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Hypnotism

(Greek hypnos , sleep)

By Hypnotism , or Hypnosis , we understand here the nervous sleep, induced by artificial and external means, which has in our days been made the subject of experiment and methodical study by men of science, physicians or physiologists. It does not differ, however, essentially from the "animal magnetism" which for a hundred years achieved such remarkable success in drawing-rooms without reaching the point of forcing the doors of the scientific academies, nor from the "Mesmerism" or the "Braidism" which will have to be explained in the course of the historical exposition of the subject. The causes of hypnotism have been discussed and are still open to discussion; but what has been ascertained beyond possibility of questioning is the existence of a special kind of sleep, artificially brought on by means of "passes", of acute or prolonged sensations, of a sustained attention, or of an effort of the will. The belief in a subtile, impalpable fluid, analogous to that of mineral magnetism, but peculiar to living beings -- the "magnetic" or "vital fluid" -- does not date from the eighteenth century, as some have thought, but goes back to a high antiquity. Pliny, Galen, and Aretæus bear witness to its existence. In the fifteenth century, Pomponacius remarks that "certain men have salutary and potent properties which are borne outward by evaporation and produce remarkable effects upon the bodies that receive them". Ficinus, on his part, says that "the soul, being affected with passionate desires, can act not only upon its own body, but even upon a neighbouring body, above all if the latter be the weaker". Lastly, it is Paracelsus who for the first time (in "De Peste") gives body to the doctrine by the hypothesis of a fluid emanating from the stars and placing living beings in communication, as well as a power of attraction which enables persons in sound health to draw the sick to them; this force he compares to that of the loadstone and calls it magnale . And this is the original, fundamental constituent of "magnetism". The doctrine of Paracelsus is later on taken up and developed by a number of writers -- Bartholin, Hahnemann, Goclénius, Roberti, and Van Helmont , the champion of "magnetic medicine ", Robert Fludd, Father Kircher, author of a famous treatise "De arte magneticâ", Wirdig, Maxwell, Greatrakes, Gassner, and others. They do not all experiment in the same way; some use munies (talismans, or magic boxes) to direct the fluid, others operate directly by touch, rubbing, or "passes".

But no complete theory is found until we come to Mesmer (1733-1815). The Viennese physician supposes that there exists a universally diffused fluid, so continuous as to admit of no void, a fluid subtile beyond comparison and of its own nature qualified to receive, to propagate, and to communicate all the sensible effects of movement. He proposes to apply the name of animal magnetism to that property of the living body which renders it susceptible to the influence of the heavenly bodies and to the reciprocal action of those that surround it, a property which is manifested by its analogy with the magnet. "It is by means of this fluid", he says, "that we act upon nature and upon other beings like ourselves;, the will gives motion to it and serves to communicate it" (Mémoire sur la découverte du magnétisme animal). Mesmer came to Paris in 1778, publicly expounded his system, and soon gained name and fame. He next set up as a healer, and obtained some successful results; the sick soon flocked to him in such numbers that he could not treat them individually, but had to group a number of them around a baquet and magnetize them all together. The magnetic baquet worked admirably. It was an ordinary tub, closed with a lid, from which issued a number of polished iron rods, bent back, and each ending in a dull point. These iron rods, or branches, conducted the magnetic fluid to the patients who stood in the circle. The baquet was the most famous and most popular means of producing the magnetic condition, but not the only one. Mesmer used other methods very much like those employed by hypnotizers today: movements of the finger or a small iron rod before the face, fixing the patient's eyes on some object application of the hands to the abdomen, etc. Mesmer, unfortunately, dealt with sick people, and around his baquet he had the opportunity of observing more fits and hysterical convulsions than somnambulistic states. But these "convulsionaries" of a new kind, far from injuring the magnetizer or discrediting his method, added to his credit and his renown. The Academy, prejudiced against the innovator, and ill-pleased at the noisy advertisement he was receiving, could not remain heedless of the results he produced; it soon had to yield to the pressure of an excited and enthusiastic public opinion. A commission was named in 1784 to examine Mesmer's theory and practice; among its members were the most illustrious savants of the time -- Bailly, Lavoisier, Franklin, de Jussieu. To surrender to the evidence presented, and to recognize the reality of the facts, was inevitable; but all the members of the commission, with the single exception of de Jussieu, refused to attribute the facts to any cause but imagination or imitation.

This direct blow at Mesmerism did not retard its progress. It made many adepts, among whom must be mentioned Deslon, Père Hervier, and above all the Marquis de Puységur, founder of the "Harmonie", one of the most celebrated magnetic societies. It was on his estate of Busancy, under the "magnetized tree", that M. de Puységur achieved his most splendid successes and renewed the marvels of his master's baquet. He did better; he discovered the curious phenomenon of somnambulism. But the hour of this science had not yet come, and, in spite of positive results and incontestable cures, magnetism did not recover its vogue; it was neglected or forgotten during the Revolution and the Empire. It was reserved for an Indo-Portuguese priest, a man of strange bearing, the Abbé Faria, to recall public attention to animal magnetism and to revive the science. The Abbé Faria was the first to effect a breach in the theory of the "magnetic fluid", to place in relief the importance of suggestion, and to demonstrate the existence of "auto-suggestion"; he also established the truth that the nervous sleep belongs only to the natural order. From his earliest magnetizing séances, in 1814, he boldly developed his doctrine. Nothing comes from the magnetizer, everything comes from the subject and takes place in his imagination. Magnetism is only a form of sleep. Although of the moral order, the magnetic action is often aided by physical, or rather by physiological, means -- fixedness of look and cerebral fatigue. Here the Abbé Faria showed himself a true pioneer, too little appreciated by his contemporaries, and even by posterity. He was the creator of hypnotism; most of the pretended discoveries of the scientists of today are really his. We need only recall here that he practised suggestion in the waking state and post-hypnotic suggestion. General Noizet, who was the immediate disciple of the Abbé Faria, had for his intimate friend a young magnetizer, Dr. Alexandre Bertrand, who believed in the existence of the magnetic fluid. Between the extreme and mutually exclusive doctrines of his master and of his friend, he had the intelligence and the courage to form his own opinion half-way, recognizing equally the share of the imagination and that of the magnetic fluid. We are inclined to think that his view of the matter was a just one, and apt to lead up to the definitive solution.

Thanks to the labours of those just mentioned, the revival of magnetism was assured. A number of writers -- Virey, Deleuze, the Baron du Potet, Robouam, Georget, and others -- aroused contemporary thought by their published works, their lectures, and their experiments; one of them, Dr. Foissac, in 1826, succeeded in bringing about the appointment by the Academy of Medicine of a commission to examine and register the strange, but positive, facts of magnetism. This second commission of the Academy took its work seriously, and for five years conscientiously studied the question. Dr. Husson was charged with the preparation of the report, which appeared in June, 1831. He describes the properties of magnetism at length and with great impartiality, proclaims its virtues, and concludes by asking the Academy to encourage the study of the subject as one of importance for physiology and therapeutics. This victory of magnetism, in a quarter where it had until then met only with disdain and rebuffs, was highly prized, but it had no sequel. The academicians were afraid of the truth, they preserved an obstinate silence, and the report of Husson was thrust away in the archives without being accorded the honours of type. Shortly after this, a violent attack on magnetism by Dubois (of Amiens ) met with a cordial reception from the Academy, in spite of Husson's protests. At last, on 1 Oct., 1840, after some unprofitable tests, the learned assembly definitively buried the question, declaring that thenceforward no reply would be given to communications on animal magnetism. Cast out by science, magnetism fell, by inevitable necessity, into commerce on the one hand and spiritism on the other. Clever adventurers exploited it, opening deposits of the fluid in Paris and in the country to heal the ills of humanity. Others had recourse to "table-turning" to know the past and foretell the future. Superstition and quackery put an end to all honest scientific research. Nevertheless, the ideas of the Abbé Faria were not abandoned, they had been collected and clarified by a number of experts, and they soon found in James Braid (1795-1860), an intelligent and prudent commentator.

Resuming the old experiments, this plain Manchester doctor set himself to destroy completely the Mesmerian edifice; he only succeeded in developing it. No doubt he absolutely rejects the transmission of any magnetic or vital fluid, but he recognizes that the magnetic sleep is mainly of a nervous kind. Most authors have thought -- and on all sides repeated -- that he attributes this sleep to suggestion alone; this is a grave misapprehension against which Braid protested energetically. He is generally considered the founder of hypnotism, and that splendid title is sufficient for his fame. His contemporaries disregarded him and did not appreciate his doctrine as they should. They refused to see in nervous and sensory concentration the cause of the sleep, and they maintained that, like Faria and Bertrand, the Manchester surgeon acted only on the imagination of his subjects. Braid's decisive answer to his detractors was: "Faria and Bertrand act, or pretend to act, by the aid of a moral impression; their means is of the mental order; mine is purely physical, and consists in fatiguing the eyes and, by the fatigue of the eyes, producing that of the brain." In fact, as Dr. Durand de Gros has justly remarked, Braid was an ingenious discoverer who did not know how to make his discovery appreciated at its true worth: he brought to the art of Mesmer and of Faria its necessary complement, its superb capstone, and thus in very truth transformed it. Be recognized that the act of gazing fixedly at one point for a certain length of time induces not only sleep, as physiologists before him had observed, but "a profound modification of our whole being which renders it apt to receive the magnetic influence and mental suggestion". From Braid to our own days hypnotism has grown and developed without interruption. The partisans of magnetism, momentarily discomfited, have not laid down their arms, and, while accepting the new theories of nervous fatigue and suggestion, have continued to maintain the existence of a fluid. The theories of Grimes on electro-biology (1848), and of Dr. Philipps (pseudonym of Dr. Durand de Gros) on vital electrodynamism (1855) deserve to be recalled in this connexion. But theoretical schemes have little attraction for the masses, and the greater number of writers have established themselves on the ground of experiment and clinical practice, multiplying experiments in order to reconnoitre the vast field of hypnosis. We may mention, from amongst these, Dr. Liébeault of Nancy, Dr. Azam of Bordeaux, Professor Charcot of Paris, Dr. Bernheim of Nancy. Theoretical discussions could not, however, remain forever apart on their own ground, since every effect demands a cause; they naturally followed the discovery of facts and soon brought on a notable division of opinions. Two clear-cut schools, as is known, divided the world of science : the school of Nancy, and the Salpêtrière, or Paris, school. The former, represented by Drs. Liébeault, Bernheim, Beaunis, and others, recognizes, under different forms, but one cause of hypnosis, and deliberately pronounces it to be suggestion. The latter, of which Chareot was the renowned chief, believes in a physical cause, and not a moral. It attributes hypnosis to a nervous or cerebral modification of the subject, which modification it attributes to a malady of the nervous system -- hysteria.

Both of these doctrines are supported by arguments and facts the force and value of which it would be vain to contest in either case. But, if both views are equally worthy of consideration, they are too absolutely opposed and mutually exclusive to be both completely true. Suggestion does not explain all the phenomena of hypnosis, any more than does neurosis account for them. The nervous sleep, with the strange and manifold phenomena which accompany it, is beyond comprehension in the light of our actual knowledge. The intimate nature of that cerebral and nervous modification which Charcot regards as a necessary condition is not known, and there is nothing to prevent its reconciliation with the hypothesis of the nervous or magnetic fluid. As to the theory of suggestion, so dear to the Nancy school, it belongs to the psychical order, and is manifestly insufficient to account for the physiological disturbances of the nervous sleep. Professor Beaunis himself does not hesitate to confess its weakness. All this being so, it would seem opportune to inquire if the two hostile -- or, rather, rival -- schools of Paris and Nancy, either of them singly incapable of explaining hypnosis, might not find additional light and a welcome means of reconciliation in that hypothesis of animal magnetism which science in its earlier days too readily abandoned. The problem is only indicated here; its solution belongs to the future.

Hypnotism, we have said, is an artificial nervous sleep. It is brought on in many ways: by fixity of look, by visual concentration upon a brilliant object, by convergence of the axes of vision, by a sustained and monotonous sensation, by a vivid sensory impression such as that produced by the sound of a gong, by a brilliant light, etc. All these means produce the effect only upon one vitally important psychic condition -- the consent of the subject, the surrender of his will to the hypnotist. No one can be hypnotized against his will; but once a person has given himself up to an operator, and gone through the exercises by which the effect is obtained, the operator can put him to sleep at pleasure, and even without the subject's knowledge. More than this, hypnosis can be induced without warning during natural sleep, though the feat is rare and is performed only with predisposed subjects. Not all persons are equally hypnotizable. Most persons who are sound in body and mind resist hypnosis or are affected only very superficially. Idiots and lunatics are absolutely refractory. Neuropaths and hysterical persons, on the other hand, are very susceptible and make ideal subjects. It is through their failure to make this capital distinction that writers come to such widely different conclusions. Dr. Liébeault estimates the proportion of hypnotizable persons at 95 per cent; other scientists are content with a smaller proportion, 50 to 60 per cent; Dr. Bottey admits for women a proportion of only 30 per cent. ln short, the Nancy experts have greatly exaggerated the figures by including in their statistics all cases, both the slightly marked and the complete. The sleep induced may last for a long period -- for some hours -- but ordinarily is of rather short duration. Some hypnotized persons awake spontaneously, others at the departure of the operator, or at some noise. Most often the return to the waking state is brought about by a command or by blowing lightly on the subject's eyes. Once hypnotized, the subject may pass through three distinct phases: catalepsy, lethargy, somnambulism. On this point there have been lively debates between the Paris school and the Nancy school. The latter contends that these three states do not exist, and that suggestion suffices to explain all the phenomena; in this it is gravely mistaken. But the Paris school, too, has been wrong in maintaining, contrary to observed facts, that every hypnotized subject passes successively, and always in the same order, from catalepsy into lethargy, and from lethargy into somnambulism. This order is not always followed; some hypnotized persons fall directly into somnambulism, or into lethargy, without passing through catalepsy. We will consider the three states separately.

Catalepsy reduces the subject to the state of an inflexible corpse; it is characterized by impassibility and muscular rigidity; the subject keeps every position into which the experimenter puts him. He can be caught and thrown this way or that, pinched, pricked, slapped, without showing the least sign of sensibility. He is so rigid that he can remain indefinitely supported on the backs of two chairs, touching them only with the back of his neck and his heels, without betraying the least weakness or the slightest fatigue. The experimenter can climb upon his body without causing it to diverge from the horizontal straight line. Certain movements communicated to the patient are continued automatically and without variation. Even words are sometimes repeated mechanically. But what is still more curious is the reaction of a gesture upon the facial expression, and vice versa. If the subject is placed in a pugilistic attitude, his features, until then impassive, straightway express determination and defiance. If his eyebrows be drawn downward and inward (by the operator) his whole countenance becomes sad and gloomy. Let the hands be taken up and applied to the lips, and the corners of the mouth move apart and communicate a tender and smiling air to the whole physiognomy. Make the subject kneel as for prayer, and immediately the hands clasp, and the face expresses recollection and adoration.

To bring the cataleptic into lethargy it is sufficient to close his eyes or to gently rub his elbow or the top of his head. in the waking state this hypnotic condition is produced by pressing the eyeballs under the closed lids. In lethargy, the head falling back as if wearied, the flaccid limbs and the whole body present the phenomena of profound slumber; there is no longer either consciousness or intelligence, memory or sensation. The contraction of the muscles responds with extreme readiness to the least excitation.

A gentle friction or pressure applied to the top of the head brings on somnambulism. Here the sleep is lighter. The subject's eyes are open; he is insensible to pain, but his muscular strength and the power of his senses are increased to a remarkable degree; he sees, hears, speaks, and walks with uncommon vigour, and avoids the obstacles in his way. He has the appearance of being awake, but is not in possession of himself; he is only an automaton, with the operator pulling the strings at his pleasure. All the activity of the somnambulist is under the operator's control by means of verbal suggestion. If a suggestion be made to the hypnotized subject that it is cold, he straightway shivers. Tell him it is hot, he pants and fans himself, wipes his forehead, and tries to take off his coat. Hand him a glass of cold water and say "Drink this glass of good Bordeaux", and he sips and smacks his lips. Tell him it is vinegar; he barely tastes it, and puts it away in disgust. Persuade him that he is listening to a beautiful piece of music, and he hears it so well that he beats time to it. The somnambulist sees and hears in imagination all that it is possible to suggest, and nothing is more amusing than his animated conversations with his absent relations and friends. Just as the absent can be made present to him, so a person who is really present can be made to disappear -- can be eliminated. "By suggestion", says M. Beaunis, "we can lay an interdict on an object or a person actually present, so that the person or object shall be, for him, non-existent. . . . More than this, we can make a person disappear partially; the subject will not see him, but will hear him; or he will be able to see and hear him, but not be aware of him by contact." Charcot often performed this experiment at the Salpêtrière: "When you awake", he would say, "you will not see M. X." He awoke the subject, and, in fact, the interdicted individual was invisible to him. M. X. places himself directly in his path, and he takes no notice of the obstruction; M. X. stands between him and the window, and he sees only a cloud shutting out the daylight. A hat is put on the head of M. X., and the subject halts in astonishment at seeing a hat suspended in the air without anything to support it. A still more complicated experiment is possible: out of ten cards, all exactly alike, one is pointed out to the somnambulist which he is told will be invisible to him, and another on which he is shown an imaginary portrait. The ten cards are mixed up, and the somnambulist discovers the non-existent portrait on the same card on which it was previously shown to him, while the other of the two indicated cards passes absolutely unperceived.

Cutaneous insensibility is general, but the hypnotist can remove it or localize it at his own pleasure; he can trace a circle, for example, on an arm and make that portion of the limb insensible, while the other part of the arm continues normal. Dr. Barth makes a pretence of touching an hysterical subject on the forearm with a lighted cigar, and immediately a white spot develops on the skin, as large as a bean and surrounded by a circle of red. Itchings and inflammations can be produced. On the other hand, the appearance of water blisters, or phlyctœnœ , vesication, and cutaneous hæmorrhages (experiments of Focaehon, Bourru, and Burot) are among the most seriously questioned and most questionable experiments; they have never been verified, even in the case of subjects affected with dermographism. Suggestion not only works upon the sensibility, but also acts very powerfully on the motive faculty of the subject. It determines either contractions or paralyses, the rigidity of one member, the flaccidity of another. The subject is told: "Your fingers are glued together; separate them if you can." The man makes strenuous efforts to separate his fingers, but cannot. The arm is forbidden to make this or that movement, the hand to write certain letters, the larynx to pronounce a vowel, and the prohibition is effectual; a subject can be made to stutter, to fall dumb, or be afflicted with aphasia at the operator's discretion. The consciousness, the personality, or, more precisely, the memory, may be subjected to strange metamorphoses. "I say to a subject: 'C., you are six years old, you are a little child. Go and play with the other children.' And up he jumps, leaps, goes through the motion of taking marbles out of his pocket, sets them in the proper order, measures the distance with his hand, takes aim carefully, runs and puts them in a row, and thus keeps up his game with an attention and precision of detail most astonishing. In the same way he plays at hide-and-seek and at leap-frog, vaulting over one or two imaginary playmates in succession and increasing the distance each time -- all with an ease of which, considering his illness, he would be incapable in the waking state. He transforms himself into a young girl, a general, a curé , an advocate, a dog. But when you saddle him with a personality above his ability, he tries in vain to realize it" (Bernheim).

The hypnotist can modify his subject, can make him believe that he is changed into another person, and even set side by side in the same person two existences -- one real, the other suggested -- which are parallel and mutually inconsistent. M. Gurney calls out a word or a number before a hypnotized subject, or tells some story, then he awakens her and shows plainly that she remembers nothing about it. Then taking her hand he puts a pencil in it and interposes a screen so that she cannot see it. Presently the hand begins to move about and, without the knowledge of the awakened subject, writes the word, or number, or story that was pronounced in the presence of the sleeping subject. It is a trick of the under-self, an automatic act of memory. Suggestion does not always produce its effects immediately; the operator can retard development; he can defer the execution for many weeks or months after the subject's awakening. "I give an order to L. like this: 'At the third stroke your hands will be raised, at the fifth they will be lowered, at the sixth the thumb of one hand will be applied to the tip of your nose, and the four fingers extended ( un pied de nez ), at the ninth you will walk into the room, at the sixteenth you will fall asleep in an arm-chair.' There is no memory of all this, when the awakening takes place, but all the acts are performed in the order desired" (Janet). The idea of the act suggested remains buried in the memory and revives only at the period assigned and upon the given signal; and when the subject then acts he knows nothing about the origin of the impulse, but thinks he is following his own initiative; he is, without knowing it, the puppet of a brain function. Retroactive suggestions are no less curious. A subject can be made to believe that at such and such a time he has seen a certain event take place, heard a sermon, or performed some action, and the illusory memory becomes so firmly fixed in his mind as to pass for truth and carry conviction with it; he is persuaded when he awakes that he really has seen and heard these things -- in one word, that the things have taken place.

Are all suggestions possible and realizable? Can a suggestion once given be resisted? The answer is nowadays no longer in doubt ; but for a long time the quacks fostered a belief that they absolutely controlled their subjects, and that there was no such thing as an impossible suggestion. This is an error. Whenever a thing is displeasing or repugnant to him, the hypnotized person yields slowly and with difficulty; if the act proposed is a forbidden or a culpable one in the sight of his conscience, he refuses point blank. An honest woman in the hysterical condition will not permit the least trespass on decency. Of course perverted subjects show no respect for good morals, nor do those who in their normal state are victims of evil habits and yield to the lowest instincts. Nevertheless, there is a certain danger that the clever, powerful hypnotist, who is also unscrupulous, may obtain his ends if he presents reprehensible acts to his subject as innocent and permissible; the will, in hypnosis, is so weak and so unstable that the idea of duty based upon good habits may not always counterbalance the operator's action, and the repetition of alluring suggestions may at last result in drawing the subject into evil. Such cases are not purely hypothetical; we shall come back to their consideration in connexion with the dangers of hypnosis. Fanatical partisans of the suggestion method do not see its dangers, while they vaunt its merits and its practical applications. Has it the therapeutic virtues with which the Nancy school credits it? With the leaders of the Paris school and with Professor Grasset of Montpellier, we decidedly question this. That hypnosis easily conquers hysteria, especially the more localized and circumscribed manifestations of it, no one can deny. The connexion between these two abnormal states has been established, and it is so intimate that Gilles de la Tourette could say: "Hypnotism is only an induced paroxysm of hysteria." It is not wonderful that symptoms of monoplegia and of limited anæsthesia should be made to disappear by suggestion, but the cure cannot be counted on in any given case, nor is it enduring when it does result. As to neurasthenia, Bérillon and Bernheim affirm that just as good results have been obtained in it as in hysteria, but Pitres, Terrien, and other hypnotists strongly question this.

Writers also note the curative action of hypnosis in a certain number of more or less localized nervous states (St. Vitus's dance, tic, incontinence of urine, sea-sickness, vertigo, menstrual troubles, constipation, warts, etc.), but this action is in fact observed only in hysterical cases, and it is not constant. Is hypnotism applicable to the treatment of psychosis -- of the divers forms of mental alienation -- in a word, of madness? Forel, Pitres, Terrien, Lloyd, Tuckey, all agree in confessing its impotence. Auguste Voisin alone believed in its power, and he was obliged to admit that only ten per cent of the mentally deranged were hypnotizable. Even this was too much to say; for mania is characterized by the loss of volition, and we know that hypnosis is produced by a fixing of the attention. Against the widespread vices of alcoholism, morphinism, the ether habit, etc., hypnotism has been successfully employed, but it has not prevented speedy and fatal relapses. Still, when all other means have failed, this method could not be altogether ignored. It may be doubted whether organic maladies are amenable to hypnotic treatment. Bernheim claims to have remedied nervous and spinal affections. Wetterstrand declares that he has cured or relieved patients afflicted with "rheumatism, hæmorrhages, pulmonary phthisis, maladies of the heart, Bright's disease", etc. As to Liébeault, he knows no malady that has resisted its suggestions. It is needless to remark that these marvellous cures have not been demonstrated, and that physicians refuse to believe in them. The beneficiaries of the hypnotic method are nervous and hysterical sufferers, and permanency of cure is not assured in their cases. Besides, it is incontestable that hypnotists have forced the note and outrageously exaggerated their successes.

The applications of hypnosis in surgery, as a means of inducing anæsthesia, have not been frequent, but the cases are remarkable. As early as the year 1829, Cloquet amputated the breast of a hypnotized woman. At Cherbourg, in 1845, Dr. Loysel performed the amputation of a leg; at Poitiers, in 1847, Dr. Ribaud took out a very large tumor of the jaw; Broca, in 1859, opened an abscess on the border of the anus. It was Guérineau who amputated a thigh; and, later, Tillaux performed with hypnosis a serious operation of colporrhaphy. Hypnotism began to be applied in obstetrics less than thirty years ago. Pritzel performed an accouchement in this way in 1885. Dr. Dumontpallier had less success with a first cbild-birth, but secured complete painlessness for his patient in the earlier stages of labour. Liébeault, Mesnet, Auvard and Secheyron, Fanton, Dobrovolsky, Le Menant des Chesnais, Voisin, Bonjour, Joire, and Bourdon have published observations which leave no doubt as to the reality of the anæsthesia produced by hypnosis. But here, as in surgery, it is an exception, a mere object of curiosity. No one dreams of setting up a comparison between hypnosis and chloroform, or of substituting the one for the other. Besides, hypnosis is successful only with nervous and hysterical subjects, and that not uniformly.

Hypnotism has not only been cried up as a therapeutic resource, it has also been applied in pediatry and in pedagogy. Durand (of Gros) is the true initiator of this method, but it is Bérillon who has claimed a place for it in science, failing to distinguish between pediatry, which is related to medicine, and pedagogy, which is the province of the directors of free and conscious education. Suggestion would be in place for serious perversions or inveterate vices -- kleptomaniac impulses, impulses to lying, debauchery, sloth, indecency, indocility, onanism, etc. Without going so far as Bérillon, Liébeault and Liégeois of Nancy claim to have reformed vicious and depraved children in this way and to have made excellent persons of them. They have cited some cures, but have not stated how long the good effects lasted. Education by hypnosis alone is not to be taken seriously; it does not correspond to the essential demands of education, which is the joint work of two -- an intelligent, voluntary, effective collaboration of pupil and teacher.

Hypnosis is not only powerless to effect a moral or physical cure, to heal radically any malady whatever, but it is also, and above everything else, a dangerous method. It is right that this point should be insisted on. In the practice of hypnotism there are physical or physiological, psychic or intellectual, and above all moral, dangers. The wonders of hypnosis as achieved in the laboratories at the Salpêtrière are astounding and incontestable, but one must not fail to consider the price at which they are obtained. Hypnosis is not a casually improvised thing, it is an induced, artificial state, prepared for in advance; an "intensive culture" is necessary, a scientific and patient preparation -- at least in so far as the aim is to obtain anything more than the common nervous sleep. Hysteria is the true soil for its growth -- it supplies the best subjects, those who respond to the most difficult suggestions and exhibit the most striking effects. Experimentation on those affected in this way, when carried to extremes, is calculated to bring on the most harmful results. Their sensibility, already perverted and exaggerated by neurosis, cannot fail to become completely unbalanced and lead to madness as a sequel of the long and arduous séances. Many of them halt on the road, having ceased to be capable subjects. But, even when it succeeds, hypnotic education finds as its reward a corresponding failure of the psycho-sensitive life, a growing disturbance of the emotional or general sensibility. We may point to the case of a nervous young girl, whose malady was aggravated by hospital séances until restraint in an asylum became necessary. Hypnosis is a two-edged weapon, capable of doing more harm than good. Disturbance and perversion of the higher faculties follow those of the sensitive. The cerebral mechanism is of the most delicate kind, and the intensive practice of hypnosis has the effect of throwing that mechanism out of gear. Hypnotic suggestions set ideas and sentiments, senses and reason, in conflict, and vitiate the functioning of the mind. This effect is all the more fatal as the subjects are, to begin with, enervated and predisposed to lose their mental balance.

Hypnotism, therefore, is a dangerous, if not a morally detestable, practice. In the process of suggestion the individual alienates his liberty and his reason, handing himself over to the domination of another. Now, no one has any right thus to abdicate the rights of his conscience to renounce the duty towards his personality. It has been objected to this view that there is the same effect in intoxication or in the use of chloroform; but the argument is of no validity. Drunkenness is not justifiable; it is a grave sin against temperance. As for chloroform, it has its precise indications strictly marked. It is only lawfully employed in medicine to make insensible sick people who are about to undergo a surgical operation. Can hypnotism be employed in the same way as chloroform? Has it any social utility, or does it play a humanitarian rôle in any way? Its supporters have vainly endeavored to endow it with practical uses, in order to give it a scientific turn, but in spite of all their efforts, hypnotism remains, not only an idle curiosity, but a dangerous game. Such is the certain conclusion to which we are led by a study of hypnotism in its relation to civil and criminal law. It is a generally recognized fact that criminal or unlawful acts have been, or can be, committed on sleeping subjects. Even without proceeding to actual crime, the hypnotist may make insidious and improper suggestions. Many have boasted of having obtained delicate secrets from young girls, humiliating avowals which they certainly would not have made had they been awake; such procedure is an odious abuse of confidence. We pass on to the consideration of crimes due to hypnosis: women have been made the victims of attempts on their honour, and even of actual rape. Sometimes, too, by means of suggestion, the subject is made to consent to the crime, as criminal records show. We have no properly ascertained cases of fraud or theft successfully practised by means of hypnosis, but such things are nevertheless possible. The evidence given in all such cases should be regarded with mistrust; the subject may be deliberately trying to deceive, or he may be in good faith mistaken, and so accuse an innocent person. Of this the famous La Roncière case (1834) is a sad illustration.

The hypnotized person is not always a victim; he may be the criminal. But it is necessary to know the circumstances of each case, and not confound hospital patients with normal subjects. The suggestion of intra- and post-hypnotic acts is a usual operation of hypnotists, and the existence of "laboratory crimes" -- i.e., crimes suggested in the course of experiment -- no longer needs demonstration. But from these jocose crimes we cannot infer the existence of real crimes. Hypnosis, moreover, is complete or partial; only in the former ( true somnambulism) is there a total absence of responsibility; in the latter, responsibility is only lessened (auto-suggestion, suggestion, persuasion). Then, too, resistance to suggestion is frequent; there is an inward struggle, a mental debate, proportioned to the standard of education imparted to the subject, the moral strength of the individual. In the administration of justice the testimony of those who have been subjected to hypnotic influence should be accepted only with the most decided reservations. Apart from the hypnosis, the subject can lie and deceive like any other hysterical person. Another cause of unconscious lying is retroactive amnesia: the subject, on awakening from hypnosis, may manifest a complete forgetfulness of what took place, not only in the hypnosis, but also in the period preceding it (Bernheim). Writers are divided on the question of spontaneous falsehood in hypnosis, but they are at one in recognizing the frequency of suggested lies and false testimony. It is doubtful if any one could succeed in causing a will or a deed of gift to be made by mere suggestion, but it is a sufficiently serious thing that the possibility of such a crime should even be thought of. It has been proposed to use hypnosis as a means of examining prisoners. In this connexion Liégeois has formulated the following conclusions:

  • No one has a right to hypnotize a prisoner in order to obtain from him by that means confessions or evidence against other persons which he refuses in his normal state -- that is, when he is in possession of his free will.
  • If, on the other hand, an accused person or the victim of a crime should apply for it, it would be proper to resort to this process in order to elicit indications which the applicant might think likely to be favourable to him.
  • The same conclusion for civil acts, contracts of every kind, bonds, loans, acquired from hypnotic suggestion, and for donations or wills.
  • This system would be fertile of abuses and odious in most cases. -- "This kind of inquisition [ question ] would be no more justifiable than the old kind" (Cullerre).

    The Church has not waited for the verdict of science to put the faithful on their guard against the dangers of magnetism and hypnotism, and to defend the rights of human conscience ; but, ever prudent, she has condemned only abuses, leaving the way free for scientific research. "The use of magnetism, that is to say, the mere act of employing physical means otherwise permissible, is not morally forbidden, provided that it does not tend to an illicit end or one which may be in any manner evil " (Response of the Holy Office, 2 June, 1840). The encyclical letter of the Sacred Penitentiary, Tribunal of August, 1856, only confirms this, and Père Coconnier has referred to it in his famous work "L'Hypnotisme franc", in which he studies the subject apart from all extraneous considerations. Taking up the latest teachings of Rome, Canon Moureau, of Lille, writes: "Hypnotism is tolerated, in theory and in practice, to the exclusion of phenomena which would certainly be preternatural." This is the opinion of most theologians, and it is the utterance of reason.

    After the spiritual, the civil authority was concerned at the accidents resulting from the use of hypnotism, and has sought to regulate the practice and prevent its abuses. The task was not an easy one, and the French Government has found it above its powers to effect. Some efforts have been made in other countries, but without result or harmony of opinion. In Austria, Italy, and Belgium, in consequence of serious complaints, the police have forbidden public séances. In Denmark and Germany they have done better: laws have been passed making the diploma of Doctor of Medicine a necessary condition for the practice of hypnotism. These are excellent measures, but they do not provide for the possible malpractices of a dishonest or avaricious physician. There is no solid basis of duty except in the conscience, and of this the civil law cannot take cognizance. Many of the United States have proscribed hypnotism under the severest penalties, but even there no uniform and efficacious legislation exists. Public opinion demands of the various nations some concerted action to put a stop to the crying abuses of hypnotism, but a respect for human liberty and human conscience will never be secured except by the observance of religious morality. Meanwhile the scientific world contemplates with interest the phenomena of hypnotism, though it is evident that those phenomena move always in the same narrow circle. It cannot be denied that they have lost much of their novelty and their vogue. Philosophers confess that psychology has derived but little illumination from hypnotism, and physicians recognize that, from a therapeutic view-point, suggestion is almost void of results. In the hospitals the practice of hypnotic methods is manifestly on the decline. It is regarded rather as a source of social amusement, a game attended with some risk, than as a clinic process. The masters of the art themselves rarely employ it, and the successors of Charcot at the Salpêtrière tend more and more to have recourse only to "waking suggestion", a surer and less dangerous means of obtaining the same results.

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    He 165

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    Bishop of Rottenburg, b. at Unterkochen, Würtemberg, 15 March, 1809; d. at Rottenburg, 5 ...

    Hegelianism

    (1) Life and Writings of Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born at Stüttgart in 1770; ...

    Hegesippus, Saint

    (Roman Martyrology, 7 April). A writer of the second century, known to us almost exclusively ...

    Hegesippus, The Pseudo-

    A fourth-century translator of the "Jewish War" of Flavius Josephus. The name is based on an ...

    Hegius, Alexander

    Humanist ; b. probably in 1433, at Heeck (Westphalia); d. 7 December, 1498, at Deventer ...

    Heidelberg, University of

    Heidelberg, a city of 41,000 inhabitants, is situated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, on the left ...

    Heiligenkreuz

    (SANCTA CRUX). An existing Cistercian monastery in the Wienerwald, eight miles north-west of ...

    Heilsbronn

    (FONS SALUTIS). Formerly a Cistercian monastery in the Diocese of Eichstätt in Middle ...

    Heilsbronn, Monk of

    This name indicates the unknown author of some small mystical treatises, written about the ...

    Heim, François Joseph

    French historical painter, b. near Belfort, 1787, d. in Paris, 1865. This clever painter ...

    Heinrich der Glïchezäre

    ( Glïchezäre , i.e. the hypocrite, in the sense of one who adopts a strange name or ...

    Heinrich von Ahaus

    (Hendrik van Ahuis) Founder of the Brethren of the Common Life in Germany, b. in 1371, the ...

    Heinrich von Laufenberg

    A German poet of the fifteenth century, d. at Strasburg in 1460; he was a priest in Freiburg ...

    Heinrich von Meissen

    Usually called "Frauenlob" (Woman's praise), a Middle High German lyric poet; b. at Meissen ...

    Heinrich von Melk

    German satirist of the twelfth century; of knightly birth and probably a lay brother in the ...

    Heinrich von Veldeke

    A medieval German poet of knightly rank; b. near Maastricht in the Netherlands about the ...

    Heinz, Joseph

    Swiss painter ; b. at Basle, 11 June, 1564; d. near Prague, Bohemia, October, 1609. He appears ...

    Heis, Eduard

    German astronomer, b. at Cologne, 18 February, 1806; d. at Münster, Westphalia, 30 June, ...

    Heisterbach

    (Vallis S. Petri). A former Cistercian monastery in the Siebengebirge near the little town ...

    Helen of Sköfde, Saint

    Martyr in the first half of the twelfth century. Her feast is celebrated 31 July. Her life ...

    Helena (Montana)

    (Helenensis) Erected from the Vicariate of Montana, 7 March, 1884. It comprises the western ...

    Helena, Saint

    The mother of Constantine the Great , born about the middle of the third century, possibly in ...

    Helenopolis

    A titular see of Bithynia Prima, suffragan of Prusa. On the southern side of the Sinus Astacenus ...

    Heli

    Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

    Heliae, Paul

    (POVL HELGESEN) A Carmelite, opponent of the Reformation in Denmark, born at Warberg (in the ...

    Heliand, The

    ( German Heiland , Saviour) The oldest complete work of German literature . Matthias Flacius ...

    Heliogabalus

    (E LAGABAL ) The name adopted by Varius Avitus Bassianus, Roman emperor (218-222), born of ...

    Hell

    This subject is treated under eight headings: (I) Name and Place of Hell; (II) Existence of ...

    Hell, Maximilian

    (Höll). Astronomer, b. at Schemnitz in Hungary, 15 May, 1720; d. at Vienna, 14 April, ...

    Hello, Ernest

    French philosopher and essayist, b. at Lorient, Brittany, 4 Nov., 1828; d. at Kéroman, ...

    Helmold

    A historian, born in the first half of the twelfth century; died about 1177. He was a native of, ...

    Helmont, Jan Baptista van

    Born at Brussels, 1577; died near Vilvorde, 30 December, 1644. This scientist, distinguished in ...

    Helpers of the Holy Souls, Society of the

    ( Auxiliatrices des Ames du Purgatoire ) A religious order of women founded in Paris, ...

    Helpidius, Flavius Rusticius

    The name of several Latin writers. It appears in the manuscript of Pomponius Mela and Julius ...

    Hemmerlin, Felix

    (MALLEOLUS) properly HEMERLI A provost at Solothurn, in Switzerland, born at Zurich, in 1388 ...

    Henderson, Issac Austin

    Born at Brooklyn, 1850; died in Rome, March, 1909. His family was of Scotch and Irish ...

    Hendrick, Thomas Augustine

    First American and the twenty-second Bishop of Cebú, Philippine Islands, b. at Penn Yan, ...

    Hengler, Lawrence

    Catholic priest and the inventor of the horizontal pendulum, b. at Reichenhofen, ...

    Hennepin, Louis

    One of the most famous explorers in the wilds of North America during the seventeenth century, b. ...

    Henoch

    (Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

    Henoch, Book of

    The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

    Henoticon

    The story of the Henoticon forms a chapter in that of the Monophysite heresy in the fifth and ...

    Henríquez, Crisóstomo

    A Cistercian religious of the Spanish Congregation; b. at Madrid, 1594; d. 23 December, 1632, ...

    Henríquez, Enrique

    Noted Jesuit theologian, b. at Oporto, 1536; d. at Tivoli, 28 January, 1608. At the age of ...

    Henri de Saint-Ignace

    A Carmelite theologian, b. in 1630, at Ath in Hainaut, Belgium ; d. in 1719 or 1720, near ...

    Henrion, Mathieu-Richard-Auguste

    Baron, French magistrate, historian, and journalist; b. at Metz, 19 June, 1805; d. at Aix, ...

    Henry Abbot

    Layman, martyred at York, 4 July, 1597, pronounced Venerable in 1886. His acts are thus related ...

    Henry II

    King of England, born 1133; died 6 July, 1189; was in his earlier life commonly known as Henry ...

    Henry II, Saint

    German King and Holy Roman Emperor, son of Duke Henry II (the Quarrelsome) and of the Burgundian ...

    Henry III

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Conrad II; b. 1017; d. at Bodfeld, in the Harz Mountains, 5 ...

    Henry IV

    King of France and Navarre, son of Jeanne d'Albret and Antoine de Bourbon, b. 14 December, 1553, ...

    Henry IV

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry III and Agnes of Poitou, b. at Goslar, 11 November, ...

    Henry of Friemar

    (DE VRIMARIA) German theologian ; b. at Friemar, a small town near Gotha in Thuringia, about ...

    Henry of Ghent

    (HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, known as the DOCTOR SOLEMNIS) A notable scholastic philosopher and ...

    Henry of Herford

    (Or HERWORDEN; HERVORDIA) Friar and chronicler; date of birth unknown; died at Minden, 9 Oct., ...

    Henry of Huntingdon

    Historian; b. probably near Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, between 1080 and 1085; d. 1155. Little is ...

    Henry of Kalkar

    (Egher). Carthusian writer, b. at Kalkar in the Duchy of Cleves in 1328; d. at Cologne, 20 ...

    Henry of Langenstein

    (Henry of Hesse the Elder.) Theologian and mathematician; b. about 1325 at the villa of ...

    Henry of Nördlingen

    A Bavarian secular priest, of the fourteenth century, date of death unknown; the spiritual ...

    Henry of Rebdorf

    Alleged author of an imperial and papal chronicle of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is ...

    Henry of Segusio, Blessed

    Usually called Hostiensis , an Italian canonist of the thirteenth century, born at Susa (in ...

    Henry Suso, Blessed

    (Also called Amandus , a name adopted in his writings). German mystic, born at Constance on ...

    Henry the Navigator, Prince

    Born 4 March, 1394; died 13 November, 1460; he was the fourth son of John I, King of Portugal, by ...

    Henry V

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV ; b. in 1081; d. at Utrecht, 23 May, 1125. He ...

    Henry VI

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy ; b. in ...

    Henry VIII

    King of England, born 28 June, 1491; died 28 January, 1547. He was the second son and third ...

    Henryson, Robert

    Scottish poet, born probably 1420-1430; died about 1500. His birthplace, parentage, and place of ...

    Henschen, Godfrey

    (Or Henskens .) Jesuit, hagiographer ; b. at Venray (Limburg), 21 June, 1601; d. at ...

    Hensel, Luise

    Poetess and convert ; born at Linum, 30 March, 1798; died at Paderborn, 18 December, 1876. Her ...

    Henten, John

    Biblical exegete, born 1499 at Nalinnes Belgium ; died 10 Oct., 1566, at Louvain. When quite ...

    Heortology

    (From the Greek heorte , festival, and logos , knowledge, discourse) Heortology ...

    Hephæstus

    A titular see of Augustamnica Prima, mentioned by Hierocles (Synecd., 727, 9), by George of ...

    Heptarchy

    (A NGLO -S AXON H EPTARCHY ) By the term heptarchy is understood that complexus of ...

    Heraclas

    Bishop of Alexandria from 231 or 232; to 247 or 248. Of his earlier life Origen tells us, ...

    Heraclea

    A titular see of Thracia Prima. Heraclea is the name given about four centuries before the ...

    Heraldry, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical heraldry naturally divides itself into various branches, principally: the arms of ...

    Herbart and Herbartianism

    The widespread and increasing influence of Herbart and his disciples in the work of education ...

    Herbert of Bosham

    A biographer of St. Thomas Becket , dates of birth and death unknown. He was probably born in ...

    Herbert of Derwentwater, Saint

    (Hereberht). Date of birth unknown; d. 20 March, 687; an anchorite of the seventh century, ...

    Herbert of Lea, Lady Elizabeth

    Authoress, and philanthropist, b. in 1822; d. in London 30 Oct., 1911. Lady Herbert was the ...

    Herbst, Johann Georg

    Born at Rottweil, in Würtemberg, 13 January, 1787; died 31 July, 1836. His college course, ...

    Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo, Alejandro

    Born at Lisbon, 28 March, 1810; died near Santarem, 13 Sept., 1877. Because of his liberal ...

    Herder

    The name of a German firm of publishers and booksellers. Bartholomäus Herder Founder of the ...

    Herdtrich, Christian Wolfgang

    (According to Franco, Christianus Henriques ; Chinese, Ngen ). An Austrian Jesuit ...

    Heredity

    The offspring tends to resemble, sometimes with extraordinary closeness, the parents ; this is ...

    Hereford, Ancient Diocese of

    (HEREFORDENSIS) Located in England. Though the name of Putta, the exiled Bishop of ...

    Hereswitha, Saint

    (HAERESVID, HERESWYDE). Daughter of Hereric and Beorhtswith and sister of St. Hilda of Whitby. ...

    Heresy

    I. Connotation and DefinitionII. Distinctions III. Degrees of heresy IV. Gravity of the sin of ...

    Hergenröther, Joseph

    Church historian and canonist, first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives, b. at ...

    Heribert

    (ARIBERT) Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045) An ambitious and warlike prince of the ...

    Heribert, Saint

    Archbishop of Cologne ; born at Worms, c. 970; died at Cologne, 16 March, 1021. His father was ...

    Heriger of Lobbes

    A medieval theologian and historian; born about 925; died 31 October, 1007. After studying at ...

    Herincx, William

    A theologian, born at Helmond, North Brabant, 1621; died 17 Aug., 1678. After receiving his ...

    Hermann Contractus

    (Herimanus Augiensis, Hermann von Reichenau ). Chronicler, mathematician, and poet; b. 18 ...

    Hermann I

    Landgrave of Thuringia (1190-1217), famous as a patron of medieval German poets. He was the ...

    Hermann Joseph, Saint

    Premonstratensian monk and mystic; b. at Cologne about 1150; d. at Hoven, 7 April, 1241. ...

    Hermann of Altach

    (Niederaltaich). A medieval historian; b. 1200 or 1201; d. 31 July, 1275. He received his ...

    Hermann of Fritzlar

    With this name are connected two works on mysticism written in German. The first, "Das ...

    Hermann of Minden

    Provincial of the German province of Dominicans ; b. at or near Minden on an unknown date ; d. ...

    Hermann of Salza

    Fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , descendant of the noble Thuringian house of Salza; ...

    Hermanos Penitentes, Los

    (The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

    Hermas

    (First or second century), author of the book called "The Shepherd" ( Poimen , Pastor), a work ...

    Hermas, Saint

    Martyr The Roman Martyrology sets down for 18 August (XV Kal. Septembris) the feast of the ...

    Hermeneutics

    Derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god Hermes, the reputed messenger and ...

    Hermengild, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 585. Leovigild, the Arian King of the Visigoths (569-86), ...

    Hermes, George

    Philosopher and theologian, b. at Dreierwalde near Theine (Westphalia), 22 April, 1775; d. at ...

    Hermes, Saint

    Martyr, Bishop of Salano (Spalato) in Dalmatia. Very little is known about him; in Romans ...

    Hermite, Charles

    Born at Dieuze, Lorraine, 24 December, 1822; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1901; one of the greatest ...

    Hermits

    ( Eremites , "inhabitants of a desert ", from the Greek eremos ), also called anchorites, ...

    Hermits of St. Augustine

    (Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons ). A ...

    Hermon

    [From the Hebrew meaning "sacred (mountain)"; Septuagint, Aermon ] A group of mountains ...

    Hermopolis Magna

    A titular see of Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoe, in Egypt. The native name was Khmounoun; ...

    Hermopolis Parva

    A titular see of Ægyptus Prima, suffragan of Alexandria. Its ancient name, Dimanhoru or ...

    Herod

    (Greek Herodes , from Heros .) Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. ...

    Herodias

    Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus -- son of Herod the Great and Mariamne -- was a descendant of ...

    Heroic Act of Charity

    A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences dated 18 December, 1885, and confirmed the ...

    Heroic Virtue

    The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

    Herp, Henry

    (Or HARP, Latin CITHARŒDUS, or ERP as in the old manuscripts ) A fifteenth century ...

    Herrad of Landsberg

    (or LANDSPERG) A twelfth-century abbess, author of the "Hortus Deliciarum"; born about 1130, ...

    Herregouts

    There were three artists of the name of Herregouts, father, son, and grandson, of whom the chief ...

    Herrera Barnuevo, Sebastiano de

    A painter, architect, sculptor and etcher; born in Madrid, 1611 or 1619; died there, 1671; son ...

    Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de

    A Spanish historian; born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia, in 1559; died at Madrid, 27 ...

    Herrera, Fernando de

    A Spanish lyric poet; born 1537; died 1597. The head of a school of lyric poets who gathered ...

    Herrera, Francisco

    (1) Francisco Herrera (el Viejo, the Elder) A Spanish painter, etcher, medallist, and architect; ...

    Herrgott, Marquard

    A Benedictine historian and diplomat; born at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 9 October, 1694; died ...

    Hersfeld

    An ancient imperial abbey of the Benedictine Order, situated at the confluence of the Geisa and ...

    Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo

    Spanish Jesuit and famous philologist; b. at Horcajo, 1 May, 1735; d. at Rome, 24 August, 1809. ...

    Hervetus, Gentian

    French theologian and controversialist; b. at Olivet, near Orléans, in 1499; d. at ...

    Hesebon

    (A.V. HESHBON; Greek Esebon, Esbous ; Latin Esbus). A titular see of the province of ...

    Hesse

    (H ESSEN ). The name of a German tribe, and also a district in Germany extending along the ...

    Hessels, Jean

    A distinguished theologian of Louvain ; born 1522; died 1566. He had been teaching for eight ...

    Hesychasm

    (Greek hesychos , quiet). The story of the system of mysticism defended by the monks of ...

    Hesychius of Alexandria

    Grammarian and lexicographer; of uncertain date, but assigned by most authorities to the later ...

    Hesychius of Jerusalem

    Presbyter and exegete, probably of the fifth century. Nothing certain is known as to the dates ...

    Hesychius of Sinai

    A priest and monk of the Order of St. Basil in the Thorn-bush (Batos) monastery on Mt. ...

    Hethites

    (A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

    Hettinger, Franz

    A Catholic theologian ; born 13 January, 1819, at Aschaffenburg; died 26 January, 1890, at ...

    Heude, Pierre

    Missionary to China and zoologist; b. at Fougères in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine, ...

    Hewett, John

    (Alias WELDON). English martyr ; son of William Hewett of York; date of birth unknown; ...

    Hewit, Augustine Francis

    Priest and second Superior General of the Institute of St. Paul the Apostle ; b. at Fairfield, ...

    Hexaemeron

    Hexaemeron signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of ...

    Hexapla

    The name given to Origen's edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek, the most colossal ...

    Hexateuch

    A name commonly used by the critics to designate the first six books of the Old Testament, i.e. ...

    Hexham and Newcastle

    Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle (Hagulstadensis et Novocastrensis). Hexham, in ...

    Heynlin of Stein, Johann

    (A LAPIDE) A theologian, born about 1425; died at Basle, 12 March, 1496. He was apparently of ...

    Heywood, Jasper and John

    (1) Jasper Heywood A poet and translator; born 1535 in London ; died 1598 at Naples. As a boy ...

    Hezekiah

    Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

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    Hi 47

    Hibernians, Ancient Order of

    This organization grew up gradually among the Catholics of Ireland owing to the dreadful ...

    Hickey, Antony

    A theologian, born in the Barony of Islands, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1586; died in Rome, 26 ...

    Hidalgo, Miguel

    Born on the ranch of San Vicente in the district of Guanajuato, 8 May, 1753; executed at ...

    Hierapolis

    Titular Archdiocese, metropolis of the Province of Euphrates, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. ...

    Hierapolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. It is usually called by its ...

    Hierarchy

    (Greek Hierarchia ; from hieros , sacred; archein , rule, command). This word has been ...

    Hierarchy of the Early Church

    The word hierarchy is used here to denote the three grades of bishop, priest, and deacon ( ...

    Hierocæsarea

    A titular see of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. This town is mentioned by Ptolemy (VI, ii, 16). ...

    Hieronymites

    In the fourth century, certain Roman ladies, following St. Paula, embraced the religious life ...

    Hierotheus

    All attempts to establish as historical a personality corresponding to the Hierotheus who ...

    Higden, Ranulf

    (HYDON, HYGDEN, HIKEDEN.) Benedictine chronicler; died 1364. He was a west-country man, and ...

    High Altar

    (ALTARE SUMMUM or MAJUS.) The high altar is so called from the fact that it is the chief altar ...

    High Priest, The

    The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

    Higher Criticism

    Overview Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary ...

    Hilarion, Saint

    Founder of anchoritic life in Palestine; born at Tabatha, south of Gaza, Palestine, about 291; ...

    Hilarius of Sexten

    (In the world, CHRISTIAN GATTERER.) Moral theologian ; born 1839, in the valley of Sexten in ...

    Hilarius, Pope Saint

    [ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

    Hilarus, Pope Saint

    [ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

    Hilary of Arles, Saint

    Archbishop, b. about 401; d. 5 May, 449. The exact place of his birth is not known. All that may ...

    Hilary of Poitiers, Saint

    Bishop, born in that city at the beginning of the fourth century; died there 1 November, according ...

    Hilda, Saint

    Abbess, born 614; died 680. Practically speaking, all our knowledge of St. Hilda is derived from ...

    Hildebert of Lavardin

    Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours, and celebrated medieval poet; b. about 1056, at the ...

    Hildegard, Saint

    Born at Böckelheim on the Nahe, 1098; died on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, 1179; feast 17 ...

    Hildesheim

    Diocese of Hildesheim (Hildesheimensis). An exempt see, comprising the Prussian province of ...

    Hilduin, Abbot of St-Denis

    He died 22 November, 840. He was a scion of a prominent Frankish family, hut the time and place ...

    Hill, Ven. Richard

    English Martyr, executed at Durham, 27 May, 1590. Very little is known of him and his ...

    Hillel

    A famous Jewish rabbi who lived about 70 B.C.-A.D. 10. Our only source of information concerning ...

    Hilton, Walter

    Augustinian mystic, d. 24 March, 1396. Little is known of his life, save that he was the head of a ...

    Himeria

    A titular see in the province of Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. The "Notitia" of Anastasius, ...

    Himerius

    (called also EUMERIUS and COMERIUS) An Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, 385. He is the ...

    Hincmar

    An archbishop of Reims ; born in 806; died at Epernay on 21 December, 882. Descended from a ...

    Hincmar

    Bishop of Laon; died 879. In the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar, a nephew on the mother's ...

    Hinderer, Roman

    (Chinese TE). A German missionary in China, born at Reiningen, near Mülhausen, date ...

    Hinduism

    Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices ...

    Hingston, Sir William Hales

    Canadian physician and surgeon, b. at Hinchinbrook near Huntingdon, Quebec, June 29, 1829; d. at ...

    Hippo Diarrhytus

    (Or HIPPO ZARRHYTUS.) A titular see of Northern Africa, now called Bizerta, originally a ...

    Hippo Regius

    A titular see of Numidia, now a part of the residential see of Constantine. Hippo was a Tyrian ...

    Hippolytus of Rome, Saint

    Martyr, presbyter and antipope ; date of birth unknown; d. about 236. Until the publication ...

    Hippolytus, Saints

    Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

    Hippos

    Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

    Hirena

    A titular see of southern Tunis. Nothing is known of the city, the name of which may have been ...

    Hirschau, Abbey of

    A celebrated Benedictine monastery in Würtemberg, Diocese of Spires, about twenty-two ...

    Hirscher, Johann Baptist von

    Born 20 January, 1788, at Alt-Ergarten, Ravensburg; died 4 September, 1865. He studied at ...

    Historical Criticism

    Historical criticism is the art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of ...

    History, Ecclesiastical

    I. NATURE AND OFFICE Ecclesiastical history is the scientific investigation and the methodical ...

    Hittites

    (A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

    Hittorp, Melchior

    A theologian and liturgical writer, born about 1525, at Cologne ; died there in 1584. On the ...

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    Hl 1

    Hladnik, Franz von Paula

    Botanist and schoolmaster, b. 29 March, 1773, at Idria, Carniola, Austria ; d. 25 November, ...

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    Ho 121

    Hobart

    (HOBARTENSIS) Hobart comprises Tasmania, Bruni Island, and the Cape Barren, Flinders, King, ...

    Hodgson, Sydney

    A lawman and martyr ; date and place of birth unknown; d. at Tyburn, 10 Dec., 1591. He was a ...

    Hofer, Andreas

    A patriot and soldier, born at St. Leonhard in Passeyrthale, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1767; executed at ...

    Hogan, John Baptist

    Better known, on account of his long sojourn in France, as Abbé Hogan, born near Ennis in ...

    Hohenbaum van der Meer, Moritz

    A Benedictine historian; born at Spörl near Belgrade, 25 June, 1718; died at the monastery ...

    Hohenburg

    (ODILIENBERG; ALTITONA) A suppressed nunnery, situated on the Odilienberg, the most famous of ...

    Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Alexander Leopold

    A titular Bishop of Sardica, famous for his many supposedly miraculous cures, born 17 August, ...

    Holbein, Hans

    (The Elder Holbein) A German painter ; b. at Augsburg about 1460; d. at Isenheim, Alsace, in ...

    Holden, Henry

    An English priest ; born 1596; died March, 1662. Henry Holden was the second son of Richard ...

    Holiness

    (A.S. hal , perfect, or whole). Sanctitas in the Vulgate of the New Testament is the ...

    Holland, Ven. Thomas

    An English martyr, b. 1600 at Sutton, Lancashire; martyred at Tyburn, 12 December, 1642. He ...

    Hollanders in the United States

    The Hollanders played by no means an insignificant part in the early history of the United ...

    Holmes, John

    Catholic educator and priest ; born at Windsor, Vermont, in 1799; died at Lorette, near ...

    Holocaust

    As suggested by its Greek origin ( holos "whole", and kaustos "burnt") the word designates an ...

    Holstenius, Lucas

    (HOLSTE). German philologist, b. at Hamburg, 1596; d. at Rome, 2 February, 1661. He studied ...

    Holtei, Karl von

    German novelist, poet, and dramatist; b. at Breslau, 24 January, 1798; d. in that city, 12 ...

    Holy Agony, Archconfraternity of

    An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony ...

    Holy Alliance

    The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I ...

    Holy Child Jesus, Society of the

    The Society was founded in England in 1840 by Mrs. Cornelia Connelly, née Peacock, ...

    Holy Childhood, Association of the

    A children's association for the benefit of foreign missions. Twenty years after the foundation of ...

    Holy Coat

    (OF TRIER AND ARGENTEUIL). The possession of the seamless garment of Christ (Gr. chiton ...

    Holy Communion

    By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Ascetic writers ...

    Holy Cross Abbey

    The picturesque ruins of this monastery are situated on the right bank of the River Suir, about ...

    Holy Cross, Congregation of

    A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state by the simple vows of ...

    Holy Cross, Sisters Marianites of

    The congregation of the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross was founded in 1841, in the parish of ...

    Holy Cross, Sisters of the

    (Mother House, St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame, Indiana) As an offset to ...

    Holy Faith, Sisters of the

    Founded at Dublin, in 1857, by Margaret Aylward, under the direction of Rev. John Gowan, C.M., ...

    Holy Family, Archconfraternity of the

    This archconfraternity owes its origin to Henri Belletable, an officer in the Engineers' Corps, ...

    Holy Family, Congregations of the

    I. ASSOCIATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY Founded in 1820 by the Abbé Pierre Bienvenue Noailles (d. ...

    Holy Ghost

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

    Holy Ghost, Orders of the

    The Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome was the cradle of an order, which, beginning in the ...

    Holy Ghost, Religious Congregations of the

    I. THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY GHOST AND OF THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY This Congregation was ...

    Holy Grail, The

    The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

    Holy House of Loreto

    (The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

    Holy Humility of Mary, Sisters of the

    Founded at Dommartin-sous-Amance, France, in 1855, by John Joseph Begel (b. 5 April, 1817; d. 23 ...

    Holy Infancy, Brothers of the

    Founded in 1853 by the Right Rev. John Timon, the first Bishop of Buffalo. The special aim of ...

    Holy Innocents

    The children mentioned in St. Matthew 2:16-18 : Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise ...

    Holy Name of Jesus

    We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...

    Holy Name, Feast of the

    This feast is celebrated on the second Sunday after Epiphany (double of the second class). ...

    Holy Name, Litany of the

    An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

    Holy Name, Society of the

    (Confraternity of the Most Holy Name of God and Jesus). An indulgenced confraternity in the ...

    Holy Oils

    (OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

    Holy Oils, Vessels for

    In Christian antiquity there existed an important category of vessels used as receptacles for ...

    Holy Orders

    Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

    Holy Saturday

    In the primitive Church Holy Saturday was known as Great, or Grand, Saturday, Holy Saturday, the ...

    Holy See

    (From the Latin Sancta Sedes , Holy Chair). A term derived from the enthronement ...

    Holy Sepulchre

    Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Canonesses Regular of the

    Concerning the foundation there is only a tradition connecting it with St. James the Apostle and ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Fathers of the

    (Guardians) The Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre are the six or seven Franciscan Fathers, who ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the

    Neither the name of a founder nor a date of foundation can be assigned to the so-called Order of ...

    Holy Spirit

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

    Holy Stairs (Scala Sancta)

    Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition ...

    Holy Synod

    In its full form M OST H OLY D IRECTING S YNOD , the name of the council by which the ...

    Holy Thursday

    The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

    Holy Water

    The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...

    Holy Water Fonts

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

    Holy Week

    Holy Week is the week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and ...

    Holy Year of Jubilee

    The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

    Holyrood Abbey

    Located in Edinburgh, Scotland ; founded in 1128 by King David I for the Canons Regular of ...

    Holywell

    A town in North Wales, situated on the declivity of a hill overlooking a picturesque valley, ...

    Holywood, Christopher

    ( Latinized , A Sacrobosco.) Jesuit ; b. At Artane, Dublin, in 1559; d. 4 September, 1626. ...

    Holywood, John

    (John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...

    Holzhauser, Bartholomew

    Parish priest, ecclesiastical writer, and founder of a religious community; born 24 Aug., ...

    Homes

    This term, when used in an eleemosynary sense, covers all institutions that afford the general ...

    Homicide

    ( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

    Homiletics

    Homiletics is the science that treats of the composition and delivery of a sermon or other ...

    Homiliarium

    A collection of homilies, or familiar explanations of the Gospels (see HOMILY). From a very ...

    Homily

    The word homily is derived from the Greek word homilia (from homilein ), which means to ...

    Homoousion

    (Gr. homoousion - from homos , same, and ousia , essence ; Latin consubstantialem , of ...

    Honduras

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF BRITISH HONDURAS. The territory of the vicariate is co-extensive with ...

    Hong-Kong

    The island of Hong-Kong was ceded by the Chinese Government to Great Britain in January, 1841, ...

    Honoratus a Sancta Maria

    A Discalced Carmelite ; born at Limoges, 4 July, 1651 ; died at Lille, 1729. Blaise Vauxelles ...

    Honoratus, Saint

    Archbishop of Arles; b. about 350; d. 6 (or, according to certain authors, 14 or 15) January, ...

    Honorius I, Pope

    Pope (625-12 October, 638), a Campanian, consecrated 27 October (Duchesne) or 3 November ...

    Honorius II, Pope

    (Lamberto Scannabecchi) Born of humble parents at Fagnano near Imola at an unknown date ; ...

    Honorius III, Pope

    (Cencio Savelli) Born at Rome, date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 18 March, 1227. For a ...

    Honorius IV, Pope

    (Giacomo Savelli) Born at Rome about 1210; died at Rome, 3 April, 1287. He belonged to the ...

    Honorius of Autun

    (HONORIUS AUGUSTODUNENSIS) A theologian, philosopher, and encyclopedic writer who lived in ...

    Honorius, Flavius

    Roman Emperor, d. 25 August, 423. When his father, the Emperor Theodosius, divided up the ...

    Honorius, Saint

    Archbishop of Canterbury, fifth in succession from St. Augustine, elected 627; consecrated at ...

    Honour

    Honour may be defined as the deferential recognition by word or sign of another's worth or ...

    Hontheim, Johannes Nicolaus von

    (FEBRONIUS) An auxiliary Bishop of Trier ; born at Trier, 27 January, 1701; died at ...

    Hood

    A flexible, conical, brimless head-dress, covering the entire head, except the face. It is either ...

    Hoogstraten, Jacob van

    (also HOCHSTRATEN) A theologian and controversialist, born about 1460, in Hoogstraeten, ...

    Hooke, Luke Joseph

    Born at Dublin in 1716; died at St. Cloud, Paris, 16 April, 1796, son of Nathaniel Hooke the ...

    Hope

    Hope, in its widest acceptation, is described as the desire of something together with the ...

    Hope-Scott, James Robert

    (Originally H OPE ) Parliamentary barrister, Q.C.; b. 15 July, 1812, at Great Marlow, ...

    Hopi Indians

    (From Hopita, "peaceful ones" their own name; also frequently known as Moki, or Moqui, an alien ...

    Hopkins, Gerard Manley

    Jesuit and poet, born at Stratford, near London, 28 July, 1844; died at Dublin, 8 June, 1889. ...

    Hormisdas, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown, elected to the Holy See, 514; d. at Rome, 6 August, 523. This able and ...

    Horner, Nicholas

    Layman and martyr, born at Grantley, Yorkshire, England, date of birth unknown; died at ...

    Horns, Altar

    On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns ...

    Hornyold, John Joseph

    A titular Bishop of Phiomelia, Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England ; born 19 ...

    Hortulus Animæ

    (L ITTLE G ARDEN OF THE S OUL ). A prayer book which both in its Latin and German ...

    Hosanna

    "And the multitudes that went before and that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of ...

    Hosea

    NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

    Hosius of Cordova

    The foremost Western champion of orthodoxy in the early anti-Arian struggle; born about 256; ...

    Hosius, Stanislaus

    (HOE, HOSZ) Cardinal and Prince- Bishop of Ermland ; born of German parents at Cracow, 5 ...

    Hospice

    ( Latin hospitium , a guest house). During the early centuries of Christianity the hospice ...

    Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus

    These sisters are established in religion under the Rule of St. Augustine, the institute being ...

    Hospitality

    The Council of Trent in its twenty-fifth session, cap. viii, De Ref., enjoins "all who hold any ...

    Hospitallers

    During the Middle Ages, among the hospitals established throughout the West ( Maisons-Dieu ...

    Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem

    (Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

    Hospitals

    (Latin hospes , a guest; hence hospitalis , hospitable; hospitium , a guest-house or ...

    Hospitius, Saint

    (Sospis) Recluse, b. according to tradition in Egypt, towards the beginning of the sixth ...

    Hossche, Sidron de

    ( Latin HOSSCHIUS) Sidron de Hossche, poet and priest ; born at Mercken, West Flanders, in ...

    Host

    Archaeological and Historical Aspects The bread destined to receive Eucharistic Consecration is ...

    Host, Johann

    One of the seven Dominicans, who distinguished themselves in the struggle against Luther in ...

    Hottentots

    The Hottentot is one of three tribes of South Africa which may be divided — Bantus, ...

    Houbigant, Charles François

    Born in Paris, 1686; died there 31 October, 1783. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in ...

    Houdon, Jean-Antoine

    Born at Versailles, 1741; died 16 July, 1828; the most distinguished sculptor of France ...

    Houdry, Vincent

    Preacher and writer on ascetics; b. 23 January, 1631, at Tours ; d. 21 March, 1729, at Paris. ...

    Houghton, John, Blessed

    Protomartyr of the persecution under Henry VIII, b. in Essex, 1487; d. at Tyburn, 4 May, 1535. ...

    Houghton, William

    (Variously called DE HOTUM, DE HOTHUM, DE HOZUM, BOTHUM, DE HONDEN, HEDDON, HEDDONEM, according as ...

    Hours, Canonical

    I. IDEA By canonical hour is understood all the fixed portion of the Divine Office which the ...

    Hours, Liturgy of the

    ("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

    Hove, Peter van

    Friar Minor, lector in theology and exegete ; b. at Rethy, in Campine (Belgium); d. at Antwerp, ...

    Howard, Mary, of the Holy Cross

    Poor Clare, born 28 December, 1653; died at Rouen, 21 Mary's 1735, daughter of Sir Robert Howard, ...

    Howard, Philip Thomas

    Dominican and cardinal, commonly called the "Cardinal of Norfolk"; born at Arundel House, ...

    Howard, Philip, Venerable

    Martyr, Earl of Arundel; born at Arundel House, London, 28 June 1557, died in the Tower of London, ...

    Howard, Venerable William

    Viscount Stafford, martyr ; born 30 November, 1614; beheaded Tower-Hill, 29 December, 1680. He ...

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    Hr 1

    Hroswitha

    A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

    × Close

    Hu 61

    Huánuco

    (Huanucensis) Suffragan of Lima in Peru. The department of Huánuco contains an ...

    Huajuápam de León

    (Huajuapatamensis) Diocese in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, erected by Bull of Leo XIII , ...

    Huaraz

    Diocese of Huaraz (Huaraziensis) Suffragan of Lima. It comprises the entire department of ...

    Huber, Alphons

    An historian; born 14 October, 1834, at Fügen, Zillerthal (Tyrol); died 23 November, 1898, at ...

    Hubert Walter

    Archbishop of Canterbury (1193-1205); died 13 July, 1205; son of Hervey (Herveus) Walter and ...

    Hubert, Jean-François

    The ninth Bishop of Quebec, born at Quebec, 23 February, 1739; died 17 October, 1799; son of ...

    Hubert, Saint

    Confessor, thirty-first Bishop of Maastricht, first Bishop of Liège, and Apostle of ...

    Hubert, Saint, Military Orders of

    I. The highest order of Bavaria, founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard V, Duke of Jülich, in ...

    Huc, Evariste Régis

    A French Lazarist missionary and traveller; born at Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne), 1 June, 1813; died ...

    Hucbald of St-Amand

    (HUGBALDUS, UBALDUS, UCHUBALDUS) A Benedictine monk ; born in 840; died in 930 or 932. The ...

    Huddleston, John

    Monk of the Order of St. Benedict; b. at Farington Hall, Lancashire, 15 April, 1608; exact date ...

    Hudson, Blessed James

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

    Hueber, Fortunatus

    A Franciscan historian and theologian, born at Neustadt on the Danube; died 12 Feb., 1706, at ...

    Huelgas de Burgos

    The royal monastery of Las Huelgas de Burgos was founded by Alfonso VIII at the instance of ...

    Huesca

    (OSCENSIS) Huesca embraces parts of the province of Huesca in north-eastern Spain, seven ...

    Huet, Pierre-Daniel

    A distinguished savant and celebrated French bishop ; born 8 February, 1630, at Caen (Normandy), ...

    Hug, Johann Leonhard

    A German Catholic exegete, b. at Constance, 1 June, 1765; d. at Freiburg im Br., 11 March, ...

    Hugh Capet

    King of France, founder of the Capetian dynasty, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. ...

    Hugh Faringdon, Blessed

    ( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

    Hugh of Digne

    Friar Minor andascetical writer; b. at Digne, south-east France, date uncertain; d. at ...

    Hugh of Flavigny

    Benedictine monk and historian; b. about 1064, probably at Verdun (Lorraine); d. before the ...

    Hugh of Fleury

    (Called also HUGO A SANTA MARIA, from the name of the church of his native village). ...

    Hugh of Lincoln, Saint

    Born about the year 1135 at the castle of Avalon, near Pontcharra, in Burgundy ; died at London, ...

    Hugh of Remiremont

    Surnamed CANDIDUS or BLANCUS. Cardinal, born of a noble family, probably in Lorraine, died soon ...

    Hugh of St-Cher

    (Latin D E S ANCTO C ARO ; D E S ANCTO T HEODORICO ). A Dominican cardinal of the ...

    Hugh of St. Victor

    Medieval philosopher, theologian, and mystical writer; b. 1096, at the manor of Hartingham in ...

    Hugh of Strasburg

    Theologian, flourished during the latter half of the thirteenth century. The dates of his birth ...

    Hugh the Great, Saint

    Abbot of Cluny, born at Semur (Brionnais in the Diocese of Autun, 1024; died at Cluny, 28 ...

    Hugh, Saint

    (Called LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN.) St. Hugh was the son of a poor woman of Lincoln ...

    Hughes, John

    Fourth bishop and first Archbishop of New York, born at Annaloghan, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, 24 ...

    Hugo, Charles-Hyacinthe

    Born 20 Sept., 1667, at St. Mihiel (Department of Meuse, France ); died 2 August, 1739. He ...

    Huguccio

    (HUGH OF PISA) Italian canonist, b. at Pisa, date unknown; d. in 1210. He studied at ...

    Huguenots

    A name by which the French Protestants are often designated. Its etymology is uncertain. ...

    Hulst, Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'

    A prelate, writer, orator; born at Paris, 10 Oct., 1841; died there, 6 Nov., 1896. After a ...

    Human Acts

    Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are ...

    Humanism

    Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the ...

    Humbert of Romans

    (DE ROMANIS). Fifth master general of the Dominican Order, b. at Romans in the Diocese of ...

    Humeral Veil

    This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

    Humiliati

    I. A penitential order dating back, according to some authorities, to the beginning of the ...

    Humility

    The word humility signifies lowliness or submissiveness an it is derived from the Latin ...

    Humphrey Middlemore, Blessed

    English Carthusian martyr, date of birth uncertain; d. at Tyburn, London, 19 June, 1535. His ...

    Humphreys, Laurence

    Layman and martyr, born in Hampshire, England, 1571; died at Winchester, 1591. Of Protestant ...

    Hungarian Catholics in America

    The Kingdom of Hungary (Magyarország) comprises within its borders several races or ...

    Hungarian Literature

    The language which has prevailed in Hungary for nearly a thousand years and is spoken at the ...

    Hungary

    GEOGRAPHY AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ...

    Hunolt, Franz

    The most popular German preacher of the early part of the eighteenth century, b. 31 March, 1691, ...

    Hunt, Ven. Thurston

    An English martyr (March, 1601), who belonged to the family seated at Carlton Hall, near ...

    Hunter, Sylvester Joseph

    English Jesuit priest and educator; b. at Bath, 13 Sept., 1829; d. at Stonyhurst, 20 June, 1896. ...

    Hunting, Canons on

    From early times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics. Thus, in the ...

    Huntington, Jedediah Vincent

    Clergyman, novelist; born 20 January, 1815, in New York City; died 10 March, 1862, at Pau, France. ...

    Hunyady, János

    (JOHN) Governor of Hungary, born about 1400; died 11 August, 1456; the heroic defender of the ...

    Huron Indians

    The main divisions of the subject are: I. THE HURONS BEFORE THEIR DISPERSION (1) Their Place in ...

    Hurst, Richard

    (Or HERST.) Layman and martyr, b. probably at Broughton, near Preston, Lancashire, England, ...

    Hurtado, Caspar

    A Spanish Jesuit and theologian, b. at Mondejar, New Castle, in 1575; d. at Alcalá, 5 ...

    Hurter

    (1) Friedrich Emmanuel Von Hurter Convert and historian, b. at Schaffhausen, 19 March, 1787; d. at ...

    Hus, Jan

    (Also spelled John ). Born at Husinetz in southern Bohemia, 1369; died at Constance 6 ...

    Husenbeth, Frederick Charles

    Born at Bristol, 30 May, 1796; died at Cossey, Norfolk, 31 October, 1872. The son of a Bristol ...

    Hussey, Thomas

    Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, b. at Ballybogan, Co. Meath, in 1746; d. at Tramore, Co. ...

    Hussites

    The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they ...

    Hutton, Peter

    Priest, b. at Holbeck, Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 29 June, 1811; d. at Ratcliffe, ...

    Huysmans, Joris Karl

    A French novelist; born in Paris, 5 February, 1848; died 12 May, 1907. He studied at the Lycee ...

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    Hy 16

    Hyacinth and Protus, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

    Hyacinth, Saint

    Dominican, called the Apostle of the North, son of Eustachius Konski of the noble family of ...

    Hyacintha Mariscotti, Saint

    A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

    Hydatius of Lemica

    ( Also IDATIUS; LEMICA is more correctly LIMICA.) A chronicler and bishop, born at the end ...

    Hyderabad-Deccan, Diocese of

    Hyderabad, also called Bhagnagar, and Fakhunda Bunyad, capital of the Nizam's dominions, was ...

    Hyginus, Pope Saint

    Reigned about 138-142; succeeded Pope Telesphorus, who, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., IV, ...

    Hylozoism

    (Greek hyle , matter + zoe , life ) The doctrine according to which all matter ...

    Hymn

    A derivative of the Latin hymnus , which comes from the Greek hymnos , derived from hydein ...

    Hymnody and Hymnology

    Hymnody, taken from the Greek ( hymnodia ), means exactly " hymn song", but as the hymn-singer ...

    Hypæpa

    Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus; it was a small town on the southern slope of ...

    Hypnotism

    (Greek hypnos , sleep) By Hypnotism , or Hypnosis , we understand here the nervous ...

    Hypocrisy

    (Greek hypo , under, and krinesthai , to contend — hence adequately "to answer" on the ...

    Hypostatic Union

    A theological term used with reference to the Incarnation to express the revealed truth ...

    Hypsistarians

    Hypsistarians or worshippers of the Hypsistos , i.e. of the "Most High" God ; a distinct ...

    Hyrtl, Joseph

    Austrian anatomist, b. at Eisenstadt in Hungary, December 7, 1810; d. 17 July, 1894, on his ...

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