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Gradual

( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step)

Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the oldest and most important of the four chants that make up the choir's part of the Proper of the Mass. Whereas the three others ( Introit, Offertory, and Communion) were introduced later, it fill up the time while something was being done, the Gradual (with its supplement, the Tract or Alleluia ) represents the singing of psalms alternating with readings from the Bible , a custom that is as old as these readings themselves. Like them, the psalms at this place are an inheritance from the service of the Synagogue. Copied from that service, alternate readings and psalms filled up a great part of the first half of the Liturgy in every part of the Christian world from the beginning. Originally whole psalms were sung. In the "Apostolic Constitutions" they are chanted after the lessons from the Old Testament : "The readings by the two ( lectors ) being finished, let another one sing the hymns of David and the people sing the last words after him" ( ta aposticha hypopsalleto , II, 57). This use of whole psalms went on till the fifth century. St. Augustine says: "We have heard first the lesson from the Apostle. Then we sang a psalm. After that the lesson of the gospel showed us the ten lepers healed." (Serm. clxxvi, 1). These psalms were an essential part of the Liturgy, quite as much as the lessons. "They are sung for their own sake; meanwhile the celebrants and assistants have nothing to do but to listen to them" (Duchesne, "Origines du Culte chrétien", 2nd ed., Paris, 1898, p. 161). They were sung in the form of a psalmus responsorius , that is to say, the whole text was chanted by one person — a reader appointed for this purpose. [For some time before St. Gregory I, to sing these psalms was a privilege of deacons at Rome. It was suppressed by him in 595 (Ibid.).] The people answered each clause or verse by some acclamation. In the "Apostolic Constitutions" (above) they repeat his last modulations. Another way was to sing some ejaculation each time. An obvious model of this was Ps. cxxxv with its refrain: "quoniam in æternum misericordia eius"; from which we conclude that the Jews too knew the principle of the responsory psalm. We still have a classical example of it in the Invitatorium of Matins (and the same Ps. xciv in the third Nocturn of the Epiphany ). It appears that originally, while the number of biblical lessons was still indefinite, one psalm was sung after each. When three lessons became the normal custom (a Prophecy, Epistle, and Gospel) they were separated by two psalms. During the fifth century (Duchesne, op. cit., p. 160) the lessons at Rome were reduced to two; but the psalms still remain two, although both are now joined together between the Epistle and Gospel, as we shall see. Meanwhile, as in the case of many parts of the Liturgy, the psalms were curtailed, till only fragments of them were left. This process, applied to the first of the two, produced our Gradual; the second became the Alleluia or Tract.

I. THE NAME

Gradual comes from the place where it was sung. In the First Roman Ordo (10) it is called Responsum ; Amalarius of Metz (ninth century) calls it Cantus Responsorius ; Isidore (seventh century) Responsorium , "quod uno canente chorus consonando respondet" ("De Eccl. Officiis", I, 8; Ordo Rom. II, 7. Cf. Mabillon, "Musæum Italic." II, 9, note f). This name was also used, as it still is, for the chants after the lessons at Matins ; so the liturgical Responsorium was distinguished later by a special name. The reader who chanted the psalm stood on a higher place, originally on the steps of the ambo. He was not to go right up into the ambo, like the deacon who sang the Gospel, but to stand on the step from which the sub-deacon had read the Epistle (Ordo Roman. I, 10, II, 7: "he does not go up higher, but stands in the same place where the reader stood and begins the Responsorium alone; and all the choir answer and he alone sings the verse of the Responsorium." Cf. Ordo Rom. III, 9, VI, 5). Later in various local churches, when the ambo was disappearing, other places were chose, but the idea of a high place, raised on steps, persists. At Reims, the steps of the choir were used, sometimes a special pulpit was erected. Beleth (twelfth century) says that on ordinary days the cantor stands on the altar-steps, on feasts on the ambo (Rationale, II, P.L., CCII); Durandus a little later writes: "dicitur Graduale a gradibus altaris, eo quod in festivis diebus in gradibus cantatur" (Gradual is so called from the steps of the altar, on which it was sung on holidays. — Rationale, IV, 19). There seems then to be no doubt that the name comes from the place where it was sung; Cardinal Bellarmine 's idea that the gradus in question are those the deacon is climbing for the Gospel while the Gradual is being chanted (De Missâ, II, 16) is a mistake. We have seen that this psalm was not sung to fill up time during the procession to the ambo. Originally the deacon and all the ministers would wait till it was over before beginning their preparation for the Gospel. The older name Responsorium lasted, as an alternative, into the Middle Ages. Durandus uses it constantly and gives a mystic explanation of the word ("Responsorium vero dicitur quia versui vel epistolæ correspondere debet", etc., loc. cit., i.e. "Responsory is so called because it ought to correspond to the verse or epistle.")

It is difficult to say exactly when the Gradual got its present form. We have seen that in St. Augustine's time, in Africa, a whole psalm was still sung. So also St. John Chrysostom alludes to whole psalms sung after the lessons (Hom. In Ps., cxlv); as late as the time of St. Leo I (d. 462), In Rome the psalm seems not yet to have been curtailed: "Wherefore we have sung the psalm of David with united voices, not for our honour, but for the glory of Christ the Lord" (Serm. ii in anniv. Assumpt.). Between this time and the early Middle Ages the process of curtailing brought about our present arrangement.

II. ORDER OF THE GRADUAL

If we open a Missal, at most of the days in the year (the exceptions will be described below), we find between the Epistle and Gospel a set of verses with some Alleluias marked Graduale . Although the whole text follows this heading, although we usually speak of it all as the Gradual, there are here two quite distinct liturgical texts, namely the first part, which is the old psalmus responsorius (now the Gradual in the strictly correct sense), and the Alleluia with its verse, the Alleluiatic verse ( versus alleluiaticus ). We have seen that these two chants came, originally, one after each of the lessons that preceded the Gospel. Now that we have only one such lesson as a rule (the epistle ), the Gradual and Alleluiatic verse (or its substitute), are sung together. But there are still cases of their separation. In Lent, as we shall see, the Alleluia is replaced by the Tract. A number of Lenten Masses that have kept the old three lessons also keep the old arrangement, by which the Gradual follows the first, the Tract the second (e.g. Wednesdays in the Lenten Ember week and Holy Week ), others (e.g. the Ember Saturday) that have more than three lessons have a Gradual after each of the former ones and a Tract after the Epistle. There are again others (e.g. Tuesday in Holy Week ), in which there is no Tract at all, but only a Gradual after the first lesson. And even when they are sung together their essential separation is still marked by the fact that they have quite different melodies, in different modes. Thus, on the first Advent Sunday the Gradual is in the first and second modes mixed, the Alleluia in the eighth; the next Sunday has a fifth-mode Gradual followed by a first-mode Alleluia, and so on. The Gradual itself always consists of two verses, generally from the same psalm. There are however many cases of their being taken from different psalms ; some, of verses from other books of Scripture (e.g. those for the Immaculate Conception are from Judith); and a few in which the text is not Scriptural. The feast of the Seven Dolours has such verses, "Dolorosa et lacrymabilis es Virgo Maria" . and "Virgo Dei Genitrix" . So also "Benedicta et venerabilis es virgo Maria" for the Visitation (July 2) and other feasts of the B. V. M., and the first verse of the Gradual for Requiems ("Requiem æternam."). The first of these two verses keeps the old name Responsorium , the second is marked V (for versus ). It may be that the first represents the former acclamation of the people (like the Invitatorium of Matins ), and that the second is the fragment of the psalm originally sung by the lector (Gihr, Messopfer, 410; and note 4 from Guyetus, Heortologia, Venice, 1726).

The second chant is normally the versus alleluiaticus (in this case the shorter one). The use of the word Alleluia in the Liturgy is also a very old inheritance from the Synagogue. It became a cry of joy without much reference to its exact meaning in a language no longer understood (as did Hosanna ). Its place in the Liturgy varied considerably. In the Byzantine Rite it comes as the climax of the Cherubic Hymn at the Great Entrance (Brightman, Eastern Liturgies, Oxford, 1896, p. 379); in the Gallican Rite it was sung at the Offertory (Duchesne, Origines du Culte Chrétien, Paris, 1898, p. 160, n. 1). Its place here before the Gospel is peculiar to the Roman Rite. It appears that before the time of St. Gregory I (d. 604) it was sung only during Eastertide (Ep. ix — see Duchesne, loc. cit.; Atchley, Ordo Rom. I, 78- 9). Sozomen goes further: "At Rome, Alleluia is sung once a year, on the first day of the Paschal feast, so that many Romans use this oath : may they hear and sing that hymn !" (Hist. Eccl., VII, xix). This connection with Easter (unknown in the East) afterwards led to additional Alleluias being scattered throughout the Mass in Eastertide (at the Introit, Offertory, Communion, etc.); but its old and essential place for the normal Liturgy is here, where it has displaced the former second psalmus responsorius . It will be noticed that the three great Alleluias that usher in Easter on Holy Saturday come here in the place of the Gradual. The change consists of two Alleluias sung to exactly the same melody. At the end of the second one its last sound (a) is continued in a long and complicated neum. This musical phrase (called variously neuma, jubilatio, jubilus, cantilena ) is a very old and essential element of the Alleluia. A great number of medieval commentators insist on it, and explain it by various mystic reasons. For instance Rupert of Deutz (Rupertus Tuitiensis, O. S. B., twelfth century): "We rejoice rather than sing (jubilamus magis quam canimus) . and prolong the neums, that the mind be surprised and filled with the joyful sound, and be carried thither where the saints rejoice in glory " (De Officiis, I). So also Sicardus of Cremona : "Congrue quoque in Alleluia jubilams [this means sing the neum] ut mens illuc rapiatur ubi Sancti exsultabunt." (Mitrale, III, 3, P.L., CCXIII); Durandus: `Est etiam Alleluia modicum in sermone et multum in pneuma, quia gaudium illud majus est quam possit explicari sermone. Pneuma enim seu jubilus qui fit in fine exprimit gaudium et amorem credentium", that is, "the Alleluia is short in word and long in neum, because that joy is too great to be expressed in words. For the neum or jubilus at the end denotes the joy and love of the faithful" etc. (Rationale, IV, 20; see the whole chapter). The question of the neum is discussed and many authorities quoted in Pothier, "Les Mélodies Grégoriennes d'après la tradition" (Tournai, 1881), xi, 170-9. It should certainly never be omitted. In the case of a figured Gradual a jubilus in figured music should be supplied. After the jubilus of the second Alleluia a verse follows. This verse is by no means so commonly taken from the psalms as the verses of the Gradual, and there are a great many cases, especially on feasts of saints, of a fragment of a Christian poem, or other verse not from the Bible . On St. Lawrence'sfeast (10 Aug.), for example, the Alleluiatic verse is: "Levita Laurentius bonum operatus est, qui per signum crucis cæcos illuminavit" (The Levite Lawrence, who made the blind see by the sign of the Cross, worked a good work). This Alleluiatic verse is a kind of continuation of the jubilus with a text fitted to the long-drawn neums. Then a third Alleluia, the same as the second with its jubilus, ends the chant.

There are two exceptions to this order. The first is when the Alleluia is replaced by the Tract. Since this word began to be looked upon as a special sign of joy, most suitable for Eastertide, it followed, as an obvious corollary, that it should not be sung in times of penance or mourning. There is no such idea in the East, where they sing Alleluia always, even in the Office for the Dead, as was once done at Rome too (Atchley, Ordo Rom. I, 78-9). That Latins sometimes avoid it was one of their many preposterous grievances at the time of Cærularius's schism (Card. Humbert's Dialogus, LVI-LVII, In Will, "Acta et Scripta de Controv. Eccl. Græcæ et Latinæ", Leipzig, 1861, pp. 122-3). In the West, from Septuagesima to Easter (even on Feasts ), on Ember days, most vigils, and at Requiems, the Alleluiatic verse disappears. The Vigils in question generally have only the Gradual (but some have the Alleluia, e.g. the eves of Epiphany, Ascension, Whitsunday ). On the other days the Gradual is followed by the Tract. The Tract ( tractus ) is the second psalm sung between the lessons, which, although later displaced by the Alleluia on most days, has kept its place here. We find it as an alternative to the Alleluia in the First Roman Ordo: "Postquam legerit canto cum cantatoria adscendit et dicit responsum. Ac deinde per alium cantorem, si fuerit tempus ut dicatur Alleluia, concinitur, sin autem tractum, sin minus tantummodo responsum cantatur", i.e. "After the reading (of the Epistle) the cantor ascends with his book and chants the Response. Then, if it be the proper season, another cantor chants the Alleluia ; but if the Alleluia have to be omitted [i.e. in times of penance] the Tract or at times [as still on vigils] only the Response is sung" (ed. Atchley, London, 1905, p. 130, supplemented by Ordo Rom. III). The name "Tract", Psalmus tractus , was given to it, because it was sung straight through without any answer by the choir ( in uno tractu ). This was the special note of the second psalm, that distinguished it from the first psalmus responsorius ( Amalarius of Metz , De eccl. Offic. III, 12; Duchesne, op. cit., 108). Later authors explain the word incorrectly as describing the slow and mournful way in which it was sung ("a trahendo , quia lente et lugubriter cantatur", "from trahendo, because it is sung slowly and mournfully". — De Carop, "Bibl. Liturg.", Pt. I, a. 2, quoted by Gihr, op. cit., 416). Durandus gives this, with other symbolic reasons, for the name: "It is called tract from trahendo because it is sung drawn out ( quia tractum canitur ) and with a harshness of voice and length of words; since it implies the misery and labour of our present life" (Rationale, IV, 21. See the whole chapter). The text of the "Ordo Rom. I" quoted above shows that it was sung from the steps of the ambo, like the Gradual. We have still a few Masses in which the Psalmus tractus has kept its original nature as a whole psalm. On the first Sunday of Lent it is Ps. xc; on Palm Sunday, Ps. xxi; on Good Friday, Ps. cxxxix. Otherwise the Tract too has been shortened to two or three verses. It is nearly always taken from Scripture, but not seldom from other books than the Psalter ; verses from various psalms or other texts often follow one another, connected only by the common idea that runs through them. Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays in Lent are the old feriæ legitimæ , the official days of penance, that still keep certain peculiarities (in choir, on these days, the Office for the Dead, the penitential and gradual psalms are said). Except on Wednesday in Holy Week they have the same Tract, a prayer for forgiveness from Ps. cii and lxxviii. All feasts that may come between Septuagesima and Easter and all common and votive Masses have a Tract, to be used in that time. Good Friday has two Tracts, one after the Prophecy and one after the lesson from Exodus that takes the place of the Epistle; it has no Gradual. The first Easter Mass on Holy Saturday, among many other peculiarities, keeps so much of the nature of a Lenient vigil that it has, after the great Alleluia and its verse, a Tract. On Whitsun eve the characters of Eastertide and a vigil are combined. It has no Gradual, but first an Alleluia, then a Tract. It will be noticed that each verse in the Tracts is marked V. This calls attention to the nature of the old psalmus tractus that was sung straight through by the cantor. There are no responses for the choir.

The second exception to the usual order is in Eastertide (from the first Easter Mass to the Saturday after Pentecost). During this time the great Alleluia is sung; it has displaced the Gradual altogether. "Rightly during the fifty days in memory of this our most peaceful and happy deed, we are accustomed to sing Alleluia oftener and more joyfully" (St. Bede, II Hom., x). An exception in this season is the Easter octave. The greatest feasts have always kept older arrangements, so on Easter Day and till the Friday following the normal Gradual followed by the Alleluiatic verse (and a sequence) has remained. From White Saturday to the end of paschal time , including all feasts, instead of these two separate chants, one, the great Alleluia, is substituted. Two Alleluias are sung first as a sort of antiphon; the second has a jubilus. Two verses follow, each with an Alleluia and jubilus at the end. These last two Alleluias have the same melody, different from that of the first two. The verses are taken from all parts of the Bible , in the Proprium temporis chiefly from passages in the new Testament about the Resurrection. In this case too feasts and other Masses that may occur in Eastertide are provided with this great Alleluia, as an alternative to be used then. Lastly, five occasions ( Easter, Whitsun, Corpus Christi, the Seven Dolours, and Requiems) have a sequence after the Gradual. These five are all that Pius V's reform left of the innumerable medieval poems once inserted at this place (see SEQUENCES).

III. THE GRADUAL IN OTHER RITES

In the East, too, there are fragments of the psalms once sung between the lessons, that therefore correspond to our Gradual. In the Byzantine Rite the reader of the epistle first chants "the Psalm of David " and then the "Prokeimenon [ prokeimenon ] of the Apostle ". Both are short fragments of psalms. The Prokeimenon only is now usually read. It is printed before each Epistle in the "Apostolos". After the Epistle the reader should sing Alleluia and another fragment of a psalm (Brightman, op. cit., p. 370-1). This too is now always omitted by both Orthodox and Melchites ; even the Prokeimenon seems to be said only on Sundays and feasts in many churches (Charon, Le Rite byzantin, Rome, 1908, 683-4; but I have found churches where it is still used every day). The Armenian Rite, which is only a modified form of that of Constantinople, has however kept the older arrangement of three lessons. Before the Prophecy a fragment called the Saghmos Jashu (Psalm of dinnertime) is sung, before the Epistle the Mesedi (mesodion) , again a verse or two from a psalm, and before the Gospel the Alelu Jashu (Alleluia of dinner-time) consisting of two Alleluias and a verse (Brightman, op. cit., 425-6). Of the two older rites, that of St. James has the same arrangement as Constantinople (a Prokeimenon before and an Alleluia after the Epistle, Brightman, 36), that of St. mark has a verse and an Alleluia after it (ibid., 118). The Nestorians have hymns (not Biblical texts) before both Epistle and Gospel which they call Turgama , and three verses of psalms each followed by three Alleluias (this group is called Zumara ) after the Epistle (Brightman, 257-260). The Gallican Rite in the time of St. Germanus of Paris (d. 576) had three lessons. The Benedicite canticle (which he calls Benedictio ) was sung after the second, sometimes by boys, sometimes by a deacon (Duchesne, Origines, 185-7). The place of this canticle was not always the same. At times it followed the first lesson (ibid.). The present Ambrosian Rite sometimes has a Prophecy before the Epistle. In this case there follows the Psalmellus , two or three verses from a psalm. After the Epistle, Hallelujah is sung (on feasts of Christ, except in Octaves, twice), then a verse, then again Hallelujah. In Lent, on vigils and fast days, instead of this the Cantus (our Tract) is used. After the Gospel follows the Antiphona post Evangelium , from various books of Scripture (except in Lent and on fast days). And on certain great feasts there is also an antiphon before the Gospel (Rubr. Gen. Miss. Ambros., sect. 11). The Mozarabic Rite has three lessons. After the Prophecy follows a chant marked Psallendo . It has two verses, then a third marked V, then the second is repeated. The priest says: "Silentium facite" and the Epistle is read. Nothing is sung after the Epistle. In the seventh century a Council of Toledo (633) commanded under pain of excommunication that the Gospel should follow the Epistle immediately. After the Gospel follows the Lauda , consisting of an Alleluia, a verse, and a second Alleluia (Missale mixtum, P.L., LXXXV, e.g. for the first Sunday of Advent, col. 110, 112).

IV. RULES FOR THE GRADUAL

The nature and arrangement of the chants that form the Gradual in the Roman Rite have already been explained, so that little need be added here about its use. As a result of the reaction of low Mass upon high Mass (by which everything sung by anyone else must also be read by the priest at the altar ), the celebrant at high Mass reads the Gradual with the Alleluia, Tract, or Sequence, according to the form for the day, immediately after he has read the Epistle and at the same place (this is just as at low Mass ). As soon as the sub-deacon has finished chanting the Epistle, the Gradual (of course, again, in the complete form for the day) is sung by the choir. There is now no rule for the distribution of its parts. All may be sung straight through by the whole choir. It is however usual (partly for the sake of artistic effect) to divide the texts so that some are sung by one or two cantors. A common arrangement is for the cantors to sing the first words of the Gradual (to the asterisk in the choir-books), the choir continues, the cantors sing the versus and the first Alleluia, the choir the second, the cantors the Alleluiatic verse, and the choir the last Alleluia. Or, all Alleluias are sung by the cantors, the choir only joining in the neum. Similar arrangements may be made easily for the Tract or the great Alleluia in Eastertide. Normally it is all sung to plain-song and, now that we have the Vatican edition, to the form in that book. But there is no law about this, and the Gradual may be sung to any figured music that satisfies the principles of the "Motu Proprio" of 22 Nov., 1903. There is a useful arrangement of all Propers of the Mass in simple figured music by Tozer (New York, 2 vols., 1906) against which the only objection is that the composer has ignored the jubilus at the end of the Alleluia.

V. GRADUAL-BOOK

The name Gradual ( Graduale Romanum ) is also used for the book that contains the music sung by the choir at Mass. The name comes from this most important chant, but the book contains the plain-song music for the Ordinary (this part is also published alone with the title Ordinarium Missæ or Kyriale ) and all the Propers for the year. This book is one of the three parts of the old Roman Antiphonarium. Originally all the chants of the choir were contained in that. But by the ninth century it was already divided into three, the Graduale or Cantatorium for Mass, and the Responsiale and Antiphonarium (in a stricter sense) for the Office ( Amalarius of Metz, De Ordine Antiphonarii, P.L. XCIX, in prolog.). The history of the book forms part of that of the development of plain-song. An authentic edition (the Medicæa) was issued at Rome in 1614. It is now supplanted by the Vatican edition (1908), of which reproductions are being issued by various publishers.

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Flemish painter ; born at Tournai, 10 May, 1810; died in Brussels, 20 November, 1887. He ...

Galland, Antoine

French Orientalist and numismatist, b. at Rollot, near Montdidier, in Picardy, 1646, d. at ...

Gallandi, Andrea

Oratorian and patristic scholar, born at Venice, 7 December, 1709; died there 12 January, 1779, ...

Galle

DIOCESE OF GALLE (GALLENSIS). Diocese in Ceylon, created by Leo XIII 25 Aug., 1893, by ...

Gallego, Juan Nicasio

Priest and poet; born at Zamora, Spain, 14 December, 1777; died at Madrid, 9 January, 1853; ...

Galletti, Pietro Luigi

Benedictine, historian and archaeologist; b. at Rome in 1724; d. there, 13 December, 1790. He ...

Gallia Christiana

A documentary catalogue or list, with brief historical notices, of all the dioceses and ...

Gallican Rite, The

This subject will be treated under the following six heads: I. History and Origin; II. ...

Gallicanism

This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the ...

Gallicanus, Saints

The following saints of this name are commemorated on 25 June: (1) St. Gallicanus Roman ...

Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius

Roman emperor; b. about 218; d. at Milan, 4 March, 268; appointed regent by his father Valerian ...

Gallifet, Joseph de

Priest ; b. near Aix, France, 2 May 1663; d. at Lyons, 1 September, 1749. He entered the ...

Gallipoli

DIOCESE OF GALLIPOLI (GALLIPOLITANA). Diocese in the province of Lecce (Southern Italy ). ...

Gallitzin, Adele Amalie

(Or GOLYZIN). Princess; b. at Berlin, 28 Aug., 1748; d. at Angelmodde, near Münster, ...

Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine

Prince, priest, and missionary, born at The Hague, Holland, 22 December, 1770; died at Loretto, ...

Galloway, Diocese of

(Gallovidiana). Situated in the southwest of Scotland. It comprises the Counties of Dumfries, ...

Galluppi, Pasquale

Philosopher, b. at Tropea, in Calabria, 2 April, 1770; d. at Naples, 13 Dec., 1846, where from ...

Gallwey, Peter

Born at Killarney, 13 Nov., 1820; d. in London, 23 Sept., 1906; one of the best-known London ...

Galtelli-Nuoro

(Galtellinensis-Norensis) Diocese in the province of Sassari (Sardinia), on a hill of the ...

Galura, Bernhard

Prince- Bishop of Brixen ; b. 21 August, 1764, at Herbolzheim, Bresigau; d. 17 May, 1856. After ...

Galvani, Luigi

Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798. It was his ...

Galveston

DIOCESE OF GALVESTON (GALVESTONIENSIS). The Diocese of Galveston was established in 1847 and ...

Galway and Kilmacduagh

DIOCESE OF GALWAY AND KILMACDUAGH (GALVIENSIS ET DUACENSIS). Diocese in Ireland ; an ...

Gama, Vasco da

The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, ...

Gamaliel

(Greek form of the Hebrew name meaning "reward of God "). The name designates in the New ...

Gamans, Jean

Born 8 July, 1606, at Ahrweiler (according to other sources at Neuenahr, about two miles from ...

Gambling

Gambling , or gaming , is the staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game ...

Gams, Pius Bonifacius

An ecclesiastical historian, b. at Mittelbuch, Würtemberg, 23 January, 1816; d. Munich, ...

Gandolphy, Peter

(Or Gandolphi.) Jesuit preacher; b. in London, 26 July, 1779; d. at East Sheen, Surrey, 9 ...

Gangra

A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia; in the native tongue the word signifies goat, and ...

Gansfort, John Wessel

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Gap

(VAPINCENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Aix, includes the department of the Hautes-Alpes. ...

García Moreno, Gabriel

Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 ...

García, Anne

Better known as Venerable Anne of St. Bartholomew, Discalced Carmelite nun, companion of St. ...

Garcia, Saint Gonsalo

Born of a Portuguese father and a Canarese mother in Bassein, East India, about the year 1556 or ...

Garcilasso de la Vega

Spanish lyric poet; b. at Toledo, 6 Feb., 1503; d. at Nice, 14 Oct., 1536. A noble and a ...

Garcilasso de la Vega

Historian of Peru ; b. at Cuzco, Peru, 12 April, 1539; d. at Córdoba, Spain, c. 1617. The ...

Gardellini, Aloisio

Born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1759; died there, 8 Oct., 1829. He is famous chiefly for his collection of ...

Garesché, Julius Peter

Soldier; born 26 April, 1821, near Havana, Cuba; killed at the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, ...

Garet, Jean

Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Havre about 1627; died at ...

Gargara

A titular see in the province of Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The city appears to have been ...

Garin, André

An Oblate missionary and parish priest, born 7 May, 1822, at Côte-Saint-André, ...

Garland

A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and ...

Garland, John

An English poet and grammarian, who lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. He tells us ...

Garlick, Venerable Nicholas

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...

Garneau, François-Xavier

A French Canadian historian, b. at Quebec, 15 June, 1809, of François-Xavier Garneau and ...

Garnet, Henry

(Garnett.) English martyr, b. 1553-4; d. 1606, son of Brian Garnet, master of Nottingham ...

Garnet, Saint Thomas

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Garnier, Charles

Jesuit Missionary, born at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; died 7 December, 1649. He ...

Garnier, Jean

Church historian, patristic scholar, and moral theologian ; b. at Paris, 11 Nov., 1612; d. at ...

Garnier, Julien

Jesuit missionary, born at Connerai, France, 6 January, 1642; d. in Quebec, 1730. He entered ...

Garrucci, Raffaele

A historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, 22 January, 1812; d. at Rome, 5 May, 1885. He ...

Garzon

(GARZONENSIS.) Suffragan diocese of Popayan in the Republic of Colombia . It comprises the ...

Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed

Founder of the Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood (C.P.P.S.); b. at Rome on the feast of ...

Gaspe, Philippe-Aubert de

A French Canadian writer, b. at Quebec, 30 Oct., 1786, of a family ennobled by Louis XIV in ...

Gassendi, Pierre

(GASSENDY, GASSEND.) A French philosopher and scientist ; b. at Champtercier, a country ...

Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph

An Austrian sculptor, b. 22 Nov., 1816 at Prägraten, Tyrol; d. 28 Oct., 1900. He was first ...

Gassner, Johann Joseph

A celebrated exorcist ; b. 22 Aug., 1727, at Braz, Vorarlberg, Austria ; d. 4 April, 1779, at ...

Gaston, William

Jurist; b. at Newbern, North Carolina , U.S.A. 19 Sept., 1778: d. at Raleigh, North Carolina ...

Gatianus, Saint

Founder and bishop of Tours ; b. probably at Rome ; d. at Tours, 20 December, 301. He came ...

Gau, Franz Christian

Architect and archeologist, b. at Cologne, 15 June, 1790; d. at Paris, January, 1854. In 1809 he ...

Gaubil, Antoine

A French Jesuit and missionary to China, b. at Gaillac (Aveyron), 14 July, 1689; d. at Peking, ...

Gaudentius of Brescia

(GAUDENTIUS BRIXIENSIS or BONTEMPS.) A theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins ; ...

Gaudentius, Saint

Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on ...

Gaudete Sunday

The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass ( Gaudete ...

Gaudier, Antoine de

A writer on asectic theology ; b. at Château-Thierry, France, 7 January, 1572; d. at ...

Gaudiosus

Bishop of Tarazona (Turiasso), Spain ; died about 540. Our information concerning the life ...

Gaul, Christian

The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under ...

Gaultier, Aloisius-Edouard-Camille

Priest and schoolmaster; b. at Asti, Piedmont, about 1745, of French parents ; d. at Paris, 18 ...

Gaume, Jean-Joseph

French theologian and author, b. at Fuans (Franche-Comté) in 1802; d. in 1879. While ...

Gavantus, Bartolommeo

(GAVANTO) Liturgist, a member of the Barnabite Order ; b. at Monza, 1569; d. at Milan, 14 ...

Gaza

( Hebrew 'Azzah , "the strong") A titular see of Palaestina Prima, in the Patriarchate ...

Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria

A theologian, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 3 March, 1722; d. at Vicenza, 11 Dec., 1799. At a very ...

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Ge 93

Gebhard (III) of Constance

Bishop of that city and strenuous defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments ...

Gebhart, Emile

A French professor and writer, b. 19 July, 1839, at Nancy ; d. 22 April, 1908, in Paris. He was ...

Gedeon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

Gegenbauer, Josef Anton

An accomplished German historical and portrait painter, b. 6 March, 1800, at Wangen, ...

Geiler von Kayserberg, Johann

A celebrated German pulpit orator, b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 16 March, 1445; d. at ...

Geissel, Johannes von

Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 5 February, 1796, at Gimmeldingen, in the Palatinate; d. 8 ...

Gelasius I, Pope Saint

Died at Rome, 19 Nov., 496. Gelasius, as he himself states in his letter to the Emperor ...

Gelasius II, Pope

Born at Gaeta, year unknown; elected 24 Jan., 1118; died at Cluny, 29 Jan., 1119. No sooner had ...

Gelasius of Cyzicus

Ecclesiastical writer. He was the son of a priest of Cyzicus, and wrote in Bithynia, about 475, ...

Gemblours

(Gembloux, Gemblacum) A suppressed Benedictine monastery about nine miles north-west of ...

Genealogy (in the Bible)

The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament : I Tim., i, 4, and Tit., iii, 9. ...

Genealogy of Christ

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...

General Chapter

( Latin capitulum , a chapter). The daily assembling of a community for purposes of ...

General Judgment

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Generation

( Latin Vulgate, generatio ). This word, of very varied meaning, corresponds to the two ...

Genesareth

( Gennesaret .) This is the name given to the Lake of Tiberias in Luke 5:1; called ...

Genesius

(1) Genesius (of Rome) A comedian at Rome, martyred under Diocletian in 286 or 303. Feast, 25 ...

Genevieve, Saint

Patroness of Paris, b. at Nanterre, c. 419 or 422; d. at Paris, 512. Her feast is kept on 3 ...

Genezareth, Land of

By this name is designated in Mark, vi, 53, a district of Palestine bordering on the Sea of ...

Genga, Girolamo

A painter, born at Urbino in 1476; died at the same place, 1551. This talented craftsman was ...

Gennadius I, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople (458-471), has left scarcely any writings. Facundus (Defensio, II, ...

Gennadius II

Patriarch of Constantinople (1454-1456). His original name was George Scholarius ( Georgios ...

Gennadius of Marseilles

(GENNADIUS SCHOLASTICUS). A priest whose chief title to fame is his continuation of St. ...

Gennings, Edmund and John

The first, a martyr for the Catholic Faith, and the second, the restorer of the English province ...

Genoa

ARCHDIOCESE OF GENOA (JANUENSIS) Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy. The city is situated ...

Gentile da Fabriano

Italian painter ; b. probably about 1378 in the District of the Marches; d. probably 1427. The ...

Gentiles

( Hebrew Gôyîm ; Greek ethne, ethnikoi , Hellenes ; Vulgate Gentes, Gentiles, ...

Gentili, Aloysius

Born 14 July, 1801, at Rome ; died 26 September, 1848, at Dublin. He was proficient in poetry, ...

Genuflexion

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

Geoffrey of Clairvaux

A disciple of Bernard, was b. between the years 1115 and 1120, at Auxerre; d. some time after ...

Geoffrey of Dunstable

Also known as GEOFFREY OF GORHAM. Abbot of St. Alban's, d. at St. Alban's, 26 Feb., 1146. He ...

Geoffrey of Monmouth

(GAUFRIDUS ARTURUS, GALFRIDUS MONEMETENSIS, GALFFRAI or GRUFFYD AB ARTHUR). Bishop of St. ...

Geoffrey of Vendôme

(GOFFRIDUS ABBAS VINDOCINENSIS.) A cardinal, b. in the second half of the eleventh century of ...

Geography and the Church

The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never ...

Geography, Biblical

With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater ...

George Hamartolus

A monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some ...

George of Trebizond

A Greek scholar of the early Italian Renaissance ; b. in Crete (a Venetian possession from ...

George Pisides

(Or THE PISIDIAN). A Byzantine poet lived in the first half of the seventh century. From his ...

George the Bearded

(Also called THE RICH.) Duke of Saxony, b. at Dresden, 27 August, 1471; d. in the same city, ...

George, Orders of Saint

Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...

George, Saint

Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, ...

Georgetown University

Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia , "is the oldest Catholic literary ...

Georgia

STATISTICS The area of Georgia is 59,475 sq. m., and it is the largest of the original thirteen ...

Georgius Syncellus

(Greek Georgios ho Sygkellos ). Died after 810; the author of one of the more important ...

Gerace

DIOCESE OF GERACE (HIERACENSIS). Diocese in the province of Reggio in Calabria (Southern Italy ...

Gerald, Saint

Bishop of Mayo, an English monk, date of birth unknown; died 13 March, 731; followed St. ...

Geraldton

DIOCESE OF GERALDTON (GERALDTONENSIS). Diocese in Australia, established in 1898, comprises ...

Gerard Majella, Saint

Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...

Gerard of Cremona

A twelfth-century student of Arabic science and translator from Arabic into Latin; born at ...

Gerard, Archbishop of York

Date of birth unknown; died at Southwell, 21 May, 1108. He was a nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of ...

Gerard, Bishop of Toul, Saint

Born at Cologne, 935; died at Toul, 23 April, 994. Belonging to a wealthy and noble family, he ...

Gerard, John

Jesuit ; born 4 October, 1564; died 27 July, 1637. He is well known through his autobiography, a ...

Gerard, Richard

Confessor ; born about 1635; died 11 March, 1680 (O.S.). The Bromley branch of the Gerard ...

Gerard, Ven. Miles

Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

Gerardus Odonis

Also Geraldus Othonis , or Ottonis , a medieval theologian and Minister General of the ...

Gerasa

A titular see in the province of Arabia and the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ...

Gerberon, Gabriel

A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation ; b. at St-Calais, Department of Sarthe, France, 12 ...

Gerbet, Olympe-Phillipe

A French bishop and writer; b. at Poligny (Jura), 1798; d. at Perpignan (Pyrénées ...

Gerbillon, Jean-François

French missionary; born at Verdun, 4 June, 1654; died at Peking, China, 27 March, 1707. He ...

Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Samoëns in Savoy, 20 June, 1718; d. at Rome, 12 August ...

Gerhard of Zütphen

(ZERBOLT OF ZUTPHEN) Born at Zütphen, 1367; died at Windesheim, 1398; a mystical writer ...

Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Provost of that place and Austin canon , one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany ...

Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

Bishop of Auxerre, born at Auxerre c. 380; died at Ravenna, 31 July, 448. He was the son of ...

Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris

Bishop of Paris ; born near Autun, Saône-et-Loire, c. 496; died at Paris, 28 May, 576. ...

Germaine Cousin, Saint

Born in 1579 of humble parents at Pibrac, a village about ten miles from Toulouse ; died in ...

German Gardiner, Blessed

Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1544; ...

German Literature

I. FROM OLDEST PRE-CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO 800 A.D. There are no written monuments before the eighth ...

Germanicia

A titular see in the province of Euphratensis and the patriarchate of Antioch; incorrectly ...

Germanicopolis

A titular see in the province of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. The city took its name from ...

Germans in the United States

Germans, either by birth or descent, form a very important element in the population of the ...

Germanus I, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople (715-30), b. at Constantinople towards the end of the reign of ...

Germany

I. BEFORE 1556 From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented ...

Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

(VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN MISSIONS) Its jurisdiction covers the Grand Duchies of ...

Germia

A titular see of Galatia Secunda, a suffragan of Pessinus ; mentioned by Hierocles in the ...

Gerona

DIOCESE OF GERONA (GERUNDENSIS) The Diocese of Geronia in Catalonia, Spain, suffragan of ...

Gerrha

A titular see in the province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium in the Patriarchate ...

Gerson, Jean de Charlier de

The surname being the name of his native place; b. in the hamlet of Gerson 14 December, 1363; d. ...

Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed

Abbess of the Premonstratensian convent of Aldenberg, near Wetzlar, in the Diocese of Trier ; ...

Gertrude of Hackeborn

Cistercian Abbess of Helfta, near Eisleben; born near Halberstadt in 1232; died towards the end ...

Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

Virgin, and Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles; born in 626; died 17 March, 659. ...

Gertrude the Great, Saint

Benedictine and mystic writer; born in Germany, 6 Jan., 1256; died at Helfta, near Eisleben, ...

Gertrude van der Oosten, Venerable

Beguine ; born at Voorburch, Holland ; died at Delft, 6 Jan., 1358. She was born of peasant ...

Gervaise, Dom François Armand

Discalced Carmelite, b. at Paris, 1660; d. at Reclus, France, 1761. After completing his ...

Gervase of Canterbury

(GERVAS US DOROBORNENSIS) English chronicler, b. about 1141; d. in, or soon after, 1210. If ...

Gervase of Tilbury

(TILBERIENSIS) Medieval writer, b. probably at Tilbury, in the County of Essex, England, ...

Gervase, George

(Jervise.) Priest and martyr, born at Boscham, Suffolk, England, 1571; died at Tyburn, 11 ...

Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

Gesellenvereine

German Catholic societies for the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young men. ...

Gesta Dei per Francos

Gesta Dei per Francos is the title adopted by Guibert de Nogent (died about 1124) for his history ...

Gesta Romanorum

A medieval collection of anecdotes, to which moral reflections are attached. It was compiled ...

Gethsemane

Gethsemani (Hebrew gat , press, and semen , oil) is the place in which Jesus Christ ...

Gethsemane, Abbey of Our Lady of

An abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, commonly called Trappists, established in ...

Gezireh

Gezireh (or Djezireh), seat of two Catholic residential sees, one Chaldean, the other Syrian. ...

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Gf 1

Gfrörer, August Friedrich

German historian; b. at Calw, Würtemberg, 5 March, 1803; d. at Karlsbad, 6 July, 1861. ...

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Gh 7

Ghardaia

Prefecture Apostolic in the French Sahara, separated in 1901 from the Vicariate Apostolic of ...

Ghent

DIOCESE OF GHENT (GANDENSIS or GANDAVENSIS). The Diocese of Ghent at present comprises the ...

Ghibellines and Guelphs

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione

Sculptor ; b. at Florence about 1381; d. there, December, 1455. He ushered in the early ...

Ghirlandajo

(D OMENICO DI T OMMASO B IGORDI ). A famous Florentine painter ; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., ...

Ghislain, Saint

Confessor and anchorite in Belgium ; b. in the first half of the seventh century; d. at ...

Ghost Dance

The principal ceremonial rite of a peculiar Indian religion with originated about 1887 with ...

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Gi 53

Giannone, Pietro

Italian historian, born 7 May, 1676, at Ischitella in the province of Capinata, Naples ; died ...

Gibail and Batrun

A Maronite residential see. Gibail is merely the modern name of Byblos a titular see of ...

Gibault, Pierre

Missionary, b. at Montreal, Canada, 1737; d. at New Madrid, about 1804; son of Pierre Gibault ...

Gibbons, John

Jesuit theologian and controversialist; b. 1544, at or near Wells, Somersetshire; died 16 Aug. or ...

Gibbons, Richard

Brother of Father John Gibbons, born at Winchester, 1550 or 1549; died at Douai, 23 June, 1632. ...

Giberti, Gian Matteo

Cardinal, and Bishop of Verona, the natural son of Francesco Giberti, a Genoese naval ...

Giberti, Jean-Pierre

Canonist; b. at Aix, Provence, in 1660; d. at Paris in 1736. He became a cleric at an early ...

Gibraltar

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar is a rugged promontory in the province of ...

Gideon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

Giffard, Bonaventure

Born at Wolverhampton, England, 1642; died at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 12 March, 1734; second son ...

Giffard, Godfrey

Bishop of Worcester, b. about 1235; d. 26 Jan., 1301. He was the son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton ...

Giffard, William

Second Norman Bishop of Winchester from 1100 to 1129. Little is known of his history anterior ...

Gifford, William

Archbishop of Reims ; b. in Hampshire, 1554; d. at Reims, 11 April, 1629. He was the son of ...

Gift of Miracles

The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

Gift, Supernatural

A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...

Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo

A renowned cardinal, general, and statesman; b. about 1310 at Cuenca in New Castile ; d. 23 ...

Gil of Santarem, Blessed

A Portuguese Dominican : b. at Vaozela, diocese of Viseu, about 1185; d. at Santarem, 14 May, ...

Gilbert de la Porrée

(Gilbertus Porretanus) Bishop of Poitiers, philosopher, theologian and general scholar; b. ...

Gilbert Foliot

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

Gilbert Islands

Vicariate apostolic ; comprises the group of that name, besides the islands of Ellice and ...

Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint

Founder of the Order of Gilbertines , b. at Sempringham, on the border of the Lincolnshire fens, ...

Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent

Poet, b. at Fontenoy-le-Château, 1751; d. at Paris, 12 November, 1780. His parents were ...

Gilbert, Sir John Thomas

Irish archivist and historian, b. in Dublin, 23 January, 1829; d. there, 23 May, 1898. He was ...

Gilbertines, Order of

Founded by St. Gilbert, about the year 1130, at Sempringham, Gilbert's native place, where he was ...

Gildas, Saint

Surnamed the Wise; b. about 516; d. at Houat, Brittany, 570. Sometimes he is called "Badonicus" ...

Giles, Saint

(Latin Ægidius.) An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage ...

Gillespie, Eliza Maria

(In religion Mother Mary of St. Angela). Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 21 ...

Gillespie, Neal Henry

Brother of Eliza Maria Gillespie ; b. in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 19 January 1831; d. at ...

Gillis, James

Scottish bishop ; b. at Montreal, Canada, 7 April, 1802; d. at Edinburgh, 24 February 1864. He ...

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield

A musician, born at Ballygar Galway, Ireland, 25 Dec., 1829; died at St. Louis, 24 Sept., 1892; ...

Gindarus

A titular see of Syria Prima, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Pliny (Hist. nat. V, 81) ...

Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie-Achille

A French bishop ; b. at Montpellier (department of Herault) 3 Dec., 1806; d. there 17 Nov., ...

Gioberti, Vincenzo

An Italian statesman and philosopher ; b. at Turin, 5 April, 1801; d. at Paris, 26 October, ...

Giocondo, Fra Giovanni

An Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, b. in Verona, c. 1445; ...

Giordani, Tommasso

A composer, b. at Naples in 1738; d. at Dublin, Ireland, February 1806. The family came to ...

Giordano, Luca

Neapolitan painter ; b. at Naples, 1632; d. in the same place, 12 Jan., 1705. He was esteemed ...

Giorgione

(GIORGIO BARBARELLI, ZORZO DA CASTELFRANCO) Italian painter, b. at Castelfranco in or before ...

Giotto di Bondone

A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in 1266 ...

Giovanelli, Ruggiero

Composer, b. at Velletri, near Rome, in 1560; d. at Rome, 7 January, 1625. In 1584 he was ...

Giovanni Dominici, Blessed

(BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...

Giraldi, Giovanni Battista

(Surnamed CINTIO) Italian dramatist and novelist; b. at Ferrara, Italy, 1504; d. there, ...

Giraldi, Ubaldo

(UBALDUS A SANCTO CAJETANO). An Italian canonist; b. in 1692; d. in 1775. He was a member of ...

Giraldus Cambrensis

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry) was a distinguished writer, historian, and ecclesiastic of ...

Girard, Jean-Baptiste

Known as Père Girard, a Swiss pedagogue, b. at Fribourg, 17 December, 1765; d. there, 6 ...

Girardon, François

A noted sculptor of the reign of Louis XIV, b. at Troyes, France, 1630; d. at Paris, 1715. The ...

Giraud de Borneil

A Provençal troubadour, b. about the middle of the twelfth century, at Excideuil in the ...

Girba

A titular see in the province of African Tripoli. It is an island, in ancient times called ...

Girgenti

DIOCESE OF GIRGENTI (AGRIGENTINA). Girgenti is the capital of a province in Sicily and is ...

Gisbert, Blaise

French rhetorician and critic; born at Cahors, 21 February, 1657; died at Montpellier, 21 ...

Giuliani, Veronica

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

Giulio Romano

Properly GIULIO DEI GIANNUZZI, also known as GIULIO PIPPI. A famous architect and painter, the ...

Giuseppe Giusti

A poet and patriot ; b. 1809, at Monsumano near Pescia, Italy ; d. 31 March, 1850, at ...

Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

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Gl 19

Glaber, Raoul

Benedictine chronicler; b. in Burgundy before 1000; d. at Cluny about 1050. In early boyhood he ...

Glabrio, Manius Acilius

Consul at Rome during A.D. 91, with Trajan. He belonged to one of the noblest families of ...

Glagolitic

(Or G LAGOLITSA ; Slavonic glagol, a word; glagolati, to speak). An ancient alphabet ...

Glaire, Jean-Baptiste

Priest, hebraist, and Biblical scholar; b. at Bordeaux, 1 April, 1798; d. at Issy, near Paris, ...

Glanville, Ranulf de

Chief Justiciar of England ; b. at Stratford, Suffolk, England, date unknown; d. before Acre, ...

Glarean, Henry

(LORITI) The most distinguished of Swiss humanists, poet, philosopher, geographer, ...

Glasgow

I. ARCHDIOCESE OF GLASGOW (GLASGUENSIS) Archdiocese in the south-west of Scotland, comprising at ...

Glastonbury Abbey

[G LESTINGABURH; called also Y NISWITRIN (Isle of Glass) and A VALON (Isle of Apples)] ...

Glebe

Glebe ( Latin gleba ) originally signified, in common law , any farm, estate, or parcel of ...

Glendalough, School of

Glendalough (the Valley of the Two Lakes) is a picturesque and lonely glen in the heart of the ...

Gloria in Excelsis Deo

The great doxology ( hymnus angelicus ) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form". ...

Gloria, Laus et Honor

A hymn composed by St. Theodulph of Orléans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of which the ...

Glory

This word has many shades of meaning which lexicographers are somewhat puzzled to differentiate ...

Glory Be

In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...

Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

(IN CANON LAW) A gloss (Gk. glossa , Lat. glossa , tongue, speech) is an interpretation ...

Glosses, Scriptural

I. ETYMOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL MEANINGS The modern English word gloss is derived directly from the ...

Glossolalia

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Gloves, Episcopal

Liturgical gloves ( chirothecœ , called also at an earlier date manicœ , wanti ...

Gluttony

(From Lat. gluttire , to swallow, to gulp down), the excessive indulgence in food and drink. ...

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Gn 2

Gnesen-Posen

Archdiocese in the Kingdom of Prussia. The archdiocese includes the Dioceses of Gnesen and ...

Gnosticism

The doctrine of salvation by knowledge. This definition, based on the etymology of the word ( ...

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Go 89

Goa

(GOANENSIS.) Patriarchate of the East Indies, the chief see of the Portuguese dominions in the ...

Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of

Goajira is the most northern portion of South America is a peninsula running into the Caribbean ...

Goar, Jacques

A Dominican and hellenist, b. at Paris, 1601, d. 23 September, 1653. He entered the convent of ...

Goar, Saint

An anchorite of Aquitaine; b. about 585; d. near Oberwesel (Germany), 6 July, 649. He came of a ...

Gobat, George

Moral theologian ; born at Charmoilles, in the Diocese of Basil, now in the Department of the ...

Gobban Saer

Regarded in traditional lore as the greatest Irish architect of the seventh century, and ...

Gobelinus, Person

(Persona.) Born in 1358; died 17 November, 1421. He was a Westphalian and was known as an ...

God

Etymology of the Word "God" Discusses the root-meaning of the name "God", which is derived from ...

God, Existence of

The topic will be treated as follows: I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. The Problem Stated1. ...

God, Nature and Attributes of

I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...

God, Relation of the Universe to

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

God, Three Persons of

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Godard, Saint

(Also spelled GOTHARD, GODEHARD). Bishop of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony ; born about the ...

Godden, Thomas

(True name Tylden.) Born at Addington, Kent, 1624; died in London, 1 Dec., 1688. His father, ...

Godeau, Antoine

Bishop, poet and exegete ; b. at Dreux in the diocese of Chartres, 1605; d. at Vence, 21 ...

Godeberta, Saint

Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France ; died about the ...

Godelina, Saint

(GODELINA.) Born at Hondeforte-lez-Boulogne, c. 1049; died at Ghistelles, 6 July, 1070. The ...

Godet des Marais, Paul

Bishop of Chartres, France ; b. at Talcy, near Blois, 1647; d. at Chartres, 1709. He studied ...

Godfrey Goodman

Born at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 28 February, 1582-3; died at Westminster, 19 January, 1656. He was ...

Godfrey of Bouillon

Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and ...

Godfrey of Fontaines

(GODEFRIDUS DE fontIBUS, DOCTOR VENERANDUS) A scholastic philosopher and theologian ; born ...

Godfrey of Viterbo

German writer of the twelfth century. Nothing is known as to the place or date of his birth, ...

Godinez

(GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...

Godric

The name of two Abbots of Croyland. Godric I (870-941) Godrick I was the successor of the Abbot ...

Goesport, John Wessel

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

Goetz, Marie Josephine

Second superior-general of the Society of the Sacred Heart, daughter of Joseph Goetz of ...

Goffe, Stephen

(Or Gough) Oratorian; b. 1605; d. at Paris, Christmas Day, 1681. He was the son of Stephen ...

Goffine, Leonard

(Or G OFFINÉ ). Born at Cologne, or according to some, at Broich, 6 December, 1648; ...

Gog and Magog

Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 ...

Golden Bull

(Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...

Golden Calf

An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Exodus 32 where ...

Golden Rose

A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have ...

Goldoni, Carlo

Dramatist; b. at Venice, 25 Feb., 1707; d. at Paris, 6 Jan., 1793. Goldoni is especially ...

Goldwell, Thomas

Bishop of St. Asaph, the last survivor of the ancient hierarchy of England ; b. probably at ...

Golgotha

The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. NAME Etymology and Use The word Calvary ( ...

Gomes De Amorim, Francisco

Portuguese poet, dramatist, and novelist; b. at Avelomar, near Oporto, 13 August, 1827; d. 4 ...

Gondulphus

(GUNDULFUS). The name of three saints, of whom one was Bishop of Tongres (Maestricht), the ...

Gonet, Jean Baptiste

Theologian, b. about 1616 at Beziers, in the province of Languedoc; d. there 24 Jan., 1681. From ...

Gonnelieu, Jérôme de

Theologian, ascetical writer, and preacher; born at Soissons, 8 Sept., 1640; died at Paris, 28 ...

González de Santalla, Thyrsus

Theologian and thirteenth general of the Society of Jesus, b. at Arganda, Spain, 18 January, ...

González, Zeferino

Dominican, cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province and Diocese ...

Gonzaga, Ercole

(Hercules.) Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 23 November, 1505; d. 2 March, 1563. He was the Son of ...

Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius

Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...

Gonzaga, Scipione

Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593. He belonged to ...

Gonzalez, Saint Peter

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

Gonzalo de Berceo

Spanish poet, active between 1220 and 1242. Born in the closing years on twelfth century, he ...

Good

"Good" is one of those primary ideas which cannot be strictly defined. In order to fix its ...

Good Faith

A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively ...

Good Friday

Definition and etymology Good Friday, called Feria VI in Parasceve in the Roman Missal, he ...

Good Hope, Cape of (Eastern)

The Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope was established in 1847, when the Vicariate of the ...

Good Hope, Cape of (Western)

The Western vicariate and the Central prefecture, although different in name, are virtually one. ...

Good Samaritan, Sisters of the

A congregation of Tertiaries Regular of St. Benedict, established 2 February, 1857, at Sydney, ...

Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

Good, Highest, The

"We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the ...

Goodman, Ven. John

Priest and martyr ; born in the Diocese of Bangor, Wales, 1590; died 1642. He was educated at ...

Goossens, Pierre-Lambert

Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin (Belgium), b. at Perck, near Vilvorde, 18 July, 1827; d. at ...

Gordian

( Latin GORDIANUS.) There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. ...

Gordianus and Epimachus, Saints

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

Gordon Riots

This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, ...

Gordon, Andrew

A Benedictine monk, physicist ; b. 15 June, 1712, at Cofforach in Forfarshire, Scotland ; d. ...

Gordos

A titular see in the province of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. The city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

Gorgonius, Saint

Martyr, suffered in 304 at Nicomedia during the persecution of Diocletian. Gorgonius held a high ...

Gorkum, The Martyrs of

The year 1572, Luther and Calvin had already wrested from the Church a great part of Europe. ...

Gortyna

A titular see, and in the Greek Church metropolitan see, of the Island of Crete. The city, ...

Goscelin

(Or GOTSELIN, according to the spelling in the earliest manuscripts of his works.) A ...

Gospel and Gospels

The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds. It is very ...

Gospel in the Liturgy

I. HISTORY From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important ...

Gospel of Mark

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

Goss, Alexander

Second Bishop of Liverpool ; born at Ormskirk, Lancashire, 5 July, 1814; died. at St. Edward's ...

Gossaert, Jan

Called M ABUSE from Maubeuge in Hainaut. Flemish painter ; b. about 1472; d. at Middelburg ...

Gosselin, Jean-Edmé-Auguste

Ecclesiastical author; b. at Rouen, France, 28 Sept., 1787; d. at Paris, 27 Nov., 1858. He ...

Gother, John

(Or JOHN GOTER) Priest and controversialist; b. at Southampton, date unknown; d. at sea on a ...

Gothic Architecture

The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...

Gottfried von Strasburg

One of the greatest of Middle High German epic poets. Of his life we know absolutely nothing; ...

Gotti, Vincent Louis

Cardinal and theologian, b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 1742. He received ...

Gottschalk of Orbais

A medieval theologian ; b. about 800, d. after 866, probable 30 October, 868 (or 869), in the ...

Gottschalk, Saint

(GODESCALCUS). Martyr Prince of the Wends; d. at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast ...

Goulburn

(Gulburnensis). One of the six suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical province of Sydney, ...

Gounod, Charles-François

One of the most distinguished French musicians and composers of the nineteenth century, b. in ...

Goupil, René

Jesuit missionary; born 1607, in Anjou; martyred in New York State, 23 September, 1642. Health ...

Gousset, Thomas-Marie-Joseph

French cardinal and theologian ; b. at Montigny-les-Charlieu, a village of ...

Government Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

Gower, John

Poet; born between 1327-1330, probably in Kent; died October, 1408. He was of gentle blood and ...

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco José de

Painter and etcher, b. in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 31 March, 1746; d. in Bordeaux, 16 ...

Goyaz, Diocese of

(Goyasiensis). Co-extensive with the state of the same name, one of the twenty states which, with ...

Gozo, Diocese of

The diocese of Gozo (Goulos-Gaudisiensis), comprises the Island of Gozo in the Mediterranean ...

Gozzi, Carlo

Italian author, born at Venice, 1720; died 1806. He spent in military service three years that ...

Gozzoli

(BENOZZO DI LESE DI SANDRO, surnamed GOZZOLI). Painter ; b. at Florence, 1420; d. at Pisa ...

Gozzolini, Saint Sylvester

Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...

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Gr 107

Grässel, Lorenz

Coadjutor-elect of Baltimore ; born at Ruemannsfelden, Bavaria, 18 August, 1753; died at ...

Gröne, Valentin

A Catholic theologian, b. at Paderborn, 7 December, 1817; d. at Irmgarteichen, in the district ...

Grün, Anastasius

A pseudonym for Anton Alexander (Maria), Count von Auersperg, an Austrian poet; b. at Laibach in ...

Grace

Actual Grace Explains the concept of actual grace, which is defined in the article as "a ...

Grace at Meals

In Apostolic times St. Paul counsels the faithful: "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever ...

Grace, Actual

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...

Grace, Controversies on

These are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will. How can the ...

Grace, Supernatural

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...

Grace, William Russell

Philanthropist and merchant, born at Cork, Ireland, 10 May, 1832; died at New York, 21 March, ...

Gradual

( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step) Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the ...

Gradual Psalms

Fifteen psalms -- namely, Psalms 119-133 (in Hebrew 120-134) -- bear a Hebrew inscription which ...

Gradwell, Robert

Bishop; b. at Clifton-in-the-Fylde, Lancashire, 26 Jan., 1777; d. in London, 15 March, 1833; went ...

Graffiti

The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched ...

Graham, Patrick

First Archbishop of St. Andrews and Metropolitan of Scotland, date of birth uncertain; d. ...

Grail, The Holy

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

Gramont, Eugénie de

Religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart ; b. at Versailles, 17 September, 1788; d. at ...

Gran

( Hungarian ESZTERGOM; Latin STRIGONIUM, STRIGONIENSIS) Located in Hungary. From the ...

Granada

Archdiocese of Granada (Granatensis). Archdiocese in Spain, founded by St. Cecilius about ...

Granada, University of

The origin of this university is to be traced to the Arab school at Cordova, which, when the ...

Grancolas, Jean

Doctor of the Sorbonne, theologian, liturgist; b. near Chateaudun, about 1660; d. at Paris, 1 ...

Grand Rapids

(Grandormensis) Diocese created 12 May, 1882 out of the diocese of Detroit, and made to ...

Grande Chartreuse, La

The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an ...

Granderath, Theodor

Born 19 June, 1839, at Giesenkirchen, Rhine Province; died 19 March, 1902, at Valkenburg, ...

Grandidier, Philippe-André

Priest and historian, b. at Strasburg, Alsace, 9 Nov., 1752; d. at the Abbey of Luntzel ...

Grandmont, Abbey and Order of

Abbey and Order in the department of Hte-Vienne, France. The exact date of the foundation of the ...

Grant, Thomas

First Bishop of Southwark ; b. at Ligny-les-Aires, Arras, France, 25 Nov., 1816; d. at Rome, ...

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

Known in history as CARDINAL DE GRANVELLE (GRANVELLA). Born at Ornans in Franche-Comté, ...

Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Grasse, François-Joseph-Paul

Count and Marquess de Grasse-Tilly, lieutenant-general of the naval forces; b. near Toulon, 1723; ...

Grassis, Paris de

Master of ceremonies to Julius II and Leo X ; b. at Bologna, about 1470; d. at Rome, 10 June, ...

Gratian

Roman Emperor; son of Valentinian I; born at Sirmium, 359; died at Lyons, 383. Before he had ...

Gratian, Jerome

Spiritual director of St. Teresa and first Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites ; born at ...

Gratian, Johannes

(GRATIANUS). The little that is known concerning the author of the "Concordantia discordantium ...

Gratianopolis

A titular see in Caesarea Mauretania, Africa. This city does not figure in a list of the ...

Gratius, Ortwin

(VAN GRAES) Humanist ; b. 1475 at Holtwick, near Coesfeld, Westphalia ; d. at Cologne, 22 ...

Gratry, Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse

French priest and writer; b. at Lille, 30 March, 1805; d. at Montreux, Switzerland, 7 February, ...

Gratz, Peter Aloys

Schoolmaster and exegete, b. 17 Aug., 1769, at Mittelberg, Allgäu, Bavaria ; d. at ...

Gravier, Jacques

Jesuit missionary; born 1651 at Moulins, where he studied classics and philosophy under the ...

Gravina and Montepeloso

DIOCESE OF GRAVINA AND MONTEPELOSO (GRAVINENSIS ET MONTIS PELUSII). Gravina is a town in the ...

Gravina, Dominic

Theologian ; b. in Sicily, about 1573; d. in the Minerva, at Rome, 26 Aug., 1643. He entered the ...

Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo

Italian jurist and littérateur of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. at ...

Graz, University of

The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its ...

Great Falls

DIOCESE OF GREAT FALLS (GREATORMENSIS). Created by Pope Pius X, 18 May, 1904; comprises the ...

Greco, El

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Greece

Greece will be treated in this article under the following heads: I. The Land and the People; II. ...

Greek Catholics in America

The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States ...

Greek Church

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Explanation of Terms; II. The Greek ...

Greek Orthodox Church in America

The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are ...

Greek Rites

(1) Rite, Language, Religion These are three things that must always be distinguished. A rite is ...

Green Bay

(SINUS VIRIDIS) The Diocese of Green Bay — established 3 March, 1868, from the territory ...

Green, Hugh

Martyr ; born about 1584; martyred 19 August, 1642. His parents, who were Protestants, sent him ...

Green, Thomas Louis

Priest and controversialist; b. at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, 1799; d. at Newport, Shropshire, ...

Greenland

An island stretching from within the Arctic Circle south to about 59 degrees N. latitude, being ...

Gregorian Chant

The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of ...

Gregory Bæticus

Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...

Gregory I, Pope Saint

Doctor of the Church ; born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. Gregory is certainly one of ...

Gregory II, Pope Saint

(Reigned 715-731). Perhaps the greatest of the great popes who occupied the chair of Peter ...

Gregory III, Pope Saint

(Reigned 731-741.) Pope St. Gregory III was the son of a Syrian named John. The date of his ...

Gregory IV, Pope

Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a ...

Gregory IX

(UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Born about 1145, at Anagni in the Campagna; died 22 August, 1241, ...

Gregory of Heimburg

Humanist and Statesman, b. at Würzburg in the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at ...

Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint

Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. He ...

Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint

Known at THAUMATURGUS, ( ho Thaumatourgos , the miracle-worker). Born at Neocæsarea in ...

Gregory of Nyssa, Saint

Date of birth unknown; died after 385 or 386. He belongs to the group known as the "Cappadocian ...

Gregory of Rimini, Saint

An Augustinian theologian ; born at Rimini, Italy, in the second half of the thirteenth ...

Gregory of Tours, Saint

Born in 538 or 539 at Arverni, the modern Clermont-Ferrand; died at Tours, 17 Nov., in 593 or ...

Gregory of Utrecht, Saint

Abbot; b. about 707 or 708; d. 775 or 780. Gregory was born of a noble family at Trier. His ...

Gregory of Valencia

Professor of the University of Ingolstadt , b. at Medina, Spain, March, 1550 (1540, 1551?); d. ...

Gregory the Illuminator

Born 257?; died 337?, surnamed the Illuminator (Lusavorich). Gregory the Illuminator is the ...

Gregory V, Pope

Born c. 970; died 4 February, 999. On the death of John XV the Romans sent a deputation to Otto ...

Gregory VI

On the death of Sergius IV in June, 1012, "a certain Gregory", opposed the election of ...

Gregory VI, Pope

(JOHN GRATIAN). Date of birth unknown; elected 1 May 1045; abdicated at Sutri, 20 December, ...

Gregory VII, Pope Saint

(HILDEBRAND). One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men ...

Gregory VIII

Antipope. He was Mauritius Burdinus (Bordinho, Bourdin), who was placed upon the papal chair by ...

Gregory VIII, Pope

(ALBERTO DI MORRA). Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento ; elected ...

Gregory X

Born 1210; died 10 January, 1276. The death of Pope Clement IV (29 November, 1268) left the ...

Gregory XI

(PIERRE ROGER DE BEAUFORT). Born in 1331, at the castle of Maumont in the Dioceses of Limoges ...

Gregory XII

(ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism ; born at Venice, of a ...

Gregory XIII, Pope

(UGO BUONCOMPAGNI). Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied ...

Gregory XIV, Pope

(N ICCOLÒ S FONDRATI ). Born at Somma, near Milan, 11 Feb., 1535; died at Rome, 15 ...

Gregory XV, Pope

(ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. ...

Gregory XVI, Pope

(MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 ...

Greifswald, University of

The oldest university of Prussia, founded in 1456. Even before this, Greifswald had, for a short ...

Greith, Karl Johann

Bishop and church historian, b. at Rapperswyl, Switzerland, 25 May, 1897; d. at St. Gall, 17 ...

Gremiale

A square or oblong cloth which the bishop, according to the "Cæremoniale" and ...

Grenoble

DIOCESE OF GRENOBLE (GRATIANOPOLITANA) Now comprises the Department of Isère and the Canton ...

Gresemund, Dietrich

German humanist ; b. in 1477, at Speyer ; d. 1512, at Mainz. His father, also named Dietrich, ...

Greslon, Adrien

French missionary; b. at Perigueux, in 1618; entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 5 ...

Gresset, Jean Baptiste

Born 29 August, 1709; died 16 June, 1777, at Amiens. Having finished his studies at the college ...

Gretser, Jacob

A celebrated Jesuit writer; b. at Markdorf in the Diocese of Constance in 1562; d. at ...

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste

French painter, b. at Tournus in Ardeche, 21 August, 1725; d. at Paris, 21 March, 1805. His ...

Grey Nuns

The Order of Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal, commonly ...

Grey Nuns of the Cross

A community founded in 1745 at Monteal by Madame d'Youville, known as the Grey Sisters, or Grey ...

Griffin, Gerald

A novelist, dramatist, lyricist; b. 12 December, 1803, at Limerick, Ireland ; d. at Cork, 12 ...

Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph

Journalist, historian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 10 Nov., 1911. In early ...

Griffiths, Thomas

Born in London, 2 June, 1791; died 19 August, 1847; the first and only Vicar Apostolic of the ...

Grillparzer, Franz

An Austrian poet, b. at Vienna, 15 January, 1791, d. 21 January, 1872. After desultory ...

Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

Italian physicist, b. at Bologna, 2 April, 1618; d. in the same city, 28 Dec., 1663. He entered ...

Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco

An eclectic painter of the Bolognese school ; b. at Bologna, 1606; d. at Rome, 1680. He was a ...

Grimmelshausen, Johann Jacob Christoffel von

The greatest German novelist of the seventeenth century. What we know of his life is largely ...

Groote, Gerard

( Or Geert De Groote; Gerhardus Magnus.) Founder of the "Brethren of the Common Life" , b. ...

Gropper, John

An eminent jurist and theologian, b. 24 Feb., 1503, at Soest, Westphalia ; d. at Rome, 13 March, ...

Grosseteste, Robert

Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages ; b. about 1175; d. 9 ...

Grosseto

(Grossetana) Grosseto, suffragan diocese of Siena, has for its episcopal city the capital ...

Grosswardein

( Hungarian Nagy-Várad; Magno-Varadinensis) A diocese of the Latin Rite in ...

Grottaferrata, Abbey of

( Latin Crypta ferrata .) A Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site ...

Grueber, Johann

A German Jesuit missionary in China and noted explorer of the seventeenth century; b. at Linz, ...

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Gu 49

Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal

Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sablé-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 ...

Guérard, Robert

Born at Rouen, 1641; died at the monastery of Saint-Ouen, 2 January, 1715. For some time he ...

Guérin

(1) Eugénie de Guérin A French writer; b. at the château of La Cayla, in ...

Guérin, Anne-Thérèse

(In religion, Mother Theodore) Born at Etables (Côte du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 ...

Guadalajara

(Guadalaxara) Archdiocese in Mexico, separated from the Diocese of Michoacan by Paul III, 31 ...

Guadalupe, Shrine of

Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the ...

Guadeloupe

(Or Basse Terre; Guadalupensis; Imæ Telluris) Diocese in the West Indies, comprises the ...

Guadix, Diocese of

(GUADICENSIS) The Diocese of Guadix, in Spain, comprises the greater part of the Province of ...

Guaicuri Indians

(Pronounced Waikuri .) A group of small tribes, speaking dialectic forms of a common ...

Guamanga, Diocese of

( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...

Guaraní Indians

(Pronounced Waraní .) One of the most important tribal groups of South America, ...

Guarantees, Law of

(LA LEGGE DELLE GUARENTIGIE) A name given to the law passed by the senate and chamber of the ...

Guarda, Diocese of

(EGITANIENSIS.) Province of Beira, Portugal. Near the episcopal city are the ruins of Idanha, ...

Guardi, Francesco

Venetian painter ; born at Venice, 1712; died in the same city, 1793. He was a pupil of ...

Guardian Angels

( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...

Guardian Angels, Feast of

This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar. It was not ...

Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

Guardianship is "the condition or fact of being a guardian; the office or position of guardian" ...

Guarini, Battista

An Italian poet, b. at Ferrara, 1538, d. at Venice, 7 Oct., 1612. His father, Francesco ...

Guarino da Verona

A humanist, b. 1370, at Verona, Italy ; d. 1460, at Ferrara. He studied Latin in the school ...

Guastalla, Diocese of

(GUASTELLENSIS). In the province of Reggio Emilia (Central Italy ) on the left bank of the Po ...

Guastallines

Luigia Torelli, Countess of Guastalla (b. about 1500; d. 29 Oct., 1559 or 1569), widowed for ...

Guatemala, Santiago de

(Sancti Jacobi majoris de Guatemala) Archdiocese conterminous with the Republic of Guatemala, ...

Guayaquil

A RCHDIOCESE OF G UAYAQUIL (G UAYAQUILENSIS ). Guayaquil, the capital of the Ecuadorian ...

Gubbio

Diocese of Eugubinensis, in the province of Perugia in Umbria (Central Italy ). The city ...

Gudenus, Moritz

A German convert to the Catholic faith from the Protestant ministry; b. 11 April, 1596, at ...

Gudula, Saint

(Latin, Guodila ). Born in Brabant, Belgium, of Witger and Amalberga, in the seventh ...

Guelphs and Ghibellines

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

Guglielmini, Giovanni Battista

Scientist, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1763; d. in the same city, l5 December, 1817. He is known as ...

Guiana

(Or Guayana .) Guiana was the name given to all that region of South America which extends ...

Guibert of Ravenna

An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at ...

Guicciardini, Francesco

An historian and statesman; born at Florence, 1483; died there, 23 May, 1540. His parents, Piero ...

Guido of Arezzo

(Guido Aretinus). A monk of the Order of St. Benedict, b. (according to Dom Morin in the ...

Guigues du Chastel

(Guigo de Castro). Fifth prior of the Grande Chartreuse, legislator of the Carthusian Order ...

Guijon, André

Bishop and orator; born in November, 1548, at Autun ; died in September, 1631. He was the son ...

Guilds

Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These ...

Guiney, Patrick Robert

Second and eldest surviving son of James Roger Guiney and Judith Macrae; born at Parkstown, Co. ...

Guiscard, Robert

Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; born about 1016; ...

Guise, House of

The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the ...

Guitmund

A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius ; born at an ...

Gulf of St. Lawrence

Vicariate erected 12 September, 1905, and formed from the prefecture Apostolic of the same name ...

Gunpowder Plot, The

(Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605). Robert Catesby, the originator of the ...

Gunther, Blessed

A hermit in Bohemia in the eleventh century; b. about 955; d. at Hartmanitz, Bohemia, 9 ...

Gurk

(GURCENSIS) A prince-bishopric of Carinthia, suffragan to Salzburg, erected by Archbishop ...

Gury, Jean-Pierre

Moral theologian ; b. at Mailleroncourt, Haute-Saône, 23 January, 1801; d. at Merc ur, ...

Gusmão, Bartholomeu Lourenço de

Naturalist, and the first aeronaut; b. in 1685 at Santos in the province of São Paulo , ...

Gutenberg, Johann

(Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg). Inventor of printing; born about ...

Guthlac, Saint

Hermit; born about 673; died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life ...

Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte-

A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...

Guzmán, Fernando Pérez de

Señor de Batres; Spanish historian and poet (1376-1458). He belonged to a family ...

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