, in 1910, 547 students, receives no government aid. It holds a charter from the Papal Court as well as from the province.

There are other Catholic colleges : Regiopolis at Kingston, conducted by secular priests ; St. Jerome's, at Berlin, by Fathers of the Resurrection, and Assumption, at Sandwich, by Basilians. In nearly every city and town there is a good convent school. In Toronto a Catholic Seminary for ecclesiastical education, capable of accommodating, at first 110, and later 310 students, the gift of Mr. Eugene O'Keefe, Private Chamberlain to His Holiness, is in course of construction. Ottawa has a diocesan seminary.

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

By the British North America Act, marriage and divorce is assigned to the Dominion Parliament, while the solemnization of marriage is made a subject of provincial jurisdiction.

Marriage

Under the Ontario Marriage Act, marriage may be solemnized by "the ministers and clergymen of every church and religious denomination, duly ordained or appointed". Special provisions are made for the Congregations of God or of Christ, the Salvation Army, the Farringdon Independent Church, the Brethren, and the Society of Friends. There is no provision for purely civil marriage. The person solemnizing marriage must be "a resident of Canada ". The marriage must be preceded by publication of banns, or authorized by a licence, or certificate of the Provincial Secretary, issued by a local issuer appointed by the Government. Unless necessary to prevent illegitimacy, the marriage of any person under fourteen is prohibited. To obtain a licence for the marriage of a person under eighteen, not a widower or widow, consent of the father if resident in Ontario, and if not, of the mother if so resident, or of the guardian (if any) is required. Marriage within any degree of consanguinity closer than that of first cousins in prohibited. But by statute of Canada, marriage with a sister of a deceased wife or with a daughter of a deceased wife's sister is legalized; yet marriage with a daughter of a deceased wife's brother, with a brother of a deceased husband, and with a deceased husband's nephew remains illegal. The validity of marriage depends on the lex loci contractus.

Divorce

There is no Divorce Court. Divorce can be obtained only by Act of the Dominion Parliament, and adultery is the sole ground on which it is granted. In 1907 Parliament granted 3 divorces for Ontario; in 1908, 8, in 1909, 8; and in 1910, 14. Ontario courts recognize a foreign divorce only where it is valid according to the law of the state in which it is obtained, and the husband had at the time a bona fide domicile, as understood in English law, in such state. Subject to a saving provision in favour of a person who, in good faith and on reasonable grounds, believes his or her spouse to be dead, and of a person whose spouse has been continually absent for seven years and who has not known such spouse to be alive at any time during that period, any married person, not validly divorced, who goes through a second form of marriage in Canada commits bigamy: any such person who, being a British subject resident in Canada goes through such ceremony elsewhere, if he left Canada with intent to do so, also commits bigamy under Canadian law.

Nullity

The Ontario High Court has jurisdiction to adjudge marriage void, and it has special statutory power to declare a marriage null, if the plaintiff was under the age of eighteen when married, and the ceremony was without the consent required by law, and was not necessary to prevent illegitimacy. The action must be brought before the plaintiff attains the age of nineteen, and it must be proved in open court and after notice to the attorney-general (who is authorized to intervene) that there has not been cohabitation after the ceremony.

More Volume: O 274

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O 4

O Antiphons

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O Deus Ego Amo Te

The first line of two Latin lyrics sometimes attributed to St. Francis Xavier, but of uncertain ...

O Filii et Filiæ

The first line of a hymn celebrating the mystery of Easter. As commonly found in hymnals ...

O Salutaris Hostia

(O Saving Host). The first line of the penultimate stanza of the hymn, "Verbum supernum ...

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O' 43

O'Braein, Tighernach

Irish annalist and Abbot of Roscommon and Clonmacnoise, died 1088. Little is known of his ...

O'Brien, Terence Albert

Born at Limerick, 1600; died there, 31 October, 1651. He joined the Dominicans, receiving the ...

O'Bruadair, David

An Irish poet, b. about 1625, most probably in the barony of Barrymore, Co. Cork, but according ...

O'Callaghan, Edmund Bailey

Physician, publicist, and historian, b. at Mallow, Cork, 29 February, 1797; d. at New York, 29 ...

O'Carolan, Torlogh

( Irish, Toirdhealbhach O Cearbhalláin ). Usually spoken of as the "last of the ...

O'Connell, Daniel

Daniel O'Connell was born at Carhen, near Cahirciveen, Co. Kerry, Ireland, 1775; died at Genoa, ...

O'Conor, Charles

Charles O'Conor was born in the city of New York, 22 January, 1804; died at Nantucket, ...

O'Conor, Charles

Often called "the Venerable", b. at Belanagare, Co. Roscommon, 1710; d. 1791, was descended from ...

O'Cullenan, Gelasius

(Or GLAISNE O'CULLENAN). Cistercian, Abbot of Boyle, Ireland, b. probably near Assaroe Abbey, ...

O'Curry, Eugene

(EOGHAN O COMHRAIDHE) An Irish scholar, born at Dunaha near Carrigaholt, Co. Clare, 1796; ...

O'Daly, Daniel

A diplomatist and historian, born in Kerry, Ireland, 1595; died at Lisbon, 30 June, 1662. On his ...

O'Daly, Donogh Mór

(In Irish Donnchadh Mór O Dálaigh ) A celebrated Irish poet, d. 1244. About ...

O'Devany, Cornelius

(Conchobhar O'Duibheannaigh) Bishop of Down and Connor, Ireland, b. about 1532; d. at ...

O'Donnell, Edmund

The first Jesuit executed by the English government; b. at Limerick in 1542, executed at ...

O'Donovan, John

Irish historian and antiquarian, b. at Atateemore, County Kilkenny, Ireland, 1806; d. at ...

O'Dugan, John

(Seághan "mor" O Dubhagáin) Died in Roscommon, 1372. His family were for ...

O'Dwyer, Joseph

Physician, inventor of intubation; b. at Cleveland, 1841; d. in New York, January 7, 1898. He was ...

O'Fihely, Maurice

Archbishop of Tuam, born about 1460; died at Galway, 1513. He was, according to Dr. Lynch, a ...

O'Growney, Eugene

Priest, patriot, and scholar, b. 25 August, 1863, at Ballyfallon, County Meath ; d. at Los ...

O'Hagan, John

Lawyer and man of letters, b. at Newry, County Down, Ireland, 19 March, 1822; d. near Dublin, ...

O'Hagan, Thomas

First Baron of Tullyhogue, b. at Belfast, 29 May, 1812; d. 1 February, 1885. Called to the Irish ...

O'Hanlon, John

Born at Stradbally, Queen's County, Ireland, 1821; died at Sandymount, Dublin, 1905. He entered ...

O'Hara, Theodore

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O'Hely, Patrick

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O'Herlahy, Thomas

(O' H I ARLAITHE ). Bishop of Ross, Ireland, d. 1579. Consecrated about 1560, he was one ...

O'Higgins, Ambrose and Bernard

Ambrose Bernard O'Higgins Born in County Meath, Ireland, in 1720; died at Lima, 18 March, 1810. ...

O'Hurley, Dermond

Archbishop of Cashel, Ireland ; died 19-29 June, 1584. His father, William O'Hurley of ...

O'Hussey, Maelbrighte

(Irish, Maol Brighde ua Heodhusa ; Latin, Brigidus Hossæus ). Known also as ...

O'Leary, Arthur

Franciscan, preacher, polemical writer, b. at Faniobbus, Iveleary, Co. Cork, Ireland, 1729; d. ...

O'Loghlen, Michael

Born at Ennis, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1789; died 1846. Educated at Ennis Academy, and Trinity ...

O'Meara, Kathleen

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O'Neill, Hugh

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O'Neill, Owen Roe

Born 1582; died near Cavan, 6 Nov., 1649, the son of Art O'Neill and nephew of Hugh, the great ...

O'Queely, Malachias

(Maolsheachlainn O Cadhla). Archbishop of Tuam, Ireland, b. in Thomond, date unknown; d. at ...

O'Reilly, Bernard

Historian, b. 20 Sept., 1820, in County Mayo, Ireland ; d. in New York, U.S.A. 26 April, ...

O'Reilly, Edmund

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dublin, 1616; d. at Saumur, France, 1669, was educated in Dublin ...

O'Reilly, Edmund

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O'Reilly, Hugh

Archbishop of Armagh, head of the Confederates of Kilkenny, b. 1580; d. on Trinity Island in ...

O'Reilly, John Boyle

Poet, novelist, and editor, b. at Douth Castle, Drogheda, Ireland, 24 June, 1844; d. at Hull, ...

O'Reilly, Myles William Patrick

Soldier, publicist, littérateur , b. near Balbriggan, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 13 March, ...

O'Rorke, Patrick Henry

Soldier, b. in County Cavan, Ireland, 25 March, 1837; killed at the battle of Gettysburg, Penn., ...

O'Sullivan Beare, Philip

Born in Ireland, c. 1590; died in Spain, 1660, son of Dermot O'Sullivan and nephew of Donal ...

O'Toole, Saint Lawrence

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

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Oa 5

Oakeley, Frederick

Born 5 September, 1802, at Shrewsbury ; died 30 Jan., 1880, at Islington, the youngest son of ...

Oates's Plot

A term conventionally used to designate a "Popish Plot" which, during the reign of Charles II of ...

Oaths

I. NOTION AND DIVISIONS An oath is an invocation to God to witness the truth of a statement. ...

Oaths, English Post-Reformation

The English Reformation having been imposed by the Crown, it was natural that submission to the ...

Oaxaca

(Or ANTEQUERA). Situated in the southern part of the Republic of Mexico, bounded on the north ...

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Ob 13

Obazine, Monastery of

Located in the Diocese of Tulle ; founded by St. Stephen of Obazine about 1134. After his ...

Obba

Titular see in Byzacena, northern Africa of unknown history, although mentioned by Polybius ...

Obedience

Obedience (Lat. obêdire, "to hearken to", hence "to obey") is the complying with a command ...

Obedience, Religious

Religious obedience is that general submission which religious vow to God, and voluntarily ...

Obedientiaries

A name commonly used in medieval times for the lesser officials of a monastery who were ...

Oblate Sisters of Providence

A congregation of negro nuns founded at Baltimore, Maryland, by the Rev. Jacques Hector ...

Oblates of Mary Immaculate

I. NAME AND ORIGIN The first members of this society, founded in 1816, were known as ...

Oblates of St. Francis de Sales

A congregation of priests founded originally by Saint Francis de Sales at the request of Saint ...

Oblati, Oblatæ, Oblates

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Obligation

A term derived from the Roman civil law , defined in the "Institutes" of Justinian as a "legal ...

Obregonians

(Or Poor Infirmarians) A small congregation of men, who professed the Rule of the Third Order ...

Obreption

( Latin ob and repere , "to creep over"). A canonical term applied to a species of fraud ...

Observatory, Vatican

The Vatican Observatory now bears the official title, "Specola Astronomica Vaticana". To ...

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Oc 10

Occam, William of

Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village ...

Occasionalism

Occasionalism (Latin occasio ) is the metaphysical theory which maintains that finite things ...

Occasions of Sin

Occasions of Sin are external circumstances--whether of things or persons --which either ...

Occleve, Thomas

(Or Hoccleve) Little is known of his life beyond what is mentioned in his poems. He was b. ...

Occult Art, Occultism

Under this general term are included various practices to which special articles of the ...

Occurrence

(IN LITURGY) I. DEFINITION Occurrence is the coinciding or occurring of two liturgical offices ...

Oceania, Vicariate Apostolic of Central

The whole of Oceania had at first been entrusted by the Propaganda to the Society of the Sacred ...

Ockham, William of

Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village ...

Octavarium Romanum

The Octavarium Romanum is a liturgical book which may be considered as an appendix to the Roman ...

Octave

I. ORIGIN It is the number seven, not eight, that plays the principal rôle in Jewish ...

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Od 12

Odense, Ancient See of Odense

(OTHINIA, OTHONIENSIS.) The diocese included the islands of Fünen, Langeland, Taasinge, ...

Odescalchi, Carlo

Cardinal, prince, archbishop, and Jesuit, b. at Rome, 5 March, 1786; d. at Modena, 17 August, ...

Odilia, Saint

Patroness of Alsace, born at the end of the seventh century; died about 720. According to a ...

Odilo, Saint

Fifth Abbot of Cluny (q.v.), v.c. 962; d. 31 December, 1048. He was descended from the nobility ...

Odin, John Mary

Lazarist missionary, first Bishop of Galveston and second Archbishop of New Orleans, b. 25 ...

Odington, Walter

An English Benedictine, also known as WALTER OF EVESHAM, by some writers confounded with WALTER ...

Odo of Cambrai, Blessed

Bishop and confessor, also called ODOARDUS; born at Orléans, 1050; died at Anchin, 19 ...

Odo of Canterbury

Abbot of Battle, d. 1200, known as Odo Cantianus or of Kent. A monk of Christ Church, he ...

Odo of Cheriton

Preacher and fabulist, d. 1247. He visited Paris, and it was probably there that he gained the ...

Odo of Glanfeuil

(Saint-Maur-sur-Loire) Abbot, ninth-century hagiographer. He entered Glanfeuil not later than ...

Odo, Saint

Second Abbot of Cluny, born 878 or 879, probably near Le Mans ; died 18 November, 942. He ...

Odo, Saint

(Oda) Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 2 June, 959 (not in 958; recent researches showing that he ...

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Oe 2

Oertel, John James Maximilian

Journalist, born at Ansbach, Bavaria, 27 April, 1811; died at Jamaica, New York, 21 August, 1882. ...

Oettingen

(ALTÖTTING, OETINGA) Oettingen, during the Carlovingian period a royal palace near the ...

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Of 5

Offa

Offa, King of Mercia, died 29 July, 796. He was one of the leading figures of Saxon history, as ...

Offerings

(OBLATIONS) I. THE WORD OBLATION The word oblation , from the supine of the Latin verb ...

Offertory

(Offertorium.) The rite by which the bread and wine are presented (offered) to God before ...

Office of the Dead

I. COMPOSITION OF THE OFFICE This office, as it now exists in the Roman Liturgy, is composed of ...

Office, Divine

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

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Og 4

Ogdensburg, Diocese of

(Ogdensburgdensis). Comprises the northern towns of Herkimer and Hamilton counties, with the ...

Oggione, Marco D'

Milanese painter, b. at Oggionno near Milan about 1470; d. probably in Milan, 1549. This ...

Ogilvie, John, Venerable

Eldest son of Walter Ogilvie, of Drum, near Keith, Scotland, b. 1580; d. 10 March, 1615. Educated ...

Ogliastra

DIOCESE OF OGLIASTRA (OLEASTRENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Cagliari, Sardinia. It was ...

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Oh 2

Ohio

The seventeenth state of the American Union, admitted on 19 Feb., 1803. It is bounded on the north ...

Ohler, Aloys Karl

Educationist, born at Mainz, 2 January, 1817; died there, 24 August, 1889. He attended the ...

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Oi 3

Oil of Saints

(Manna Oil of Saints). An oily substance, which is said to have flowed, or still flows, from ...

Oils, Holy

(OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

Ointment in Scripture

That the use of oily, fragrant materials to anoint the body is a custom going back to remote ...

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Oj 1

Ojeda, Alonso de

Explorer; b. at Cuenca, Spain, about 1466; d. on the island of Santo Domingo , about 1508. He ...

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Ok 2

Okeghem, Jean d'

Also called Okekem, Okenghem, Okegnan, Ockenheim. Contrapuntist, founder and head of the second ...

Oklahoma

I. GEOGRAPHY Oklahoma, the forty-sixth state to be admitted to the Union, is bounded on the north ...

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Ol 28

Oláh, Nicolaus

(OLAHUS) Archbishop of Gran and Primate of Hungary, a distinguished prelate, born 10 ...

Olaf Haraldson, Saint

Martyr and King of Norway (1015-30), b. 995; d. 29 July, 1030. He was a son of King Harald ...

Olba

A titular see in Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. It was a city of Cetis in Cilicia Aspera, ...

Old Catholics

The sect organised in German-speaking countries to combat the dogma of Papal Infallibility. ...

Old Chapter, The

The origin of the body, fomerly known as the Old Chapter, dates from 1623, when after a period of ...

Old Hall (St. Edmund's College)

Located near Ware, Hertfordshire, England ; founded in 1793 after the fall of the English ...

Old Testament

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

Old Testament, Canon of the

Overview The word canon as applied to the Scriptures has long had a special and consecrated ...

Oldcorne, Ven. Edward

Martyr, b. 1561; d. 1606. His father was a Protestant, and his mother a Catholic. He was ...

Oldenburg

A grand duchy, one of the twenty-six federated states of the German Empire. It consists of three ...

Oldham, Hugh

Bishop of Exeter, b. in Lancashire, either at Crumpsell or Oldham; d. 25 June, 1519. Having ...

Oldoini, Augustino

Historian and bibliographer, b. 6 Jan., 1612; d. at Perugia, 23 March, 1683. He came from La ...

Olenus

A titular see and suffragan of Patras, in Achaia Quarta, one of the twelve primitive cities of ...

Olesnicki, Zbigniew

(Sbigneus) A Polish cardinal and statesman, b. in Poland, 1389; d. at Sandomir, 1 April, ...

Olier, Jean-Jacques

Founder of the seminary and Society of St-Sulpice, b. at Paris, 20 Sept., 1608; d. there, 2 ...

Olinda

Diocese in the north-east of Brazil, suffragan of San Salvador de Bahia. Erected into a vicariate ...

Oliva

A suppressed Cistercian abbey near Danzig in Pomerania, founded with the assistance of the ...

Oliva, Gian Paolo

Born at Genoa, 4 October, 1600; died at Rome, at Sant' Andrea Quirinale, 26 November, 1681. In ...

Olivaint, Pierre

Pierre Olivaint was born in Paris, 22 Feb., 1816. His father, a man of repute but an unbeliever, ...

Oliver, George

Born at Newington in Surrey in 1781; died at Exeter in 1861. After studying for some years at ...

Olivet, Mount

(Latin, Mons Olivertus .) Occurring also in the English Bibles as the Mount of Olives ( ...

Olivetans

A branch of the white monks of the Benedictine Order, founded in 1319. It owed its origin to ...

Olivi, Pierre Jean

(PETRUS JOHANNIS) A Spiritual Franciscan and theological author, born at Sérignan, ...

Olivier de la Marche

Chronicler and poet, b. 1426, at the Chateau de la Marche, in Franche-Comté; d. at ...

Ollé-Laprune, Léon

French Catholic philosopher, b. in 1839; d. at Paris, 19 Feb., 1898. Under the influence of the ...

Olmütz

(OLOMUCENSIS) Archdiocese in Moravia. It is probable that Christianity penetrated into ...

Olympias, Saint

Born 360-5; died 25 July, 408, probably at Nicomedia. This pious, charitable, and wealthy ...

Olympus

A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor. It was one of the chief cities of the "Corpus Lyciacum", ...

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Om 5

Omaha

(OMAHENSIS) The Diocese embraces all that part of the State of Nebraska north of the southern ...

Ombus

Titular see and suffragan of Ptolemais in Thebais Secunda. The city is located by Ptolemy (IV, ...

Omer, Saint

Born of a distinguished family towards the close of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh ...

Omission

(Latin omittere , to lay aside, to pass away). "Omission" is here taken to be the failure to ...

Omnipotence

(Latin omnipotentia , from omnia and potens , able to do all things). Omnipotence is ...

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On 4

Onias

( ’Onías ). Name of several Jewish pontiffs of the third and second centuries ...

Ontario

Ontario, the most populous and wealthy province of Canada, has an area of 140,000,000 acres, ...

Ontologism

(from on, ontos , being, and logos , science) Ontologism is an ideological system which ...

Ontology

( on, ontos , being, and logos , science, the science or philosophy of being). I. ...

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Oo 1

Oostacker, Shrine of

A miraculous shrine of the Blessed Virgin, and place of pilgrimage from Belgium, Holland, and ...

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Op 8

Opening Prayer (in the Mass)

The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at ...

Ophir

Ophir, in the Bible , designates a people and a country. The people, for whom a Semitic ...

Oporto

(Portucalensis) Diocese in Portugal ; comprising 26 civil concelhos of the districts of ...

Oppenordt, Gilles-Marie

(Oppenord) Born in Paris, 1672; died there, 1742; a celebrated rococo artist, known as "the ...

Oppido Mamertina

Diocese ; suffragan of Reggio Calabria, Italy, famous for its prolonged resistance to Roger ...

Optatus, Saint

Bishop of Milevis, in Numidia, in the fourth century. He was a convert, as we gather from St. ...

Optimism

Optimism (Latin optimus , best) may be understood as a metaphysical theory, or as an emotional ...

Option, Right of

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...

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Or 60

Oracle

( oraculum; orare , to speak). A Divine communication given at a special place through ...

Oran

(ORANENSIS). Diocese in Algiers, separated from the Archdiocese of Algiers, 26 July, 1866, to ...

Orange Free State

The Orange Free State, one of the four provinces of the Union of South Africa, lies between ...

Orange River

(also the PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF GREAT NAMAQUALAND) Located in South Africa. The vicariate was ...

Orange, Councils of

Two councils were held at Orange (Arausio), a town in the present department of Vaucluse in ...

Orans

(Orante) Among the subjects depicted in the art of the Roman catacombs one of those most ...

Orate Fratres

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

Oratorio

As at present understood, an Oratorio is a musical composition for solo voices, chorus, orchestra, ...

Oratory

(Latin oratorium , from orare , to pray ) As a general term, Oratory signifies a place ...

Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, The

Under this head are included the Italian, Spanish, English, and other communities, which follow ...

Oratory, French Congregation of the

Founded in Paris at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Cardinal Pierre de ...

Orbellis, Nicolas d'

Franciscan theologian and philosopher, Scotist ; born about 1400; died at Rome, 1475. He seems ...

Orcagna

(The conventional name in art history of A NDREA DI C IONE , also called A RCAGNUOLO or A ...

Orcistus

Titular see in Galatia Secunda. It is only mentioned in Peutinger's "Table". An inscription of ...

Ordeals

( Iudicium Dei ; Anglo-Saxon, ordâl ; German Urteil ). Ordeals were a means of ...

Ordericus Vitalis

Historian, b. 1075; d. about 1143. He was the son of an English mother and a French priest who ...

Orders, Holy

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

Orders, The Military

Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...

Ordinariate

(From Ordinary ). This term is used in speaking collectively of all the various organs ...

Ordinary

( Latin ordinarius , i. e., judex ) An Ordinary in ecclesiastical language, denotes any ...

Ordines Romani

The word Ordo commonly meant, in the Middle Ages, a ritual book containing directions for ...

Oregon

One of the Pacific Coast States, seventh in size among the states of the Union (1910). It received ...

Oregon City

(OREGONOPOLITAN). Includes that part of the state of Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, ...

Oremus

Invitation to pray, said before collects and other short prayers and occurring continually in ...

Orense

(AURIENSIS) A suffragan of Compostela, includes nearly all of the civil Province of Orense, ...

Oresme, Nicole

Philosopher, economist, mathematician, and physicist, one of the principal founders of modern ...

Organ

(Greek organon , "an instrument") A musical instrument which consists of one or several sets ...

Organic Articles, The

A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, ...

Oria

(URITANA) Oria, in the Province of Lecce [now the Province of Brindisi -- Ed. ], Apulia, ...

Oriani, Barnaba

Italian Barnabite and astronomer, b. at Carignano, near Milan, 17 July, 1752; d. at Milan, 12 ...

Oriental Study and Research

In the broadest sense of the term, Oriental study comprises the scientific investigation and ...

Orientation of Churches

According to Tertullian the Christians of his time were, by some who concerned themselves with ...

Orientius

Christian Latin poet of the fifth century. He wrote an elegiac poem ( Commonitorium ) of 1036 ...

Oriflamme

In verses 3093-5 of the "Chanson de Roland" (eleventh century) the oriflamme is mentioned as a ...

Origen and Origenism

I. LIFE AND WORK OF ORIGEN A. BIOGRAPHY Origen, most modest of writers, hardly ever alludes to ...

Original Sin

I. Meaning II. Principal Adversaries III. Original Sin in ScriptureIV. Original Sin in ...

Orihuela

DIOCESE OF ORIHUELA (ORIOLENSIS, ORIOLANA). The Diocese of Orihuela comprises all the civil ...

Oriol, Saint Joseph

Priest, "Thaumaturgus of Barcelona", b. at Barcelona, 23 November, 1650; d. there, 23 March, ...

Oristano

Diocese of Oristano (Arborensis) in Sardinia. Oristano was the capital of the giudicatura ...

Orkneys

A group of islands situated between 58° 41' and 59° 24' N. lat. and 2° 22' and 3° ...

Orléans

(AURELIANUM) This Diocese comprises the Department of Loiret, suffragan of Paris since 1622, ...

Orléans, Councils of

Six national councils were held at Orléans in the Merovingian period. I. — At the ...

Orlandini, Niccolò

Born at Florence, 1554; died 1606 at Rome, 17 May. He entered the Jesuit novitiate 7 Nov., ...

Orley, Barent Van

(Bernard) Painter, b. at Brussels, about 1491; d. there 6 January, 1542. He studied under ...

Orme, Philibert de l'

An architect, born about 1512; died 1570. His style, classical and of the more severe Italian ...

Oropus

Titular see, suffragan of Anazarbus in Cilicia Secunda. It never really depended on Anazarbus ...

Orosius, Paulus

Historian and Christian apologist ; b. probably at Bracara, now Braga, in Portugal, between 380 ...

Orphans and Orphanages

The death of one or both parents makes the child of the very poor a ward of the community. The ...

Orsi, Giuseppe Agostino

A cardinal, theologian, and ecclesiastical historian, born at Florence, 9 May, 1692, of an ...

Orsini

One of the most ancient and distinguished families of the Roman nobility, whose members often ...

Orsisius

( Arsisios , Oresiesis-Heru-sa Ast) Egyptian monk of the fourth century; was a disciple ...

Ortelius, Abraham

(OERTEL) A cartographer, geographer, and archeologist, born in Antwerp, 4 April, 1527; died ...

Orthodox Church

The technical name for the body of Christians who use the Byzantine Rite in various languages ...

Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy ( orthodoxeia ) signifies right belief or purity of faith. Right belief is not ...

Orthodoxy, Feast of

(or SUNDAY) The first Sunday of the Great Forty days ( Lent ) in the Byzantine Calendar ...

Orthosias

A titular see of Phœnicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. The city is mentioned for the first ...

Ortolano Ferrarese

Painter of the Ferrara School, b. in Ferrara, about 1490; d. about 1525. His real name was ...

Orval

(Aurea Vallis, Gueldenthal). Formerly a Cistercian abbey in Belgian Luxemburg, Diocese of ...

Orvieto

DIOCESE OF ORVIETO (URBEVETANA) Diocese in Central Italy. The city stands on a rugged mass of ...

Ory, Matthieu

Inquisitor and theologian, b. at La Caune, 1492; d. at Paris, 1557. Entering the Dominican ...

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Os 22

Osaka

(Osachensis). Osaka ( Oye , great river; saka , cliff), one of the three municipal ...

Osbald

King of Northumbria, d. 799. Symeon of Durham (Historia Regum) tells us that when Ecfwald, a ...

Osbaldeston, Edward, Venerable

English martyr, b. about 1560; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 16 November, 1594. Son of ...

Osbern

Hagiographer, sometimes confused with Osbert de Clare alias Osbern de Westminster, b. at ...

Oscott (St. Mary's College)

In 1793, a number of the Catholic nobility and gentry of England formed a committee for the ...

Osee

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

Osimo

DIOCESE OF OSIMO (AUXIMANA). Diocese in the Province of Ascoli Piceno, Italy. Osimo was ...

Oslo, Ancient See of

(ASLOIA, ASLOENSIS.) Oslo occupied part of the site of Christiania (founded 1624). After the ...

Osma

(OXOMENSIS) The Diocese borders Burgos and Logroño on the north, Soria and Saragossa ...

Osmund, Saint

Bishop of Salisbury, died 1099; his feast is kept on 4 December. Osmund held an exalted ...

Osnabrück

(OSNABRUGENSIS) This diocese, directly subject to the Holy See, comprises, in the Prussian ...

Ossat, Arnaud d'

French cardinal, diplomat, and writer, b. at Larroque-Magnoac (Gascony), 20 July, 1537; d. at ...

Ossory, Diocese of

(Ossoriensis.) In the Province of Leinster, Ireland, is bounded on the south by the Suir, on ...

Ostensorium

(From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...

Ostia and Velletri

SUBURBICARIAN DIOCESE OF OSTIA AND VELLETRI (OSTIENSIS ET VELITERNENSIS). Near Rome, central ...

Ostiensis

Surname of LEO MARSICANUS, Benedictine chronicler, b. about 1045; d. 22 May, 1115, 1116, or ...

Ostracine

Titular see and suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica prima. Pliny (Hist. naturalis, V, xiv) ...

Ostraka, Christian

Inscriptions on clay, wood, metal, and other hard materials. Like papyri, they are valuable ...

Ostrogoths

One of the two chief tribes of the Goths, a Germanic people. Their traditions relate that the ...

Oswald, Saint

Archbishop of York, d. on 29 February, 992. Of Danish parentage, Oswald was brought up by his ...

Oswald, Saint

King and martyr ; b., probably, 605; d. 5 Aug., 642; the second of seven brothers, sons of ...

Oswin, Saint

King and martyr, murdered at Gilling, near Richmond, Yorkshire, England, on 20 August, 651, ...

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Ot 16

Otfried of Weissenburg

He is the oldest German poet known by name, author of the "Evangelienbuch", a rhymed version of ...

Othlo

(OTLOH) A Benedictine monk of St. Emmeran's, Ratisbon, born 1013 in the Diocese of ...

Othmar, Saint

(Audomar.) Died 16 Nov., 759, on the island of Werd in the Rhine, near Echnez, Switzerland. ...

Otho, Marcus Salvius

Roman emperor, successor, after Galba, of Nero, b. in Rome, of an ancient Etruscan family ...

Otranto

ARCHDIOCESE OF OTRANTO (HYDRUNTINA). Otranto is a city of the Province of Lecce, Apulia, ...

Ottawa, Archdiocese of

Archdiocese of Ottawa (Ottawiensis). The Archdiocese of Ottawa, in Canada, originally ...

Ottawa, University of

Conducted by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate ; founded in 1848. It was incorporated in 1849 under ...

Otto I, the Great

Roman emperor and German king, b. in 912; d. at Memleben, 7 May, 973; son of Henry I and his ...

Otto II

King of the Germans and Emperor of Rome, son of Otto I and Adelaide, b. 955; d. in Rome, 7 ...

Otto III

German king and Roman emperor, b. 980; d. at Paterno, 24 Jan., 1002. At the age of three he was ...

Otto IV

German king and Roman emperor, b. at Argentau (Dept. of Orne), c. 1182; d. 19 May, 1218; son of ...

Otto of Freising

Bishop and historian, b. between 1111 and 1114, d. at Morimond, Champagne, France, 22 ...

Otto of Passau

All we know of him is in the preface of his work, in which he calls himself a member of the ...

Otto of St. Blasien

Chronicler, b. about the middle of the twelfth century; d. 23 July, 1223, at St. Blasien in the ...

Otto, Saint

Bishop of Bamberg, b. about 1060; d. 30 June, 1139. He belonged to the noble, though not ...

Ottobeuren

(OTTOBURA, MONASTERIUM OTTOBURANUM) Formerly a Benedictine abbey, now a priory, near ...

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Ou 9

Ouen, Saint

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...

Our Father, The

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

Our Lady of Good Counsel, Feast of

Records dating from the reign of Paul II (1464-71) relate that the picture of Our Lady, at ...

Our Lady of Perpetual Help

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Our Lady of the Fields, Brothers of

A Canadian congregation founded in 1902 at St-Damien de Buckland in the Diocese of Quebec by ...

Our Lady of the Snow

("Dedicatio Sanctæ Mariæ ad Nives"). A feast celebrated on 5 August to ...

Our Lady, Help of Christians, Feast of

The invocation Auxilium Christianorum (Help of Christians ) originated in the sixteenth ...

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Ov 4

Overbeck, Friedrich

Convert and painter of religious subjects, b. at Lübeck, 3 July, 1789; d. at Rome, 12 ...

Overberg, Bernhard Heinrich

A German ecclesiastic and educator, born 1 May, 1754; died 9 November, 1826. Of poor parents in ...

Overpopulation, Theories of

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

Oviedo

(OVETENSIS) This diocese comprises the civil province of the same name (the ancient Kingdom ...

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Ow 2

Owen, Saint

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...

Owen, Saint Nicholas

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...

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Ox 6

Oxenford, John

Dramatist, critic, translator, and song-writer, b. in London, 12 Aug., 1812; d. there 21 Feb., ...

Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe

An English controversialist and poet, born at Harrow, 15 Nov., 1829; died at Kensington, 23 ...

Oxford

Oxford, one of the most ancient cities in England, grew up under the shadow of a convent, said to ...

Oxford Movement, The

The Oxford Movement may be looked upon in two distinct lights. "The conception which lay at its ...

Oxford, University of

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The most extraordinary myths have at various times prevailed as to the ...

Oxyrynchus

Titular archdiocese of Heptanomos in Egypt. It was the capital of the district of its name, the ...

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Oz 3

Ozanam, Antoine-Frédéric

Great grand-nephew of Jacques Ozanam . Born at Milan, 23 April, 1813; died at Marseilles, 8 ...

Ozanam, Jacques

A French mathematician, born at Bouligneux (Ain), 1640; died in Paris, 3 April, 1717. He came of a ...

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