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Hope

Hope, in its widest acceptation, is described as the desire of something together with the expectation of obtaining it. The Scholastics say that it is a movement of the appetite towards a future good, which though hard to attain is possible of attainment. Consideration of this state of soul is limited in this article to its aspect as a factor in the supernatural order . Looked at in this way it is defined to be a Divine virtue by which we confidently expect, with God's help, to reach eternal felicity as well as to have at our disposal the means of securing it. It is said to be Divine not merely because its immediate object is God, but also because of the special manner of its origin. Hope, such as we are here contemplating, is an infused virtue ; ie., it is not, like good habits in general, the outcome of repeated acts or the product of our own industry. Like supernatural faith and charity it is directly implanted in the soul by Almighty God. Both in itself and in the scope of its operation it outstrips the limits of the created order, and is to be had if at all only through the direct largess of the Creator. The capacity which it confers is not only the strengthening of an existing power, but rather the elevation, the transforming of a faculty for the performance of functions essentially outside its natural sphere of activity. All of this is intelligible only on the basis, which we take for granted, that there is such a thing as the supernatural order, and that the only realizable ultimate destiny of man in the present providence of God lies in that order.

Hope is termed a theological virtue because its immediate object is God, as is true of the other two essentially infused virtues, faith and charity. St. Thomas acutely says that the theological virtues are so called "because they have God for their object, both in so far as by them we are properly directed to Him, and because they are infused into our souls by God alone, as also, finally, because we come to know of them only by Divine revelation in the Sacred Scriptures ". Theologians enlarge upon this idea by saying that Almighty God is both the material and the formal object of hope. He is the material object because He is that which is chiefly, though not solely, aimed at when we elicit acts of this virtue- ie., whatever else is looked for is only desired in so far as it bears a relation to Him. Hence according to the generally followed teaching, not only supernatural helps, particularly such as are necessary for our salvation, but also things in the temporal order, inasmuch as they can be means to reach the supreme end of human life, may be the material objects of supernatural hope. It is worthwhile noting here that in a strict construction of the term we cannot properly hope for eternal life for someone other than ourselves. The reason is that it is of the nature of hope to desire and expect something apprehended precisely as the good or happiness of the one who hopes ( bonum proprium ). In a qualified sense, however, that is so far as love may have united us with others, we may hope for others as well as for ourselves.

By the formal object of hope we understand the motive or motives which lead us to entertain a confident expectation of a happy issue to our efforts in the matter of eternal salvation notwithstanding the difficulties which beset our path. Theologians are not of one mind in determining what is to be assigned as the sufficient reason of supernatural hope. Mazzella (De Virtutibus Infusis, disp. v, art. 2), whose judgment has the merit of simplicity as well as that of adequate analysis, finds the foundation of our hope in two things. It is based, according to him, on our apprehension of God as our supreme supernatural good Whose communication in the beatific vision is to make us happy for all eternity, and also on those Divine attributes such as omnipotence, mercy and fidelity, which unite to exhibit God as our unfailing helper. These considerations, he thinks, motive our wills or furnish the answer to the question why we hope. Of course it is taken for granted that the yearning for God, not simply because of His own infinite perfections but explicitly because He is to be our reward, is a righteous temper of soul, otherwise the spiritual attitude of hope in which such a longing is included would not be a virtue at all. Luther and Calvin were at one in insisting that only the product of the perfect love of God, ie. the love of God for His own sake, was to be regarded as morally good. Consequently they rejected as sinful whatever was done only through consideration of eternal reward or, in other words, through that love of God which the Scholastics call "amor concupiscentiae". The Council of Trent (Sess. vi, can. 31) stigmatized these errors as heresy : "If anyone says that a justified person sins when such a one does what is right through hope of eternal reward, let him be anathema ". In spite of this unequivocal pronouncement of the council, Baius, the celebrated Louvain theologian, substantially reiterated the false doctrine of the Reformers on this point. His teaching on the matter was formulated in the thirty-eighth proposition extracted from his works, and was condemned by St. Pius V. According to him there is no true act of virtue except what is elicited by charity, and as all love is either of God or His creatures, all love which is not the love of God for His own sake, ie. for His own infinite perfections, is depraved cupidity and a sin. Of course in such a theory there could not properly speaking be any place for the virtue of hope as we understand it. It is easy also to see how it fits in with the initial Protestant position of identifying faith and confidence and thus making hope rather an act of the intellect than of the will. For if we may not hope, in the Catholic sense, for blessedness, the only substitute available seems to be belief in the Divine mercy and promises.

It is a truth constantly acted upon in Catholic life and no less explicitly taught, that hope is necessary to salvation. It is necessary first of all as an indispenssible means ( necessitate medii ) of attaining salvation, so that no one can enter upon eternal bliss without it. Hence even infants, though they cannot have elicited the act, must have had the habit of hope infused in Baptism. Faith is said to be "the substance of things hoped for" ( Hebrews 2:1 ), and without it "it is impossible to please God " (ibid ., xi, 6). Obviously, therefore, hope is required for salvation with the same absolute necessity as faith. Moreover, hope is necessary because it is prescribed by law, the natural law which, in the hypothesis that we are destined for a supernatural end, obliges us to use the means suited to that end. Further, it is prescribed by the positive Divine law, as, for instance, in the first Epistle of St. Peter, i, 13: "Trust perfectly in the grace which is offered you in the revelation of Jesus Christ ".

There is both a negative and a positive precept of hope. The negative precept is in force ever and always. Hence there can never be a contingency in which one may lawfully despair or presume. The positive precept enjoining the exercise of the virtue of hope demands fulfilment sometimes, because one has to discharge certain Christian duties which involve an act of this supernatural confidence, such as prayer, penance, and the like. Its obligation is then said, in the language of the schools, to be per accidens . On the other hand, there are times when it is binding without any such spur, because of its own intrinsic importance, or per se . How often this is so in the lifetime of a Christian, is not susceptible of exact determination, but that it is so is quite clear from the tenor of a proposition condemned by Alexander VII : "Man is at no time during his life bound to elicit an act of faith, hope and charity as a consequence of Divine precepts appertaining to these virtues ". It is, however, perhaps not superfluous to note that the explicit act of hope is not exacted. The average good Christian, who is solicitous about living up to his beliefs, implicitly satisfies the duty imposed by the precept of hope.

The doctrine herein set forth as to the necessity of Christian hope was impugned in the seventeenth century by the curious mixture of fanatical mysticism and false spirituality called Quietism. This singular array of errors was given to the world by a Spanish priest named Miguel Molinos. He taught that to arrive at the state of perfection it was essential to lay aside all self-love to such an extent that one became indifferent as to one's own progress, salvation, or damnation. The condition of soul to be aimed at was one of absolute quiet brought about by the absence of every sort of desire or anything that could be construed as such. Hence, to quote the words of the seventh of the condemned propositions taken from Molinos's Spiritual Guide , "the soul must not occupy itself with any thought whether of reward or punishment, heaven or hell, death or eternity ". As a result one ought not to entertain any hope as to one's salvation ; for that, as a manifestation of selfwill, implies imperfection. For the same reason petitions to Almighty God about anything whatever are quite out of place. No resistance, except of a purely negative sort, should be offered to temptations, and an entirely passive attitude should be fostered in every respect. In the year 1687 Innocent XII condemned sixty-eight propositions embodying this extraordinary doctrine as heretical, blasphemous, scandalous, etc. He likewise consigned the author to perpetual confinement in a monastery, where, having previously abjured his errors, he died in the year 1696. About the same time a species of pseudomysticism, largely identical with that of Molinos, but omitting the objectionable conclusions, was defended by Madame Guyon . It even found an advocate in Fénelon who engaged in a controversy with Bossuet on the subject. Ultimately twenty-three propositions drawn from Fénelon's Explanation of the maxims of the Saints on the interior life were proscribed by Innocent XII. The gist of the teaching, so far as we are concerned, was that there is in this life a state of perfection with which it is impossible to reconcile any love of God except that which is absolutely disinterested, which therefore does not contemplate possession of God as our reward. It would follow that the act of hope is incompatible with such a state, since it postulates precisely a desire for God, not only because He is good in Himself, but also and formally because He is our adequate and final good. Hope is less perfect than charity, but that admission does not involve a moral deformity of any kind, still less is it true that we can or ought to pass our lives in a quasi uninterrupted act of pure love of God. As a matter of fact, there is no such state anywhere identifiable, and if there were it would not be inconsistent with Christian hope.

The question as to the necessity of hope is followed with some natural sequence by the inquiry as to its certitude. Manifestly, if hope be absolutely required as a means to salvation, there is an antecedent presumption that its use must in some sense be accompanied by certainty. It is clear that, as certitude is properly speaking a predicate of the intellect, it is only in a derived sense, or as St. Thomas says participative , that we can speak of hope, which is largely a matter of the will, as being certain. In other words, hope, whose office is to elevate and strengthen our wills, is said to share the certitude of faith, whose abiding place is our intellects. For our purpose it is of importance to recall what it is that, being apprehended by our intellect, is said to do service as the foundation of Christian hope. This has already been determined to be the concept of God as our helper gathered from reflecting on His goodness, mercy, omnipotence, and fidelity to His promises. In a subordinate sense our hope is built upon our own merits, as the eternal reward is not forthcoming except to those who shall have employed their free will to co-operate with the aids afforded by God's bounty. Now there is a threefold certitude discernible.

  • A thing is said to be certain conditionally when, another thing being given, the first infallibly follows. Supernatural hope is evidently certain in this way, because, granted that a man does all that is required to save his soul, he is sure to attain to eternal life. This is guaranteed by the infinite power and goodness and fidelity of God
  • There is a certainty proper to virtues in general in so far as they are principles of action. Thus for instance a really temperate man may be counted on to be uniformly sober. Hope being a virtue may claim this moral certainty inasmuch as it constantly and after an established method encourages us to look for eternal blessedness to be had by the Divine munificence and as the crown of our own merits accumulated through grace.
  • Finally, a thing is certain absolutely, ie., not conditionally upon the verification of some other thing, but quite independently of any such event. In this case no room for doubt is left. Is hope certain in this meaning of the word? So far as the secondary material object of hope is concerned, ie. those graces which are at least remotely adequate for salvation, we can be entirely confident that these are most certainly provided. As to the primary material object of hope namely, the face-to-face vision of God, the Catholic doctrine, as set forth in the sixth session of the Council of Trent , is that our hope is unqualifiedly certain if we consider only the Divine attributes , which are its support, and which cannot fail. If, however, we limit our attention to the sum total of salutary operation which we contribute and upon which we also lean as upon the reason of our expectation, then, prescinding from the case of an individual revelation, hope is to be pronounced uncertain. This is plainly for the reason that we cannot in advance insure ourselves against the weakness or the malice of our free wills.
  • This doctrine is in direct antagonism to the initial Protestant contention that we can and must be altogether certain of our salvation. The only thing required for this end, according to the teaching of the Reformers, was the special faith or confidence in the promises which alone, without good works, justified a man. Hence, even though there were no good works distinguishable in a person's earthly career, such a one might and ought, notwithstanding, cherish a firm hope, provided only that he did not cease to believe.

    Assuming that the seat of hope is our will, we may ask whether, having been once infused, it can ever be lost. The answer is that it can be destroyed, both by the perpetration of the sin of despair, which is its formal opposite, and by the subtraction of the habit of faith, which assigns the motives for it. It is not so clear that the sin of presumption expels the supernatural virtue of hope, although of course it cannot coexist with the act. We need not be detained with the inquiry whether a man could continue to hope if his eternal damnation had been revealed to him. Theologians are agreed in regarding such a revelation as practically, if not absolutely, impossible. If, by an all but clearly absurd hypothesis, we suppose Almighty God to have revealed to anyone in advance that he was surely to be lost, such a person obviously could no longer hope. Do the souls in Purgatory hope? It is the commonly held opinion that, as they have not yet been admitted to the intuitive vision of God, and as there is nothing otherwise in their condition which is at variance with the concept of this virtue, they have the habit and elicit the act of hope. As to the damned, the concordant judgment is that, as they have been deprived of every other supernatural gift, so also knowing well the perpetuity of their reprobation, they can no longer hope. With reference to the blessed in heaven, St. Thomas holds that, possessing what they have striven for, they can no longer be said to have the theological virtue of hope. The words of St. Paul ( Romans 8:24 ) are to the point: "For we are saved by hope. But hope that is seen, is not hope. For what a man seeth, why doth he hope for?" They can still desire the glory which is to be proper to their risen bodies and also by reason of the bonds of charity, they can wish for the salvation of others, but this is not, properly speaking, hope. The human Soul of Christ furnishes an example. Because of the hypostatic union It was already enjoying the beatific vision . At the same time, because of the passible nature with which He had clothed Himself, He was in the state of pilgrimage ( in statu viatoris ), and hence He could look forward with longing to His assumption of the qualities of the glorified body. This however was not hope, because hope has as its main object union with God in heaven.

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    Hawker, Robert Stephen

    Poet and antiquary; b. at Plymouth 3 December, 1803, d. there 15 August, 1875, son of Jacob ...

    Hawkins, Sir Henry

    Raised to the peerage as Lord Brampton, eminent English lawyer and Judge, b. at Hitchin, ...

    Hay, Edmund and John

    (1) Edmund Hay Jesuit, and envoy to Mary Queen of Scots, b. 1540?; d. at Rome, 4 Nov., 1591. he ...

    Hay, George

    Bishop and writer, b. at Edinburgh, 24 Aug., 1729; d. at Aquhorties, 18 Oct., 1811. His parents ...

    Haydn, Franz Joseph

    Born of staunch Catholic parents at Rohrau, Austria, 1 April, 1732; died at Gumpendorf, Vienna, ...

    Haydn, Johann Michael

    A younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn ; born at Rohrau, Austria, 14 September, 1737; died at ...

    Haydock, George Leo

    Priest and Biblical scholar; b. 11 April, 1774, at Cottam, near Wood Plumpton, Lancashire; d. 29 ...

    Haydock, Venerable George

    English martyr ; born 1556; executed at Tyburn, 12 February, 1583-84. He was the youngest son of ...

    Haymo

    ( Or Haimo). A Benedictine bishop of the ninth century; d. 26 March, 853. The exact date ...

    Haymo of Faversham

    English Franciscan and schoolman, b. at Faversham, Kent; d. at Anagni, Itlay, in 1243, according ...

    Haynald, Lajos

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Kalocsa-Bács in Hungary ; b. at Szécsény, 3 ...

    Hazart, Cornelius

    Controversialist, orator, and writer, b. 28 October, 1617, at Oudenarde in the Netherlands ; ...

    × Close

    He 165

    Healy, George Peter Alexander

    An American portrait and historical painter, b. at Boston, 15 July, 1808; d. at Chicago, 14 June ...

    Hearse, Tenebrae

    The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

    Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the

    The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...

    Heart of Mary, Congregations of

    I. Sisters of the Holy Heart of Mary Founded in 1842 at Nancy, by Mgr Menjaud, Bishop of ...

    Heart of Mary, Devotion to the

    As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...

    Heath, Ven. Henry

    English Franciscan and martyr, son of John Heath; christened at St. John's, Peterborough, 16 ...

    Heaven

    This subject will be treated under seven headings: I. Name and Place of Heaven; II. Existence of ...

    Hebrew Bible

    As compared with the Latin Vulgate , the Hebrew Bible includes the entire Old Testament with ...

    Hebrew Language and Literature

    Hebrew was the language spoken by the ancient Israelites, and in which were composed nearly all ...

    Hebrews, Epistle to the

    This will be considered under eight headings: (I) Argument; (II) Doctrinal Contents; (III) ...

    Hebrides, New

    Vicariate Apostolic in Oceania; comprises the New Hebrides, with Banks and Torres, islands ...

    Hebron

    ( hbrwn, chebrón ) An ancient royal city of Chanaan, famous in biblical history, ...

    Hecker, Isaac Thomas

    Missionary, author, founder of the Paulists ; b. in New York, 18 December, 1819; d. there, 22 ...

    Hedonism

    ( hedoné, pleasure). The name given to the group of ethical systems that hold, with ...

    Hedwig, Saint

    Duchess of Silesia, b. about 1174, at the castle of Andechs ; d. at Trebnitz, 12 or 15 ...

    Heeney, Cornelius

    Merchant and philanthropist; b. in King's County, Ireland, 1754; d. at Brooklyn, U.S.A. 3 May, ...

    Heereman von Zuydwyk, Freiherr von

    (Clemens Aug. Ant.). Catholic statesman and writer on art, b. 26 Aug., 1832, at Surenburg near ...

    Heeswijk

    A village in the diocese of Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), Holland, in which the dispersed ...

    Hefele, Karl Joseph von

    Bishop of Rottenburg, b. at Unterkochen, Würtemberg, 15 March, 1809; d. at Rottenburg, 5 ...

    Hegelianism

    (1) Life and Writings of Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born at Stüttgart in 1770; ...

    Hegesippus, Saint

    (Roman Martyrology, 7 April). A writer of the second century, known to us almost exclusively ...

    Hegesippus, The Pseudo-

    A fourth-century translator of the "Jewish War" of Flavius Josephus. The name is based on an ...

    Hegius, Alexander

    Humanist ; b. probably in 1433, at Heeck (Westphalia); d. 7 December, 1498, at Deventer ...

    Heidelberg, University of

    Heidelberg, a city of 41,000 inhabitants, is situated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, on the left ...

    Heiligenkreuz

    (SANCTA CRUX). An existing Cistercian monastery in the Wienerwald, eight miles north-west of ...

    Heilsbronn

    (FONS SALUTIS). Formerly a Cistercian monastery in the Diocese of Eichstätt in Middle ...

    Heilsbronn, Monk of

    This name indicates the unknown author of some small mystical treatises, written about the ...

    Heim, François Joseph

    French historical painter, b. near Belfort, 1787, d. in Paris, 1865. This clever painter ...

    Heinrich der Glïchezäre

    ( Glïchezäre , i.e. the hypocrite, in the sense of one who adopts a strange name or ...

    Heinrich von Ahaus

    (Hendrik van Ahuis) Founder of the Brethren of the Common Life in Germany, b. in 1371, the ...

    Heinrich von Laufenberg

    A German poet of the fifteenth century, d. at Strasburg in 1460; he was a priest in Freiburg ...

    Heinrich von Meissen

    Usually called "Frauenlob" (Woman's praise), a Middle High German lyric poet; b. at Meissen ...

    Heinrich von Melk

    German satirist of the twelfth century; of knightly birth and probably a lay brother in the ...

    Heinrich von Veldeke

    A medieval German poet of knightly rank; b. near Maastricht in the Netherlands about the ...

    Heinz, Joseph

    Swiss painter ; b. at Basle, 11 June, 1564; d. near Prague, Bohemia, October, 1609. He appears ...

    Heis, Eduard

    German astronomer, b. at Cologne, 18 February, 1806; d. at Münster, Westphalia, 30 June, ...

    Heisterbach

    (Vallis S. Petri). A former Cistercian monastery in the Siebengebirge near the little town ...

    Helen of Sköfde, Saint

    Martyr in the first half of the twelfth century. Her feast is celebrated 31 July. Her life ...

    Helena (Montana)

    (Helenensis) Erected from the Vicariate of Montana, 7 March, 1884. It comprises the western ...

    Helena, Saint

    The mother of Constantine the Great , born about the middle of the third century, possibly in ...

    Helenopolis

    A titular see of Bithynia Prima, suffragan of Prusa. On the southern side of the Sinus Astacenus ...

    Heli

    Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

    Heliae, Paul

    (POVL HELGESEN) A Carmelite, opponent of the Reformation in Denmark, born at Warberg (in the ...

    Heliand, The

    ( German Heiland , Saviour) The oldest complete work of German literature . Matthias Flacius ...

    Heliogabalus

    (E LAGABAL ) The name adopted by Varius Avitus Bassianus, Roman emperor (218-222), born of ...

    Hell

    This subject is treated under eight headings: (I) Name and Place of Hell; (II) Existence of ...

    Hell, Maximilian

    (Höll). Astronomer, b. at Schemnitz in Hungary, 15 May, 1720; d. at Vienna, 14 April, ...

    Hello, Ernest

    French philosopher and essayist, b. at Lorient, Brittany, 4 Nov., 1828; d. at Kéroman, ...

    Helmold

    A historian, born in the first half of the twelfth century; died about 1177. He was a native of, ...

    Helmont, Jan Baptista van

    Born at Brussels, 1577; died near Vilvorde, 30 December, 1644. This scientist, distinguished in ...

    Helpers of the Holy Souls, Society of the

    ( Auxiliatrices des Ames du Purgatoire ) A religious order of women founded in Paris, ...

    Helpidius, Flavius Rusticius

    The name of several Latin writers. It appears in the manuscript of Pomponius Mela and Julius ...

    Hemmerlin, Felix

    (MALLEOLUS) properly HEMERLI A provost at Solothurn, in Switzerland, born at Zurich, in 1388 ...

    Henderson, Issac Austin

    Born at Brooklyn, 1850; died in Rome, March, 1909. His family was of Scotch and Irish ...

    Hendrick, Thomas Augustine

    First American and the twenty-second Bishop of Cebú, Philippine Islands, b. at Penn Yan, ...

    Hengler, Lawrence

    Catholic priest and the inventor of the horizontal pendulum, b. at Reichenhofen, ...

    Hennepin, Louis

    One of the most famous explorers in the wilds of North America during the seventeenth century, b. ...

    Henoch

    (Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

    Henoch, Book of

    The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

    Henoticon

    The story of the Henoticon forms a chapter in that of the Monophysite heresy in the fifth and ...

    Henríquez, Crisóstomo

    A Cistercian religious of the Spanish Congregation; b. at Madrid, 1594; d. 23 December, 1632, ...

    Henríquez, Enrique

    Noted Jesuit theologian, b. at Oporto, 1536; d. at Tivoli, 28 January, 1608. At the age of ...

    Henri de Saint-Ignace

    A Carmelite theologian, b. in 1630, at Ath in Hainaut, Belgium ; d. in 1719 or 1720, near ...

    Henrion, Mathieu-Richard-Auguste

    Baron, French magistrate, historian, and journalist; b. at Metz, 19 June, 1805; d. at Aix, ...

    Henry Abbot

    Layman, martyred at York, 4 July, 1597, pronounced Venerable in 1886. His acts are thus related ...

    Henry II

    King of England, born 1133; died 6 July, 1189; was in his earlier life commonly known as Henry ...

    Henry II, Saint

    German King and Holy Roman Emperor, son of Duke Henry II (the Quarrelsome) and of the Burgundian ...

    Henry III

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Conrad II; b. 1017; d. at Bodfeld, in the Harz Mountains, 5 ...

    Henry IV

    King of France and Navarre, son of Jeanne d'Albret and Antoine de Bourbon, b. 14 December, 1553, ...

    Henry IV

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry III and Agnes of Poitou, b. at Goslar, 11 November, ...

    Henry of Friemar

    (DE VRIMARIA) German theologian ; b. at Friemar, a small town near Gotha in Thuringia, about ...

    Henry of Ghent

    (HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, known as the DOCTOR SOLEMNIS) A notable scholastic philosopher and ...

    Henry of Herford

    (Or HERWORDEN; HERVORDIA) Friar and chronicler; date of birth unknown; died at Minden, 9 Oct., ...

    Henry of Huntingdon

    Historian; b. probably near Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, between 1080 and 1085; d. 1155. Little is ...

    Henry of Kalkar

    (Egher). Carthusian writer, b. at Kalkar in the Duchy of Cleves in 1328; d. at Cologne, 20 ...

    Henry of Langenstein

    (Henry of Hesse the Elder.) Theologian and mathematician; b. about 1325 at the villa of ...

    Henry of Nördlingen

    A Bavarian secular priest, of the fourteenth century, date of death unknown; the spiritual ...

    Henry of Rebdorf

    Alleged author of an imperial and papal chronicle of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is ...

    Henry of Segusio, Blessed

    Usually called Hostiensis , an Italian canonist of the thirteenth century, born at Susa (in ...

    Henry Suso, Blessed

    (Also called Amandus , a name adopted in his writings). German mystic, born at Constance on ...

    Henry the Navigator, Prince

    Born 4 March, 1394; died 13 November, 1460; he was the fourth son of John I, King of Portugal, by ...

    Henry V

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV ; b. in 1081; d. at Utrecht, 23 May, 1125. He ...

    Henry VI

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy ; b. in ...

    Henry VIII

    King of England, born 28 June, 1491; died 28 January, 1547. He was the second son and third ...

    Henryson, Robert

    Scottish poet, born probably 1420-1430; died about 1500. His birthplace, parentage, and place of ...

    Henschen, Godfrey

    (Or Henskens .) Jesuit, hagiographer ; b. at Venray (Limburg), 21 June, 1601; d. at ...

    Hensel, Luise

    Poetess and convert ; born at Linum, 30 March, 1798; died at Paderborn, 18 December, 1876. Her ...

    Henten, John

    Biblical exegete, born 1499 at Nalinnes Belgium ; died 10 Oct., 1566, at Louvain. When quite ...

    Heortology

    (From the Greek heorte , festival, and logos , knowledge, discourse) Heortology ...

    Hephæstus

    A titular see of Augustamnica Prima, mentioned by Hierocles (Synecd., 727, 9), by George of ...

    Heptarchy

    (A NGLO -S AXON H EPTARCHY ) By the term heptarchy is understood that complexus of ...

    Heraclas

    Bishop of Alexandria from 231 or 232; to 247 or 248. Of his earlier life Origen tells us, ...

    Heraclea

    A titular see of Thracia Prima. Heraclea is the name given about four centuries before the ...

    Heraldry, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical heraldry naturally divides itself into various branches, principally: the arms of ...

    Herbart and Herbartianism

    The widespread and increasing influence of Herbart and his disciples in the work of education ...

    Herbert of Bosham

    A biographer of St. Thomas Becket , dates of birth and death unknown. He was probably born in ...

    Herbert of Derwentwater, Saint

    (Hereberht). Date of birth unknown; d. 20 March, 687; an anchorite of the seventh century, ...

    Herbert of Lea, Lady Elizabeth

    Authoress, and philanthropist, b. in 1822; d. in London 30 Oct., 1911. Lady Herbert was the ...

    Herbst, Johann Georg

    Born at Rottweil, in Würtemberg, 13 January, 1787; died 31 July, 1836. His college course, ...

    Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo, Alejandro

    Born at Lisbon, 28 March, 1810; died near Santarem, 13 Sept., 1877. Because of his liberal ...

    Herder

    The name of a German firm of publishers and booksellers. Bartholomäus Herder Founder of the ...

    Herdtrich, Christian Wolfgang

    (According to Franco, Christianus Henriques ; Chinese, Ngen ). An Austrian Jesuit ...

    Heredity

    The offspring tends to resemble, sometimes with extraordinary closeness, the parents ; this is ...

    Hereford, Ancient Diocese of

    (HEREFORDENSIS) Located in England. Though the name of Putta, the exiled Bishop of ...

    Hereswitha, Saint

    (HAERESVID, HERESWYDE). Daughter of Hereric and Beorhtswith and sister of St. Hilda of Whitby. ...

    Heresy

    I. Connotation and DefinitionII. Distinctions III. Degrees of heresy IV. Gravity of the sin of ...

    Hergenröther, Joseph

    Church historian and canonist, first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives, b. at ...

    Heribert

    (ARIBERT) Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045) An ambitious and warlike prince of the ...

    Heribert, Saint

    Archbishop of Cologne ; born at Worms, c. 970; died at Cologne, 16 March, 1021. His father was ...

    Heriger of Lobbes

    A medieval theologian and historian; born about 925; died 31 October, 1007. After studying at ...

    Herincx, William

    A theologian, born at Helmond, North Brabant, 1621; died 17 Aug., 1678. After receiving his ...

    Hermann Contractus

    (Herimanus Augiensis, Hermann von Reichenau ). Chronicler, mathematician, and poet; b. 18 ...

    Hermann I

    Landgrave of Thuringia (1190-1217), famous as a patron of medieval German poets. He was the ...

    Hermann Joseph, Saint

    Premonstratensian monk and mystic; b. at Cologne about 1150; d. at Hoven, 7 April, 1241. ...

    Hermann of Altach

    (Niederaltaich). A medieval historian; b. 1200 or 1201; d. 31 July, 1275. He received his ...

    Hermann of Fritzlar

    With this name are connected two works on mysticism written in German. The first, "Das ...

    Hermann of Minden

    Provincial of the German province of Dominicans ; b. at or near Minden on an unknown date ; d. ...

    Hermann of Salza

    Fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , descendant of the noble Thuringian house of Salza; ...

    Hermanos Penitentes, Los

    (The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

    Hermas

    (First or second century), author of the book called "The Shepherd" ( Poimen , Pastor), a work ...

    Hermas, Saint

    Martyr The Roman Martyrology sets down for 18 August (XV Kal. Septembris) the feast of the ...

    Hermeneutics

    Derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god Hermes, the reputed messenger and ...

    Hermengild, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 585. Leovigild, the Arian King of the Visigoths (569-86), ...

    Hermes, George

    Philosopher and theologian, b. at Dreierwalde near Theine (Westphalia), 22 April, 1775; d. at ...

    Hermes, Saint

    Martyr, Bishop of Salano (Spalato) in Dalmatia. Very little is known about him; in Romans ...

    Hermite, Charles

    Born at Dieuze, Lorraine, 24 December, 1822; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1901; one of the greatest ...

    Hermits

    ( Eremites , "inhabitants of a desert ", from the Greek eremos ), also called anchorites, ...

    Hermits of St. Augustine

    (Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons ). A ...

    Hermon

    [From the Hebrew meaning "sacred (mountain)"; Septuagint, Aermon ] A group of mountains ...

    Hermopolis Magna

    A titular see of Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoe, in Egypt. The native name was Khmounoun; ...

    Hermopolis Parva

    A titular see of Ægyptus Prima, suffragan of Alexandria. Its ancient name, Dimanhoru or ...

    Herod

    (Greek Herodes , from Heros .) Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. ...

    Herodias

    Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus -- son of Herod the Great and Mariamne -- was a descendant of ...

    Heroic Act of Charity

    A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences dated 18 December, 1885, and confirmed the ...

    Heroic Virtue

    The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

    Herp, Henry

    (Or HARP, Latin CITHARŒDUS, or ERP as in the old manuscripts ) A fifteenth century ...

    Herrad of Landsberg

    (or LANDSPERG) A twelfth-century abbess, author of the "Hortus Deliciarum"; born about 1130, ...

    Herregouts

    There were three artists of the name of Herregouts, father, son, and grandson, of whom the chief ...

    Herrera Barnuevo, Sebastiano de

    A painter, architect, sculptor and etcher; born in Madrid, 1611 or 1619; died there, 1671; son ...

    Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de

    A Spanish historian; born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia, in 1559; died at Madrid, 27 ...

    Herrera, Fernando de

    A Spanish lyric poet; born 1537; died 1597. The head of a school of lyric poets who gathered ...

    Herrera, Francisco

    (1) Francisco Herrera (el Viejo, the Elder) A Spanish painter, etcher, medallist, and architect; ...

    Herrgott, Marquard

    A Benedictine historian and diplomat; born at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 9 October, 1694; died ...

    Hersfeld

    An ancient imperial abbey of the Benedictine Order, situated at the confluence of the Geisa and ...

    Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo

    Spanish Jesuit and famous philologist; b. at Horcajo, 1 May, 1735; d. at Rome, 24 August, 1809. ...

    Hervetus, Gentian

    French theologian and controversialist; b. at Olivet, near Orléans, in 1499; d. at ...

    Hesebon

    (A.V. HESHBON; Greek Esebon, Esbous ; Latin Esbus). A titular see of the province of ...

    Hesse

    (H ESSEN ). The name of a German tribe, and also a district in Germany extending along the ...

    Hessels, Jean

    A distinguished theologian of Louvain ; born 1522; died 1566. He had been teaching for eight ...

    Hesychasm

    (Greek hesychos , quiet). The story of the system of mysticism defended by the monks of ...

    Hesychius of Alexandria

    Grammarian and lexicographer; of uncertain date, but assigned by most authorities to the later ...

    Hesychius of Jerusalem

    Presbyter and exegete, probably of the fifth century. Nothing certain is known as to the dates ...

    Hesychius of Sinai

    A priest and monk of the Order of St. Basil in the Thorn-bush (Batos) monastery on Mt. ...

    Hethites

    (A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

    Hettinger, Franz

    A Catholic theologian ; born 13 January, 1819, at Aschaffenburg; died 26 January, 1890, at ...

    Heude, Pierre

    Missionary to China and zoologist; b. at Fougères in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine, ...

    Hewett, John

    (Alias WELDON). English martyr ; son of William Hewett of York; date of birth unknown; ...

    Hewit, Augustine Francis

    Priest and second Superior General of the Institute of St. Paul the Apostle ; b. at Fairfield, ...

    Hexaemeron

    Hexaemeron signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of ...

    Hexapla

    The name given to Origen's edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek, the most colossal ...

    Hexateuch

    A name commonly used by the critics to designate the first six books of the Old Testament, i.e. ...

    Hexham and Newcastle

    Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle (Hagulstadensis et Novocastrensis). Hexham, in ...

    Heynlin of Stein, Johann

    (A LAPIDE) A theologian, born about 1425; died at Basle, 12 March, 1496. He was apparently of ...

    Heywood, Jasper and John

    (1) Jasper Heywood A poet and translator; born 1535 in London ; died 1598 at Naples. As a boy ...

    Hezekiah

    Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

    × Close

    Hi 47

    Hibernians, Ancient Order of

    This organization grew up gradually among the Catholics of Ireland owing to the dreadful ...

    Hickey, Antony

    A theologian, born in the Barony of Islands, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1586; died in Rome, 26 ...

    Hidalgo, Miguel

    Born on the ranch of San Vicente in the district of Guanajuato, 8 May, 1753; executed at ...

    Hierapolis

    Titular Archdiocese, metropolis of the Province of Euphrates, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. ...

    Hierapolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. It is usually called by its ...

    Hierarchy

    (Greek Hierarchia ; from hieros , sacred; archein , rule, command). This word has been ...

    Hierarchy of the Early Church

    The word hierarchy is used here to denote the three grades of bishop, priest, and deacon ( ...

    Hierocæsarea

    A titular see of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. This town is mentioned by Ptolemy (VI, ii, 16). ...

    Hieronymites

    In the fourth century, certain Roman ladies, following St. Paula, embraced the religious life ...

    Hierotheus

    All attempts to establish as historical a personality corresponding to the Hierotheus who ...

    Higden, Ranulf

    (HYDON, HYGDEN, HIKEDEN.) Benedictine chronicler; died 1364. He was a west-country man, and ...

    High Altar

    (ALTARE SUMMUM or MAJUS.) The high altar is so called from the fact that it is the chief altar ...

    High Priest, The

    The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

    Higher Criticism

    Overview Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary ...

    Hilarion, Saint

    Founder of anchoritic life in Palestine; born at Tabatha, south of Gaza, Palestine, about 291; ...

    Hilarius of Sexten

    (In the world, CHRISTIAN GATTERER.) Moral theologian ; born 1839, in the valley of Sexten in ...

    Hilarius, Pope Saint

    [ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

    Hilarus, Pope Saint

    [ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

    Hilary of Arles, Saint

    Archbishop, b. about 401; d. 5 May, 449. The exact place of his birth is not known. All that may ...

    Hilary of Poitiers, Saint

    Bishop, born in that city at the beginning of the fourth century; died there 1 November, according ...

    Hilda, Saint

    Abbess, born 614; died 680. Practically speaking, all our knowledge of St. Hilda is derived from ...

    Hildebert of Lavardin

    Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours, and celebrated medieval poet; b. about 1056, at the ...

    Hildegard, Saint

    Born at Böckelheim on the Nahe, 1098; died on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, 1179; feast 17 ...

    Hildesheim

    Diocese of Hildesheim (Hildesheimensis). An exempt see, comprising the Prussian province of ...

    Hilduin, Abbot of St-Denis

    He died 22 November, 840. He was a scion of a prominent Frankish family, hut the time and place ...

    Hill, Ven. Richard

    English Martyr, executed at Durham, 27 May, 1590. Very little is known of him and his ...

    Hillel

    A famous Jewish rabbi who lived about 70 B.C.-A.D. 10. Our only source of information concerning ...

    Hilton, Walter

    Augustinian mystic, d. 24 March, 1396. Little is known of his life, save that he was the head of a ...

    Himeria

    A titular see in the province of Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. The "Notitia" of Anastasius, ...

    Himerius

    (called also EUMERIUS and COMERIUS) An Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, 385. He is the ...

    Hincmar

    An archbishop of Reims ; born in 806; died at Epernay on 21 December, 882. Descended from a ...

    Hincmar

    Bishop of Laon; died 879. In the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar, a nephew on the mother's ...

    Hinderer, Roman

    (Chinese TE). A German missionary in China, born at Reiningen, near Mülhausen, date ...

    Hinduism

    Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices ...

    Hingston, Sir William Hales

    Canadian physician and surgeon, b. at Hinchinbrook near Huntingdon, Quebec, June 29, 1829; d. at ...

    Hippo Diarrhytus

    (Or HIPPO ZARRHYTUS.) A titular see of Northern Africa, now called Bizerta, originally a ...

    Hippo Regius

    A titular see of Numidia, now a part of the residential see of Constantine. Hippo was a Tyrian ...

    Hippolytus of Rome, Saint

    Martyr, presbyter and antipope ; date of birth unknown; d. about 236. Until the publication ...

    Hippolytus, Saints

    Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

    Hippos

    Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

    Hirena

    A titular see of southern Tunis. Nothing is known of the city, the name of which may have been ...

    Hirschau, Abbey of

    A celebrated Benedictine monastery in Würtemberg, Diocese of Spires, about twenty-two ...

    Hirscher, Johann Baptist von

    Born 20 January, 1788, at Alt-Ergarten, Ravensburg; died 4 September, 1865. He studied at ...

    Historical Criticism

    Historical criticism is the art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of ...

    History, Ecclesiastical

    I. NATURE AND OFFICE Ecclesiastical history is the scientific investigation and the methodical ...

    Hittites

    (A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

    Hittorp, Melchior

    A theologian and liturgical writer, born about 1525, at Cologne ; died there in 1584. On the ...

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    Hl 1

    Hladnik, Franz von Paula

    Botanist and schoolmaster, b. 29 March, 1773, at Idria, Carniola, Austria ; d. 25 November, ...

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    Ho 121

    Hobart

    (HOBARTENSIS) Hobart comprises Tasmania, Bruni Island, and the Cape Barren, Flinders, King, ...

    Hodgson, Sydney

    A lawman and martyr ; date and place of birth unknown; d. at Tyburn, 10 Dec., 1591. He was a ...

    Hofer, Andreas

    A patriot and soldier, born at St. Leonhard in Passeyrthale, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1767; executed at ...

    Hogan, John Baptist

    Better known, on account of his long sojourn in France, as Abbé Hogan, born near Ennis in ...

    Hohenbaum van der Meer, Moritz

    A Benedictine historian; born at Spörl near Belgrade, 25 June, 1718; died at the monastery ...

    Hohenburg

    (ODILIENBERG; ALTITONA) A suppressed nunnery, situated on the Odilienberg, the most famous of ...

    Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Alexander Leopold

    A titular Bishop of Sardica, famous for his many supposedly miraculous cures, born 17 August, ...

    Holbein, Hans

    (The Elder Holbein) A German painter ; b. at Augsburg about 1460; d. at Isenheim, Alsace, in ...

    Holden, Henry

    An English priest ; born 1596; died March, 1662. Henry Holden was the second son of Richard ...

    Holiness

    (A.S. hal , perfect, or whole). Sanctitas in the Vulgate of the New Testament is the ...

    Holland, Ven. Thomas

    An English martyr, b. 1600 at Sutton, Lancashire; martyred at Tyburn, 12 December, 1642. He ...

    Hollanders in the United States

    The Hollanders played by no means an insignificant part in the early history of the United ...

    Holmes, John

    Catholic educator and priest ; born at Windsor, Vermont, in 1799; died at Lorette, near ...

    Holocaust

    As suggested by its Greek origin ( holos "whole", and kaustos "burnt") the word designates an ...

    Holstenius, Lucas

    (HOLSTE). German philologist, b. at Hamburg, 1596; d. at Rome, 2 February, 1661. He studied ...

    Holtei, Karl von

    German novelist, poet, and dramatist; b. at Breslau, 24 January, 1798; d. in that city, 12 ...

    Holy Agony, Archconfraternity of

    An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony ...

    Holy Alliance

    The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I ...

    Holy Child Jesus, Society of the

    The Society was founded in England in 1840 by Mrs. Cornelia Connelly, née Peacock, ...

    Holy Childhood, Association of the

    A children's association for the benefit of foreign missions. Twenty years after the foundation of ...

    Holy Coat

    (OF TRIER AND ARGENTEUIL). The possession of the seamless garment of Christ (Gr. chiton ...

    Holy Communion

    By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Ascetic writers ...

    Holy Cross Abbey

    The picturesque ruins of this monastery are situated on the right bank of the River Suir, about ...

    Holy Cross, Congregation of

    A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state by the simple vows of ...

    Holy Cross, Sisters Marianites of

    The congregation of the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross was founded in 1841, in the parish of ...

    Holy Cross, Sisters of the

    (Mother House, St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame, Indiana) As an offset to ...

    Holy Faith, Sisters of the

    Founded at Dublin, in 1857, by Margaret Aylward, under the direction of Rev. John Gowan, C.M., ...

    Holy Family, Archconfraternity of the

    This archconfraternity owes its origin to Henri Belletable, an officer in the Engineers' Corps, ...

    Holy Family, Congregations of the

    I. ASSOCIATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY Founded in 1820 by the Abbé Pierre Bienvenue Noailles (d. ...

    Holy Ghost

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

    Holy Ghost, Orders of the

    The Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome was the cradle of an order, which, beginning in the ...

    Holy Ghost, Religious Congregations of the

    I. THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY GHOST AND OF THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY This Congregation was ...

    Holy Grail, The

    The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

    Holy House of Loreto

    (The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

    Holy Humility of Mary, Sisters of the

    Founded at Dommartin-sous-Amance, France, in 1855, by John Joseph Begel (b. 5 April, 1817; d. 23 ...

    Holy Infancy, Brothers of the

    Founded in 1853 by the Right Rev. John Timon, the first Bishop of Buffalo. The special aim of ...

    Holy Innocents

    The children mentioned in St. Matthew 2:16-18 : Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise ...

    Holy Name of Jesus

    We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...

    Holy Name, Feast of the

    This feast is celebrated on the second Sunday after Epiphany (double of the second class). ...

    Holy Name, Litany of the

    An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

    Holy Name, Society of the

    (Confraternity of the Most Holy Name of God and Jesus). An indulgenced confraternity in the ...

    Holy Oils

    (OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

    Holy Oils, Vessels for

    In Christian antiquity there existed an important category of vessels used as receptacles for ...

    Holy Orders

    Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

    Holy Saturday

    In the primitive Church Holy Saturday was known as Great, or Grand, Saturday, Holy Saturday, the ...

    Holy See

    (From the Latin Sancta Sedes , Holy Chair). A term derived from the enthronement ...

    Holy Sepulchre

    Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Canonesses Regular of the

    Concerning the foundation there is only a tradition connecting it with St. James the Apostle and ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Fathers of the

    (Guardians) The Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre are the six or seven Franciscan Fathers, who ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the

    Neither the name of a founder nor a date of foundation can be assigned to the so-called Order of ...

    Holy Spirit

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

    Holy Stairs (Scala Sancta)

    Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition ...

    Holy Synod

    In its full form M OST H OLY D IRECTING S YNOD , the name of the council by which the ...

    Holy Thursday

    The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

    Holy Water

    The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...

    Holy Water Fonts

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

    Holy Week

    Holy Week is the week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and ...

    Holy Year of Jubilee

    The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

    Holyrood Abbey

    Located in Edinburgh, Scotland ; founded in 1128 by King David I for the Canons Regular of ...

    Holywell

    A town in North Wales, situated on the declivity of a hill overlooking a picturesque valley, ...

    Holywood, Christopher

    ( Latinized , A Sacrobosco.) Jesuit ; b. At Artane, Dublin, in 1559; d. 4 September, 1626. ...

    Holywood, John

    (John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...

    Holzhauser, Bartholomew

    Parish priest, ecclesiastical writer, and founder of a religious community; born 24 Aug., ...

    Homes

    This term, when used in an eleemosynary sense, covers all institutions that afford the general ...

    Homicide

    ( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

    Homiletics

    Homiletics is the science that treats of the composition and delivery of a sermon or other ...

    Homiliarium

    A collection of homilies, or familiar explanations of the Gospels (see HOMILY). From a very ...

    Homily

    The word homily is derived from the Greek word homilia (from homilein ), which means to ...

    Homoousion

    (Gr. homoousion - from homos , same, and ousia , essence ; Latin consubstantialem , of ...

    Honduras

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF BRITISH HONDURAS. The territory of the vicariate is co-extensive with ...

    Hong-Kong

    The island of Hong-Kong was ceded by the Chinese Government to Great Britain in January, 1841, ...

    Honoratus a Sancta Maria

    A Discalced Carmelite ; born at Limoges, 4 July, 1651 ; died at Lille, 1729. Blaise Vauxelles ...

    Honoratus, Saint

    Archbishop of Arles; b. about 350; d. 6 (or, according to certain authors, 14 or 15) January, ...

    Honorius I, Pope

    Pope (625-12 October, 638), a Campanian, consecrated 27 October (Duchesne) or 3 November ...

    Honorius II, Pope

    (Lamberto Scannabecchi) Born of humble parents at Fagnano near Imola at an unknown date ; ...

    Honorius III, Pope

    (Cencio Savelli) Born at Rome, date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 18 March, 1227. For a ...

    Honorius IV, Pope

    (Giacomo Savelli) Born at Rome about 1210; died at Rome, 3 April, 1287. He belonged to the ...

    Honorius of Autun

    (HONORIUS AUGUSTODUNENSIS) A theologian, philosopher, and encyclopedic writer who lived in ...

    Honorius, Flavius

    Roman Emperor, d. 25 August, 423. When his father, the Emperor Theodosius, divided up the ...

    Honorius, Saint

    Archbishop of Canterbury, fifth in succession from St. Augustine, elected 627; consecrated at ...

    Honour

    Honour may be defined as the deferential recognition by word or sign of another's worth or ...

    Hontheim, Johannes Nicolaus von

    (FEBRONIUS) An auxiliary Bishop of Trier ; born at Trier, 27 January, 1701; died at ...

    Hood

    A flexible, conical, brimless head-dress, covering the entire head, except the face. It is either ...

    Hoogstraten, Jacob van

    (also HOCHSTRATEN) A theologian and controversialist, born about 1460, in Hoogstraeten, ...

    Hooke, Luke Joseph

    Born at Dublin in 1716; died at St. Cloud, Paris, 16 April, 1796, son of Nathaniel Hooke the ...

    Hope

    Hope, in its widest acceptation, is described as the desire of something together with the ...

    Hope-Scott, James Robert

    (Originally H OPE ) Parliamentary barrister, Q.C.; b. 15 July, 1812, at Great Marlow, ...

    Hopi Indians

    (From Hopita, "peaceful ones" their own name; also frequently known as Moki, or Moqui, an alien ...

    Hopkins, Gerard Manley

    Jesuit and poet, born at Stratford, near London, 28 July, 1844; died at Dublin, 8 June, 1889. ...

    Hormisdas, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown, elected to the Holy See, 514; d. at Rome, 6 August, 523. This able and ...

    Horner, Nicholas

    Layman and martyr, born at Grantley, Yorkshire, England, date of birth unknown; died at ...

    Horns, Altar

    On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns ...

    Hornyold, John Joseph

    A titular Bishop of Phiomelia, Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England ; born 19 ...

    Hortulus Animæ

    (L ITTLE G ARDEN OF THE S OUL ). A prayer book which both in its Latin and German ...

    Hosanna

    "And the multitudes that went before and that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of ...

    Hosea

    NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

    Hosius of Cordova

    The foremost Western champion of orthodoxy in the early anti-Arian struggle; born about 256; ...

    Hosius, Stanislaus

    (HOE, HOSZ) Cardinal and Prince- Bishop of Ermland ; born of German parents at Cracow, 5 ...

    Hospice

    ( Latin hospitium , a guest house). During the early centuries of Christianity the hospice ...

    Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus

    These sisters are established in religion under the Rule of St. Augustine, the institute being ...

    Hospitality

    The Council of Trent in its twenty-fifth session, cap. viii, De Ref., enjoins "all who hold any ...

    Hospitallers

    During the Middle Ages, among the hospitals established throughout the West ( Maisons-Dieu ...

    Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem

    (Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

    Hospitals

    (Latin hospes , a guest; hence hospitalis , hospitable; hospitium , a guest-house or ...

    Hospitius, Saint

    (Sospis) Recluse, b. according to tradition in Egypt, towards the beginning of the sixth ...

    Hossche, Sidron de

    ( Latin HOSSCHIUS) Sidron de Hossche, poet and priest ; born at Mercken, West Flanders, in ...

    Host

    Archaeological and Historical Aspects The bread destined to receive Eucharistic Consecration is ...

    Host, Johann

    One of the seven Dominicans, who distinguished themselves in the struggle against Luther in ...

    Hottentots

    The Hottentot is one of three tribes of South Africa which may be divided — Bantus, ...

    Houbigant, Charles François

    Born in Paris, 1686; died there 31 October, 1783. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in ...

    Houdon, Jean-Antoine

    Born at Versailles, 1741; died 16 July, 1828; the most distinguished sculptor of France ...

    Houdry, Vincent

    Preacher and writer on ascetics; b. 23 January, 1631, at Tours ; d. 21 March, 1729, at Paris. ...

    Houghton, John, Blessed

    Protomartyr of the persecution under Henry VIII, b. in Essex, 1487; d. at Tyburn, 4 May, 1535. ...

    Houghton, William

    (Variously called DE HOTUM, DE HOTHUM, DE HOZUM, BOTHUM, DE HONDEN, HEDDON, HEDDONEM, according as ...

    Hours, Canonical

    I. IDEA By canonical hour is understood all the fixed portion of the Divine Office which the ...

    Hours, Liturgy of the

    ("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

    Hove, Peter van

    Friar Minor, lector in theology and exegete ; b. at Rethy, in Campine (Belgium); d. at Antwerp, ...

    Howard, Mary, of the Holy Cross

    Poor Clare, born 28 December, 1653; died at Rouen, 21 Mary's 1735, daughter of Sir Robert Howard, ...

    Howard, Philip Thomas

    Dominican and cardinal, commonly called the "Cardinal of Norfolk"; born at Arundel House, ...

    Howard, Philip, Venerable

    Martyr, Earl of Arundel; born at Arundel House, London, 28 June 1557, died in the Tower of London, ...

    Howard, Venerable William

    Viscount Stafford, martyr ; born 30 November, 1614; beheaded Tower-Hill, 29 December, 1680. He ...

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    Hr 1

    Hroswitha

    A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

    × Close

    Hu 61

    Huánuco

    (Huanucensis) Suffragan of Lima in Peru. The department of Huánuco contains an ...

    Huajuápam de León

    (Huajuapatamensis) Diocese in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, erected by Bull of Leo XIII , ...

    Huaraz

    Diocese of Huaraz (Huaraziensis) Suffragan of Lima. It comprises the entire department of ...

    Huber, Alphons

    An historian; born 14 October, 1834, at Fügen, Zillerthal (Tyrol); died 23 November, 1898, at ...

    Hubert Walter

    Archbishop of Canterbury (1193-1205); died 13 July, 1205; son of Hervey (Herveus) Walter and ...

    Hubert, Jean-François

    The ninth Bishop of Quebec, born at Quebec, 23 February, 1739; died 17 October, 1799; son of ...

    Hubert, Saint

    Confessor, thirty-first Bishop of Maastricht, first Bishop of Liège, and Apostle of ...

    Hubert, Saint, Military Orders of

    I. The highest order of Bavaria, founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard V, Duke of Jülich, in ...

    Huc, Evariste Régis

    A French Lazarist missionary and traveller; born at Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne), 1 June, 1813; died ...

    Hucbald of St-Amand

    (HUGBALDUS, UBALDUS, UCHUBALDUS) A Benedictine monk ; born in 840; died in 930 or 932. The ...

    Huddleston, John

    Monk of the Order of St. Benedict; b. at Farington Hall, Lancashire, 15 April, 1608; exact date ...

    Hudson, Blessed James

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

    Hueber, Fortunatus

    A Franciscan historian and theologian, born at Neustadt on the Danube; died 12 Feb., 1706, at ...

    Huelgas de Burgos

    The royal monastery of Las Huelgas de Burgos was founded by Alfonso VIII at the instance of ...

    Huesca

    (OSCENSIS) Huesca embraces parts of the province of Huesca in north-eastern Spain, seven ...

    Huet, Pierre-Daniel

    A distinguished savant and celebrated French bishop ; born 8 February, 1630, at Caen (Normandy), ...

    Hug, Johann Leonhard

    A German Catholic exegete, b. at Constance, 1 June, 1765; d. at Freiburg im Br., 11 March, ...

    Hugh Capet

    King of France, founder of the Capetian dynasty, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. ...

    Hugh Faringdon, Blessed

    ( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

    Hugh of Digne

    Friar Minor andascetical writer; b. at Digne, south-east France, date uncertain; d. at ...

    Hugh of Flavigny

    Benedictine monk and historian; b. about 1064, probably at Verdun (Lorraine); d. before the ...

    Hugh of Fleury

    (Called also HUGO A SANTA MARIA, from the name of the church of his native village). ...

    Hugh of Lincoln, Saint

    Born about the year 1135 at the castle of Avalon, near Pontcharra, in Burgundy ; died at London, ...

    Hugh of Remiremont

    Surnamed CANDIDUS or BLANCUS. Cardinal, born of a noble family, probably in Lorraine, died soon ...

    Hugh of St-Cher

    (Latin D E S ANCTO C ARO ; D E S ANCTO T HEODORICO ). A Dominican cardinal of the ...

    Hugh of St. Victor

    Medieval philosopher, theologian, and mystical writer; b. 1096, at the manor of Hartingham in ...

    Hugh of Strasburg

    Theologian, flourished during the latter half of the thirteenth century. The dates of his birth ...

    Hugh the Great, Saint

    Abbot of Cluny, born at Semur (Brionnais in the Diocese of Autun, 1024; died at Cluny, 28 ...

    Hugh, Saint

    (Called LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN.) St. Hugh was the son of a poor woman of Lincoln ...

    Hughes, John

    Fourth bishop and first Archbishop of New York, born at Annaloghan, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, 24 ...

    Hugo, Charles-Hyacinthe

    Born 20 Sept., 1667, at St. Mihiel (Department of Meuse, France ); died 2 August, 1739. He ...

    Huguccio

    (HUGH OF PISA) Italian canonist, b. at Pisa, date unknown; d. in 1210. He studied at ...

    Huguenots

    A name by which the French Protestants are often designated. Its etymology is uncertain. ...

    Hulst, Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'

    A prelate, writer, orator; born at Paris, 10 Oct., 1841; died there, 6 Nov., 1896. After a ...

    Human Acts

    Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are ...

    Humanism

    Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the ...

    Humbert of Romans

    (DE ROMANIS). Fifth master general of the Dominican Order, b. at Romans in the Diocese of ...

    Humeral Veil

    This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

    Humiliati

    I. A penitential order dating back, according to some authorities, to the beginning of the ...

    Humility

    The word humility signifies lowliness or submissiveness an it is derived from the Latin ...

    Humphrey Middlemore, Blessed

    English Carthusian martyr, date of birth uncertain; d. at Tyburn, London, 19 June, 1535. His ...

    Humphreys, Laurence

    Layman and martyr, born in Hampshire, England, 1571; died at Winchester, 1591. Of Protestant ...

    Hungarian Catholics in America

    The Kingdom of Hungary (Magyarország) comprises within its borders several races or ...

    Hungarian Literature

    The language which has prevailed in Hungary for nearly a thousand years and is spoken at the ...

    Hungary

    GEOGRAPHY AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ...

    Hunolt, Franz

    The most popular German preacher of the early part of the eighteenth century, b. 31 March, 1691, ...

    Hunt, Ven. Thurston

    An English martyr (March, 1601), who belonged to the family seated at Carlton Hall, near ...

    Hunter, Sylvester Joseph

    English Jesuit priest and educator; b. at Bath, 13 Sept., 1829; d. at Stonyhurst, 20 June, 1896. ...

    Hunting, Canons on

    From early times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics. Thus, in the ...

    Huntington, Jedediah Vincent

    Clergyman, novelist; born 20 January, 1815, in New York City; died 10 March, 1862, at Pau, France. ...

    Hunyady, János

    (JOHN) Governor of Hungary, born about 1400; died 11 August, 1456; the heroic defender of the ...

    Huron Indians

    The main divisions of the subject are: I. THE HURONS BEFORE THEIR DISPERSION (1) Their Place in ...

    Hurst, Richard

    (Or HERST.) Layman and martyr, b. probably at Broughton, near Preston, Lancashire, England, ...

    Hurtado, Caspar

    A Spanish Jesuit and theologian, b. at Mondejar, New Castle, in 1575; d. at Alcalá, 5 ...

    Hurter

    (1) Friedrich Emmanuel Von Hurter Convert and historian, b. at Schaffhausen, 19 March, 1787; d. at ...

    Hus, Jan

    (Also spelled John ). Born at Husinetz in southern Bohemia, 1369; died at Constance 6 ...

    Husenbeth, Frederick Charles

    Born at Bristol, 30 May, 1796; died at Cossey, Norfolk, 31 October, 1872. The son of a Bristol ...

    Hussey, Thomas

    Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, b. at Ballybogan, Co. Meath, in 1746; d. at Tramore, Co. ...

    Hussites

    The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they ...

    Hutton, Peter

    Priest, b. at Holbeck, Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 29 June, 1811; d. at Ratcliffe, ...

    Huysmans, Joris Karl

    A French novelist; born in Paris, 5 February, 1848; died 12 May, 1907. He studied at the Lycee ...

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    Hy 16

    Hyacinth and Protus, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

    Hyacinth, Saint

    Dominican, called the Apostle of the North, son of Eustachius Konski of the noble family of ...

    Hyacintha Mariscotti, Saint

    A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

    Hydatius of Lemica

    ( Also IDATIUS; LEMICA is more correctly LIMICA.) A chronicler and bishop, born at the end ...

    Hyderabad-Deccan, Diocese of

    Hyderabad, also called Bhagnagar, and Fakhunda Bunyad, capital of the Nizam's dominions, was ...

    Hyginus, Pope Saint

    Reigned about 138-142; succeeded Pope Telesphorus, who, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., IV, ...

    Hylozoism

    (Greek hyle , matter + zoe , life ) The doctrine according to which all matter ...

    Hymn

    A derivative of the Latin hymnus , which comes from the Greek hymnos , derived from hydein ...

    Hymnody and Hymnology

    Hymnody, taken from the Greek ( hymnodia ), means exactly " hymn song", but as the hymn-singer ...

    Hypæpa

    Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus; it was a small town on the southern slope of ...

    Hypnotism

    (Greek hypnos , sleep) By Hypnotism , or Hypnosis , we understand here the nervous ...

    Hypocrisy

    (Greek hypo , under, and krinesthai , to contend — hence adequately "to answer" on the ...

    Hypostatic Union

    A theological term used with reference to the Incarnation to express the revealed truth ...

    Hypsistarians

    Hypsistarians or worshippers of the Hypsistos , i.e. of the "Most High" God ; a distinct ...

    Hyrtl, Joseph

    Austrian anatomist, b. at Eisenstadt in Hungary, December 7, 1810; d. 17 July, 1894, on his ...

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