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Occasionalism

Occasionalism (Latin occasio ) is the metaphysical theory which maintains that finite things have no efficient causality of their own, but that whatever happens in the world is caused by God, creatures being merely the occasions of the Divine activity. The occasion is that which by its presence brings about the action of the efficient cause. This it can do as final cause by alluring the efficiency, cause to act, or as secondary efficient cause by impelling the primary cause to do what would otherwise be left undone. Occasionalism was foreshadowed in Greek philosophy in the doctrine of the Stoics who regarded God as pervading nature and determining the actions of all beings through the fundamental instinct of self-preservation. It appeared openly in the Arabian thought of the Middle Ages (cf. Stein, II, 193-245 infra ); but its full development is found only in modern philosophy, as an outgrowth of the Cartesian doctrine of the relation between body and mind. According to Descartes the essence of the soul is thought, and the essence of the body extension. Body and soul therefore have nothing in common. How then do they interact? Descartes himself tried to solve this problem by attributing to the soul the power of directing the movements of the body. But this idea conflicted with the doctrine involved in his denial of any immediate interaction between body and mind. The first step toward a solution was taken by Johannes Clauberg (1625-65). According to him all the phenomena of the outside world are modes of motion and are caused by God. When therefore the mind seems to have acted upon the outside world, it is a pure delusion. The soul, however, can cause its own mental processes, which have nothing in common with matter and its modes of action. Matter, on the other hand, cannot act upon mind. The presence of certain changes in the bodily organism is the occasion whereupon the soul produces the corresponding ideas at this particular time rather than any other. To the soul Clauberg also attributes the power of influencing by means of the will the movements of the body. The Occasionalism of Clauberg is different from that of later members of the school ; with him the soul is the cause which is occasioned to act-with the others it is God.

Louis de la Forge (Tractatus de mente humana, 1666) is regarded by some as the real father of Occasionalism. His starting point was the problem of the relation between energy and matter. Following the Cartesian method, he argued that what cannot be clearly and distinctly conceived cannot be held as true. We can form no clear idea of the attraction exerted by one body on another at a distance nor of the energy that moves a body from one place to another. Such an energy must be something totally different from matter, which is absolutely inert; the union between matter and energy is inconceivable. Matter then, cannot be the cause of the physical phenomena; these must be produced by God, the first, universal, and total cause of all motion. In his theory of the union be tween body and soul, de la Forge approached the later Leibnizian doctrine of a pre-established harmony. God must have willed and brought about the union between body and soul, therefore He willed to do all that is necessary to perfect this union. The union between body and mind involves the appearance of thoughts in consciousness at the presence of bodily activities and the sequence of bodily movements to carry out the ideas of the mind. God willing the union between body and mind willed also to produce as first and universal cause, the thoughts that should correspond to the organic movements of sensation, and the movements which follow upon the presence of some conscious processes. But there are other movements for which the soul itself is responsible as efficient cause, and these are the effects of the spontaneous activity of our free will .

The Occasionalism of Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669) is ethical rather than cosmological in its inception. The first tract of his "Ethics" (Land's ed. of the Opera , The Hague, 1891-93) is a study of what he termed the cardinal virtues . These are not prudence temperance, justice, and fortitude. Virtue according to Geulincx is the love of God and of Reason (III, 16-17; 29). The cardinal virtues are the properties of virtue which immediately flow from its very essence and have nothing to do with anything external. These properties are diligence, obedience, justice, humility (III, 17). The division which Geulincx makes of humility is one of fundamental importance in his philosophy. It divides his view of the world into two parts-one, the understanding of our relation to the world and the other, the concept of our relation to God. Humility consists in the knowledge of self and the forsaking of self. I find in myself nothing that is my own but to know and to will . I therefore must be conscious of all that I do, and that of which I am not conscious is not the product of my own causality. Hence the universal principle of causality -- quod nescis quo modo fiat, non facis --if you do not know how a thing is done then you do not do it. Since then, the movements of my body take place without my knowing how the nervous impulse passes to the muscles and there-causes them to contract I do not cause my own bodily actions. "I am therefore a mere spectator of this machine. In it I form naught and renew naught, I neither make anything here nor destroy it. Everything is the work of someone else" (III, 33) . This one is the Deity who sees and knows all things. The second part of Geulincx's philosophy is connected with Occasionalism as the effect with the cause. Its guiding principle is: Where you can do nothing there also you should desire nothing (III, 222). This leads to a mysticism and asceticism which however must not be taken too seriously for it is tempered by the obligation of caring for the body and propagating the species.

Nicolas Malebranche developed Occasionalism to its uttermost limit, approaching so near to Pantheism that he himself remarked that the difference between himself and Spinoza was that he taught that the universe was in God and that Spinoza said that God was in the universe. Starting out with the Cartesian doctrine, that the essence of the soul is thought and that of matter is extension, he sought to prove that creatures have no causality of their own. Experience seems to tell us that one body acts upon another, but all that we know is that the movement of one body follows upon that of another. We have no experience of one body causing the movement of another. Therefore, says Malebranche, one body cannot act upon another. By a similar argument he attempts to prove that body cannot act upon mind. Since experience can tell us only that a sensation follows upon the stimulus, therefore the stimulus is not the cause of the sensation.. He uses the argument of Geulincx to prove that mind cannot act upon body. Not only is there no interaction between body and mind, and between one body and another, but there is no causality within the mind itself. Our sensations, for example, are not caused by bodies, and are independent of ourselves. Therefore they must be produced by some higher being. Our ideas cannot be created by the mind. Neither can they be copied from a present object, for one would have first to perceive the object in order to copy it, after which the production of an idea would be superfluous. Our ideas cannot be all possessed as complete products from the beginning, because it is a fact that the mind goes through a process of gradual development. Nor can the mind possess a faculty that produces by a sufficient causality its own ideas because it would have to produce also the ideas of extended bodies and extension is excluded from the essence of the mind and therefore from the scope of its causal efficiency. If then there is no way of accounting for ideas and sensations either by the efficiency of the mind itself or by that of the outside world they must be produced by God, the infinite. omnipresent, universal Cause. God knows all things because He produced all things. Therefore the ideas of all things are in God, and on account of His most intimate union with our souls the spirit can see what is in God.

Among the Occasionalists is also mentioned R.H. Lotze (1817-81). His Occasionalism is really only a statement that we are ignorant of any interaction between body and mind, or between one material thing and another. He is not an Occasionalist in the metaphysical sense of the word. In estimating the value of the Occasionalistic position we must realize that it sprang from a twofold problem, the interaction of body and mind and the relation of body, mind, and world to God the first cause of all. The success of the Occasionailist answer to the first difficulty was dependent upon the fate of the Cartesian philosophy. If man is composed of two absolutely distinct substances that have nothing in common, then the conclusion of the Occasionalists is logically necessary and there is no interaction between body and mind. What appears to be such must be due to the efficient causality of some external being. This difficulty was not felt so keenly in Scholastic philosophy because of the doctrine of matter and form, which explains the relation of body and soul as that of two incomplete but complementary substances. Very soon, too, it began to lose its hold upon modern thought. For Cartesianism led, on the one hand, to a Monistic Spiritualism and, on the other, to Materialism. In either case the very foundations of Occasionalism were undermined. In its attempt to solve the second difficulty, Occasionalism did not meet with any particular success. From its doctrine of the relation between body and soul it argued to what must be the relation between God and the creature in general. The superstructure could not stand without the foundation.

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O'Braein, Tighernach

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(Irish, Maol Brighde ua Heodhusa ; Latin, Brigidus Hossæus ). Known also as ...

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Born in Ireland, c. 1590; died in Spain, 1660, son of Dermot O'Sullivan and nephew of Donal ...

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(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

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Oakeley, Frederick

Born 5 September, 1802, at Shrewsbury ; died 30 Jan., 1880, at Islington, the youngest son of ...

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The English Reformation having been imposed by the Crown, it was natural that submission to the ...

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(Or ANTEQUERA). Situated in the southern part of the Republic of Mexico, bounded on the north ...

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Obazine, Monastery of

Located in the Diocese of Tulle ; founded by St. Stephen of Obazine about 1134. After his ...

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Titular see in Byzacena, northern Africa of unknown history, although mentioned by Polybius ...

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A name commonly used in medieval times for the lesser officials of a monastery who were ...

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Oblati, Oblatæ, Oblates

Oblati (Oblatæ, Oblates) is a word used to describe any persons, not professed monks or ...

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A term derived from the Roman civil law , defined in the "Institutes" of Justinian as a "legal ...

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Observatory, Vatican

The Vatican Observatory now bears the official title, "Specola Astronomica Vaticana". To ...

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Occam, William of

Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village ...

Occasionalism

Occasionalism (Latin occasio ) is the metaphysical theory which maintains that finite things ...

Occasions of Sin

Occasions of Sin are external circumstances--whether of things or persons --which either ...

Occleve, Thomas

(Or Hoccleve) Little is known of his life beyond what is mentioned in his poems. He was b. ...

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Under this general term are included various practices to which special articles of the ...

Occurrence

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Octave

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Od 12

Odense, Ancient See of Odense

(OTHINIA, OTHONIENSIS.) The diocese included the islands of Fünen, Langeland, Taasinge, ...

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Odo, Saint

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Odo, Saint

(Oda) Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 2 June, 959 (not in 958; recent researches showing that he ...

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Oertel, John James Maximilian

Journalist, born at Ansbach, Bavaria, 27 April, 1811; died at Jamaica, New York, 21 August, 1882. ...

Oettingen

(ALTÖTTING, OETINGA) Oettingen, during the Carlovingian period a royal palace near the ...

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Offa

Offa, King of Mercia, died 29 July, 796. He was one of the leading figures of Saxon history, as ...

Offerings

(OBLATIONS) I. THE WORD OBLATION The word oblation , from the supine of the Latin verb ...

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(Offertorium.) The rite by which the bread and wine are presented (offered) to God before ...

Office of the Dead

I. COMPOSITION OF THE OFFICE This office, as it now exists in the Roman Liturgy, is composed of ...

Office, Divine

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

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Og 4

Ogdensburg, Diocese of

(Ogdensburgdensis). Comprises the northern towns of Herkimer and Hamilton counties, with the ...

Oggione, Marco D'

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Ohio

The seventeenth state of the American Union, admitted on 19 Feb., 1803. It is bounded on the north ...

Ohler, Aloys Karl

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Oil of Saints

(Manna Oil of Saints). An oily substance, which is said to have flowed, or still flows, from ...

Oils, Holy

(OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

Ointment in Scripture

That the use of oily, fragrant materials to anoint the body is a custom going back to remote ...

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Oj 1

Ojeda, Alonso de

Explorer; b. at Cuenca, Spain, about 1466; d. on the island of Santo Domingo , about 1508. He ...

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Ok 2

Okeghem, Jean d'

Also called Okekem, Okenghem, Okegnan, Ockenheim. Contrapuntist, founder and head of the second ...

Oklahoma

I. GEOGRAPHY Oklahoma, the forty-sixth state to be admitted to the Union, is bounded on the north ...

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Oláh, Nicolaus

(OLAHUS) Archbishop of Gran and Primate of Hungary, a distinguished prelate, born 10 ...

Olaf Haraldson, Saint

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Old Chapter, The

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Overview The word canon as applied to the Scriptures has long had a special and consecrated ...

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Oldoini, Augustino

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Olenus

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Olesnicki, Zbigniew

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Olier, Jean-Jacques

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Oliva, Gian Paolo

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Olivaint, Pierre

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Oliver, George

Born at Newington in Surrey in 1781; died at Exeter in 1861. After studying for some years at ...

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Olivi, Pierre Jean

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Olympus

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Omaha

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Omer, Saint

Born of a distinguished family towards the close of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh ...

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Omnipotence

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Onias

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Ontology

( on, ontos , being, and logos , science, the science or philosophy of being). I. ...

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Oo 1

Oostacker, Shrine of

A miraculous shrine of the Blessed Virgin, and place of pilgrimage from Belgium, Holland, and ...

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Op 8

Opening Prayer (in the Mass)

The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at ...

Ophir

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Oppido Mamertina

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Optatus, Saint

Bishop of Milevis, in Numidia, in the fourth century. He was a convert, as we gather from St. ...

Optimism

Optimism (Latin optimus , best) may be understood as a metaphysical theory, or as an emotional ...

Option, Right of

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...

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Or 60

Oracle

( oraculum; orare , to speak). A Divine communication given at a special place through ...

Oran

(ORANENSIS). Diocese in Algiers, separated from the Archdiocese of Algiers, 26 July, 1866, to ...

Orange Free State

The Orange Free State, one of the four provinces of the Union of South Africa, lies between ...

Orange River

(also the PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF GREAT NAMAQUALAND) Located in South Africa. The vicariate was ...

Orange, Councils of

Two councils were held at Orange (Arausio), a town in the present department of Vaucluse in ...

Orans

(Orante) Among the subjects depicted in the art of the Roman catacombs one of those most ...

Orate Fratres

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

Oratorio

As at present understood, an Oratorio is a musical composition for solo voices, chorus, orchestra, ...

Oratory

(Latin oratorium , from orare , to pray ) As a general term, Oratory signifies a place ...

Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, The

Under this head are included the Italian, Spanish, English, and other communities, which follow ...

Oratory, French Congregation of the

Founded in Paris at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Cardinal Pierre de ...

Orbellis, Nicolas d'

Franciscan theologian and philosopher, Scotist ; born about 1400; died at Rome, 1475. He seems ...

Orcagna

(The conventional name in art history of A NDREA DI C IONE , also called A RCAGNUOLO or A ...

Orcistus

Titular see in Galatia Secunda. It is only mentioned in Peutinger's "Table". An inscription of ...

Ordeals

( Iudicium Dei ; Anglo-Saxon, ordâl ; German Urteil ). Ordeals were a means of ...

Ordericus Vitalis

Historian, b. 1075; d. about 1143. He was the son of an English mother and a French priest who ...

Orders, Holy

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

Orders, The Military

Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...

Ordinariate

(From Ordinary ). This term is used in speaking collectively of all the various organs ...

Ordinary

( Latin ordinarius , i. e., judex ) An Ordinary in ecclesiastical language, denotes any ...

Ordines Romani

The word Ordo commonly meant, in the Middle Ages, a ritual book containing directions for ...

Oregon

One of the Pacific Coast States, seventh in size among the states of the Union (1910). It received ...

Oregon City

(OREGONOPOLITAN). Includes that part of the state of Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, ...

Oremus

Invitation to pray, said before collects and other short prayers and occurring continually in ...

Orense

(AURIENSIS) A suffragan of Compostela, includes nearly all of the civil Province of Orense, ...

Oresme, Nicole

Philosopher, economist, mathematician, and physicist, one of the principal founders of modern ...

Organ

(Greek organon , "an instrument") A musical instrument which consists of one or several sets ...

Organic Articles, The

A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, ...

Oria

(URITANA) Oria, in the Province of Lecce [now the Province of Brindisi -- Ed. ], Apulia, ...

Oriani, Barnaba

Italian Barnabite and astronomer, b. at Carignano, near Milan, 17 July, 1752; d. at Milan, 12 ...

Oriental Study and Research

In the broadest sense of the term, Oriental study comprises the scientific investigation and ...

Orientation of Churches

According to Tertullian the Christians of his time were, by some who concerned themselves with ...

Orientius

Christian Latin poet of the fifth century. He wrote an elegiac poem ( Commonitorium ) of 1036 ...

Oriflamme

In verses 3093-5 of the "Chanson de Roland" (eleventh century) the oriflamme is mentioned as a ...

Origen and Origenism

I. LIFE AND WORK OF ORIGEN A. BIOGRAPHY Origen, most modest of writers, hardly ever alludes to ...

Original Sin

I. Meaning II. Principal Adversaries III. Original Sin in ScriptureIV. Original Sin in ...

Orihuela

DIOCESE OF ORIHUELA (ORIOLENSIS, ORIOLANA). The Diocese of Orihuela comprises all the civil ...

Oriol, Saint Joseph

Priest, "Thaumaturgus of Barcelona", b. at Barcelona, 23 November, 1650; d. there, 23 March, ...

Oristano

Diocese of Oristano (Arborensis) in Sardinia. Oristano was the capital of the giudicatura ...

Orkneys

A group of islands situated between 58° 41' and 59° 24' N. lat. and 2° 22' and 3° ...

Orléans

(AURELIANUM) This Diocese comprises the Department of Loiret, suffragan of Paris since 1622, ...

Orléans, Councils of

Six national councils were held at Orléans in the Merovingian period. I. — At the ...

Orlandini, Niccolò

Born at Florence, 1554; died 1606 at Rome, 17 May. He entered the Jesuit novitiate 7 Nov., ...

Orley, Barent Van

(Bernard) Painter, b. at Brussels, about 1491; d. there 6 January, 1542. He studied under ...

Orme, Philibert de l'

An architect, born about 1512; died 1570. His style, classical and of the more severe Italian ...

Oropus

Titular see, suffragan of Anazarbus in Cilicia Secunda. It never really depended on Anazarbus ...

Orosius, Paulus

Historian and Christian apologist ; b. probably at Bracara, now Braga, in Portugal, between 380 ...

Orphans and Orphanages

The death of one or both parents makes the child of the very poor a ward of the community. The ...

Orsi, Giuseppe Agostino

A cardinal, theologian, and ecclesiastical historian, born at Florence, 9 May, 1692, of an ...

Orsini

One of the most ancient and distinguished families of the Roman nobility, whose members often ...

Orsisius

( Arsisios , Oresiesis-Heru-sa Ast) Egyptian monk of the fourth century; was a disciple ...

Ortelius, Abraham

(OERTEL) A cartographer, geographer, and archeologist, born in Antwerp, 4 April, 1527; died ...

Orthodox Church

The technical name for the body of Christians who use the Byzantine Rite in various languages ...

Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy ( orthodoxeia ) signifies right belief or purity of faith. Right belief is not ...

Orthodoxy, Feast of

(or SUNDAY) The first Sunday of the Great Forty days ( Lent ) in the Byzantine Calendar ...

Orthosias

A titular see of Phœnicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. The city is mentioned for the first ...

Ortolano Ferrarese

Painter of the Ferrara School, b. in Ferrara, about 1490; d. about 1525. His real name was ...

Orval

(Aurea Vallis, Gueldenthal). Formerly a Cistercian abbey in Belgian Luxemburg, Diocese of ...

Orvieto

DIOCESE OF ORVIETO (URBEVETANA) Diocese in Central Italy. The city stands on a rugged mass of ...

Ory, Matthieu

Inquisitor and theologian, b. at La Caune, 1492; d. at Paris, 1557. Entering the Dominican ...

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Os 22

Osaka

(Osachensis). Osaka ( Oye , great river; saka , cliff), one of the three municipal ...

Osbald

King of Northumbria, d. 799. Symeon of Durham (Historia Regum) tells us that when Ecfwald, a ...

Osbaldeston, Edward, Venerable

English martyr, b. about 1560; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 16 November, 1594. Son of ...

Osbern

Hagiographer, sometimes confused with Osbert de Clare alias Osbern de Westminster, b. at ...

Oscott (St. Mary's College)

In 1793, a number of the Catholic nobility and gentry of England formed a committee for the ...

Osee

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

Osimo

DIOCESE OF OSIMO (AUXIMANA). Diocese in the Province of Ascoli Piceno, Italy. Osimo was ...

Oslo, Ancient See of

(ASLOIA, ASLOENSIS.) Oslo occupied part of the site of Christiania (founded 1624). After the ...

Osma

(OXOMENSIS) The Diocese borders Burgos and Logroño on the north, Soria and Saragossa ...

Osmund, Saint

Bishop of Salisbury, died 1099; his feast is kept on 4 December. Osmund held an exalted ...

Osnabrück

(OSNABRUGENSIS) This diocese, directly subject to the Holy See, comprises, in the Prussian ...

Ossat, Arnaud d'

French cardinal, diplomat, and writer, b. at Larroque-Magnoac (Gascony), 20 July, 1537; d. at ...

Ossory, Diocese of

(Ossoriensis.) In the Province of Leinster, Ireland, is bounded on the south by the Suir, on ...

Ostensorium

(From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...

Ostia and Velletri

SUBURBICARIAN DIOCESE OF OSTIA AND VELLETRI (OSTIENSIS ET VELITERNENSIS). Near Rome, central ...

Ostiensis

Surname of LEO MARSICANUS, Benedictine chronicler, b. about 1045; d. 22 May, 1115, 1116, or ...

Ostracine

Titular see and suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica prima. Pliny (Hist. naturalis, V, xiv) ...

Ostraka, Christian

Inscriptions on clay, wood, metal, and other hard materials. Like papyri, they are valuable ...

Ostrogoths

One of the two chief tribes of the Goths, a Germanic people. Their traditions relate that the ...

Oswald, Saint

Archbishop of York, d. on 29 February, 992. Of Danish parentage, Oswald was brought up by his ...

Oswald, Saint

King and martyr ; b., probably, 605; d. 5 Aug., 642; the second of seven brothers, sons of ...

Oswin, Saint

King and martyr, murdered at Gilling, near Richmond, Yorkshire, England, on 20 August, 651, ...

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Ot 16

Otfried of Weissenburg

He is the oldest German poet known by name, author of the "Evangelienbuch", a rhymed version of ...

Othlo

(OTLOH) A Benedictine monk of St. Emmeran's, Ratisbon, born 1013 in the Diocese of ...

Othmar, Saint

(Audomar.) Died 16 Nov., 759, on the island of Werd in the Rhine, near Echnez, Switzerland. ...

Otho, Marcus Salvius

Roman emperor, successor, after Galba, of Nero, b. in Rome, of an ancient Etruscan family ...

Otranto

ARCHDIOCESE OF OTRANTO (HYDRUNTINA). Otranto is a city of the Province of Lecce, Apulia, ...

Ottawa, Archdiocese of

Archdiocese of Ottawa (Ottawiensis). The Archdiocese of Ottawa, in Canada, originally ...

Ottawa, University of

Conducted by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate ; founded in 1848. It was incorporated in 1849 under ...

Otto I, the Great

Roman emperor and German king, b. in 912; d. at Memleben, 7 May, 973; son of Henry I and his ...

Otto II

King of the Germans and Emperor of Rome, son of Otto I and Adelaide, b. 955; d. in Rome, 7 ...

Otto III

German king and Roman emperor, b. 980; d. at Paterno, 24 Jan., 1002. At the age of three he was ...

Otto IV

German king and Roman emperor, b. at Argentau (Dept. of Orne), c. 1182; d. 19 May, 1218; son of ...

Otto of Freising

Bishop and historian, b. between 1111 and 1114, d. at Morimond, Champagne, France, 22 ...

Otto of Passau

All we know of him is in the preface of his work, in which he calls himself a member of the ...

Otto of St. Blasien

Chronicler, b. about the middle of the twelfth century; d. 23 July, 1223, at St. Blasien in the ...

Otto, Saint

Bishop of Bamberg, b. about 1060; d. 30 June, 1139. He belonged to the noble, though not ...

Ottobeuren

(OTTOBURA, MONASTERIUM OTTOBURANUM) Formerly a Benedictine abbey, now a priory, near ...

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Ou 9

Ouen, Saint

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...

Our Father, The

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

Our Lady of Good Counsel, Feast of

Records dating from the reign of Paul II (1464-71) relate that the picture of Our Lady, at ...

Our Lady of Perpetual Help

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Our Lady of the Fields, Brothers of

A Canadian congregation founded in 1902 at St-Damien de Buckland in the Diocese of Quebec by ...

Our Lady of the Snow

("Dedicatio Sanctæ Mariæ ad Nives"). A feast celebrated on 5 August to ...

Our Lady, Help of Christians, Feast of

The invocation Auxilium Christianorum (Help of Christians ) originated in the sixteenth ...

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Ov 4

Overbeck, Friedrich

Convert and painter of religious subjects, b. at Lübeck, 3 July, 1789; d. at Rome, 12 ...

Overberg, Bernhard Heinrich

A German ecclesiastic and educator, born 1 May, 1754; died 9 November, 1826. Of poor parents in ...

Overpopulation, Theories of

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

Oviedo

(OVETENSIS) This diocese comprises the civil province of the same name (the ancient Kingdom ...

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Ow 2

Owen, Saint

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...

Owen, Saint Nicholas

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...

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Ox 6

Oxenford, John

Dramatist, critic, translator, and song-writer, b. in London, 12 Aug., 1812; d. there 21 Feb., ...

Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe

An English controversialist and poet, born at Harrow, 15 Nov., 1829; died at Kensington, 23 ...

Oxford

Oxford, one of the most ancient cities in England, grew up under the shadow of a convent, said to ...

Oxford Movement, The

The Oxford Movement may be looked upon in two distinct lights. "The conception which lay at its ...

Oxford, University of

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The most extraordinary myths have at various times prevailed as to the ...

Oxyrynchus

Titular archdiocese of Heptanomos in Egypt. It was the capital of the district of its name, the ...

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Oz 3

Ozanam, Antoine-Frédéric

Great grand-nephew of Jacques Ozanam . Born at Milan, 23 April, 1813; died at Marseilles, 8 ...

Ozanam, Jacques

A French mathematician, born at Bouligneux (Ain), 1640; died in Paris, 3 April, 1717. He came of a ...

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