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Wyoming

Wyoming, the forty-fourth state admitted to the American Union, derives its name from the Delaware Indian word "Maughwauwama", signifying mountains with large plains between. It lies between 41 degrees and 45 degrees N. lat. and 27 degrees and 34 degrees long. west of Washington; it is bounded by Montana, South Dakota , Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, and Idaho. Its length from east to west is 355 miles and width from north to south, 276 miles. It includes an area of 97,883 square miles, a territory equal to that of the two States of New York and Pennsylvania, or greater than all of the New England states combined.

I. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

In general appearance the topography is mountainous with valleys, rolling plains, and broad plateaux. The mountains have a general diretion from north-west to south-east, but are not continuous across the state, presenting more often the appearance of broken or detached spurs. The main range of the Rocky Mountains entering from the south terminates in the Wind River Range and is snow-capped throughout the year, the elevation being from 6000 to 14,000 feet. Other ranges are the Big Horn, Owl, Rattle Snake, Medicine Bow, Sierre Madre, Teton, Yellowstone, and the Black Hills extending into the state from South Dakota on the eastern border. The highest peak is Fremont's Peak in the Wind River Range, 13,790 feet. Other high points are Teton Peak, 13,690 feet, and Clouds Peak, 13,691 feet. Correction: Wyoming's highest peaks are Gannett Peak (13,804'), Grand Teton (13,770') and Fremont Peak (13,745'). Numerous rivers including the Yellowstone, Big Horn, Snake, Green, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, and Powder have their head-waters within the state. The North Platte and Big Laramie enter the state from Colorado. None of these streams is navigable in a commercial sense, but their flow is utilized for irrigation and in some instances for the transportation of timber. There are several important lakes, including Yellowstone, Jackson, Shoshoni, Lewis, Madison, and Fremont. The state abounds in beautiful scenery. Great natural parks encircled by wooded slopes and majestic peaks, with numerous mountain streams, lakes, and waterfalls, form attractive features. The Yellowstone National Park, set apart by Act of Congress as a public pleasure ground, has an area of 3575 square miles, and is mainly in Wyoming, extending slightly into Idaho and Montana. It represents a wonderland of geological phenomena, mineral springs, spurting geysers, lakes, and woodlands. The streams of he state are well stocked with game fish; game animals, particularly elk, deer, and antelope, are plentiful in the unsettled mountain districts. The climate is dry, healthful, and invigorating with a maximum of sunshine, and while the temperature and annual rainfall vary in different localities according to the elevation and the influence of mountain chains, the summers are cool and the winters are not severe. The average mean temperature for the year is 44 degrees. Winds prevail during portions of the winter and spring seasons, but cyclones and tornadoes are unknown. Owing to the dryness of the atmosphere, degrees of temperature do not express the extremes of heat and cold peculiar to lower and more humid localities.

II. POPULATION

The census of 1910 shows a total population of 145,965, an increase of 57.7 per cent since the last census report in 1900. The immigration during the past decade has been principally from the middle west, generally following the parallels, but prior to that time the cattle industry had attracted a large percentage from the southwest. Only a small per cent of the population is of foreign birth, and but two per cent illiterate. Wyoming, according to population, contributed a larger percentage of volunteer soldiers to the service of the Government during the Spanish-American War than any other state, and was the first state to report troops mustered in and ready for service. Cheyenne, the state capital, is the largest city, and Sheridan, Laramie, Rock Springs, Rawlins, Evanston, Basin, Cody, Casper, Lander, and Douglas are among the larger towns.

III. RESOURCES

Mining and live stock, with a rapidly increasing agricultural development as an incident to the latter, are the leading industries.

Mining

The mineral resources consist of coal, oil, gas, iron, asbestos, gold, silver, and copper, the development of which has been greatly hindered for lack of sufficient transportation. Extensive coal deposits are known to underlie a large area. Rock Springs, Hanna, Kemmerer, Diamondville, Sheridan, Newcastle, Hudson, and Kirby are coal mining centres. The coal output for 1910 was 7,385,764 tons, with a valuation of $11,573,479; the product being lignite and sub-bituminous. Iron ore is mined extensively at Sunrise; the output for 1910 being 735,423 tons. Oil fields of wide extent are being developed in the northern, central, and extreme western portions of the state, and extensive pipe lines for the transportation of the product are now in process of construction. Natural gas has been discovered in the vicinity of Basin and Greybull and is used there for heating and lighting. Gold, copper, and asbestos mines have been opened, but reliable statistics as to the amount and value of their product have not been compiled.

Agriculture and Live Stock

The soil of the plateaux and bench lands is a light sandy loam, that of the valleys is of a black alluvial character, both showing remarkable fertility under irrigation in the production of wheat, oats, rye, barley, potatoes, field peas, sugar beets, forage crops, apples, pears, and the different varieties of small fruits and vegetables known in the temperate zones, the yield and quality being in some instances remarkable. A yield of 974 bushels of potatoes per acre in Johnson County, a yield of 132 bushels of oats produced on one acre in Sheridan County, and a yield of 8.5 tons of alfalfa per acre for three successive years in Laramie County being well-authenticated examples. It is estimated that 10,000,000 acres within the state may be cultivated successfully by irrigation. Irrigation development has made rapid strides in recent years, and millions of dollars are expended by the United States Government and by private investors under the supervision of the state in the construction of canals and great storage reservoirs. In 1910, 76 irrigation projects were under construction within the state. Another 10,000,000 acres may be made productive by methods of soil mulch or "dry farming", a modern system of soil treatment that has produced good crop results in the semi-arid regions. The non-irrigated lands are being rapidly settled. The timbered area occupies about 10,000,000 acres in the mountain regions, most of which is included in Government forest reserves, and the manufactures of lumber, railroad, and mine timbers is carried on in these reserves under concessions from the United States Government. The reserves are also used by stock men under lease for summer grazing. Most of the remaining territory of the state is admirably adapted to the grazing of live stock. In their natural condition the plains and foot hills are generally covered with a short succulent grass, furnishing excellent pasture for live stock. This grazing area comprises from 20,000,000 to 30,000,000 acres, and as it is used in connection with agricultural lands guarantees the stability of the live-stock industry, which according to statistics for 1910 shows: cattle 546,447 head, valuation $13,024,349; sheep 4,211,441 head, valuation $19,895,643.50; horses 119,576 head, valuation $5,450,795; swine 15253 head, valuation $73,476; mules and asses 1862 head, valuation $114,500. The wood product of 1910 had an approximate valuation of $8,000,000.

Transportation and Communication

There are thirteen separate lines of railroad, with a mileage of 2200, in operation by the Union Pacific, Burlington, Northwestern, Colorado and Southern, Oregon, Short Line, Saratoga and Encampment, Hahn's Peak, Colorado and Wyoming, and allied companies; twenty-nine telephone companies, chief among them being the Mountain States Telegraph and Telephone system, with lines aggregating 3900 miles; three telegraph companies with lines covering 2391 miles. Numerous stage lines are in operation between points in the interior, and nearly every rural community is served with a free delivery of mail matter.

Manufactures

The manufacturing interests include lumber, and timber products, saddles and harness, tobacco, boots and shoes, flour and grist, lime, cement, brick, malt, dairy products, and railroad supplies, some one of more lines of which are carried on in all of the towns, but reliable statistics as to output, capital, and persons employed are not available.

IV. EDUCATION

Public education is provided by a system of graded public schools, supported by a tax levied upon property within each district, and a per capita distribution made according to an annual enumeration of pupils, of the annual interest income from the permanent school funds and rentals from school lands. High schools are established by the districts in all of the larger towns; under a special law two or more districts are enabled to unite in the formation of a high school district by an affirmative vote of qualified electors on the question, and thereby maintain a high school. This plan makes it possible for a number of districts in sparsely settled counties to combine their resources in the establishment of a high school which is supported by a special tax. School attendance by children between the ages of six and fourteen years is compulsory, and penalties are prescribed for truancy or parental neglect in the matter of school attendance. In 1910 there were 1109 teachers employed in the state, and the total enrolment of pupils was 24,584. The district tax revenues for that year were $739,668.88 and the earnings and income from 3,456,999 acres of school land were $150,212.91. Other public school revenues are derived from a percentage of the receipts from government land sales and the income from forest reserves paid to the state by direction of Congress. The state university is situated at Laramie, and includes a graduate school, colleges of liberal arts, agriculture, and engineering. A normal school and departments of music, commerce, home economies, and university extension are also maintained. The number of professors employed is 45, and 307 students were reported in attendance in 1910. The institution is supported by state tax, a land income fund, and certain annual donations made by the Government pursuant to Acts of Congress for the promotion of instruction in agriculture and the mechanic arts. A convent (boarding, and parochial school), was established at Cheyenne in 1886 by the Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus at a cost of $50,000. This institution has passed through the vicissitudes of early pioneering and grown to a prosperous condition, the average attendance being about 200. Jesuit Fathers established a mission school for Indian boys at St. Stephens on or about the same date, and Catholic sisters also conduct a mission school for Indian girls on the Shoshoni Reservation.

V. STATE INSTITUTIONS

Indigent poor are cared for and supported by the counties of their residence. The State maintains: a hospital for the insane at Evanston; a home for feeble-minded and epileptic persons at Lander; an institution for blind, deaf, and dumb at Cheyenne ; a soldiers' and sailors' home at Buffalo; and general state hospitals at Rock Springs, Sheridan, and Casper. A state sanitarium is provided at Thermopolis, where a square mile of land surrounding mineral springs of great medicinal value has been granted to the state by the United States Government. The state penitentiary is situated at Rawlins, and an appropriation has been made for a reformatory to be located hereafter by a vote of the people. There are laws providing for the incorporation of charitable, educational, and religious societies, including cemetery associations; and charitable bequests are not forbidden by statute.

VI. GENERAL LEGISLATION

Freedom in the exercises and enjoyment of religious profession and worship is guaranteed to every person by the constitution, with the sole qualification that the liberty of conscience thus secured shall not excuse licentiousness, nor justify practices inconsistent with the peace and security of the state. This qualification was undoubtedly inserted to prevent the practice of polygamy as a possible incident to Mormon settlement in the state. The disturbance of religious worship is made punishable as a misdemeanour. Sunday observance prevails generally throughout the state, and places of business with a few exceptions are required to be closed on Sunday. The first day of January, twelfth and twenty-second days of February, thirtieth day of May, fourth of July, the date appointed by the president as the annual Thanksgiving Day, twenty-fifth of December, dates upon which general elections are held, and Arbor Day are declared holidays by statute; and if a legal holiday falls on Sunday the following day shall be the holiday. The use of profane or obscene language is punishable as a misdemeanour. A statutory form of oath is prescribed, concluding with the words "So help me God ", and persons having conscientious scruples against taking an oath may affirm under the pains and penalties of perjury. The seal of confession is privileged. Church bodies may incorporate for purposes of administration. Property used exclusively for religious worship, church parsonages, and all denominational school property are exempt from taxation. Ministers of the Gospel of all denominations are exempt from jury service. The marriage ceremony may be performed by any judge, district court commissioner, justice of the peace, or licensed or ordained minister of the Gospel. No particular form of ceremony is required other than an express declaration in the presence of an ordained minister or magistrate and witnesses. Desertion of wife and children is a felony. Causes for divorce are: adultery ; incompetency; conviction of a felony, and sentence to imprisonment therefor after marriage; conviction of felony or infamous crime before marriage, provided it was unknown to the other party; habitual drunkenness; extreme cruelty; intolerable indignities; neglect to provide common necessities; vagrancy of the husband; and pregnancy of the wife before marriage if without knowledge of the husband. The plaintiff must reside in the state for one year immediately preceding his or her application for divorce, unless the parties were married in the state and the applicant has resided there since the marriage. Neither party is permitted to remarry within one year after a decree of divorce.

A married woman can hold, acquire, manage, and convey property, and carry on business independent of her husband. When a husband or wife dies intestate one half of the property of the deceased goes to the survivor if there be children and one half to the children collectively. If there be no children, nor descendants of any child, three-fourths of the estate goes to the survivor. If there be no children nor descendants of any child, and the estate does not exceed $10,000, the whole of it goes to the survivor. Except as above, the estate of an intestate descends to his children surviving and the descendants of his children who are dead. If there be no children nor their descendants, then to his father, mother, brothers, and sisters, and to the descendants of brothers and sisters who are dead. If there be no children nor their descendants, nor father, mother, brothers, sisters, nor descendants of them, then to the grandfather, grandmother, uncles, aunts, and their descendants. The homestead of a householder who is the head of a family, or any resident of the state who has attained the age of sixty years, is exempt to the value of $1500 from execution or attachment arising from any debt contracted or civil obligation incurred other than taxes, purchase money, or improvements so long as it is occupied by the owner or his or her family. And the exemption inures for the benefit of the widow or minor children. If the owner be married the homestead can be alienated only by the joint consent of the husband and wife. The family Bible, a burial lot, and $500 worth of personal property are likewise exempt to any person entitled to a homestead exemption. One half of the earnings of a debtor for his personal services, rendered at any time within sixty days next preceding a levy of execution or attachment, is exempt when it is made to appear that such earnings are necessary for the support of debtor's family residing within the state and supported in whole or in part by his labours. A day's labour in mines and in works for the reduction of ore is limited to eight hours, except in cases of emergency. The sale of intoxicating liquors is licensed only in incorporated cities and towns.

VII. GOVERNMENT

The state is governed under its first constitution adopted in November, 1889. Amendments to the constitution may be proposed by resolution of the legislature and submitted to a vote of the people, and if approved by a majority of the electors become a part of the constitution. Suffrage is conferred upon both men and women. The principle of woman suffrage was incorporated in the act organizing the territory, and was carried into the state constitution. Women rarely seek to hold office, and are disqualified for jury service. On local issues the vote of women is generally cast on the side of morality and home protection, but in state policy and legislation no unusual results are traceable to woman suffrage. The right to vote at general elections is enjoyed by all citizens of the United States who have attained the age of 21 years, are able to read the constitution, and have resided in the state one year, and in the county sixty days immediately preceding, with the exceptions of idiots, insane persons, and persons convicted of infamous crimes. General elections are held biennially in even numbered years, the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and newly-elected officers assume their duties on the first Monday in the following January. The governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, and superintendent of public instruction are elected for terms of four years, and all other state officers are appointive. The legislature consists of a senate and a house of representatives, and meets biennially in odd numbered years, on the second Tuesday in January, its session being limited to forty days. Each branch elects a chaplain, who opens the session and each day's proceedings with prayer. The administration of justice is vested in a supreme court, district courts, justices of the peace, and municipal courts. The supreme court consists of three justices elected by the state at large for a term of eight years. The supreme court has general appellate jurisdiction of causes tried in the district courts. The district courts have general original jurisdiction in all matters of law or equity, and have appellate jurisdiction of cases arising in justice courts and causes made appealable from administrative boards. Judges of district courts are elected by districts for terms of six years.

VIII. RELIGIOUS FACTORS

The state consists of one diocese with its see at Cheyenne. The Catholic population is estimated (1910) at about 12,000; churches with resident pastors, 18; missions with churches, 14; priests, 23. The dissemination of Catholic doctrine in this region began with the visits of French fur-traders and trappers during the first half of the eighteenth century, but there is evidence that Catholic practices had been introduced among the native tribes prior to that date by Catholic Iroquois Indians who had drifted west from Canada and New York. Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, S.J. arrived in Wyoming with an expedition of the American Fur Company in 1840, and his mission work among the Indians and scattered white settlements during the succeeding fifteen years forms an important chapter in the history of the North-west. Fathers P. De Vos, S.J., and Hoecken, S.J. Zerbinate, Joset, and Mengarina were among the early missionaries. In 1851 Wyoming formed a part of the vicariate of the Indian territory east of the Rocky Mountains which had Rt. Rev. John B. Miege as vicar apostolic. In 1857 it comprised a part of the Vicariate of Nebraska and so remained until 1885, when it became a part of the Diocese of Omaha . It was erected into the Diocese of Cheyenne, 9 August, 1887, and the first bishop Rt. Rev. Maurice F. Burke, was consecrated on 28 Oct., 1887. He was transferred to St. Joseph , Missouri, June, 1893, and was succeeded by Rt. Rev. Thomas Lenihan, whose death occurred on 15 Dec., 1901. Rt. Rev. James J. Keane, the third bishop of the diocese, was consecrated on 28 Oct., 1902, but in 1911 was made Archbishop of Dubuque. His administration was attended by much progress in church interests. The fourth bishop is Rt. Rev. Patrick A. McGovern, appointed on 18 January, 1912, and consecrated on 11 April following. A new cathedral and bishop's residence have been erected at Cheyenne. The spiritual needs of the new diocese have been presented in frequent lecture tours to the faithful in the older communities of the east; and they have given aid by contributions to a loan fund plan, whereby numerous mission church buildings have been provided in new settlements and outlying communities. Colonization has been encouraged and the work and growth of the Church is in keeping with the rapid settlement and material advancement of the state.

IX. HISTORY

While there is some evidence that the early Spanish made expeditions into Wyoming, no written accounts of their expeditions have been found. The first authentic record of exploration by white men is that of Sieur de la Verendrye , who discovered the Yellowstone while in charge of an expedition in the interest of the French Canadian fur trade in 1743. John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark expedition, was the first American to enter Wyoming. He discovered Yellowstone Park and explored the Big Horn and Fremont Country in 1806. General John C. Frémont explored the central portion of the state, discovered the South Pass, and established the Overland Trail in 1842. Indian depredations incident to the California movement in 1849 induced the Government to establish a number of army posts along the Platte River, among them Fort Steele, Fort Fetterman, and Fort Laramie, the latter being an old fur-trading fort first established in 1834. The Union Pacific Railroad entered in 1867, and after a few years of Indian warfare, great herds of cattle trailed in from Texas comprised the chief industry until the early nineties, when the larger herds commenced to disappear and an era of ranch settlement began. The State of Wyoming is carved out of territory obtained from four principal annexations comprising the main land west of the Mississippi River, viz.: the Louisiana purchase (1803); the Oregon Country by discovery, settlement, and treaty (1792, 1805, 1811, 1819, 1846), the Texas annexation (1845); and the Mexico concession (1848). Its titled interest bear the imprint of successive periods of purchase, exploration, discovery, settlement, and conquest. It has in turn formed a part of the following named territories: Louisiana in 1803; Missouri in 1812; Texas in 1845; Oregon in 1848; Utah in 1850; Nebraska in 1845; Washington in 1859; Dakota in 1861; Idaho in 1863; Dakota in 1864. Organized as Wyoming territory in 1868, it was admitted as a state, 10 July, 1890.

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Wörndle, Von, Family

Philip von Wörndle Of Adelsfried and Weierburg, major of a Tyrolese rifle-corps, commandant ...

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Würtemberg, Kingdom of

In area the third and in population the fourth of the states of the German Empire. It is situated ...

Würzburg Abbeys

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Würzburg, Diocese of

(HERBIPOLENSIS). See also UNIVERSITY OF WÜRZBURG and WÜRZBURG ABBEYS ; Located ...

Würzburg, University of

See also DIOCESE OF WÜRZBURG and WÜRZBURG ABBEYS ; John I of Egloffstein ...

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Wa 69

Waagen, Wilhelm Heinrich

Geologist, and palæontologist, born at Munich, 23 June, 1841; died at Vienna, 24 March, ...

Wace, Robert

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Wachter, Eberhard

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Historian and theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, 16 October, 1588; died at St. Isidore's ...

Wadding, Michael

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Waire, Venerable

English friar and martyr, hanged, drawn, and quartered at St. Thomas Waterings in Camberwell (a ...

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Walkenried

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Martyr, born in Lancashire, 1620; suffered near Worcester, 22 August, 1679; known at Douay and ...

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Publicist, diplomat, born at Baltimore, MD., 1785; died at Paris, 7 Feb., 1859. He was one of the ...

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War

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Ward, Hugh

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Born at Danby Castle near Guisborough, Yorkshire, 13 April, 1652; d. at St-Germain, France, ...

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An English writer and convert, eldest son of William Ward, Esq., born in London, 21 March, ...

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Archbishop of Canterbury, born at Church Oakley, Hampshire, about 1450; died at Hackington, ...

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(DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA) Washington, the capital of the United States, is situated on the left ...

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One of the Pacific coast states, popularly known as the "Evergreen State", the sixteenth in size ...

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Water, Holy, Fonts

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Water, Liturgical Use of

Besides the holy water which is used by the Church in so many of her rites of blessing, and ...

Waterford and Lismore

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Born at London ; martyred at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 7 January 1594 (1593 old style). A romantic ...

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Situated in Surrey, near Farnham, founded by William Gifford, Bishop of Winchester, on 24 Nov., ...

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Way, Ven. William

( Alias MAY, alias FLOWER). English priest and martyr, born in Exeter Diocese ...

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We 52

Wealth, Use of

The term "wealth" is not used here in the technical sense in which it occurs in treatises on ...

Wearmouth Abbey

Located on the river Wear, in Durham, England ; a Benedictine monastery founded in 674 by St. ...

Weathers, William

Titular Bishop of Amyela; born 12 November, 1814; died at Isleworth, Middlesex, 4 March, 1895. ...

Webb, Benjamin Joseph

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Webbe, Samuel

English composer, born in England in 1742; died in London, 29 May, 1816. He studied under ...

Weber, Beda

Benedictine professor, author, and member of the National German Parliament, born at Lienz in the ...

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Physician, member of the Prussian House of Deputies, and poet, born at Alhausen, near Driburg, ...

Weber, Heinrich

German Church historian, born at Euerdorf in the Diocese of Würzburg , 21 June, 1834; died ...

Weber, Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst von

Composer, born at Eutin, Lower Saxony, 18 December, 1786; died in London, 5 June, 1826. His ...

Weedall, Henry

Born in London, 6 September, 1788; died at Oscott, 7 November, 1859. Both his parents died ...

Week, Liturgical

The week as a measure of time is a sufficiently obvious division of the lunar month, and the ...

Wegg-Prosser, Francis Richard

Only son of Rev. Prebendary Francis Haggit, rector of Newnham Coutney, born at Newnham Courtney, ...

Weingarten

(MONASTERIUM VINEARUM, AD VINEAS, or WEINGARTENSE). A suppressed Benedictine abbey, near ...

Weis, Nicolaus von

Bishop of Speyer, born at Rimlingen, Lorraine, 8 March, 1796; died at Speyer, 13 December, ...

Weislinger, Johann Nikolaus

Polemical writer, born at Puttlingen in German Lorraine, 1691; died at Kappel-Rodeck in Baden, 29 ...

Weiss, Johann Baptist

Born at Ettenheim, Baden, 17 July, 1820; died at Graz, 8 March, 1899. After completing his ...

Weissenau, Monastery of

(Originally OWE_AUGIA, then MINDERLAU-AUGIA MINOR, and finally WEISSEN AU-AUGIA ALBA or CANDIDA). ...

Weitenauer, Ignatius von

Litterateur, exegete, and Orientalist, born at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, 1 November, 1709; died at ...

Welbourne, Ven. Thomas

Martyred at York, 1 August, 1605. Nothing is known about about this martyr except the scanty ...

Weld

The name of an ancient English family (branches of which are found in several parts of England ...

Weld, Frederick Aloysius

Youngest son of Humphrey Weld, born at Chidcock Manor, Dorset, 1823; died there, 1891. He was ...

Welle, Prefecture Apostolic of

Located in the extreme north of Belgian Congo, Africa, separated by a Decree of the Propaganda ...

Wellington, Archdiocese of

(WELLINGTONIENSIS). Located in New Zealand, originally formed part of the Vicariate of ...

Wells in Scripture

It is difficult for inhabitants of a more humid climate to realize the importance which a country ...

Wells, Ven. Smithin

English martyr, born at Brambridge, Hampshire, about 1536; hanged at Gray's Inn Lane, London, ...

Welser, Bartholomeus

German merchant prince, born at Augsburg, 1488; died at Amberg, near Turkheim, Swabia, 1561. His ...

Welsh Church

In giving separate consideration to the Church of Wales, we follow a practice common among ...

Welsh Monastic Foundations

Few saints of the early British Church, as it existed before the Saxon invasion, are known to ...

Welte, Benedict

Exegete, born at Ratzenried in Würtemberg, 25 November, 1825; died 27 May, 1885. After ...

Wenceslaus, Saint

( Also Vaclav, Vaceslav.) Duke, martyr, and patron of Bohemia, born probably 903; died at ...

Wendelin of Trier, Saint

Born about 554; died probably in 617. His earliest biographies, two in Latin and two in German, ...

Weninger, Francis Xavier

Jesuit missionary and author, born at Wildhaus, Styria, Austria, 31 October, 1805; died at ...

Wenrich of Trier

German ecclesiastico-polical writer of the eleventh century. He was a canon at Verdun, and ...

Werburgh, Saint

(WEREBURGA, WEREBURG, VERBOURG). Benedictine, patroness of Chester, Abbess of Weedon, ...

Werden

(WERTHINA, WEERDA, WERDENA). A suppressed Benedictine monastery near Essen in Rhenish ...

Werner, Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias

Convert, poet, and pulpit orator, born at Konigsberg, Prussia, 18 November, 1768; died at ...

Wessel Goesport, John

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Wessenberg, Ignaz Heinrich von

Vicar-General and Administrator of the Diocese of Constance, born at Dresden, 4 November, 1774; ...

Wessobrunn

(WESSOGONTANTUM, AD FONTES WESSONIS). A suppressed Benedictine abbey near Weilheim in Upper ...

West Syrian Rite

The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin ...

West Virginia

A state of the American Union, bounded on the northeast by Pennsylvania and Maryland, on the ...

Westcott, Sebastian

English organist, born about 1524, was a chorister, under Redford, at St. Paul's Cathedral, ...

Westeraas, Ancient See of

(AROSI, AROSIENSIS). Located in Sweden. The Catholic diocese included the lands of ...

Western Schism

This schism of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries differs in all points from the Eastern ...

Westminster Abbey

This most famous of all English abbeys is situated within the precincts of the Royal Palace of ...

Westminster Cathedral

As a national expression of religious faith given by Roman Catholics to England since the ...

Westminster, Archdiocese of

(WESTMONASTERIENSIS). Erected and made metropolitan in 1850, comprises the Counties of ...

Westminster, Matthew of

The name given to the supposed author of a well-known English chronicle, the "Flores Historiarum". ...

Weston, William

Jesuit missionary priest, born at Maidstone, 1550 (?); died at Valladolid, Spain, 9 June, ...

Westphalia

A province of Prussia situated between the Rhine and the Weser. It is bounded on the northwest ...

Wettingen-Mehrerau, Abbacy Nullius of

A Cistercian abbey near Bregenz, Vorarlberg, Austria. The Cistercian monastery of Wettingen ...

Wetzer, Heinrich Joseph

Learned Orientalist, born at Anzefahr in Hesse-Cassel, 19 March, 1801; died at Freiburg in ...

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Wh 23

Wharton, Ven. Christopher

Born at Middleton, Yorkshire, before 1546; martyred at York, 28 March, 1600. He was the second ...

Wheeling, Diocese of

(WHELINGENSIS). Comprises the State of West Virginia except the following counties, which are ...

Whipple, Amiel Weeks

Military engineer and soldier, born at Greenwich, Massachusetts, 1818; died at Washington, D.C., ...

Whitaker, Venerable Thomas

Born at Burnley, Lancashire, 1614; martyred at Lancaster, 7 August, 1646. Son of Thomas ...

Whitbread, Venerable Thomas

( Alias HARCOURT). Born in Essex, 1618; martyred at Tyburn, 30 June, 1679. He was ...

Whitby, Abbey of

(Formerly called Streoneshalh). A Benedictine monastery in the North Riding of Yorkshire, ...

Whitby, Synod of

The Christianizing of Britain begun by St. Augustine in A.D. 597 was carried on with varying ...

White Fathers

(MISSIONARIES OF OUR LADY OF AFRICA OF ALGERIA). This society, known under the name of ...

White, Andrew

Missionary, b. at London, 1579; d. at or near London, 27 Dec., 1656 (O.S.). He entered St. ...

White, Charles Ignatius

Editor, historian, born at Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 1 February, 1807; died at Washington, ...

White, Edward

Grandfather of Stephen Mallory White , born in County Limerick, Ireland, in the latter part of ...

White, Eustace, Venerable

Martyr, born at Louth, Lincolnshire, in 1560; suffered at the London Tyburn, 10 December, 1591. ...

White, Richard, Venerable

( Vere GWYN). Martyr, born at Llanilloes, Montgomeryshire, about 1537; executed at Wrexham, ...

White, Robert

English composer, b. about 1530; d. Nov., 1574; was educated by his father, and graduated Mus. ...

White, Stephen

Antiquarian and polyhistor; b. at Clonmel, Ireland, in 1574; d. in Galway, 1646. He belonged to a ...

White, Stephen Mallory

American statesman; born at San Francisco , California, 19 January, 1853; died at Los Angeles ...

White, Thomas

( Alias BLACKLOW, BLACLOE, ALBIUS, ANGLUS). Born in Essex, 1593; died in London, 6 July, ...

Whithorn Priory

Located in Wigtownshire, Scotland, founded about the middle of the twelfth century, in the reign ...

Whiting, Blessed Richard

Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

Whitsunday

A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

Whitty, Ellen

In religion Mary Vincent, born at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, a village seven miles form the town of ...

Whitty, Robert

Born at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, 7 January, 1817; died 1 September, 1895. In 1830 he entered ...

Whitty, Rose

Born at Dublin, Ireland, 24 November, 1831; died 4 May, 1911. Of her two sisters one became a ...

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Wi 121

Wibald

Abbot of Stavelot ( Stablo ), Malmedy, and Corvey, b. near Stavelot in Belgium in 1098; d. ...

Wichita Indians

A confederacy of Caddoan stock, formerly dwelling between the Arkansas River, Kansas, and the ...

Wichita, Diocese of

(WICHITENSIS). Erected in 1887, from the Diocese of Leavenworth . The territory of the new ...

Wichmans, Francis

In religion AUGUSTINE, born at Antwerp, 1596; died 1661. Having finished his classical studies, ...

Widmer, Joseph

Catholic theologian, born at Hohenraim, Lucerne, Switzerland, 15 Aug., 1779; died at ...

Widow

I. Canonical prescriptions concerning widows in the Old Testament refer mainly to the question ...

Widukind

Saxon leader, and one of the heads of the Westphalian nobility. He was the moving spirit in the ...

Widukind of Corvey

Historian who lived in the tenth century in the Benedictine Abbey of Corvey, Germany. He was a ...

Wiener-Neustadt, Diocese of

(NEOSTADTIENSIS). A suppressed see in Lower Austria. Upon the request of Frederick III it was ...

Wiest, Stephan

Member of the Order of Cistercians, b. at Teisbach in Lower Bavaria, 7 March, 1748; d. at ...

Wigand, Saints

( Also rendered VENANTIUS). Three saints of this name are mentioned in the Roman ...

Wigbert, Saint

Companion of St. Boniface, born in England about 675; died at Hersfeld about 746. Positive ...

Wigbod

(WICBODUS, WIGBOLD, WIGBALD). Theological writer of the eighth century. Of his works there is ...

Wigley, George J.

Died in Rome, 20 January, 1866. By profession he was an architect, but subsequently devoted ...

Wilberforce, Henry William

Born at Clapham, 22 September, 1807; died at Stroud, Gloucestershire, 23 April, 1873. He was third ...

Wilberforce, Robert Isaac

Born at Clapham, 19 December, 1802; died at Albano, near Rome, 3 Feb. 1857. He was the second son ...

Wilcannia, Diocese of

(WILCANIENSIS). Located in New South Wales, one of the six suffragan sees of Sydney; consists ...

Wilcox, Robert, Venerable

English martyr, born at Chester, 1558; suffered at Canterbury, 1 October, 1588. He arrived at ...

Wild, Johann

Scriptural commentator and preacher, better known by his Latin name FERUS, b. in Swabia, 1497; d. ...

Wilfrid, Saint

Bishop of York, son of a Northumbrian thegn, born in 634; died at Oundle in Northamptonshire, ...

Wilgefortis

A fabulous female saint known also as UNCUMBER, KUMMERNIS, KOMINA, COMERA, CUMERANA, HULFE, ...

Wilhelm of Herle

Painter, born at Herle in Dutch Limburg at an unknown date in the fourteenth century; time and ...

Wilhelm V

Son of Duke Albrecht V. Born at Munich, 29 September, 1548; died at Schlessheim, 7 February, ...

Wilhering, Cistercian Abbey of

(HILARIA). Situated on the right bank of the Danube, in the Diocese of Linz, Austria. Ulric ...

Will

(Latin voluntas, Greek boúlesis, "willing" German Wille, French volonté ). ...

Will and Testament of Clerics

Roman law allowed clerics to dispose of their property by will or otherwise. Bishops, however, ...

Will, Free

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

Willaert, Adrian

Composer and founder of the Venetian school, b. at Bruges, or, according to other authorities, ...

Willehad, Saint

Bishop at Bremen, born in Northumberland before 745; died at Blecazze (Blexen) on the Weser, 8 ...

Willems, Pierre

Philologist, born at Maastricht, 6 January, 1840; died at Louvain, 23 February, 1898. Following ...

William

Born in Brittany, died at Marmoutiers, 23 May, 1124. For a time he was Archdeacon of Nantes, ...

William

Abbot of Saint-Bénigne at Dijon, celebrated Cluniac reformer, b. on the Island of ...

William Carter, Venerable

English martyr, born in London, 1548; suffered for treason at Tyburn, 11 January, 1584. Son of ...

William Exmew, Blessed

Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...

William Filby, Blessed

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

William Hart, Blessed

Born at Wells, 1558; suffered at York, 15 March, 1583. Elected Trappes Scholar at Lincoln ...

William Lacy, Blessed

Born at "Hanton", Yorkshire (probably Houghton or Tosside, West Riding); suffered at York, 22 ...

William of Auvergne

Bishop of Paris, medieval philosopher and theologian. Born at Aurillac in Auvergne towards ...

William of Auxerre

A thirteenth-century theologian and professor at the University of Paris . William's name ...

William of Champeaux

A twelfth-century Scholastic, philosopher, and theologian, b. at Champeaux, near Melun, in the ...

William of Conches

A twelfth-century Scholastic philosopher and theologian, b. about the year 1100. After having ...

William of Digulleville

(DEGULLEVILLE). A French poet of the fourteenth century. Nothing is known of his life, except ...

William of Ebelholt, Saint

(Also called WILLIAM OF PARIS and WILLIAM OF THE PARACLETE.) Died on Easter Sunday, 1203, and ...

William of Gellone, Saint

Born 755; died 28 May, c. 812; was the second count of Toulouse, having attained that dignity in ...

William of Jumièges

(Surnamed CALCULUS.) Benedictine historian of the eleventh century. Practically nothing seems ...

William of Maleval, Saint

(or ST. WILLIAM THE GREAT). Died 10 February, 1157; beatified in 1202. His life, written ...

William of Malmesbury

Born 30 November, about 1090; died about 1143. He was educated at Malmesbury, where he became a ...

William of Moerbeke

Scholar, Orientalist, philosopher, and one of the most distinguished men of letters of the ...

William of Nangis

(GUILHELMUS). A medieval chronicler, who takes his name from the City of Nancy, France. ...

William of Newburgh

Historian, b. at Bridlington, Yorkshire, 1136; d. at Newburgh, Yorkshire, 1198, where he went as ...

William of Norwich, Saint

Born 1132; died 22 March, 1144. On Holy Saturday, 25 March, 1144, a boy's corpse showing signs of ...

William of Ockham

Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village ...

William of Paris, Saint

Abbot of Eskill in Denmark, born 1105; died 1202. He was born of a noble French family, and ...

William of Perth, Saint

(Or ST. WILLIAM OF ROCHESTER). Martyr, born at Perth ; died about 1201. Practically all that ...

William of Poitiers

Norman historian, born of a noted family, at Préaux near Pont Audemer, Normandy, about 1020. ...

William of Ramsey

Flourished about 1219. Nothing is known of his life except that he was a monk of Crowland Abbey ...

William of Sens

A twelfth-century French architect, supposed to have been born at Sens. He is referred to in ...

William of Shoreham

( Or de Schorham.) An English religious writer of the Anglo-Norman period, born at ...

William of St-Amour

A thirteenth century theologian and controversialist, born in Burgundy in the first decades of ...

William of St-Thierry

Theologian and mystic, and so called from the monastery of which he was abbot, b. at ...

William of Turbeville

(TURBE, TURBO, or DE TURBEVILLE). Bishop of Norwich (1146-74), b. about 1095; d. at Norwich ...

William of Tyre

Archbishop of Tyre and historian, born probably in Palestine, of a European family which had ...

William of Vercelli

(Or WILLIAM OF MONTE VERGINE.) The founder of the Hermits of Monte Vergine, or Williamites, ...

William of Ware

(William de Warre, Guard, Guaro, Varro or Varron.) Born at Ware in Herts; the date of his ...

William of Wayneflete

Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of England, b. towards the end of the fourteenth century; ...

William of Wykeham

Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England and founder of Winchester College ; b. between ...

William Perault

(PERAULD, PERALDUS, PERALTUS). Writer and preacher, b. at Perault, France ; d. at Lyons ; ...

William the Clerk (of Normandy)

French poet of the thirteenth century. Nothing is known of his life except that he was a clerk of ...

William the Conqueror

King of England and Duke of Normandy. William was the natural son of Robert, Duke of ...

William the Walloon

Date of birth unknown; d. (probably) 22 Dec., 1089. He became Abbot of St. Arnoul at Metz in ...

William, Blessed

Abbot of Hirschau, monastic reformer, born in Bavaria ; died at Hirschau, 5 July 1091. He ...

William, Saint

(WILLIAM FITZHERBERT, also called WILLIAM OF THWAYT). Archbishop of York. Tradition ...

William, Saint

Bishop of St-Brieuc, born in the parish of St. Alban, Brittany, between 1178 and 1184; died ...

Williamites

There were two minor religious orders or congregations of this name: (1) a Benedictine ...

Willibald and Winnebald, Saints

(WUNIBALD, WYNNEBALD). Members of the Order of St. Benedict, brothers, natives probably of ...

Willibrord, Saint

Bishop of Utrecht, Apostle of the Frisians, and son of St. Hilgis, born in Northumbria, 658; ...

Willigis, Saint

Archbishop of Mainz, d. 23 Feb., 1011. Feast, 23 February or 18 April. Though of humble birth ...

Williram

(WALTRAM, WILTRAM). Scriptural scholar, b. in Franconia (near Worms), Germany ; d. in 1085 at ...

Wilmers, Wilhelm

Professor of philosophy and theology, b. at Boke in Westphalia, 30 January, 1817; d. at ...

Wilmington, Diocese of

(WILMINGTONIENSIS). Erected 3 March, 1868. It includes what is known as the Delmarvia ...

Wilton Abbey

A Benedictine convent in Wiltshire, England, three miles from Salisbury. A first foundation was ...

Wilton, Richard

Died December 21, 1239. He was a medieval scholar of whom little is known except that he was an ...

Wimborne Minster

( Also WIMBURN or WINBURN). Located in Dorsetshire, England. Between the years 705-23 a ...

Wimmer, Boniface

Archabbot, b. at Thalmassing, Bavaria, 14 January, 1809; d. at St. Vincent Archabbey, Beatty, ...

Wimpfeling, Jakob

Humanist and theologian, b. at Schlettstadt, Alsace, 25 July 1450; d. there, 17 Nov., 1528. He ...

Wimpina, Konrad

(WIMINAE, WIMINESIS). Theologian, b. at Buchen in Baden, about 1465; d. at Amorbach in Lower ...

Winchester, Ancient See of

(WINTONIA, WINTONIENSIS). This diocese came into existence in 635 when the great ...

Winckelmann, Johann Joachim

Archaeologist and historian of ancient art, born at Stendal near Magdeburg, in 1717; assassinated ...

Windesheim

An Augustinian monastery situated about four miles south of Zwolle on the Issel, in the Kingdom ...

Winding Sheet of Christ, Feast of the Holy

In 1206 one of the (supposed) Winding Sheets used at the burial of Christ was brought to ...

Windischmann, Friedrich Heinrich Hugo

Orientalist and exegete, b. at Aschaffenburg, 13 December, 1811; d. at Munich, 23 August, ...

Windischmann, Karl Joseph Hieronymus

Philosopher, b. at Mainz, 25 August, 1775; d. at Bonn, 23 April, 1839. He attended the gymnasium ...

Window, Rose

A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

Windows in Church Architecture

From the beginning Christian churches, in contrast to the ancient temples, were intended to be ...

Windsor

A town of great antiquity, on the Thames, in Berkshire, England ; quaintly rendered Ventus ...

Windthorst, Ludwig

Born near Osnabrück, 17 January, 1812; died 14 March, 1891. He came from a family of ...

Wine, Altar

Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid ...

Winefride, Saint

Born at Holywell, Wales, about 600; died at Gwytherin, Wales, 3 Nov., 660. Her father was ...

Wingham, Thomas

Born in London, 5 January, 1846; died there, 24 March, 1893. He studied music at Wylde's London ...

Winnebago Indians

A tribe of Siouan stock closely related in speech to the Iowa, Missouri, and Oto, and more ...

Winnebald and Willibald, Saints

(WUNIBALD, WYNNEBALD). Members of the Order of St. Benedict, brothers, natives probably of ...

Winnoc, Saint

Abbot or Prior or Wormhoult, died 716 or 717. Three lives of this saint are extant: the best of ...

Winona, Diocese of

(WINONENSIS). Established in 1889, suffragan of St. Paul, comprises the following counties in ...

Winslow, Jakob Benignus

(WINSLOW). Physician and anatomist, b. at Odense, Denmark, 27 April, 1669; d. in Paris, 3 ...

Winwallus, Saint

Abbot of Landevennec; d. 3 March, probably at the beginning of the sixth century, though the ...

Winzet, Ninian

Benedictine abbot and controversial writer, b. at Renfrew, Scotland, 1518; d. at Ratisbon, 21 ...

Wipo

(WIPPO). Apparently a native of Burgundy, lived in the first half of the eleventh century. He ...

Wireker, Nigel

Satirist, lived about 1190. He describes himself as old in the "Speculum Stultorum", which was ...

Wirt, Wigand

Theologian, born at Frankfort about 1460; died at Steyer, 30 June, 1519. He entered the ...

Wisconsin

Known as the "Badger State", admitted to the Union on 29 May, 1848, the seventeenth state ...

Wisdom, Book of

One of the deutero-canonical writings of the Old Testament, placed in the Vulgate between the ...

Wisdom, Daughters of

(LES FILLES DE LA SAGESSE). Founded at Poitiers by Blessed Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort ...

Wise Men (Magi)

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick

Cardinal, first Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Seville, 2 Aug., 1802; d. in London, 15 ...

Witchcraft

It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between magic and witchcraft. Both are concerned with ...

Witness

One who is present, bears testimony, furnishes evidence or proof. Witnesses are employed in ...

Witt, Francis Xavier

Reformer of church music, founder of the St. CeciliaSociety for German-speaking countries, ...

Wittenberg

The city is in Prussian Saxony and was founded by Albert the Bear (d. 1170). He had conquered ...

Wittman, George Michael

Bishop-elect of Ratisbon, b. near Pleistein, Oberpfalz, Bavaria, 22 (23?) Jan., 1760; d. at ...

Wittman, Patrizius

Catholic journalist, b. at Ellwanger, Würtemberg, 4 January, 1818; d. at Munich, 3 ...

Witzel, Georg

(WICELIUS). Theologian, b. at Vacha, Province of Hesse, 1501; d. at Mainz, 16 Feb., 1573. He ...

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Wl 1

Wladislaw, Diocese of

(Polish WLOCLAWEK; Latin VLADISLAVIENSIS ET POMERANLAE). The historical origin of this ...

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Wo 23

Wolff, George Dering

Editor, b. at Martinsburg, West Virginia , 25 Aug., 1822; d. at Norristown, Pennsylvania, 29 ...

Wolfgang, Saint

Bishop of Ratisbon (972-994), born about 934; died at the village of Pupping in upper Austria, ...

Wolfram von Eschenbach

Generally regarded as the greatest of Middle-High-German epic poets, date of birth unknown; d. ...

Wolgemut, Michael

Painter and engraver, b. at Nuremberg, 1434; d. there, 1519. He was the most prominent artist of ...

Wolowski, Louis-François-Michel-Reymond

Born at Warsaw, 31 Aug., 1810; d. at Gisors, Eure, 15 Aug., 1876. His father, a member of the ...

Wolsey, Thomas

Cardinal, Archbishop of York, b. at Ipswitch, the usually accepted date, 1471, being probably ...

Wolstan, Saint

Benedictine, and Bishop of Worcester, b. at Long Itchington, Warwickshire, England, about 1008; ...

Woman

Of late years the position of woman in human society has given rise to a discussion which, as part ...

Wood, Thomas

Priest and confessor, b. about 1499; d. in Wisbech Castle before 1588. After being prebendary ...

Wood-Carving

In general, the production from wood of objects of trade or art by means of sharp instruments, as ...

Woodcock, Venerable John

English Franciscan martyr, b. at Leyland, Lancashire, 1603; suffered at Lancaster, 7 August, ...

Woodhead, Abraham

Born at Almonbury, Yorkshire, about March, 1609; died at Hoxton, Middlesex, 4 May, 1678. This ...

Woodhouse, Blessed Thomas

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Woods, Julian Edmund Tenison

Priest and scientist, b. at Southwark, London, 15 Nov., 1832; d. at Sydney, New South Wales, 7 ...

Worcester, Ancient Diocese of

(WIGORNIENSIS.) Located in England, created in 680 when, at the Synod of Hatfield under ...

Words (in Canon Law)

To give the right value to words is a very important factor in the proper interpretation of ...

World, Antiquity of the

Various attempts have been made to establish the age of the world. Two groups of scientists have ...

Wormwood

( Hebrew la'anah .) Wormwood, known for its repulsive bitterness ( Jeremiah 9:15 ; 23:15 ; ...

Worship, Christian

NOTION AND CHARACTERISTICS The word worship (Saxon weorthscipe , "honour"; from worth , ...

Worsley, Edward

Born in Lancashire, England, 1605; died at Antwerp, 2 Sept., 1676. He is said to have been ...

Worthington, Thomas, D.D.

Third President of Douai College , b. 1549 at Blainscough Hall, near Wigan, Lancashire; d. at ...

Wounds, The Five Sacred

Devotion The revival of religious life and the zealous activity of St. Bernard and St. ...

Wouters, G. Henry

Historian, b. at Oostham, Belgian Limburg, 3 May, 1802; d. 5 January, 1872. In 1829 he became ...

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Wr 2

Wright, Venerable Peter

Martyr, b. at Slipton, Northamptonshire, 1603; suffered at Tyburn, 19 May, 1651. After spending ...

Wright, William

Born at York, 1562; died 18 Jan., 1639. Though he came late (23) to his studies, he then made ...

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Wu 2

Wulfen, Franz Xaver Freiherr von

Botanist, b. at Belgrade, 5 November, 1728; d. at Klagenfurt, 17 March, 1805. He was the son of ...

Wulfram, Saint

(VULFRAMNUS.) Bishop of Sens, missionary in Frisi, born at Milly near Fontainebleau, probably ...

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Wy 5

Wyart, Théophile-Louis-Henri

(In religion DOM SEBASTIAN). Abbot of Cîteaux and Abbot-General of the Order of ...

Wyche, Saint Richard de

Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

Wyclif, John

(WYCLIFFE, or WICLIF, etc.). Writer and "reformer", b. probably at Hipswell near Richmond, ...

Wyntoun, Andrew of

Scottish chronicler, born (as we know from the internal evidence of his writings) in the reign ...

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