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Pontifical Decorations

Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other marks of honour and distinction which the papal court confers upon men of unblemished character who have in any way promoted the interests of society, the Church, and the Holy See. The titles range all the way from prince to baron inclusive, and are bestowed by the pope as temporal sovereign. The title ordinarily conferred is that of count prefixed to the family name, which title is either merely personal or transferable by right of primogeniture in the male line. Bishops assistant at the throne are de jure Roman counts. There is another title which is usually called Count Palatine, but the true designation is Count of the Sacred Palace of Lateran, which is attached to many offices in the papal court. The papal orders of knighthood, ranking according to their importance and dignity, are:

  • Supreme Order of Christ;
  • Order of Pius IX;
  • Order of St. Gregory the Great;
  • Order of St. Sylvester ;
  • Order of the Golden Militia, also called of the Golden Spur;
  • Order of The Holy Sepulchre (semi-official note of the Cardinal Chancellor of Equestrian Orders, "Osservatore Romano", 12 Feb., 1905).
  • Pius X decreed that the Orders of Christ and the Golden Militia should have only one, the other four orders, three grades or classes ("Multum ad excitandos"; 7 Feb., 1905); that occasionally, but very rarely, in matters of special importance and by special papal permission, a commander eminently distinguished might be allowed to wear the badge (smaller size than that of the first class) on the left breast. According to critical historians, these orders do not antedate the Crusades. After the Crusades, the kings of Europe founded and placed under the protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary , or the Saints, orders of chivalry. Of these, some were intended to protect their kingdoms from the incursions of the infidel, and were in reality religious military orders ; others were designed as a desirable and honourable recompense for eminent services to king and country. The lavish and indiscriminate creation of knights of the latter orders led in course of time to a loss of prestige and desire on the part of men of eminent merits to be knighted. The Roman pontiffs, in their dual capacity of spiritual and temporal rulers, either founded or approved, or remodelled and restored to their pristine glory, the six papal orders afore-mentioned.

    Supreme Order of Christ

    The Supreme Order of Christ is of Portuguese origin (see CHRIST, ORDER OF THE KNIGHT OF). The papal and Portuguese order are one and the same, for a two-fold reason ; the pope is the head of every religious order and can admit to solemn profession in any order without the permission of its superior general, and, further, in the Bull of approvals he reserved to himself and his successors the right to create knights of the order, a right which was exercised by the popes and recognized by the kings of Portugal. The decoration is a long red cross, bordered with a narrow gold band, whose extremities are of a trapezoidal form, surmounted by a royal crown, which, in turn, is surmounted by a military trophy attached to the ribbon. Upon the centre of the long red cross is superimposed a small, simple, white enamelled Latin cross. The white upon the red symbolizes the triumph of the Immaculate Lamb of God , by His blood, over the world of sin. Until within a few years ago, this decoration was worn suspended by a red ribbon which encircled the wearer's neck. Pope Pius X, in memory of the ancient collar composed of alternate swords and tiaras which the knights of old wore, decreed that the decoration should henceforth be worn suspended from a collar composed of shields bearing alternately the cross of the order and the papal emblems connected with golden knots. The "plaque", or badge, worn on the breast, is a silver eight-rayed star ornamented with jewels, bearing on its centre the cross of the order, which is encircled by a crown of gold oak leaves wound with a green fillet. The uniform is of a bright scarlet with facings of white cloth and rich gold embroideries on the collar, breast and cuffs (Moroni, Diz., XVIII, 216). Knee breeches of white smooth silk with gold side stripes, shoes of white silk with gold buckles, hat with white plumes and ornamented with a knot of twisted gold cord terminating in tassels of gold, and a sword with a gold ornamented mother-of-pearl hilt and pendant tassels of twisted gold cord complete this official costume ( Pius X, 3 May 1905). The official dress of a professed knight of this order when it was a religious military body was white.

    Order of Pius IX

    This had for its founder (17 June, 1847) the pope whose name it bears. Its object is to fittingly reward noble and conspicuous deeds which merit well of Church and society, and to stimulate others to follow the illustrious example set them. At first it comprised only two classes, knights of the first class, who, upon receiving the decoration, were made nobles with hereditary succession, and knights of the second class, whose title of nobility was personal. Shortly after (17 June, 1849, "Cum hominum mentes") the order was divided into four classes, viz.:

  • Knights of the Great Ribbon;
  • Commanders with the Badge;
  • Commanders, and
  • Knights.
  • Knights of the Great Ribbon wear a wide ribbon extending from the left shoulder saltier-wise to the right side where from a rosette attached to the ribbon the star of the order is suspended. They also wear on the breast the large badge set with diamonds. Commanders wear the decoration at the neck. Commanders with the Badge, besides the star at the neck, wear a badge of smaller design than the large plaque on the breast, and simple knights wear the star on the left breast. The decoration is an eight-pointed blue enamelled star. The spaces between the rays are filled in with undulating golden flames. On the centre is a white enamelled medallion on which is engraved the words PIUS IX and around it, in a golden circle, are stamped in characters of blue, the motto, VIRTUTI ET MERITO. The reverse is identical with the obverse side except that the inscription ANNO 1847 is used instead of PIUS IX. There are two forms of badges. One is a large silver medal similar to the star, and the other is of the same design but larger and adorned with brilliant gems. The ribbon of the decoration is dark blue silk bordered with red. The official costume (rarely worn) is a dark blue evening dress coat closed in front by one row of gold buttons. The collar and cults and breast of the coat are covered with golden embroideries more or less elaborate, according to the grade or class of the wearer. Golden epaulettes, white trousers with gold side stripes, a bicornered hat with white plumes, complete the official dress. This order may be conferred also upon non-Catholics.

    Order of St. Gregory the Great

    Gregory XVI founded this order to reward the civil and military virtues of subjects of the Papal States by brief "Quod Summis", 1 Sept., 1831, and placed it under the patronage of the great pope whose name it bears. It has two divisions, civil and military, and each division is divided into four classes, viz.:

  • Grand Cross Knights of the First Class;
  • Grand Cross Knights of the Second Class;
  • Commanders, and
  • simple Knights.
  • The decoration is a bifurcated or eight-pointed red enamelled gold cross, in the centre of which is a blue medallion on which is impressed in gold the image of St. Gregory , and at the side of his head near the right ear is a dove ; in a circle around the image appears in golden letters "S. Gregorius Magnus". On the reverse side is the device, "Pro Deo et Principe", and in the centre around it, GREGORIUS XVI. P. M. ANNO. 1. The badge is the cross of the order surrounded with silver rays. The ribbon of the order is red with orange borders. The cross worn by a knight of the military division is surmounted by a military trophy; the cross of a knight of the civil division is surmounted by a crown of gold oak leaves. The costume of ceremony is a dress coat of dark green open in front, and covered on breast and back with embroideries in the form of oak leaves. White trousers with silver side stripes, a bicornered ornamented hat, and the usual knightly sword, complete the costume, which is rarely worn.

    Order of St. Sylvester, Before the Regulations of Pius X

    This was the Order of the Golden Militia under a new name. Prior to the year 1841 it was known as the Militia of the Golden Spur or Golden Militia, and though it is not historically established who among the many supposed founders is the true one, yet it undoubtedly is the oldest and, at one time, was one of the most prized of the papal orders. Faculties granted to the Sforza family ( Paul III, "Hinc est quod nos", 14 Apr., 1539), to the College of Abbreviators ( Leo X, Const. 14 "Summi") and to bishops assistant at the throne ( Julius III, 6 Apr., 1557) to create Knights of the Golden Militia resulted in lavish bestowal and diminished prestige of the decoration. Pope Gregory XVI ("Quod hominum mentes", 31 Oct., 1841), retaining the ancient name, placed the order under the patronage of St. Sylvester (one of its alleged founders), withdrew all faculties to whom and by whomsoever given, and forbade the use of the title or the decoration to all knights created by other than by papal Brief. The better to restore it to its ancient glory and splendour, he limited the number of commanders to one hundred and fifty and knights to three hundred (for Papal States only), and appointed the Cardinal of Apostolic Briefs as Chancellor of the Order, with the duty of preserving the name, grade, number and date of admission of each knight. He divided it into two classes, commanders and knights. The former wore the large sized decoration suspended at the neck, the latter the small sized one on the left side of the breast. The decoration, according to the Gregorian Brief, was an eight-pointed gold cross with an image of St. Sylvester wearing the tiara on its white enamelled centre, and around this centre a blue enamelled circle bearing in letters of gold the inscription SANC. SYLVESTER P. M. On the reverse side, in golden characters, was stamped MDCCCXLI GREGORIUS XVI RESTITUIT. A golden spur hung suspended from the sides of the bifurcated foot of the cross of the order to mark the unity of the Sylvestrine order with that of the Golden Militia. The ribbon of the decoration was of silk composed of five strands, three of which were red, and two black. Commanders wore the decoration at the neck, the knights on the breast. The ribbon of the former was larger than that of the latter, the cross of the former was also more elegant than that of the latter. The official costume was a red evening dress coat with two rows of gold buttons with green collar and facing. The gold embroideries of the coat were of a more ornate design for commanders than for knights. White trousers, with gold side bands, hat with white plumes and a sword with a silver hilt and also gilt spurs, completed this rarely used costume. Knights of both classes wore around the neck a gold chain from which was suspended a tiny golden spur commemorative of the ancient order of that denomination. Pius X (Motu Proprio, "Multum ad excitandos", 7 Feb., 1905) divided the Sylvestrine into two orders of knighthood, one retaining the name of St. Sylvester and the other taking the ancient name of the order, i.e. Order of the Golden Militia, or Golden Spur.

    Order of St. Sylvester, Since the Regulations of Pius X

    The order now has three classes of knights :

  • Knights Grand Cross,
  • Commanders, and
  • Knights.
  • The present decoration is a gold cross of white enamelled surface, in the centre of which is impressed the image of St. Sylvester P. M., surrounded by a blue enamelled circle bearing the inscription in letters of gold SANC. SYLVESTER P. M. On the opposite side, in the centre, are the pontifical emblems with the date of the Gregorian restoration, MDCCCXXXXR, and that of the Pius X renovation, MDCCCCV, impressed in characters of gold upon a blue circle. The badge is the cross of the order attached to a silver star. The new costume consists of a black (formerly red) coat with one row (formerly two) of gilt buttons, and cuffs and collar of black velvet embroidered in gold; black trousers, with gold stripes, a bicornered hat of rough silk adorned with papal-coloured cockade, and finally a sword with a hilt of mother-of-pearl ornamented with gold and worn suspended from a gilt belt. The ribbon of the decoration is black silk bordered with red. Simple knights wear the cross on the left breast of the tunic. Commanders wear a larger cross suspended by the ribbon of the order encircling the neck, and the Knights of the Grand Cross wear a cross of largest form pendant from the right shoulder and the badge on the left side of the breast. The hat of the commander is adorned with a black, that of the grand cross knight with a white, plume.

    The Order of the Golden Militia, or the Golden Spur

    Pius X, in commemoration of the high prestige to which this order had attained long years before it was absorbed into the Gregorian Order of St. Sylvester, and as a souvenir of the golden jubilee of the dogmatic definition of the Immaculate Conception of the B. V. M., gave back to it the separate existence, name and grade of ancient days, and rendered it still more illustrious by placing it under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception . To this order are to be admitted only those who have distinguished themselves in an eminent degree, and either by feat of arms, or by their writings, or by any other conspicuous work, have spread the Catholic Faith, and by their bravery have safeguarded, or by their learning made illustrious, the Church of God . To insure its continued high grade of excellence and desirability, its founder limited it to one class and one hundred knights for the entire world ("Multum ad excitandos", 7 Feb., 1905). It can be conferred on those already knighted in the highest orders, even that of Christ, as well as on those who have never received any order of knighthood. The honour is bestowed by a "Motu Proprio" (Pope's own motion) and as such is expedited through the secretariat of State, and free from all chancery fees. The decoration is an eight-pointed or bifurcated yellow enamelled gold cross, with a gold trophy on top and pendent from the inner sides of its bifurcated foot a gold spur. On a small white medal in the centre of the cross the word MARIA surrounded by a golden circle, and on the reverse side in the centre is stamped the year MDCCCCV and in the surrounding circle the inscription PIUS X RESTITUIT. The badge is the cross upon the rays of a silver star. The ribbon used for both decoration and badge is red bordered with white. The knights of today do not wear the ancient collar. The cross is worn suspended by the ribbon of the order which encircles the neck. The badge is attached by the ribbon to the left breast of the tunic. The present official dress consists of a red tunic with two rows of gilt buttons, the collar and cuffs of which are black velvet embroidered with threads of gold, long, black cloth trousers with gold side stripes; epaulettes ornamented with gold fringes and surmounted on top with emblems of the order, gold spurs, oblong two-peaked hat fringed with gold and adorned with a gold knob displaying papal colours, a sword whose hilt is a gilt cross and scabbard black, and finally a gilt sword belt with red fringe. All former concessions of noble titles, even that of count palatine to Knights of the Golden Spur, were revoked by Pope Pius X , who desired to have the personal merit and worth of the knights their sole and only title to honour and respect among men.

    Order of The Holy Sepulchre

    St. James, first Bishop of Jerusalem, the Empress St. Helena, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin I, are among the reputed founders of this order. According to the opinion of critical historians, the order is a branch of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem which was approved (1113) by Pope Pascal II. Whoever may have been its real founder, it is certain that in the twelfth century there was another order following the Rule of St. Basil that proceeded on a line of action parallel with that of Knights of Jerusalem. Upon the fall of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre were driven out of Palestine, and some of them settled at Perugia. Gradually the order lost its prestige, and was by Pope Innocent VIII (1489) united to the Knights Hospitallers. Pope Alexander VI (1496) restored ( Hélyot says, instituted) this order that by offering a most desirable and honourable distinction as a reward for the great labour, fatigue and expense of a journey to the Holy Land, he might incite wealthy and noble Europeans to visit and aid the holy places. He reserved to himself and his successors the title and office of supreme head; but empowered the Franciscan Custodian of Mount Sion, the Commissary Apostolic of the Holy Land — as long, and no longer than, the Jerusalem Latin Patriarchate remained vacant — to confer in the name of the pope the Knighthood of the Holy Sepulchre upon worthy persons. Popes Alexander VII (1665) and Benedict XIII (1727) confirmed the privilege. Benedict XIV ("In Supremo Militantis Ecclesiæ", 17 Jan., 1746) remodelled the rules of the order, fixed the forms by which the Franciscan Custodian should be guided in bestowing the decoration, renewed its ancient privileges (similar in part to those granted to the Golden Militia), and granted to the Knights the right to use the title of Count of the Sacred Palace of Lateran. Pius IX , upon the restoration of the Latin Jerusalem Patriarchate (1847), withdrew the Alexandrine faculty, and gave it to the new patriarch and his successors. The patriarchs alone can in future create Knights of the Holy Sepulchre , and this they do not of their own right, but in the name and by virtue of the pope's authority. It was required that a knight should, except in an exceptional case, give an alms of 100 sequins in gold (equal to $200) towards the Holy Places. This money was by decree (S. C. P. F., 1847) ordered to be turned over to the patriarch for the needs of the Holy Land. Pope Pius IX ("Cum multa", Jan. 24, 1868) remodelled and approved the ancient statutes, and divided the order into three (practically four) classes:

  • Grand Cross Knights,
  • Commanders, and
  • Knights.
  • Commanders of conspicuous ability and eminent virtue were, in rare cases, and by special papal faculty, permitted to wear the badge on the breast, and so constituted a grade between the grand cross knight and the commander. Pius X "(Quam multa te Ordinemque", 3 May, 1907) fixed the number of grades at three, granted the privilege of affixing a military trophy to the cross, approved the creation of patriarchal representatives in other lands, as the good of the order may demand, prescribed the uniform for them, reserved to himself and successors the title of grand master, and appointed the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem his lieutenant and administrator in the bestowing of this papal decoration. He also arranged that in the event of the death of the patriarch and the vacancy of the see, the powers of the patriarch as papal lieutenant and administrator of the Order of Holy Sepulchre should by law devolve upon the cardinal secretary of state. The decoration is a large red enamelled gold cross, with a narrow border of gold, and surmounted by a royal crown. Prior to the last century the cross was simply gold without the red enamel. The form of the cross is what is called "potentiate", that is, crutched or gibbet-shaped. The four extremities are shaped as the large cross and four small red enamelled crosses of simple form are attached. The ribbon is of black watered silk. A mulberry trophy connects the cross with the ribbon. The plaque or badge is an eight-pointed or rayed silver star, on whose centre is the red cross encircled by the two green enamelled branches, one oak and the other Laurel. The collar, worn only on solemn occasions, is composed of little Jerusalem crosses, and rings of burnished gold. Knights of the first class wear the grand cross suspended from the wide black watered silk ribbon running saltier-wise from the right shoulder to the left side, and the badge on the breast. Commanders carry the cross and Ribbon fastened at the neck. Knights wear the badge on the left breast.

    Patriarchal representatives, besides the usual decorations, are permitted to wear the grand cross prominently placed on the breast of the uniform, but on the right side of the breast of the civil dress. The costume is a white evening dress coat with collar, cuffs and breast facings of black velvet with gold embroideries, epaulet of twisted gold cord, white trousers with gold side stripes, a sword and plumed hat. Pius X added to the costume a large white woolen mantle with a red Jerusalem cross on the left breast. The knights rarely don this official robe; they content themselves with wearing the decorations on the civil dress. This decoration may be conferred upon ladies who are then styled Dames or Matrons of the Holy Sepulchre. The dames wear the insignia of their grade, no matter what grade it may be, always on the left side of the breast ( Leo XIII, 3 Aug., 1888).

    In addition to these principal, there are other minor papal distinctions, of which some are temporary and others permanent. Permanent minor decorations are the medals:

    • The Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice,
    • Benemerenti,
    • The Holy Land.

    The medal Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice was instituted by Pope Leo XIII (17 July, 1888, "Quod Singulari") in memory of his golden sacerdotal jubilee, and bestowed on those women and men who had merited well by aiding and promoting, and by other excellent ways and means assisted in making the jubilee and the Vatican Exposition successful. This decoration was made a permanent distinction only in October, 1898 (Giobbio, see below). Its object is to reward those who in a general way deserve well of the pope on account of services done for the Church and its head. The medal is of gold, silver or bronze. The decoration is not subject to chancery fees. The medal is a cross made octangular in form by fleurs-de-lis fixed in the angles of the cross in a special manner. The extremities of the cross are of a slightly patonce form. In the centre of the cross is a small medal with an image of its founder, and encircling the image are the words LEO XIII P. M. ANNO X (tenth year of his pontificate). On the obverse side are the papal emblems in the centre, and in the circle surrounding the emblems the motto PRO DEO ET PONTIFICE is stamped. On the obverse surface of the branches of the cross are comets — which with the fleurs-de-lis form the coat of arms of the Pecci family. On the reverse side are stamped the words, PRIDIE (left branch); KAL. (top branch); JANUAR. (right branch); 1888 (at the foot). The ribbon is purple, with delicate lines of white and yellow on each border. The decoration is worn on the right side of breast.

    Benemerenti Medals

    Pope Gregory XVI (1832) instituted two medals which he called merit-medals to reward civil and military daring and courage. The military medal bears on one side the image of the founder, and on the other side an angel holding a scroll with the word BENEMERENTI, surmounted by the papal emblems (sometimes this medal is found encircled by a crown of laurels). It is worn on the breast suspended by a white and yellow ribbon. The civil merit-medal has engraved on its face surface only the word BENEMERENTI, surrounded by a crown of oak leaves. The ribbon is of the papal colours.

    Medal of the Holy Land

    This was designed by Leo XIII (Dec. S.C.P.F. 2 May. 1901), who empowered the Custodian of the Holy Land to bestow it upon pilgrims who presented a certificate of good, moral Christian life from their parish priest and a genuinely religious intention in making the journey to the Holy Land. It serves as a testimonial and souvenir of the pilgrimage. The decoration is a cross similar to that of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, save that the four small crosses are crutched instead of being simple of form. A medallion with the inscription LEO XIII CREAVIT. ANNO M.C.M. occupies the centre of the large cross. On each branch of the large cross are graven figures of the Annunciation, Nativity, Baptism of Christ, and Last Supper respectively. On the crutched-shaped extremities are the words, CHRISTI AMOR CRUCIFIXI TRAXIT NOS. On the reverse side of the cross, the figure of Christ appears in the centre of the medallion. On the branches are representations of the Agony in the Garden , Flagellation, Crowning with Thorns and Crucifixion, and on the extremities of the branches the words SIGNUM SACRI ITINERIS HIERSOLIMITANI. It is worn on the left breast suspended from a red ribbon with four small blue transverse bars bordered with white, which in turn are edged with dark yellow. There are three classes of medals: gold, silver, and bronze, adapted to the condition of pilgrims and the services they have rendered to the Holy Land. The recipient must pay the cost of the medal and bestow an alms of at least two dollars towards the maintenance of the Holy Places. Each year the custodian must inform the Propaganda how many decorations have been bestowed and the amount of the alms given (Dec. S. C. P. F., 10 June, 1901).

    Popes Pius VII and Pius IX conferred special decorations which were temporary and not permanent. The former bestowed a medal for military bravery, and another for zeal and courage in stamping out the brigandage, which had taken such hold in the Papal States during the seven years of the French occupation. The latter conferred the Mentana and Castelfidardo medals upon the papal and French soldiers who came to his help at those places.

    Pontifical decorations are bestowed either by motu pro prio, and then forwarded by the secretary of state, or upon petition, when they are expedited through the chancery. The most certain and expeditious mode of procuring the coveted decoration is by a petition from the bishop of the diocese of the person to be honoured. The petition must state the name, age, country, in short, a brief history of the life of the applicant, bringing out in relief the eminent labours or work in science, literature, arts, controversial or other religious writings, or generous and self-sacrificing gifts or endowments made or done for society, the Church or its head, which are deemed worthy of papal recognition and reward. This petition must be endorsed by the ordinary of the applicant. The endorsement of another than the diocesan bishop will not suffice. The petition is sent to an agent at Rome, who presents it to the cardinal chancellor of the orders, who not only registers the petition and the endorsement of it by the bishop, but also seeks information from other sources as to the character of the party and his eminent good works.

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    The founder of the Pious Society of Missions , born at Rome, 21 April, 1798 [other sources say ...

    Palm in Christian Symbolism

    In pre-Christian times the palm was regarded as a symbol of victory (Aulus Gellius, "Noct. Att.", ...

    Palm Sunday

    The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week, a Sunday of the highest rank, ...

    Palma Vecchio

    (JACOPO NIGRETI) Born at Serinalta near Bergamo, about 1480; d. at Venice, 30 July 1528. ...

    Palmer, William

    Born at Mixbury, Oxfordshire, 12 July, 1811; died at Rome, 4 April, 1879; the elder brother of ...

    Palmieri, Domenico

    A theologian, born at Piacenza, Italy, 4 July, 1829; died in Rome, 29 May, 1909. He studied in ...

    Palmieri, Luigi

    Physicist and meteorologist, b. at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy, 22 April, 1807; d. in Naples, 9 ...

    Palmyra

    Titular metropolitan see in Phoenicia Secunda. Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:18 ) built Palmira (A. V. ...

    Palou, Francisco

    A Friar Minor, born at Palma, Island of Majorca, about 1722; died in 1789 or 1790. He entered the ...

    Paltus

    A titular see and suffragan of Seleucia Pieria in Syria Prima. The town was founded by a ...

    Paludanus, Peter

    (PETRUS DE PALUDE) A theologian and archbishop, born in the County of Bresse, Savoy, about ...

    Pamelius

    (Jacques de Joigny De Pamele). Belgian theologian, born at Bruges, Flanders, 13 May, 1536; ...

    Pamiers

    (APAMÆA) A Diocese comprising the Department of Ariège, and suffragan of ...

    Pammachius, Saint

    Roman senator, d. about 409. In youth he frequented the schools of rehetoric with St. Jerome. In ...

    Pamphilus of Cæsarea, Saint

    Martyred 309. Eusebius's life of Pamphilus is lost, but from his "Martyrs of Palestine" we ...

    Pamplona

    (PAMPILONENSIS) This Diocese comprises almost all of Navarre and part of Guipuzcoa. This ...

    Panama

    Located in Central America, occupies the Isthmus of Panama, or Darien, which extends east and west ...

    Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints

    The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

    Pandects

    (PANDECTÆ, or DIGESTA) This part of Justinian's compilation was his most important ...

    Pandulph

    A papal legate and Bishop of Norwich, died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1226. He is commonly but ...

    Panemotichus

    A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. Panemotichus coined money during the ...

    Pange Lingua Gloriosi

    The opening words of two hymns celebrating respectively the Passion and the Blessed Sacrament. ...

    Panigarola, Francesco

    A preacher and controversialist, Bishop of Asti, born at Milan, 6 Feb., 1548; died at Asti, 31 ...

    Pannartz, Arnold

    See also KONRAD SWEYNHEIM . Both printers; Pannartz died about 1476, Sweinheim in 1477. ...

    Pano Indians

    A former important mission tribe on the middle Ucayali River, Peru, being the principal of a group ...

    Panopolis

    A titular see, suffragan of Antinoe in Thebais Prima; the ancient Apu or Khimmin which the ...

    Panpsychism

    (Greek pan , all; psyche , soul ) Panpsychism is a philosophical theory which holds ...

    Pantænus

    Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180 ( Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, x), still ...

    Pantaleon, Saint

    Martyr, died about 305. According to legend he was the son of a rich pagan, Eustorgius of ...

    Pantheism

    (From Greek pan , all; theos , god). The view according to which God and the world are ...

    Panvinio, Onofrio

    Historian and archaeologist, born at Verona, 23 February, 1530; died at Palermo, 7 April, 1568. ...

    Panzani, Gregorio

    Bishop of Mileto, died early in 1662. He was a secular priest of Arezzo, having left the ...

    Paoli, Venerable Angelo

    Born at Argigliano, Tuscany, 1 Sept., 1642; died at Rome, 17 January, 1720. The son of Angelo ...

    Papacy, The

    This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of ...

    Papal Arbitration

    An institution almost coeval with the papacy itself. The principle of arbitration presupposes ...

    Papal Elections

    For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

    Papal Mint

    The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

    Papal Rescripts

    ( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

    Papal States

    ( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...

    Paphnutius

    I The most celebrated personage of this name was bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the ...

    Paphos

    A titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. There were two towns of this name, Old Paphos ...

    Papias, Saint

    Bishop of Hierapolis (close to Laodicea and Coloss Colossae aelig; in the valley of the ...

    Papiensis, Bernardus

    An Italian canonist of the thirteenth century; died 18 Sept., 1213. He was born at Pavia, ...

    Papini, Nicholas

    An historian, born at San Giovanni Valdarno, between Florence and Arezzo, about 1751; died at ...

    Parætonium

    Parætonium, a titular see of Lybia Secunda or Inferior (i.e. Marmarica), suffragan of ...

    Paré, Ambroise

    French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, department of Maine, 1517; died 20 ...

    Parœcopolis

    A titular see of Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (III, 13, ...

    Para du Phanjas, François

    Writer, b. at the castle of Phanja Champsaur, Basses-Alpes, 1724; d. at Paris, 1797. After his ...

    Parables

    The word parable (Hebrew mashal ; Syrian mathla , Greek parabole ) signifies in general ...

    Parabolani

    paraboloi, parabalanoi The members of a brotherhood who in the Early Church voluntarily ...

    Paracelsus, Theophrastus

    Celebrated physician and reformer of therapeutics, b. at the Sihlbrücke, near Einsiedeln, ...

    Paraclete

    Paraclete, Comforter (L. Consolator ; Greek parakletos ), an appellation of the Holy Ghost. ...

    Paradise, Terrestrial

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

    Paraguay

    One of the inland republics of South America, separated from Spain and constituted as an ...

    Parahyba

    (PARAHYBENESIS) Located in the State of Parahyba, Brazil, suffragan of Bahia, founded 27 ...

    Paralipomenon, Books of

    ( Paraleipomenon ; Libri Paralipomenon ). Two books of the Bible containing a summary of ...

    Parallelism

    The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Either ...

    Parallelism, Psycho-Physical

    A doctrine which states that the relation between mental processes, on the one hand, and ...

    Paralus

    A titular see, suffragan of Cabasa in Ægyptus Secunda. One of the seven mouths of the ...

    Paraná

    (PARANENSIS) Suffragan of Buenos Aires, in Argentina until recently, comprised two civil ...

    Parasceve

    (Gr. paraskevé ); seems to have supplanted the older term prosábbaton , used ...

    Paray-le-Monial

    A town of five thousand inhabitants in the Department of Sâone-Loire, Diocese of Autun , ...

    Pardies, Ignace-Gaston

    French scientist, b. at Pau, 5 Sept., 1636; d. of fever contracted whilst ministering to the ...

    Pardons of Brittany

    Pardon, from the Latin perdonare , — assimilated in form to donum , a gift, middle ...

    Paredes, Blessed Mary Anne de

    Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

    Pareja, Francisco

    Missionary, probably born at Auñon in the Diocese of Toledo, Spain, date unknown; died ...

    Parents

    ( Latin parere , to beget) I. DUTIES OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR CHILDREN In the old pagan ...

    Parenzo-Pola

    (PARENTINA-POLENSIS) The little town of Parenzo is picturesquely situated on a promontory ...

    Parini, Giuseppe

    Italian poet, born at Bosisio, 23 May, 1729; died at Milan, 15 Aug., 1799. Parini was early ...

    Paris

    ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS (PARIBIENSIS) See also UNIVERSITY OF PARIS . Paris comprises the ...

    Paris Commune, Martyrs of the

    The secular priests and the religious who were murdered in Paris, in May 1871, on account of ...

    Paris, Alexis-Paulin

    Philologist, born at Avenay, Marne, France, 25 March, 1800; died 13 Feb., 1881. Having finished ...

    Paris, Gaston-Bruno-Paulin

    A French philologist, son of Paulin, born at Avenay (Marne), 9 August, 1839; died at Cannes, 6 ...

    Paris, Matthew

    Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1200; d. 1259. There seems no reason to infer from the ...

    Paris, University of

    See also ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS . Origin and Early Organization Three schools were especially ...

    Parish

    (Latin par&ligcia, parochia , Greek paroikia , a group of neighbouring dwellings). I. ...

    Parium

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontus. The Acts of the martyr St. Onesiphorus ...

    Park, Abbey of the

    Located half a mile south of Louvain, Belgium, founded in 1129 by Duke Godfrey, surnamed ...

    Parkinson, Anthony

    An historian, born in England, 1667; died there 30 January, 1728. In 1692 he was appointed ...

    Parlais

    A titular see of Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. As a Roman colony it was called Julia Augusta ...

    Parlatore, Filippo

    Italian botanist, b. at Palermo, 8 Aug., 1816; d. at Florence, 9 Sept., 1877, a devout and ...

    Parma

    Located in central Italy. The city is situated on the river of the same name, an affluent of the ...

    Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin

    An agriculturist, born at Montdidier, 17 August, 1737; died in Paris, 13 Dec., 1813. Left an orphan ...

    Parmigiano, Il

    (THE PARMESAN) The current name of FRANCESCO MAZZUOLA, MAZZOLA, MAZZUOLI, or MAZZOLI, Italian ...

    Parnassus

    A titular see in Cappadocia Secunda, suffragan of Mocessus. Situated between Ancyra and ...

    Parochial Mass

    The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

    Parochial Missions, Catholic

    This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

    Parrenin, Dominique

    Born at Russey, near Besançon, 1 Sept., 1665; died at Pekin, 29 Sept., 1741. He entered ...

    Parsis

    (PARSEES). A small community in India, adherents of the Zoroastrian religion and originally ...

    Particular Judgment

    A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

    Partnership

    Partnership, an unincorporated association of two or more persons, known as partners, having for ...

    Paruta, Paolo

    Venetian historian and statesman, born at Venice, 14 May, 1540; died there, 6 Dec., 1598. Of a ...

    Pascal Baylon, Saint

    Born at Torre-Hermosa, in the Kingdom of Aragon, 24 May, 1540, on the Feast of Pentecost, called ...

    Pascal, Blaise

    Born at Clermont-Ferrand, 19 June 1623; died in Paris, 19 August 1662. He was the son of Etienne ...

    Pasch

    Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

    Paschal Candle

    The blessing of the "paschal candle ", which is a column of wax of exceptional size, usually ...

    Paschal I, Pope

    (817-824) The date of his birth is unknown; he died in April, May, or June, 824. He was the ...

    Paschal II, Pope

    (RAINERIUS). Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 ...

    Paschal III (Antipope)

    (GUIDO OF CREMA) The second antipope in the time of Alexander III. He was elected in 1164 ...

    Paschal Lamb

    A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

    Paschal Tide

    I. LITURGICAL ASPECT The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost are called by the older ...

    Paschasius Radbertus, Saint

    Theologian, b. at Soissons, 786; d. in the Monastery of Corbie, c. 860 (the date 865 is ...

    Paschasius, Saint

    A deacon of the Roman Church about 500; died after 511. Almost all that is known of Paschasius ...

    Passaglia, Carlo

    Born at Lucca, 9 May, 1812; died at Turin, 12 March, 1887. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

    Passau

    (PASSAVIENSIS) Located in Bavaria, suffragan of Munich-Freising, including within its ...

    Passerat, Joseph, Venerable

    Born 30 April, 1772, at Joinville, France ; died 30 October, 1858. The difficulties he had to ...

    Passignano, Domenico

    (known as IL CRESTI, or IL PASSIGNANO, Cresti being his family name) A Venetian painter, ...

    Passion Music

    Precisely when, in the development of the liturgy, the history of the Passion of Our Lord ...

    Passion of Christ, Commemoration of the

    A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima. Its object is the devout remembrance and honour ...

    Passion of Jesus Christ

    See also THE PASSION OF CHRIST IN THE GOSPELS . The sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated ...

    Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels

    See also DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF CHRIST . We have in the Gospels four separate accounts ...

    Passion Offices

    The recitation of these offices, called also Of the Instruments of the Passion, was first granted ...

    Passion Plays

    The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle ...

    Passion Sunday

    The fifth Sunday of Lent, a Sunday of the first class, not permitting the celebration of any ...

    Passionei, Domenico

    A cardinal, theologian, born at Fossombrone, 2 Dec., 1682; died 5 July, 1761. Educated in the ...

    Passionists

    The full title of the Passionist institute is: The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most ...

    Passions

    By passions we are to understand here motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend ...

    Passiontide

    The two weeks between Passion Sunday and Easter. The last week is Holy Week, while the first ...

    Passos

    (Or, more fully, Santos Passos ) The Portuguese name locally used to designate certain ...

    Passover

    Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

    Pasteur, Louis

    Chemist, founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics; born ...

    Pasto, Diocese of

    (PASTENSIS, PASTOPOLITANA). A Colombian see, suffragan of Popayan, from which it was separated ...

    Pastor

    This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls ( cura animarum ), that is, who is ...

    Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus)

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Pastoral Staff

    (Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...

    Pastoral Theology

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

    Pastoureaux, Crusade of the

    One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. ...

    Patagonia

    Patagonia is the name given to the southernmost extremity of South America. Its boundary on the ...

    Patara

    Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, formerly a large cornmercial town, opposite Rhodes. ...

    Paten

    The eucharistic vessel known as the paten is a small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon ...

    Patenson, Venerable William

    Venerable William Patenson, English martyr , born in Yorkshire or Durham ; died at Tyburn, 22 ...

    Pater Noster

    Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

    Pathology, Mental

    This subject will be considered under the following headings: I. Localization of Mental ...

    Patmore, Coventry

    One of the major poets of the nineteenth century, in spite of the small bulk of his verse, born at ...

    Patmos

    A small volcanic island in the Ægean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, to the south of Samos ...

    Patras

    A metropolitan see in Achaia. It was one of the twelve ancient cities of Achaia, built near ...

    Patriarch

    The word patriarch as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version, where ...

    Patriarch and Patriarchate

    Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. ...

    Patrician Brothers

    (Or BROTHERS OF SAINT PATRICK). This Brotherhood was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Daniel ...

    Patrick's Purgatory, Saint

    Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

    Patrick, Saint

    Apostle of Ireland, born at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, in Scotland, in the year 387; died at ...

    Patrizi, Francis Xavier

    Jesuit exegete, b. at Rome, 19 June, 1797; d. there 23 April, 1881. He was the eldest son and ...

    Patrology

    Patrology, the study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church, has more commonly been known ...

    Patron and Patronage

    I By the right of patronage ( ius patronatus ) is understood a determinate sum of rights ...

    Patron Saints

    A patron is one who has been assigned by a venerable tradition, or chosen by election, as a ...

    Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the

    It was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 6 May, 1679, for all the ...

    Patti, Diocese of

    (PACTENSIS) Patti, in the Province of Messina (Sicily), on the western shore of the gulf of ...

    Paul and John, Saints

    Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

    Paul I, Pope

    (757-67) Date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 28 June, 767. He was a brother of Stephen II. ...

    Paul II, Pope

    (PIETRO BARBO) Born at Venice, 1417; elected 30 August, 1464; died 26 July, 1471; son of ...

    Paul III, Pope

    (A LESSANDRO F ARNESE ). Born at Rome or Canino, 29 Feb., 1468; elected, 12 Oct., 1534; ...

    Paul IV, Pope

    (G IOVANNI P IETRO C ARAFFA ). Born near Benevento, 28 June, 1476; elected 23 May, ...

    Paul of Burgos

    (PAUL DE SANTA MARIA; Jewish name, SOLOMON HA-LEVI) A Spanish archbishop, lord chancellor and ...

    Paul of Middelburg

    A scientist and bishop, born in 1446 at Middelburg, the ancient capital of the province of ...

    Paul of Samosata

    Bishop of Antioch. Several synods, probably three, were held against him about 264-66. St. ...

    Paul of the Cross, Saint

    Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775. ...

    Paul the Deacon

    (Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

    Paul the Hermit, Saint

    There are three important versions of the Life of St. Paul: (1) the Latin version ( H ) of St. ...

    Paul the Simple, Saint

    The story of Paul, as Palladius heard it from men who had known St. Anthony, was as follows: ...

    Paul V, Pope

    (CAMILLO BORGHESE). Born at Rome, 17 Sept., 1550; elected 16 May, 1605; died 28 Jan., 1621. ...

    Paul, Saint

    I. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS A. Apocryphal Acts of St. Paul Professor Schmidt has published a ...

    Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint

    ( San Paolo fuori le mura ). An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the ...

    Paula, Saint

    Born in Rome, 347; died at Bethlehem, 404. She belonged to one of the first families of Rome. ...

    Pauli, Johannes

    Born about 1455; died after 1530 in the monastery at Thann in Alsace. What little is known of ...

    Paulicians

    A dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. The origin of the name ...

    Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo

    (PHILIP WESDIN). Missionary and Orientalist, b. at Hoff in Lower Austria, 25 Apr., 1748; d. ...

    Paulinus II, Saint

    Born at Premariacco, near Cividale, Italy, about 730-40; died 802. Born probably of a Roman ...

    Paulinus of Pella

    Christian poet of the fifth century; b. at Pella in Macedonia, but of a Bordelaise family. He ...

    Paulinus, Saint

    Archbishop of York, died at Rochester, 10 October, 644. He was a Roman monk in St. Andrew's ...

    Paulinus, Saint

    (Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus). Born at Bordeaux about 354; died 22 June, 431. He ...

    Paulist Fathers

    Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

    Paulists

    From the time that the abode and virtues of St. Paul the first hermit were revealed to St. ...

    Paulus Diaconus

    (Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

    Paulus Venetus

    Theologian of the Hermits of the Order of Saint Augustine, born according to the chroniclers of ...

    Pavia

    (PAPIA) Located in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It is situated in a fertile plain; the city is ...

    Pavia, University of

    Pavia was, even in Roman times, a literary centre (Ennodius); as the capital of the Lombard ...

    Pavillon, Nicolas

    Bishop of Alet, b. at Paris 1597; d. at Alet, 1677. He joined the community of St-Lazare, ...

    Pax

    (Osculatorium, Tabula Pacis, Lapis Pacis). A tablet to be kissed. The primitive usage in the ...

    Pax in the Liturgy

    Pax vobis (or vobiscum ), like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum ), ...

    Payeras, Mariano

    Born 10 Oct., 1769, at Inca, Island of Majorca; died 28 April, 1823. He received the habit of St. ...

    Payne, Blessed John

    Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

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    Pe 170

    Peña, Francisco

    (PEGNA) A canonist, born at Villaroya de los Pinares, near Saragossa, about 1540; died at ...

    Peñalver y Cardenas, Luis Ignatius

    Bishop of New Orleans, Archbishop of Guatemala, son of a wealthy and noble family ; born ...

    Peace Congresses

    I. EARLY HISTORY The genesis of the idea of a meeting of representatives of different nations ...

    Peace of the Church

    This is the designation usually applied to the condition of the Church after the publication at ...

    Peasants, War of the (1524-25)

    A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany, the causes of which are disputed as a ...

    Peba Indians

    (Or Peva ) The principal of a small group of cognate tribes, comprising the Peba proper, ...

    Pecham, John

    (PECCHAM) Archbishop of Canterbury, born about 1240; died 6 December, 1292. His birthplace ...

    Pecock, Reginald

    (PEACOCK) Bishop of Chichester, born in North Wales about 1395; died at Thorney Abbey about ...

    Pectoral

    ("Pectoral of judgment"). The original meaning of the Hebrew term has been lost, and little ...

    Pectorale

    ( Crux Pectoralis ). The name of the cross used by the pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, ...

    Pectorius of Autun

    The name with which the important document frequently known as the Inscription of Autun ...

    Pednelissus

    (Petnelissus). A titular see in Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. In ancient times ...

    Pedro de Cordova

    Born at Cordova, Andalusia, Spain, about 1460; died on the Island of Santo Domingo, 1525. He ...

    Pelagia

    The name of several saints. The old Syrian martyrology gives the feast of a St. Pelagia of ...

    Pelagius and Pelagianism

    Pelagianism received its name from Pelagius and designates a heresy of the fifth century, which ...

    Pelagius I, Pope

    Date of birth unknown; died 3 March, 561, was a Roman of noble family ; his father, John, seems ...

    Pelagius II, Pope

    The date of whose birth is unknown, seemingly a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, as his ...

    Pelargus, Ambrose

    Theologian, born at Nidda, Hesse, about 1488; died at Trier, 1557. Stork (Greek Pelargon , ...

    Pelisson-Fontanier, Paul

    French writer, born at Béziers in 1624 of Protestant parents ; died at Versailles, 7 ...

    Pella

    A titular see and suffragan of Scythopolis in Palaestina Secunda. According to Stephanus ...

    Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph

    Born in Paris, 22 March, 1788; died there, 19 July, 1842. His father, Bertrand Pelletier, a ...

    Pellico, Silvio

    Italian author and patriot, born at Saluzzio, Italy, 24 June, 1788; died at Turin 31 Jan., ...

    Pellissier, Guillaume

    (PELLICIER) Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, about 1490; died at the castle of Montferraud, ...

    Pelotas

    (PELOTASENSIS) Located in Brazil, suffragan to Porto Alegre. By a decree of Pius X, dated ...

    Pelouze, Théophile-Jules

    Scientist, b. at Valognes, La Manche, 26 Feb., 1807; d. in Paris, 31 May or 1 June, 1867. He began ...

    Peltrie, Madeleine de la

    née CHAUVIGNY A French noblewoman, and foundress, born at Caen, 1603; died at Quebec, ...

    Pelusium

    A titular metropolitan see of Augustamnica Prima in Egypt, mentioned in Ezech., xxx, 15 sq., ...

    Pembroke

    (PEMBROKIENSIS) A suffragan of Ottawa, in Canada. The town of Pembroke has a beautiful ...

    Penal Laws

    This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

    Penance (as a Virtue)

    Penance ( poenitentia ) designates (1) a virtue ; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a ...

    Penance, Sacrament of

    Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

    Pendleton, Henry

    Controversialist, born at Manchester ; died in London, September, 1557; educated at Brasenose ...

    Penelakut Indians

    A small tribe of Salishan stock, speaking a dialect of the Cowichan language and occupying a ...

    Penitentes, Los Hermanos

    (The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

    Penitential Canons

    Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins. ...

    Penitential Orders

    A general name for religious congregations whose members are bound to perform extraordinary works ...

    Penitents, Confraternities of

    Congregations, with statutes prescribing various penitential works, such as fasting, the use of ...

    Penne and Atri, Diocese of

    (Pennensis et Atriensis). Penne is a city in the Province of Teramo, in the Abruzzi, central ...

    Pennsylvania

    One of the thirteen original United States of America , lies between 39° 43' and 42° 15' ...

    Penobscot Indians

    The principal tribe of the famous Abnaki confederacy of Maine, and the only one still keeping its ...

    Pension, Ecclesiastical

    The right to a certain sum of money to be paid yearly out of the revenues of a church or ...

    Pentacomia

    A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Areopolis or Rabbah. It was never a residential see; ...

    Pentapolis

    The word, occurring in Wisdom, x, 6, designates the region where stood the five cities ( pente, ...

    Pentateuch

    Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

    Pentecost

    A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

    Pentecost (Jewish Feast)

    The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. The term, adopted from the ...

    Peoria

    (PEORIENSIS). Diocese comprising that part of Central Illinois south of the Counties of ...

    Peoria Indians

    A principal tribe of the confederated Illinois Indians (q.v.) having their chief residence, in the ...

    Pepin the Short

    Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King ...

    Peppergrass, Paul

    Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass", born in ...

    Perboyre, Blessed Jean-Gabriel

    Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

    Percy, Blessed Thomas

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

    Percy, John

    ( alias JOHN FISHER) Born at Holmeside, Durham, 27 Sep., 1569; died at London, 3 Dec., ...

    Peregrinus

    The canons of Priscillian, prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul in many (chiefly Spanish) ...

    Pereira, Benedict

    (PEREYRA, PERERA, PERERIUS) Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, born about 1535, at Ruzafa, ...

    Perez, Juan

    Died before 1513. At one time he held the office of contador or accountant to the Queen of ...

    Perfection, Christian and Religious

    A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect ...

    Pergamus

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus. This city was situated on the banks of the Selinus. It was ...

    Perge

    Titular metropolitan see in Pamphylia Secunda. Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was ...

    Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista

    Born at Naples, 3 Jan., 1710; d. 16 March, 1736, at Pozzuoli, near Naples. This young man of ...

    Pericui Indians

    A rude and savage tribe, of unknown linguistic affinity, formerly occupying the extreme southern ...

    Periodi

    (P ETRI ) The name under which the Pseudo-Clementine writings are quoted by Epiphanius, ...

    Periodical Literature, Catholic

    The invention of printing, besides exerting a great influence on literature in general and on ...

    Perjury

    (Latin per , through and jurare , to swear) Perjury is the crime of taking a false oath. ...

    Permaneder, Franz Michael

    Canonist, b. at Traunstein, Bavaria, 12 Aug., 1794; d. at Ratisbon, 10 Oct., 1862. He studied ...

    Pernter, Joseph Maria

    Scientist, b. at Neumark, Tyrol, 15 March, 1848; d. at Arco, 20 Dec., 1908. He entered the ...

    Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

    Perpetual Adoration

    A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Religious of

    (Belgium) A congregation with simple vows, founded at Brussels, 1857, by Anna de Meeus, ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Religious of the

    A contemplative religious congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer (d. 1546), at ...

    Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the

    (Quimper, France ). An institute of nuns devoted to perpetual adoration of the Blessed ...

    Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament

    (Sacramentines.) Anton Le Quien, b. in Paris, 23 Feb., 1601, the founder of the first order ...

    Perpetual Help, Our Lady of

    ( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

    Perpetual Help, Our Lady of, Sisters of

    A congregation founded in the parish of St. Damien, Bellechasse, P.Q., Canada, 28 August, 1892, ...

    Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of

    ( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

    Perpetuus, Saint

    Eighth Bishop of Tours, d. 1 January, or 8 December, 490, or 8 April, 491. He was a member of ...

    Perpignan, Diocese of

    (Perpinianum.) Comprises the Department of Pyrénées Orientales; created by the ...

    Perpignan, University of

    Peter IV of Aragon (1327-87), having conquered (1344) the town of Perpignan and reunited to his ...

    Perraud, Adolphe

    Cardinal and academician; b. at Lyons, France, 7 Feb., 1828; d. 18 Feb., 1906. He had a ...

    Perrault, Charles

    Writer, b. in Paris, 12 Jan., 1628; d. 16 May, 1703. His first literary attempts were a parody of ...

    Perrault, Claude

    Born at Paris, 1613; died there, 1688. He built the main eastern façade of the Louvre, ...

    Perreyve, Henri

    Born at Paris, 11 April, 1831; died there 18 June, 1865. His father was professor at the ...

    Perrone, Giovanni

    Jesuit theologian, b. at Chieri, Italy, 11 March, 1794; d. at Rome, 28 Aug., 1876. After studying ...

    Perry, Stephen Joseph

    Born in London, August, 1833; d. 27 Dec. 1889. He belonged to a well-known Catholic family. His ...

    Persecution

    GENERAL Persecution may be defined in general as the unlawful coercion of another's liberty or ...

    Persecutions, Coptic

    (ACCORDING TO GREEK AND LATIN SOURCES) During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria ...

    Perseverance, Final

    ( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

    Persia

    The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Both Medes ...

    Persian Rite

    Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...

    Persico, Ignatius

    A cardinal, born 30 Jan., 1823, at Naples, Italy ; died 7 Dec., 1896. He entered the Capuchin ...

    Person

    The Latin word persona was originally used to denote the mask worn by an actor. From this it ...

    Person, Ecclesiastical

    In its etymological sense this expression signifies every person who forms a part of the external ...

    Personality

    It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of ...

    Persons, Robert

    (Also, but less correctly, P ARSONS ) Jesuit, b., at Nether Stowey, Somerset, 24 June, 1546; ...

    Perth

    (PERTHENSIS) Located in Western Australia, suffragan to Adelaide; bounded on the north by ...

    Pertinax, Publius Helvius

    Roman Emperor (31 Dec., 192), b. at Alba Pompeia, in Luguria, 1 August, 126; d. at Rome 28 ...

    Peru

    A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, ...

    Perugia

    (PERUSINA) Located in Umbria, Central Italy. The city is situated on a hill on the right of ...

    Perugia, University of

    One of the "free" universities of Italy, was erected into a studium generale on 8 Sept., 1308, ...

    Perugino

    (PIETRO VANNUCCI) An Italian painter, founder of the Umbrian school, born at Città ...

    Peruzzi, Baldassare

    An architect and painter, born at Siena, 7 March, 1481; died at Rome, 6 Jan., 1537. He derived ...

    Pesaro

    (PESAURENSIS) Located in central Italy. The city is situated at the mouth of the river ...

    Pescennius Niger

    Emperor of Rome (193-194). He was a native of central Italy, and during the reigns of Marcus ...

    Pesch, Tilman

    A Jesuit philosopher, b. at Cologne, 1 Feb., 1836; d. at Valkenberg, Holland, 18 Oct., 1899. He ...

    Pescia

    (PISCIENSIS) Diocese in Tuscany, Italy, on the Rivers Pescia Maggiore and Pescia Minore, ...

    Pessimism

    I. A TEMPER OF MIND In popular language the term pessimist is applied to persons who ...

    Pessinus

    ( Pessinous .) A titular see of Galatia Secunda. Pessinonte, on the southern slope of Mt. ...

    Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism

    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, one of the greatest pioneers of modern education, born at Zurich, ...

    Peter Baptist, Saint, and Twenty-Five Companions

    Died at Nagasaki, 5 Feb., 1597. In 1593 while negotiations were pending between the Emperor of ...

    Peter Canisius, Blessed

    (Kannees, Kanys, probably also De Hondt). Born at Nimwegen in the Netherlands, 8 May, 1521; ...

    Peter Cantor

    Theologian, b. probably at Gisberoi near Beauvais, France ; d. at Long Pont Abbey, 22 Sept., ...

    Peter Cellensis

    (PETER DE LA CELLE). Bishop of Chartres, b. of noble parentage in Champagne; d. at Chartres, ...

    Peter Chrysologus, Saint

    Born at Imola, 406; died there, 450. His biography, first written by Agnellus (Liber pontificalis ...

    Peter Claver, Saint

    The son of a Catalonian farmer, was born at Verdu, in 1581; he died 8 September, 1654. He ...

    Peter Comestor

    Theological writer, b. at Troyes, date unknown; d. at Paris about 1178. He was first attached ...

    Peter Damian, Saint

    (Or Damiani). Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, b. at Ravenna "five years ...

    Peter de Blois

    A statesman and theologian, born at Blois about 1130; died about 1203. He appears to have ...

    Peter de Honestis

    Born at Ravenna about 1049; died, 29 March, 1119. Among his ancestors was the great St. Romuald, ...

    Peter de Regalado, Saint

    (REGALATUS) A Friar Minor and reformer, born at Valladolid, 1390; died at Aguilera, 30 ...

    Peter de Vinea

    (DE VINEIS, DELLA VIGNA) Born at Capua about 1190; died 1249. Peter's legal learning and the ...

    Peter Faber, Saint

    Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

    Peter Fourier, Saint

    Known as LE BON PÈRE DE MATTAINCOURT, born at Mirecourt, Lorraine, 30 Nov., 1565 died at ...

    Peter Fullo

    Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

    Peter Gonzalez, Saint

    Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

    Peter Igneus, Blessed

    (Peter Aldobrandini.) An Italian monk of the Benedictine congregation of the ...

    Peter Lombard

    Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

    Peter Mongus

    ( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

    Peter Nolasco, Saint

    Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

    Peter of Alcántara, Saint

    Born at Alcántara, Spain, 1499; died 18 Oct., 1562. His father, Peter Garavita, was the ...

    Peter of Alexandria, Saint

    Became Bishop of Alexandria in 300; martyred Nov., 311. According to Philip of Sidetes he ...

    Peter of Aquila

    (SCOTELLUS). Friar Minor , theologian and bishop, b. at Aquila in the Abruzzi, Italy, towards ...

    Peter of Arbues, Saint

    (Correctly, PETER ARBUES). Born in 1441 (or 1442); died 17 Sept., 1485. His father, a ...

    Peter of Auvergne

    A philosopher and theologian ; died after 1310. He was a canon of Paris ; some biographers ...

    Peter of Bergamo

    (ALMADURA) A theologian, date of birth unknown; died at Placentia, in 1482. He entered the ...

    Peter of Montboissier, Blessed

    (Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

    Peter of Poitiers

    A French scholastic theologian, born at Poitiers or in its neighbourhood about 1130; died in ...

    Peter of Sebaste, Saint

    Bishop, b. about 340; d. 391. He belonged to the richly blest family of Basil and Emmelia of ...

    Peter of Verona, Saint

    Born at Verona, 1206; died near Milan, 6 April, 1252. His parents were adherents of the ...

    Peter Snow, Venerable

    English martyr, suffered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or near Ripon and arrived at the ...

    Peter the Hermit

    Born at Amiens about 1050; d. at the monastery of Neufmoutier (Liège), in 1115. His ...

    Peter Urseolus, Saint

    (Orseolo) Born at Rivo alto, Province of Udina, 928; at Cuxa, 10 January, 987 (997 is less ...

    Peter, Basilica of Saint

    TOPOGRAPHY The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the ...

    Peter, Chair of

    Under this head will be treated: I. The annual Feast of the Chair of Peter ( Cathedra Petri ) at ...

    Peter, Saint

    The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads: I. Until the ...

    Peter, Saint, Epistles of

    These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. Recipients, ...

    Peter, Sarah

    Philanthropist, b. at Chillicothe, Ohio, U.S.A. 10 May, 1800; d. at Cincinnati, 6 Feb., 1877. Her ...

    Peter, Tomb of Saint

    The history of the relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul is one which is involved in ...

    Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint

    The print version of the C ATHOLIC E NCYCLOPEDIA contains two articles on this saint. We ...

    Peterborough

    (PETERBOROUGHENSIS) Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada, comprises the Counties of ...

    Peterspence

    Peterspence, otherwise known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Romescot", is the name traditionally given to ...

    Peterssen, Gerlac

    (GERLACUS PETRI) Born at Deventer, 1377 or 1378; died 18 Nov., 1411. He entered the ...

    Petinessus

    (PITNISUS) A titular see in Galatia Secunda (Salutaris). This city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

    Petit-Didier, Matthieu

    A Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Saint-Nicolas-du-Port in ...

    Petitions to the Holy See

    I. MODE OF PETITIONING Faculties, indults, dispensations, and other favours, the granting of ...

    Petra

    Titular metropolitan see of Palæstina Tertia. Under the name of Sela (the rock) this ...

    Petrarch, Francesco

    Italian poet and humanist, b. at Arezzo, 20 July, 1304; d. at Arquá, 19 July, 1374. His ...

    Petre, Family of

    The Petres are one of those staunch and constant families, which have played a great part in the ...

    Petrobrusians

    Heretics of the twelfth century so named from their founder Peter of Bruys. Our information ...

    Petronilla, Saint

    Virgin, probably martyred at Rome at the end of the first century. Almost all the sixth- and ...

    Petronius, Saint

    Bishop of Bologna, date of birth unknown; died before 450. The only certain historical ...

    Petropolis

    (Petropolitanensis). Diocese in the Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, erected 11 Feb., ...

    Petrus Alfonsus

    A converted Jew and controversialist, born at Huesca, in the former Kingdom of Aragon, 1062; ...

    Petrus Bernardinus

    Florentine heretic ; born at Florence about 1475; died 1502. His parents were common folk, and ...

    Petrus de Natalibus

    Bishop; author of a collection of lives of the saints; date of birth unknown; d. between 1400 and ...

    Petrus Diaconus

    The name of several men of note in ecclesiastical history and literature. (1) One of the ...

    Petun Nation

    One of the three great divisions of the Huron Indians, the other two being the Hurons proper, and ...

    Peuerbach, George von

    (Also Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius) Austrian astronomer, b. at Peuerbach near Linz, 30 May, ...

    Peutinger, Conrad

    An antiquarian and humanist, born at Augsburg, 14 Oct., 1465; died 28 Dec., 1547. As a young ...

    Peyto, William

    (P ETO, P ETOW ). Cardinal ; d. 1558 or 1559. Though his parentage was long unknown, it is ...

    Pez

    (1) BERNHARD An historian, born 22 February, 1683, at Ybbs near Melk ; died 27 March, 1735, at ...

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    Pf 5

    Pfanner, Franz

    An abbot, born at Langen, Vorarlberg, Austria, 1825; died at Emmaus, South Africa, 24 May, ...

    Pfefferkorn, Johannes

    A baptized Jew, b. probably at Nuremberg, 1469; d. at Cologne, between 1521 and 1524. In 1505, ...

    Pfister, Adolf

    An educationist, born at Hechingen in Hohenzollern, 26 Sept., 1810; died at Ober-Dischingen in ...

    Pflug, Julius Von

    The last Catholic Bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, born at Eythra, near Leipzig, 1499; died at Zeits, ...

    Pforta

    A former Cistercian monastery (1137-1540), near Naumburg on the Saale in the Prussian province ...

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    Ph 44

    Phœnicia

    Phœnicia is a narrow strip of land, about one hundred and fifty miles long and thirty miles ...

    Phacusa

    A titular see and suffragan of Pelusium, in Augustamnica Prima. Ptolemy (IV, v, 24) makes it ...

    Pharao

    (Prah, Par‘o, or, after a vowel, Phar‘o ; Greek Pharaó ; Latin Pharao). ...

    Pharbætus

    Titular see and suffragan of Leontopolis, in Augustamnica Secunda. This name is merely the ...

    Pharisees

    A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into ...

    Pharsalus

    Titular see and suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. The city is mentioned for the first time after ...

    Phaselis

    Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. The city was a Doric colony on the Pamphylian Gulf. ...

    Phasga

    (A.V. Pisgah ). Whether the word in Hebrew is a proper or a common noun is not clear; ...

    Phenomenalism

    Phenomenalism ( phainomenon ) literally means any system of thought that has to do with ...

    Philadelphia (Lydia)

    A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardes. The city was founded by Philadelphus, King of ...

    Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

    (PHILADELPHIENSIS) A diocese established in 1808; made an archdiocese, 12 Feb., 1875, ...

    Philanthropinism

    The system of education educed from the ideas of Rousseau and of the German "Enlightenment", ...

    Philastrius, Saint

    Bishop of Brescia, died before 397. He was one of the bishops present at a synod held in ...

    Philemon

    A citizen of Coloss Colossæ, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the ...

    Philip II

    King of Spain, only son of the Emperor Charles V, and Isabella of Portugal, b. at Valladolid, 21 ...

    Philip II (Augustus)

    King of France, born 22 or 25 August, 1165; died at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Louis VII ...

    Philip IV

    Surnamed Le Bel (the Fair) King of France, b. at Fontainebleau, 1268; d. there, 29 Nov., 1314; ...

    Philip of Jesus, Saint

    Born in Mexico, date unknown; died at Nagasaki early in February, 1597. Though unusually ...

    Philip of the Blessed Trinity

    (ESPRIT JULIEN). Discalced Carmelite, theologian, born at Malaucene, near Avignon, 1603; died ...

    Philip Romolo Neri, Saint

    THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...

    Philip the Apostle, Saint

    Like the brothers, Peter and Andrew, Philip was a native of Bethsaida on Lake Genesareth ( John ...

    Philip the Arabian

    (Philippus) Emperor of Rome (244-249), the son of an Arab sheik, born in Bosra. He rose ...

    Philippi

    (Greek Phílippoi , Latin Philippi ). Philippi was a Macedonian town, on the ...

    Philippi

    A titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. As early as the sixth century B. C. we learn of a ...

    Philippians, Epistle to the

    I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER ( See also PHILIPPI ). The Philippians, ...

    Philippine Islands

    Situation and Area The Philippine Islands lie between 116° 40' and 126° and 34' E. long., ...

    Philippopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Secunda. The city was founded by Philip of Macedon in 342 ...

    Philippopolis

    Titular see in Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Its bishop, Hormisdas, was present at the Council ...

    Philips, Peter

    (Also known as PETRUS PHILIPPUS, PIETRO PHILLIPO.) Born in England about 1560; date and place ...

    Philistines

    ( Septuagint phylistieim in the Pentateuch and Josue, elsewhere allophyloi , ...

    Phillip, Robert

    Priest, d. at Paris, 4 Jan., 1647. He was descended from the Scottish family of Phillip of ...

    Phillips, George

    A canonist, born at Königsberg, 6 Sept., 1804; died at Vienna, 6 September, 1872, was the son ...

    Philo Judæus

    Born about 25 B.C. . His family, of a sacerdotal line, was one of the most powerful of the ...

    Philomelium

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. According to ancient writers Philomelium was ...

    Philomena, Saint

    On 25 May, 1802, during the quest for the graves of Roman martyrs in the Catacomb of Priscilla, ...

    Philosophy

    I. Definition of Philosophy . II. Division of Philosophy . III. The Principal Systematic ...

    Philoxenus

    (AKHSENAYA) OF MABBOGH. Born at Tahal, in the Persian province of Beth-Garmai in the second ...

    Phocæa

    A titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The town of Phocæa was founded in the ...

    Photinus

    A heretic of the fourth century, a Galatian and deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra ...

    Photius of Constantinople

    Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b. at ...

    Phylacteries

    ( Phulachterion — safeguard, amulet, or charm). The word occurs only once in the New ...

    Physics, History of

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. A Glance at Ancient Physics; II. ...

    Physiocrats

    ( physis , nature, kratein , rule) A school of writers on political and economic ...

    Physiologus

    An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous ...

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    Pi 89

    Piacenza

    DIOCESE OF PIACENZA (PLACENTINENSIS) Piacenza is a diocese in Emilia, central Italy. The city ...

    Pianô Carpine, Giovanni da

    Born at Pian di Carpine (now called della Magione), near Perugia, Umbria, 1182; died probably in ...

    Pianciani, Giambattista

    Scientist, b. at Spoleto, 27 Oct., 1784; d. at Rome, 23 March, 1862. He entered the Society of ...

    Piatto Cardinalizio

    An allowance granted by the pope to cardinals residing in curia or otherwise employed by ...

    Piatus of Mons

    (Secular name, JEAN-JOSEPH LOISEAUX), b. 5 Aug., 1815; d. in the Monastery of Ste. Claire, ...

    Piauhy

    (DE PIAUHY, PIAHUNENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the State of ...

    Piazza Armerina

    (PLATIENSIS) Located in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily. The city of Piazza Armerina is ...

    Piazzi, Giuseppe

    Astronomer, b. at Ponte in Valtellina, 16 July, 1746; d. at Naples, 22 July, 1826. He took the ...

    Pibush, John

    English martyr, born at Thirsk, Yorkshire; died at St Thomas's Waterings, Camberwell, 18 February, ...

    Picard, Jean

    Astronomer, b. at La Flêche, 21 July, 1620; d. at Paris, 12 Oct., 1682. He was a priest ...

    Piccolomini, Alessandro

    Littérateur, philosopher, astronomer, b. 13 June, 1508; d. 12 March, 1578. He passed his ...

    Piccolomini-Ammannati, Jacopo

    A cardinal, born in the Villa Basilica near Lucca, 1422; died at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 10 ...

    Pichler

    A renowned Austrian family of gem-cutters who lived and died in Italy. ANTONIO (JOHANN ...

    Pichler, Vitus

    Distinguished canonist and controversial writer, b. at Grosberghofen, 24 May, 1670; d. at Munich, ...

    Pickering, Ven. Thomas

    Lay brother and martyr, a member of an old Westmoreland family, b. c. 1621; executed at Tyburn, ...

    Piconio, Bernadine a

    (HENRI BERNARDINE DE PICQUIGNY) Born at Picquigny, Picardy, 1633; died in Paris, 8 December, ...

    Picquet, François

    A celebrated Sulpician missionary in Canada, b. at Bourg, Bresse, France, 4 Dec., 1708; d. at ...

    Picture Bibles

    In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement ...

    Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Domine

    The sixth quatrain of Adoro Te Devote , sometimes used as a separate hymn at Benediction of ...

    Pie, Louis-Edouard-Désiré

    Cardinal, born at Pontgouin, Diocese of Chartres, 1815; died at Angoulême, 1880. He studied ...

    Pieck, Saint Nicholas

    (Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

    Piedmont

    ( Italian Piemonte ). A part compartimento of northern Italy, bounded on the north by ...

    Piel, Peter

    A pioneer in the movement for reform of church music, b. at Kessewick, near Bonn, 12 Aug., 1835; ...

    Pierius

    A priest and probably head master of the catechetical school at Alexandria conjointly with ...

    Pierre de Castelnau, Blessed

    Born in the Diocese of Montpellier , Languedoc, now Department of Hérault, France ; died ...

    Pierre de Maricourt

    Surnamed PETER THE PILGRIM ( Petrus Peregrinus ) A physician of the Middle Ages. Under the ...

    Pierron, Jean

    A missionary, born at Dun-sur-Meuse, France, 28 Sept., 1631; date and place of death unknown. He ...

    Pierson, Philippe

    Born at Ath, Hainaut (Belgium), 4 January, 1642; died at Lorette, Quebec, 1688. At the age of ...

    Pietism

    Pietism is a movement within the ranks of Protestantism, originating in the reaction against the ...

    Pighius, Albert

    A theologian, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Kampen, Overyssel, Holland, about 1490; ...

    Pignatelli, Venerable Giuseppe Maria

    Born 27 December, 1737, in Saragossa, Spain ; died 11 November, 1811. His family was of ...

    Pike, William

    Martyr, born in Dorsetshire; died at Dorchester, dec., 1591. He was a joiner, and lived at West ...

    Pilar, Nuestra Señora del

    "Our Lady of the Pillar", a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a ...

    Pilate, Pontius

    After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

    Pilchard, Venerable Thomas

    ( Or PILCHER). Martyr, born at Battle, Sussex, 1557; died at Dorchester, 21 March 1586-7. ...

    Pileolus

    ( zucca , head). The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is ...

    Pilgrimage of Grace

    The name given to the religious rising in the north of England, 1536. The cause of this great ...

    Pilgrimages

    (Middle English, pilgrime, Old French, pelegrin, derived from Latin peregrinum, supposed ...

    Piligrim

    Bishop of Passau, date of birth unknown; died 20 May, 991. He was educated at the ...

    Pillar of Cloud/Fire

    (P ILLAR OF F IRE ). A cloud which accompanied the Israelites during their wandering. It ...

    Pima Indians

    An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and its affluent, the ...

    Pinar del Rio

    (Pinetensis ad Flumen) Located in Cuba, erected by the Brief "Actum præclare" of Leo ...

    Pinara

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Pinara was one of the chief cities of the Lycian ...

    Pindemonte, Ippolito

    An Italian poet of noble birth, born at Verona, 13 Nov., 1753; died there, 18 Nov., 1828. He ...

    Pineda, John de

    Born in Seville, 1558; died there, 27 Jan., 1637. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1572, ...

    Pinerolo

    (PINEROLIENSIS) Located in the province of Turin, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, suffragan of ...

    Pingré, Alexandre Guy

    Born in Paris 11 September, 1711; died 1 May, 1796. He was educated in Senlis at the college ...

    Pinna da Encarnaçao, Mattheus

    A writer and theologian, born at Rio de Janeiro, 23 Aug., 1687; died there, 18 Dec., 1764. On 3 ...

    Pinto, Fernão Mendes

    A Portuguese traveller, born at Montemor-o-Velho near Coimbra, c. 1509; died at Almada near ...

    Pinturicchio

    (BERNARDINO DI BETTO, surnamed PINTURICCHIO) Born at Verona, about 1454; died at Siena, 11 ...

    Pinzón, Martín Alonso

    Spanish navigator and companion of Columbus on his first voyage to the New World, b. at Palos ...

    Piombo, Sebastiano del

    More correctly known as S EBASTIANO L UCIANI . Venetian portrait painter, b. at Venice, ...

    Pionius, Saint

    Martyred at Smyrna, 12 March, 250. Pionius, with Sabina and Asclepiades, was arrested on 23 ...

    Pious Fund of the Californias, The

    (Fondo Piadoso de las Californias) The Pious Fund of the Californias had its origin, in 1697, ...

    Pious Society of Missions, The

    Founded by Ven. Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835. The members of the society are generally called ...

    Piranesi, Giambattista

    An Italian etcher and engraver, b. at Venice, 1720; d. in Rome, 9 Nov., 1778. His uncle ...

    Pirhing, Ernricus

    Born at Sigarthin, near Passau, 1606; died between 1678 and 1681. At the age of twenty-two he ...

    Pirkheimer

    Charitas Pirkheimer Abbess of the Convent of St. Clara, of the Poor Clares, in Nuremberg, and ...

    Piro Indians

    A tribe of considerable importance, ranging by water for a distance of three hundred miles along ...

    Pisa

    ARCHDIOCESE OF PISA (PISÆ) Archdiocese in Tuscany, central Italy. The city is situated ...

    Pisa, Council of

    Preliminaries. The great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of ...

    Pisa, University of

    In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law ; prominent ...

    Pisano, Andrea

    Or ANDREA DA PISA (the name by which Andrea da Pontadera is known). An Italian sculptor and ...

    Pisano, Niccola

    Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

    Piscataway Indians

    A tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock formerly occupying the peninsula of lower Maryland ...

    Piscina

    (Latin from piscis, a fish, fish-pond, pool or basin, called also sacrarium, thalassicon, or ...

    Pise, Charles Constantine

    Priest, poet, and prose writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, 22 Nov., 1801; d. at Brooklyn, New ...

    Pisidia

    A country in the southwestern part of Asia Minor, between the high Phrygian tableland and the ...

    Pistoia and Prato

    (PISTORIENSIS ET PRATENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence. The city of Pistoia is ...

    Pistoia, Synod of

    Held 18 to 28 September, 1786, by Scipio de’ Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. It marks ...

    Pistorius, Johann

    A controversialist and historian, born at Nidda in Hesse, 14 February, 1546; died at Freiburg, 18 ...

    Pithou, Pierre

    A writer, born at Troyes, 1 Nov. 1539; died at Nogent-sur-Seine, 1 Nov., 1596. His father, a ...

    Pitoni, Joseph

    A musician, born at Rieti, Perugia, Italy, 18 March, 1657; died at Rome, 1 Feb., 1743, and ...

    Pitra, Jean-Baptiste-François

    Cardinal, famous archeologist and theologian, b. 1 August, 1812, at Champforgeuil in the ...

    Pitts, John

    Born at Alton, Hampshire, 1560; died at Liverdun, Lorraine, 17 Oct., 1616. He was educated at ...

    Pittsburgh

    DIOCESE OF PITTSBURG/PITTSBURGH (PITTSBURGENSIS). Suffragan of Philadelphia, in the United ...

    Pityus

    A titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. Pityus was a large and ...

    Pius I, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; pope from about 140 to about 154. According to the earliest list of the ...

    Pius II, Pope

    (Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini). Born at Corsignano, near Siena, 18 Oct., 1405; elected 19 ...

    Pius III, Pope

    (Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini). B. at Siena, 29 May, 1439; elected 22 Sept., 1503; d. in ...

    Pius IV, Pope

    (Giovanni Angelo Medici). B. 31 March, 1499, at Milan ; elected 26 December, 1559; d. in ...

    Pius IX, Pope

    (G IOVANNI M ARIA M ASTAI -F ERRETTI ). Pope from 1846-78; born at Sinigaglia, 13 May, ...

    Pius V, Pope Saint

    (MICHELE GHISLERI). Born at Bosco, near Alexandria, Lombardy, 17 Jan., 1504 elected 7 Jan., ...

    Pius VI, Pope

    (G IOVANNI A NGELICO B RASCHI ). Born at Cesena, 27 December, 1717; elected 15 ...

    Pius VII, Pope

    (B ARNABA C HIARAMONTI ). Born at Cesena in the Pontifical States, 14 August, 1740; ...

    Pius VIII, Pope

    (Francesco Xaverio Castiglione). B. at Cingoli, 20 Nov., 1761; elected 31 March, 1829; d. 1 ...

    Pius X, Pope Saint

    (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto). Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His ...

    Piusverein

    The name given to Catholic associations in various countries of Europe. I. THE PIUS ...

    Pizarro, Francisco

    Born in Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain, probably in 1471; died at Lima, Peru, 26 June, 1541. He ...

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    Pl 27

    Placidus, Saint

    St. Placidus, disciple of St. Benedict, the son of the patrician Tertullus, was brought as a ...

    Plagues of Egypt

    Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharao's obstinacy and force him to let ...

    Plain Chant

    By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of ...

    Plantaganet, Henry Beaufort

    Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, born c. 1377; died at Westminster, 11 April, 1447. He was the ...

    Plantin, Christophe

    Book-binder and publisher of Antwerp, b. 1514, at or near Tours ( France ); d. 1 July, 1589, at ...

    Plants in the Bible

    When Moses spoke to the people about the Land of Promise, he described it as a "land of hills ...

    Plasencia

    (PLACENTINA) Plasencia comprises the civil provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and ...

    Plateau, Joseph-Antoine

    Belgian physicist, b. at Brussels, 14 Oct., 1801; d. at Ghent, 15 Sept., 1883. His father, a ...

    Platina, Bartolomeo

    Originally named S ACCHI, b. at Piadena, near Mantua, in 1421; d. at Rome, 1481. He first ...

    Plato and Platonism

    I. LIFE OF PLATO Plato ( Platon , "the broad shouldered") was born at Athens in 428 or 427 ...

    Play, Pierre-Guillaume-Frédéric Le

    A French economist, born at La Rivière (Calvados), 11 April, 1806; died at Paris, 5 ...

    Plegmund

    Archbishop of Canterbury, died 2 August, 914. He was a Mercian, and spent his early life near ...

    Plenarium

    A book of formulae and texts. Plenarium or Plenarius ( Liber ) is any book that contains ...

    Plenary Council

    A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. The word itself, derived from ...

    Plessis, Joseph-Octave

    Bishop of Quebec, born at Montreal, 3 March, 1763; died at Quebec, 4 Dec., 1822. He studied ...

    Plethon, Georgius Gemistus

    Born in Constantinople about 1355, died in the Peloponnesus, 1450. Out of veneration for Plato ...

    Plock

    (PLOCENSIS) Located in Russian Poland, suffragan of Warsaw, includes the district of Plock ...

    Plowden, Charles

    Born at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 1743; died at Jougne, Doubs, France, 13 June, 1821. He was ...

    Plowden, Edmund

    Born 1517-8; died in London, 6 Feb., 1584-5. Son of Humphrey Plowden of Plowden Hall, Shropshire, ...

    Plowden, Francis

    Son of William Plowden of Plowden Hall, b. at Shropshire, 8 June, 1749; d. at Paris, 4 Jan., ...

    Plowden, Robert

    Elder brother of Charles, born 27 January, 1740; died at Wappenbury, 27 June, 1823. He entered ...

    Plowden, Thomas

    ( Alias Salisbury). Born in Oxfordshire, England, 1594; died in London, 13 Feb., 1664; ...

    Plowden, Thomas Percy

    Born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, England, 1672; died at Watten, 21 Sept., 1745; joined the Society ...

    Plumier, Charles

    (botanical abbreviation, Plum .) A French botanist, born at Marseilles, 20 April, 1646; ...

    Plunket, Blessed Oliver

    [ Editor's Note: St. Oliver Plunkett was canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 10, 1975.] ...

    Pluscarden Priory

    Founded in 1230 by Alexander III , King of Scotland, six miles from Elgin, Morayshire, for ...

    Plymouth

    (PLYMUTHENSIS, PLYMUTHÆ) Plymouth consists of the County of Dorset, which formed a ...

    × Close

    Pn 1

    Pneumatomachi (Macedonians)

    (Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

    × Close

    Po 120

    Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament

    Since the Bible is divinely inspired, and thus becomes the "written word" of God, many devout ...

    Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco

    An Italian humanist and historian; born at Terranuova, near Arezzo, in 1380; died at Florence, ...

    Poggio Mirteto

    DIOCESE OF POGGIO MIRTETO (MANDELENSIS) Diocese in the province of Perugia, central Italy. The ...

    Pogla

    ( ta Pogla ) Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda. Pogla is mentioned only by Ptolemy, V, 5, ...

    Poitiers

    D IOCESE OF P OITIERS (P ICTAVENSIS ) The Diocese of Poitiers includes the Departments of ...

    Poland

    I. GEOGRAPHY The western part of the Sarmatian Plain together with the northern slopes of the ...

    Polding, John Bede

    Archbishop of Sydney, born at Liverpool, 18 Oct., 1794; died at Sydney, 16 March, 1877. In 1805 ...

    Pole, Blessed Margaret

    Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

    Pole, Reginald

    Cardinal, b. at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England, in March, 1500; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

    Polemonium

    Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. At the mouth of the Sidenus, ...

    Poleni, Giovanni

    Marquess, physicist, and antiquarian; b. at Venice, 23 Aug., 1683; d. at Padua, 14 Nov., 1761; ...

    Poles in the United States

    Causes of Immigration There is good foundation for the tradition that a Pole, John of Kolno (a ...

    Policastro

    DIOCESE OF POLICASTRO (POLICASTRENSIS) Diocese in the province of Salerno, Southern Italy. The ...

    Polignac, Melchior de

    Cardinal, diplomatist, and writer, b. of an ancient family of Auvergne, at Le Puy, France, 11 ...

    Polish Literature

    The subject will be divided, for convenience of treatment, into historical periods. First ...

    Politi, Lancelot

    (In religion AMBROSIUS CATHARINUS) Born at Siena, 1483; died at Naples, 1553. At sixteen he ...

    Politian

    (ANGIOLO DE 'AMBROSINI DA MONTE PULCIANO) An Italian Humanist, born at Monte Pulciano in 1454; ...

    Political Economy, Science of

    S CIENCE OF P OLITICAL E CONOMY (E CONOMICS ). I. DEFINITIONS Political economy (Greek, ...

    Pollajuolo, Antonio and Piero Benci

    Antonio and Piero Benci Pollajuolo derived their surname, according to Florentine custom, from ...

    Polo, Marco

    Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

    Polybotus

    A titular see in Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. This town is mentioned only in the ...

    Polycarp, Saint

    Martyr (A.D. 69-155). Our chief sources of information concerning St. Polycarp are: (1) the ...

    Polycarpus

    The title of a canonical collection in eight books composed in Italy by Cardinal Gregorius. It is ...

    Polyglot Bibles

    The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcalá (in Latin ...

    Polystylum

    A titular see of Macedonia Secunda, suffragan of Philippi. When Philippi was made a ...

    Polytheism

    The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. See the various articles on national ...

    Pomaria

    A titular see in Mauretania Cæsarea. It is north of Tlemcen (capital of an arrondissement ...

    Pombal, Marquis de

    S EBASTIâO J OSÉ DE C ARVALHO E M ELLO The son of a country gentleman of ...

    Pomerania

    A Prussian province on the Baltic Sea situated on both banks of the River Oder, divided into ...

    Pompeiopolis

    A titular see in Paphlagonia. The ancient name of the town is unknown; it may have been ...

    Pomponazzi, Pietro

    (POMPONATIUS, also known as PERETTO on account of his small stature) A philosopher and ...

    Ponce de León, Juan

    Explorer, born at San Servas in the province of Campos, 1460; died in Cuba, 1521. He was ...

    Ponce, John

    A philosopher and theologian, born at Cork, 1603, died at Paris, 1670. At an early age he went ...

    Poncet, Joseph Anthony de la Rivière

    Missionary; b. at Paris, 17 May, 1610; d. at Martinique, 18 June, 1675. He entered the Jesuit ...

    Pondicherry

    (PONDICHERIANA OR PUDICHERIANA) Located in India, it is bounded on the east by the Bay of ...

    Pontefract Priory

    Located in Yorkshire, England, a Cluniac monastery dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, founded ...

    Pontian, Pope Saint

    Dates of birth and death unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 145) gives Rome ...

    Pontifical Colleges

    In earlier times there existed in Europe outside of the city of Rome a large number of ...

    Pontifical Decorations

    Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other ...

    Pontifical Mass

    Pontifical Mass is the solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the ...

    Pontificale

    ( Pontificale Romanum ). A liturgical book which contains the rites for the performance ...

    Pontificalia

    (PONTIFICALS). The collective name given for convenience sake to those insignia of the ...

    Pontigny, Abbey of

    Second daughter of Cîteaux, was situated on the banks of the Serain, present Diocese of ...

    Pontius Carbonell

    Born at Barcelona, c. ú died c. 1320. Pontius and Carbonell are names frequently met with ...

    Pontius Pilate

    After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

    Pontus

    In ancient times, Pontus was the name of the north-eastern province of Asia Minor , a long ...

    Pools in Scripture

    In the English Bibles, the word "pool" stands for three Hebrew words: (1) 'agam means properly ...

    Poona

    (PUNENSIS) Diocese in India, comprises that portion of the Bombay Presidency which lies on ...

    Poor Brothers of St. Francis Seraphicus

    A congregation of lay brothers of the Third Order of St. Francis, instituted for charitable ...

    Poor Catholics

    ( Pauperes Catholici ) A religious mendicant order, organized in 1208, to reunite the ...

    Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the

    A congregation founded at Aachen in 1844 for the support and education of poor, orphan, and ...

    Poor Clares

    (POOR LADIES, SISTERS OF ST. CLARE) The Second Order of St. Francis. The subject will be treated ...

    Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ

    A community founded by Catherine Kasper, a native of Dernbach, Germany. She was born 26 May, 1820, ...

    Poor Handmaids of the Mother of God

    A religious congregation founded in 1808 by Mother Mary Magdalen Taylor in conjunction with ...

    Poor Laws

    Poor Laws are those legal enactments which have been made at various periods of the world's ...

    Poor, Care of, by the Church

    I. OBJECTS, HISTORY, AND ORGANIZATION A. The care of the poor is a branch of charity. In the ...

    Poor, Little Sisters of the

    An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded at St Servan, Brittany, 1839, through the ...

    Poor, Sisters of the, of St. Francis

    A Congregation, founded by the Venerable Mother Frances Schervier at Aachen in the year 1845, ...

    Popayán

    (POPAYANENSIS) Popayán lies approximately between 1º 20' and 3º 2' north ...

    Pope, Alexander

    Poet, son of Alexander Pope and his second wife, Edith Turner, b. in London, England, 22 May, ...

    Pope, The

    ( Ecclesiastical Latin papa from Greek papas , a variant of pappas father, in classical ...

    Popes, Chronological Lists of the

    See also POPE, LIST OF POPES, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. The historical lists ...

    Popes, Election of the

    For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

    Popes, List of

    See also POPE, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76) ...

    Poppo, Saint

    Abbot, born 977; died at Marchiennes, 25 January, 1048. He belonged to a noble family of ...

    Popular Devotions

    Devotion, in the language of ascetical writers, denotes a certain ardour of affection in the ...

    Population, Theories of

    Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

    Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture)

    A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

    Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio

    Italian painter, b. at Pordenone, 1483; d. at Ferrara, January, 1539. He is occasionally referred ...

    Pordenone, Ordric of

    A Franciscan missionary of a Czech family named Mattiussi, born at Villanova near Pordenone, ...

    Pormort, Ven. Thomas

    English martyr, b. at Hull about 1559; d. at St. Paul's Churchyard, 20 Feb., 1592. He was probably ...

    Porphyreon

    Titular see, suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima. It is described in the "Notitia Episcopatuum" ...

    Porphyrius, Saint

    Bishop of Gaza in Palestine, b. at Thessalonica about 347; d. at Gaza, 26 February, 420. ...

    Porrecta, Serafino

    Family name Capponi, called a Porrecta from the place of birth, theologian, b. 1536; d. at Bologna, ...

    Port Augusta

    (PORTAUGUSTANA) This diocese is a suffragan of Adelaide, South Australia, created in ...

    Port Louis

    (PORTUS LUDOVICI) This diocese comprises the islands of Mauritius, Rodriguez, Chagos, and ...

    Port of Spain

    (PORTUS HISPANIÆ) An archiepiscopal and metropolitan see, including the Islands of ...

    Port Victoria

    (PORTUS VICTORIÆ SEYCHELLARUM.) Port Victoria comprises the Seychelles Islands in the ...

    Port-au-Prince

    (PORTUS PRINCIPIS) This archdiocese comprises the western part of the Republic of Haiti. Its ...

    Port-Royal

    A celebrated Benedictine abbey which profoundly influenced the religious and literary life of ...

    Porta, Carlo

    Poet, b. at Milan in 1775; d. there 5 January, 1821; educated by the Jesuits at Monza and ...

    Porta, Giacomo della

    Architect and sculptor, b. at Porlizza on Lake Lugano 1541; d. 1604. He was a pupil of ...

    Portable Altar

    A portable altar consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to ...

    Portalegre

    Suffragan diocese of Lisbon, Portugal, established by Pope Julius III in 1550. Its first ...

    Porter

    (Also called DOORKEEPER. From ostiarius , Latin ostium , a door.) Porter denoted among ...

    Porter, George

    Archbishop of Bombay, b. 1825 at Exeter, England ; d. at Bombay, 28 September, 1889. Of ...

    Portiuncula

    (PORZIONCULA or PORZIUNCOLA). A town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from ...

    Portland

    Diocese in the State of Maine ; suffragan of Boston ; established by Pius IX, 8 Dec., 1854. ...

    Porto Alegre

    (PORTALEGRENSIS) Located in Eastern Brazil. Porto Alegre, the capital and chief port of the ...

    Porto Alegre

    (PORTALEGREN) Porto Alegre comprises the southern part of the State of Minas Geraes, and part ...

    Porto and Santa-Rufina

    (PORTUENSIS ET SANCTÆ RUFINÆ) This diocese was formed from the union of two ...

    Porto Rico

    (PUERTO RICO) The smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles, rectangular in shape, ...

    Portoviejo

    (PORTUS VETERIS). A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Quito, Republic of Ecuador. It was ...

    Portraits of the Apostles

    The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of ...

    Portsmouth

    (PORTUS MAGNUS, or PORTEMUTHENSIS) This diocese was created by a Brief of Leo XIII , ...

    Portugal

    I. GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Portugal is situated on the west of the Iberian ...

    Portuguese East Africa

    Portuguese East Africa consists of the Province of Mozambique. Portuguese activity on that ...

    Portuguese Literature

    The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the lingua rustica spoken in the countries ...

    Portuguese West Africa

    The name usually given to the Province of Angola. It has a coast line of 1015 miles from the ...

    Positivism

    Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. As ...

    Possenti, Blessed Gabriel

    Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

    Possession, Demonical

    ( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, EXORCIST.) Man is in various ways subject to the ...

    Possevinus, Antonius

    Theologian and papal envoy, b. at Mantua in 1533 or 1534; d. at Ferrara, 26 Feb., 1611. At ...

    Possidius, Saint

    Bishop of Calama in Numidia, author of a short life of St. Augustine and of an indiculus or ...

    Postcommunion

    The Communion act finishes the essential Eucharistic service. Justin Martyr (I Apol., lxv-lxvi) ...

    Postgate, Nicholas

    English martyr, b. at Kirkdale House, Egton, Yorkshire, in 1596 or 1597; d. at York, 7 August, ...

    Postulant

    Postulancy is a preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. ...

    Postulation

    ( Latin postulare, to request) A postulation is a petition presented to a competent ...

    Potawatomi Indians

    An important tribe of Algonquin linguistic stock, closely related dialectically to the Ojibwa ...

    Pothier, Robert Joseph

    A celebrated French lawyer, b. at Orléans, 9 January, 1699; d. there, 2 March, 1772. His ...

    Pouget, Jean-François-Albert du

    Marquis de Nadaillac, b. in 1817; d. at Rougemont, Cloyes, 1 October, 1904; the scion of an old ...

    Pounde, Thomas

    Lay brother, b. at Beaumond (or Belmony), Farlington, Hampshire, 29 May, 1538; d. there, 26 Feb., ...

    Poussin, Nicolas

    French painter, b. at Les Andelys near Rouen in 1594; d. at Rome, 19 November, 1666. His early ...

    Poverty

    I. THE MORAL DOCTRINE OF POVERTY Jesus Christ did not condemn the possession of worldly goods, or ...

    Poverty and Pauperism

    See also CARE OF THE POOR BY THE CHURCH In a legal and technical sense, pauperism denotes the ...

    Powel, Philip

    ( alias M ORGAN, alias P ROSSER ) Martyr, b. at Tralon, Brecknockshire, 2 Feb., 1594; d. ...

    Powell, Blessed Edward

    With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

    Poynter, William

    Born 20 May, 1762, at Petersfield, Hants; died 26 Nov., 1827, in London. He was educated at the ...

    Pozzo, Andreas

    (P UTEUS ) Italian painter and architect of the Baroque period, b. at Trent, 1642; d. at ...

    Pozzuoli

    (PUTEOLANA) The city of Pozzuoli in the province of Naples, southern Italy, on the gulf of ...

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    Pr 155

    Prémare, Joseph Henri Marie de

    Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare, missionary and sinologist, born at Cherbourg, 17 July, 1666; ...

    Prémontré, Abbey of

    Located about twelve miles west of Laon, Department of Aisne, France ; founded by St. Norbert. ...

    Prüm

    A former Benedictine abbey in Lorraine, now in the Diocese of Trier, founded by a Frankish ...

    Prades, Jean-Martin de

    A theologian, born about 1720 at Castelsarrasin ( Diocese of Montauban ), died in 1782 at ...

    Prado, Jerome de

    Exegete, b. at Baeza in Spain, 1547; d. at Rome, 13 Jan., 1595. He entered the Society of ...

    Praelatus Nullius

    (i.e. Dioceseos) A prelate who exercises quasi-episcopal jurisdiction in a territory not ...

    Pragmatic Sanction

    ( pragmatica sanctio , lex , jussio , also pragmatica or pragmaticum ) Pragmatic ...

    Pragmatism

    Pragmatism, as a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical ...

    Prague

    (PRAGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bohemia. From about the middle of the sixth century Slavonic ...

    Prague, University of

    The University of Prague was founded by Charles IV with the consent of the Estates on the model ...

    Praxeas

    An early anti- Montanist, is known to us only by Tertullian's book "Adversus Praxean". His name ...

    Praxedes and Pudentiana

    Martyrs of an unknown era. The seventh-century itineraries to the graves of the Roman martyrs ...

    Pray Brethren

    The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

    Pray, George

    Abbot, canon, librarian of the University library of Buda, and important Hungarian historian, b. ...

    Prayer

    (Greek euchesthai , Latin precari , French prier , to plead, to beg, to ask earnestly). ...

    Prayer of Christ, Feast of the

    This feast occurs on the Tuesday after Septuagesima (double major). Its object is to ...

    Prayer of Quiet

    The Prayer of Quiet is regarded by all writers on mystical theology as one of the degrees of ...

    Prayer, Lord's

    Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

    Prayer-Books

    By "prayer-books" usage generally understands a collection of forms of prayer intended for ...

    Prayers for the Dead

    This subject will be treated under the following three heads: I. General Statement and Proof of ...

    Preacher Apostolic

    A dignitary of the pontifical household. As a regular function, under special Regulations, this ...

    Preachers, Order of

    As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we ...

    Preadamites

    The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Strictly speaking, the expression ought to be ...

    Prebend

    The right of a member of a chapter to his share in the revenues of the cathedral ; also the ...

    Precaria

    ( Preces , prayers ). A precaria is a contract granting to a petitioner the use and ...

    Precedence

    ( Latin præcedere , to go before another). Precedence signifies the right to enjoy ...

    Precentor

    (Latin Præcentor , from præ , before- cantor singer). A word describing ...

    Precept

    ( Precept: From the Latin præceptum from præcipere , to command). Precept , ...

    Precious Blood

    The blood of our Divine Saviour. Jesus, at the Last Supper, ascribes to it the same life-giving ...

    Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the Most

    Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

    Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most

    An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions ...

    Precious Blood, Congregations of the

    I. BERNADINES OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence, founded by ...

    Precious Blood, Feast of the Most

    For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

    Precipiano, Humbert-Guillaume de, Count

    Born at Besançon, 1626; died at Brussels, 7 June, 1711. Having studied the classics at ...

    Preconization

    (Latin præconizare , to publish, from præco , herald, public crier) This word ...

    Predestinarianism

    Predestinarianism is a heresy not unfrequently met with in the course of the centuries which ...

    Predestination

    Predestination ( Latin prœ , destinare ), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine ...

    Preface

    ( Latin Præfatio ). The first part of the Eucharistic prayers ( Anaphora or Canon) in ...

    Prefect Apostolic

    ( Latin prœfectus, one put over or in charge of something) During the last few ...

    Prefecture Apostolic (Supplemental List)

    (SUPPLEMENTAL LIST) An account is here given of the prefectures Apostolic that have been ...

    Prelate

    Real Prelate, the incumbent of a prelature, i.e., of an ecclesiastical office with special and ...

    Premonstratensian Canons

    (C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

    Presbyterianism

    Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies ...

    Presbytery

    The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy was known in antiquity by various names, ...

    Prescription

    (Latin prœ , before, and scribere , to write, in later legal Latin involving the idea ...

    Prescription in Civil Jurisprudence

    Prescription "in some form and under some name" is said to have existed as a part of the municipal ...

    Presence of God

    Doctrinal All solid devotion and devotional practices must be founded upon the truths of ...

    Presence, Real

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Presentation Brothers

    In the early part of the nineteenth century when the Penal Laws were relaxed, and the ban which ...

    Presentation of Mary, Congregation of the

    This congregation, devoted to the education of young girls, was founded in 1796 at Theuyts, ...

    Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

    The Protoevangel of James, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, and ...

    Presentation, Feast of the

    Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin (Greek Hypapante ), Feast of the Presentation of ...

    Presentation, Order of the

    An Order founded at Cork, Ireland, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle (see below). In 1775 she entered with ...

    Presentation, Religious Congregations of the

    (1) Daughters of the Presentation , founded in 1627 by Nicolas Sanguin (b. 1580; d. 1653), ...

    Presentation, Right of

    Out of gratitude for the foundation or endowment of churches and benefices, the Church grants ...

    Prester John

    Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. FIRST STAGE The mythical journey to Rome of a ...

    Preston, Thomas

    ( Alias R OGER W IDDRINGTON ). Benedictine, d. in the Clink prison, 5 April, 1640. He ...

    Preston, Thomas Scott

    The Vicar-General of New York, prothonotary Apostolic, chancellor, distinguished convert, ...

    Presumption

    (Latin praesumere , "to take before", "to take for granted"). Presumption is here ...

    Presumption

    (IN CANON LAW) A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn ...

    Pretorium

    This name is derived from the Latin prætorium, in later Greek tò ...

    Pride

    Pride is the excessive love of one's own excellence. It is ordinarily accounted one of the seven ...

    Priene

    A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The foundation of the town of Priene dates ...

    Priest

    This word (etymologically "elder", from presbyteros , presbyter ) has taken the meaning of ...

    Priest, Assistant

    The assistant priest ( presbyter assistens , anciently called capellanus ) is the first and ...

    Priest, High

    The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

    Priesthood

    The word priest (Germ. Priester ; Fr. prêtre ; Ital. prete ) is derived from the ...

    Priestly Perseverance, Association of

    A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese. ...

    Priests' Communion League

    An association of priests established at Rome on 20 July, 1906, in the Church of San ...

    Priests' Eucharistic League

    I. Object The Priests' Eucharistic League (Confraternitas sacerdotalis adorationis Sanctissimi ...

    Priests, Confraternities of

    Three confraternities of priests -- the Apostolic Union, the Priests' Eucharistic League, ...

    Primacy

    (Latin primatus, primus , first). The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as ...

    Primadicci, James

    (Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

    Primate

    (Lat. primas, from primus, "first"). In the Western Church a primate is a bishop ...

    Prime

    I. THE NAME The name Prime ( prima hora ) belongs with those of Terce, Sext, None, to the ...

    Primer, The

    The common English name for a book of devotions which from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century ...

    Primicerius

    (Etymologically primus in cera , sc. in tabula cerata , the first in a list of a class of ...

    Primus and Felician, Saints

    Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

    Prince Albert, Diocese of

    A suffragan see of St. Boniface, Manitoba, in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Originally ...

    Prior

    A monastic superior. In the Rule of St. Benedict the term prior occurs several times, but ...

    Prioress

    (Priorissa, Praeposita). A superioress in a monastic community for women. The term prioress ...

    Priory

    A monastery whose superior is a prior. The Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Carthusians, ...

    Prisca, Saint

    She was a martyr of the Roman Church, whose dates are unknown. The name Prisca or Priscilla ...

    Priscianus

    Latin grammarian, born at Caesarea (Mauretania) , taught at Constantinople under Anastatius I ...

    Priscilla and Aquila

    ( Or Prisca.) Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome (Aquila was a native of Pontus ) in the ...

    Priscillianism

    This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic - ...

    Prisons

    I. IN ANCIENT TIMES Many jurisconsults and Scriptural interpreters include imprisonment among ...

    Prisons, Ecclesiastical

    It is plain from many decrees in the "Corpus Juris Canonici" that the Church has claimed and ...

    Privilege

    ( Latin, privilegium , like priva lex ) Privilege is a permanent concession made by a ...

    Privileged Altar

    An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic ...

    Privileges, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical privileges are exceptions to the Law made in favour of the clergy or in favour ...

    Proba, Faltonia

    A Christian poetess of the fourth century. The name Faltonia is doubtful and is apparently due ...

    Probabilism

    Probabilism is the moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the ...

    Probus, Marcus Aurelius

    Roman Emperor, 276-82, raised to the throne by the army in Syria to succeed Tacitus. Of humble ...

    Probus, Tarachus, and Andronicus, Saints

    Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

    Processional Cross

    A processional cross is simply a crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and ...

    Processional, Roman

    Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

    Processions

    Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every ...

    Processus and Martinian, Saints

    The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

    Proclus, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople. Saint Proclus died in 446 or 447. Proclus came to the fore in the ...

    Proconnesus

    (PRŒCONNESUS) A titular see in Hellespont. Proconnesus was the name of an island ...

    Procopius of Caesarea

    Byzantine historian, b. in the latter years of the fifth century at Caesarea in Palestine , d. ...

    Procter, Adelaide Anne

    Poetess and philanthropist, b. in London, England, 30 October, 1825; d. in London, 2 February, ...

    Procurator

    A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. There are ...

    Profession, Religious

    HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

    Promise, Divine

    The term promise in Holy Writ both in its nominal and verbal form embraces not only promises ...

    Promotor Fidei

    (P ROMOTER OF THE F AITH ). An official of the Roman Congregation of Rites. The office ...

    Promulgation

    ( Latin promulgare, to make known, to post in public). I. PROMULGATION IN GENERAL This is the ...

    Proof

    Proof is the establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. ...

    Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of

    The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide , whose official title is "sacra congregatio ...

    Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the

    This society is an international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of ...

    Property

    I. NOTION OF PROPERTY The proprietor or owner of a thing, in the current acceptation of the word, ...

    Property, Ecclesiastical

    Abstract Right of Ownership That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal ...

    Property, Ecclesiastical, in the United States

    The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed (tit. IX, cap. i, n. 264): "We must hold, ...

    Prophecy

    As the term is used in mystical theology , it applies both to the prophecies of canonical ...

    Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess

    I. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT A. Introduction Yahweh had forbidden Israel all kinds of oracles in ...

    Proprium

    The Proprium de tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum form in the present liturgy the two ...

    Proschko, Franz Isidor

    A well-known Austrian author, born at Hohenfurt, Bohemia, 2 April, 1816; died at Vienna, 6 ...

    Prose or Sequence

    I. DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Sequence ( Sequentia )–or, more accurately as ...

    Proselyte

    ( proselytos , stranger or newcomer; Vulgate, advena ). The English term "proselyte" ...

    Proske, Karl

    Born at Grobing in Upper Silesia, 11 Feb., 1794; died 20 Dec., 1861. He took his degree as Doctor ...

    Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro

    The first sure date in the life of Prosper is that of his letter to St. Augustine written ...

    Protasius and Gervasius, Saints

    Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

    Protector, Altar

    A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the ...

    Protectorate of Missions

    The right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an infidel country with regard to ...

    Protectories

    The institutions for the shelter and training of the young, designed to afford neglected or ...

    Protestant Episcopal Church

    The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

    Protestantism

    The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.: I. Origin of the Name. II. ...

    Prothonotary Apostolic

    A member of the highest college of prelates in the Roman Curia, and also of the honorary ...

    Protocol

    The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries, e.g., mention of the reign, ...

    Protopope

    A priest of higher rank in the Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, corresponding in ...

    Protus and Hyacinth, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

    Prout, Father

    The name by which the Rev. Francis Sylvester Mahony (O'Mahony), author of "The Bells of ...

    Provancher, Léon Abel

    Naturalist, b. 10 March, 1820, in the parish of Béconcourt, Nicolet county, Province of ...

    Proverbs, Book of

    One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the ...

    Providence, Congregations of (I)

    Founded at Paris, by Madame Polaillon (Marie de Lumague), a devout widow. In 1643 Madame ...

    Providence, Congregations of (II)

    (St. Mary-of-the-Woods) Among the teaching religious orders that originated in France at ...

    Providence, Congregations of (III)

    SISTERS OF CHARITY The Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, known also as Sisters of ...

    Providence, Congregations of (IV)

    Founded at Turin in 1834 by the Marchesa Julia Falletti de Barolo for the care of children and ...

    Providence, Congregations of (V)

    SISTERS OF THE INSTITUTE OF CHARITY An offshoot from the Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, ...

    Providence, Diocese of

    (PROVIDENTIENSIS) Co-extensive with the State of Rhode Island . When erected (17 Feb., 1872) ...

    Providence, Divine

    ( Latin, Providentia ; Greek, pronoia ). Providence in general, or foresight, is a ...

    Province, Ecclesiastical

    The name given to an ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an ...

    Provincial

    An officer acting under the superior general of a religious order, and exercising a general ...

    Provincial Council

    A deliberative assembly of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province, summoned and presided ...

    Provision, Canonical

    Canonical Provision is a term signifying regular induction into a benefice, comprising three ...

    Provisors, Statute of

    The English statute usually so designated is the 25th of Edward III, St. 4 (1350-1), otherwise ...

    Provost

    (Latin, prœpositus; French, prévôt; German, Probst ) Anciently (St. ...

    Prudence

    (Latin prudentia , contracted from providentia , seeing ahead). One of the four ...

    Prudentius

    (GALINDO) A Bishop of Troyes, born in Spain ; died at Troyes on 6 April, 861; celebrated ...

    Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens

    A Christian poet, born in the Tarraconensis, Northern Spain, 348; died probably in Spain, ...

    Prusias ad Hypium

    Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in the Honoriad. Memnon, the historian, says that Prusias ...

    Prussia

    The Kingdom of Prussia at the present time covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 ...

    Przemysl

    (PREMISLIENSIS) Latin see in Galicia, suffragan of Lemberg. After conquering Halicz and ...

    Przemysl, Sambor, and Sanok

    (PREMISLIENSIS, SAMBORIENSIS, ET SANOCHIENSIS) A Græco-Ruthenian Uniat diocese of ...

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    Ps 7

    Psalms

    The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" ( Kethubhim or Hagiographa ...

    Psalms, Alphabetic

    Alphabetic psalms are so called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, ...

    Psalterium

    The Psalterium, or Book of the Psalms, only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed ...

    Psaume, Nicholas

    (also PSAULME, PREAUME, Latin PSALMÆUS) Bishop of Verdun, born at Chaumont-sur-Aire in ...

    Psellus, Michael

    ( Michael ho Psellos ), Byzantine statesman, scholar, and author, born apparently at ...

    Psychology

    (Greek psyche, logos ; Latin psychologia; French psychologie; German Seelenkunde ) In ...

    Psychotherapy

    (from the Greek psyche , "mind", and therapeuo , "I cure") Psychotherapy is that ...

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    Pt 3

    Ptolemais

    Ptolemais, a titular see in Egypt, metropolis of Thebais Secunda. Ptolemais owes its name to ...

    Ptolemais

    (SAINT-JEAN D'ACRE) Ptolemais, a titular metropolis in Phoenicia Prima, or Maritima. The ...

    Ptolemy the Gnostic

    A heretic of the second century and personal disciple of Valentinus. He was probably still ...

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    Pu 31

    Public Authority

    Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

    Public Honesty (Decency)

    A diriment matrimonial impediment consisting in a relationship, which arises from a valid ...

    Publican

    Publican , in the Gospels, is derived from the publicanus of the Vulgate, and signifies a ...

    Pueblo Indians

    NAME From the Spanish word meaning "village" or "town". A term used collectively to designate ...

    Puget, Pierre

    A painter, sculptor, architect, and naval constructor, born at Marseilles, 31 Oct., 1622; died ...

    Pugh, George Ellis

    A jurist and statesman, born at Cincinnati, Ohio., 28 November, 1822; died there, 19 July, 1876. ...

    Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore

    Architect and archeologist, born in London, 1 March, 1812; died at Ramsgate, 14 September, 1852; ...

    Puiseux, Victor-Alexandre

    French mathematician and astronomer, b. 16 April, 1820, at Argenteuil (Seine-et-Oise); d. 9 ...

    Pulaski, Casimir

    Patriot and soldier, b. at Winiary, Poland, 4 March, 1748; d. on the Wasp, in the harbour of ...

    Pulati

    (The Diocese of Pulati: Pulatensis or Polatinensis ). The ancient Pulati in Albania no ...

    Pulcheria, Saint

    Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire, eldest daughter of the Emperor Arcadius, b. 19 Jan., 399; d. ...

    Pulci, Luigi

    An Italian poet, born at Florence, 15 Aug., 1432; died at Padua in 1484. The Pulci gave many ...

    Pullen, Robert

    (POLENIUS, PULLAN, PULLEIN, PULLENUS, PULLY, LA POULE) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Died 1147 (?). ...

    Pullus, Robert

    (PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

    Pulpit

    ( Latin pulpitum , a stage or scaffold) An elevated stand to preach on. To elucidate the ...

    Punishment, Capital

    The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The ...

    Puno

    DIOCESE OF PUNO (PUNIENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima in Peru. Its jurisdiction ...

    Purcell, John Baptist

    Archbishop of Cincinnati, born at Mallow, Ireland, 26 Feb., 1800; died at the convent of the ...

    Purgative Way

    The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

    Purgatorial Societies

    Pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to ...

    Purgatory

    The subject is treated under these heads: I. Catholic Doctrine II. Errors III. Proofs IV. Duration ...

    Purgatory, St. Patrick's

    Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

    Purim

    (P HURIM ). The origin of the name is disputed: some derive it from the Persian pure ...

    Puritans

    One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is ...

    Pusey and Puseyism

    Edward Bouverie Pusey, born at Pusey House, Berkshire, 22 Aug., 1800; died at Ascot Priory, ...

    Pustet

    The name of a family of well-known Catholic publishers. The original home of the Pustets was ...

    Putative Marriage

    Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

    Puteanus, Erycius

    (ERRIJCK DE PUT) Born at Venloo, in Dutch Limbourg, 4 Nov., 1574; died at Louvain, 17 Sept., ...

    Putzer, Joseph

    Theologian and canonist, b. at Rodaneck, Tyrol, 4 March, 1836; d. at Ilchester, Md., 15 May, ...

    Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre

    French painter, b. at Lyons, 14 Dec., 1824; d. at Paris, 24 Oct., 1898. Through his father ...

    Puyallup Indians

    An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly holding the territory along the river of ...

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    Py 4

    Pyrker, Johann Ladislaus von Oberwart

    (FELSÖ-EÖR) He was born at Langh near Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, 2 Nov., 1772; died ...

    Pyrrhonism

    Pyrrhonism is a system of scepticism, the founder of which was Pyrrho, a Greek philosopher, ...

    Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism

    Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician and founder of the Pythagorean school, ...

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