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Verona

(VERONENSIS.)

Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The city, situated on both branches of the River Adige, is the centre of extensive agricultural industry. In the days of the Venetian Republic it was already an important fortress, and was surrounded with walls and other defences by the Veronese Fra Giocondo, and remained so under the Austrian domination and under the Kingdom of Italy. The headquarters of the Third Army Corps are in the Castel S. Pietro, on a hill formerly occupied by the Ostrogothic and Lombard kings and the Visconti.

CHURCHES AND PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS

The duomo ( cathedral ) is in the Romanesque style of the twelfth century, with additions of the fifteenth. It has an ambo by Sanmicheli; pictures by Liberale da Verona (Adoration of the Magi ) and Titian (Assumption), and frescoes by Falconnetto. Adjoining it is S. Giovanni in Fonte, with a baptismal font decorated with reliefs of the twelfth century; in the cloister are remains of ancient marbles and mosaics. In the palace of the canons is the capitular library, rich in precious manuscripts. S. Maria Antica is surrounded with the tombs ( arche ) of the Scaligeri, lords of Verona, in the form of Gothic shrines, or tempietti , enclosing their sarcophagi (Can Grande, with equestrian statue ; Can Signorio, the finest work, by Bonino da Campione). S. Anastasia, the Dominican church (1261), is Gothic; the sculptures of the great door represent scenes from the life of St. Peter Martyr ; inside is the gobbo (hunchback), bearing the holy-water font, also pictures by Niccolo Giolfino, Giunesello da Folgaria (Entombment of Christ), Liberale, and Girolamo dai Libri; frescoes by Antichiero, Vittore Pisano (St. George), and Michele da Verona. S. Bernardino, fifteenth century, is adorned with frescoes by Giolfino, Morone, and others; noteworthy is the Pellegrini chapel, by Sanmicheli (1557). Of S. Zeno Maggiore mention is made as early as the time of St. Gregory the Great ; in its present form it dates back to the eleventh century, and was restored in 1870. Its doorway is decorated with Biblical sculptures by Nicolaus and Guilelmus, and the bronze doors themselves are sculptured with scenes from the life of St. Zeno. The ambo is crowned with marble statues (1200). The statue of St. Zeno is of the ninth century, and a Madonna enthroned in the midst of saints is by Mantegna. Adjoining the church was a Benedictine abbey, which was suppressed in 1770. S. Fermo Maggiore, a Gothic church (1313), belonged first to the Benedictines, then to the Franciscans ; its façade is adorned with marbles and with the sarcophagus of the physician Aventino Fracastoro (1350); it contains pictures by Caroto, also by Giambattista del Moro, Liberale, and Torbido, frescoes of the fourteenth century; the marble pulpit dates from 1396. Santi Nazzaro e Celso, a very ancient church, restored in the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, contains pictures by Montagna and frescoes by Farinato and Falconetto. S. Maria in Organo was restored by Sanmicheli in 1481, and contains frescoes by Marone; in its choir and sacristy are intarsie (inlaid decorations) by Fra Giovanni (1499). Among the other churches are S. Giorgio in Braide, S. Stefano, and S. Eufemia (thirteenth century).

A very fine public piazza is that known as the Erbe, the ancient forum of the city, surrounded by imposing and historical residences--the Palazzo Maffei, the Mazzanti, once the residence of the Scaligeri, the Case dei Mercanti (1210), the Casa della Fontana (tenth century)--and an ancient statue known as the Verona. In the middle of the piazza is the tribune where, in the Middle Ages, trials used to be held. The Piazza dei Signori is surrounded by the Palazzo dei Giurisconsulti [Lawyers (1263)] and the Palazzo della Ragione (1193). The court house and the prefecture were formerly palaces of the Scaligeri; the Council Building, the old Municipio (1476), has a tower (the Civica) 272 feet high. Other buildings are: the Rocca (Keep) of Can Grande II; the Teatro Filarmonico, containing the lapidary museum; the Palazzo Lavezzola Pompeii, built by Sanmicheli in 1530, containing the civic museum, with its prehistoric discoveries, Roman and medieval sculpture, and a special collection of Veronese painters. The communal library contains 100,000 volumes and 3100 manuscripts. Noteworthy among the Roman antiquities are the arena, which is in better preservation than the Colosseum at Rome ; the remains of a threatre, the greater axis of which is 502 feet in length; the Borsari Gates (265); the Arch of the Lions. The ancient Christian cemetery has not been found.

HISTORY

Verona, or Veronia, was a city of the Euganei, who were obliged to cede it to the Cenomani (550 B.C.). With the conquest of the Valley of the Po the Veronese territory became Roman (about 300 B.C.); Verona had the franchise in 59. The city derived importance from being at the intersection of many roads. With the taking of Verona (A.D. 489) the Gothic domination of Italy began; Theodoric built his palace there, and in Germanic legend the name of Verona is linked with his. This city remained in the power of the Goths all through the Gothic war, with the exception of a single day in 541, when an Armenian officer effected an entrance. Dissensions which arose among the Byzantine generals in regard to booty enabled the Goths to regain possession. In 552 Valerian vainly endeavoured to gain an entrance, and only the complete overthrow of the Goths brought abut its surrender. In 569 it was taken by Alboin, King of the Lombards, in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the second city in importance. There Alboin himself was killed by his own wife in 572. The dukes of Treviso often resided there. At Verona Adalgisus, son of Desiderius, in 774 made his last desperate resistance to Charlemagne, who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom. Verona was then the ordinary residence of the kings of Italy, the government of the city becoming hereditary in the family of Count Milo, progenitor of the counts of San Bonifacio. From 880 to 951 the two Berengarii resided there. Otto I ceded to Verona the marquisate dependent on the Duchy of Bavaria.

The splendor of the city in those days, dominated by its forty- eight towers, is described in a Latin ode of which we shall speak later on. The increasing wealth of the burgher families eclipsed the power of the counts, and in 1100 we find Verona organized as a commune. The San Bonifacio could at most hold the office of podestè of the city now and then. Verona, at first undecided, was forced by Vicenza to join the Lombard League. This, however, gave rise to the factions of Guelphs and Ghibellines in Verona. When Ezzelino IV was elected podestè, in 1226, he was able to convert the office into a permanent lordship, and in 1257 he caused the slaughter of 11,000 Paduans on the plain of Verona (Campi di Verona). Upon his death the Great Council elected as podestè Mastino della Scala, and he converted the "signoria" into a family possession, though leaving the burghers a share in the government. Failing to be re-elected podestè in 1262, he effected a coup d'état , and was acclaimed capitano del popolo , with the command of the communal troops. It was not without long internal discord that he succeeded in establishing this new office, to which was attached the function of confirming the podestè. In 1272 Mastino was killed by the faction of the nobles. The reign of his son Alberto as capitano (1277-1302) was one incessant war against the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of his sons, Bartolommeo, Alboino, and Can Grande I, only the last shared the government (1308); he was great as warrior, prince, and patron of the arts; he protected Dante, Petrarch, and Giotto. By war or treaty he brought under his control the cities of Padua (1328), Treviso (1308), and Vicenza.

Alberto was succeeded by Mastino II (1329-51) and Alberto, sons of Alboino. Mastino continued his uncle's policy, conquering Brescia in 1332 and carrying his power beyond the Po. He purchased Parma (1335) and Lucca (1339). After the King of France, he was the richest prince of his time. But a powerful league was formed against him in 1337---Florence, Venice, the Visconti, the Este, and the Gonzaga. After a three years war, the Scaliger dominions were reduced to Verona and Vicenza. His son Can Grande II (1351-59) was a cruel, dissolute, and suspicious tyrant; not trusting his own subjects, he surrounded himself with Brandenburg mercenaries. He was killed by his brother Cansignorio (1359-75), who beautified the city with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, and founded the state treasury. He also killed his other brother, Paolo Alboino. Fratricide seems to have become a family custom, for Antonio (1375-87), Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother Bartolommeo, thereby arousing the indignation of the people, who deserted him when Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan made war on him. Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight (19 October, 1387), thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination, which, however, survived in its monuments. His son Can Francesco in vain attempted to recover Verona (1390). Guglielmo (1404), natural son of Can Grande II, was more fortunate; with the support of the people, he drove out the Milanese, but he died ten days after, and Verona then submitted to Venice (1405). The last representatives of the Scaligeri lived at the imperial court and repeatedly attempted to recover Verona by the aid of popular risings. From 1490 to 1517 the city was in the power of the Emperor Maximilian I. It was occupied by Napoleon in 1797, but on Easter Monday the populace rose and drove out the French. It was then that Napoleon made an end of the Venetian Republic. In 1866, on the anniversary of the defeat of Königrätz, the Austrians evacuated Verona, their strongest fortress in Venetia, which thus became Italian.

For the origins of the Church in Verona the important document is the "Carmen Pipinianum" (ninth century), in which, besides a description of the city and an enumeration of its churches, there is a list of the first eight bishops, from St. Euprepius to St. Zeno, who died in 380. Less important is the famous pianeta ( chasuble ) of Classe, Ravenna, on which are represented not only the bishops of Verona, but also other saints and bishops of other dioceses venerated at Verona in the ninth century. St. Zeno having been the eighth bishop, the period of St. Euprepius, and therefore of the erection of the see, must be placed not before the peace given to the Church under Gallienus (260), but rather under the first period of the reign of Diocletian, when the Church enjoyed peace. In the same "Carmen" mention is made of Sts. Firmus and Rusticus, martyred at Verona, probably under Maximian. The list of the earliest bishops is as follows: Euprepius, Dimidrianus (Demetrianus), Simplicius, Proculus, Saturninus, Lucilius, present at the Council of Sardica in 343 (called Lucillus by St. Athanasius and Lucius in the signatures of the bishops at Sardica ), Gricinus, Zeno. This St. Zeno is called a martyr in the "Carmen" and is placed in the time of Gallienus. At any rate the existence of a distinguished St. Zeno, Bishop of Verona, a contemporary of St. Ambrose, and author of a series of religious discourses, is historically attested, and as, on the other hand, the ancient documents know but one bishop of that name, it must be concluded that, as early as the ninth century, the legend had corrupted chronology. For the rest, we know from the sermons of St. Zeno how deeply paganism was still rooted in Verona in his time, particularly in the country districts. His successor was Syagrius. Other bishops were: St. Petronius (c. 410); Gaudentius (465); St. Valens (522-31); Solatius and Junior, who joined the schism of the Three Chapters ; Hanno (about 758); Ratoldus, who imposed community life on the canons (806) and reorganized the education of the clergy. Among the masters of his school the deacon Pacificus was eminent for his knowledge of Greek and Hebrew. Nottingus (840) was the first to denounce the heretic Godescalcus. Adelardus (876) was excommunicated for invading the monastery of Nonnantula. Ratherius (930), a Benedictine and a distinguished author, was thrice driven from his see by usurpers, among whom was the notorious Manasses of Arles. He, too, fostered learning in the cathedral school. Joannes (1027) was distinguished for sanctity and learning. Bruno (1073), who wrote some interpretations of Scripture, was killed by one of his chaplains.

In the time of Bishop Ognibene (1157), a distinguished canonist, Pope Lucius III died at Verona, in 1183, after meeting Barbarossa and holding a synod there. There, too, was held the conclave which elected Urban III, who spent nearly all of his brief pontificate at Verona. Bishops Jacopo da Breganze (1225) and Gerardo Cossadocca (1254) were exiled by the tyrant Ezzellino. Manfredo Roberti (1259) suffered insult and imprisonment at the hands of the Ghibellines. Bonincontro (1295) died in the odour of sanctity. Bartolommeo della Scala (1336), a Benedictine, was calumniated to his nephew Mastino, Lord of Verona, who slew him with his own hand, and among the penalties for this crime inflicted by Benedict XII was the revocation of the privilege of nominating bishops. Pietro della Scala reformed the lives of the clergy and vainly endeavoured to bring the canons under his own jurisdiction instead of that of the Patriarch of Aquileia. When the Visconti obtained possession of Verona, Pietro was banished. Francesco Condulmer (1439) founded the college of acolytes to add to the beauty of public worship and to form a learned and pious clergy ; the school still exists. This institution was necessary because, with the establishment of the University of Verona, the cathedral school had been suppressed, and the young clerics who attended the university were at that time dispensed from officiating in church functions: the acolytes of the new college were obliged both to study and to attend ecclesiastical functions. Ermolao Barbaro also did much for the reform of the diocese. Cardinal Giovanni Michele (1471) was a munificent restorer of the cathedral and the episcopal palace, as also was Cardinal Marco Cornaro (1592). For Gian Matteo Giberti (1524) and Pietro and Luigi Lippomano (1544, 1548) see articles under their respective names. Agostino Valier (1565) was a cardinal. Sebastiano Pisani (1650) was a zealous pastor. Giovanni Bragadino (1733) was a mirror of all the virtues ; in his episcopate the Patriarchate of Aquileia was suppressed, and Benedict XIV brought the chapter under the bishop's jurisdiction, at the same time laying down wise rules for the government of the diocese. Giovanni Andrea Avogadro (1790) abdicated the see to return to the Society of Jesus. Benedetto de Riccabona (1854), A Tyrolese, was a model pastor. The present bishop is Bartolommeo Cardinal Bacilieri (1900). Councils of Verona worthy of note are those of 1184, at which the pope presided, and 1276, against the Patarenes who were somewhat numerous in the Veronese territory, even among the clergy.

At Verona is the mother-house of the Sons of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and their college for the Central African missions. The Congregation of the Stimmatini was also founded at Verona. Natives of this city were the architects Fra Giocondo, a Dominician, and Sanmichele; the painter Paolo Caliari (known also as Paolo Veronese), Falconetto, Liberali, Francesco and Girolamo dai Libri, Brusasorci, and others; among men of learning, Guarino, Lipomanno, Maffei, Bianchini, and others. The diocese was suffragan of Aquileia, then of Udine ; since 1818 it has been suffragan of Venice. It has 262 parishes with 400,500 faithful ; 786 secular priests ; 132 regular priests ; 17 houses of male religious; 45 of Sisters; 4 colleges for boys; 7 for girls. The Catholic Press consists of "Verona Fedele" (a daily paper), three weeklies, and the monthly "La Nigrizia".

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Ve 75

Vecchietta, Lorenzo di Pietro

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The first line of two hymns celebrating respectively the Nativity of Christ and the Institution ...

Vercelli

(VERCELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy. The city of Vercelli ...

Vercellone, Carlo

Biblical scholar, born at Biella, Milan ; died at Rome, 19 January, 1869. He entered the Order ...

Verdaguer, Jacinto

Poet, b. at Riudeperas, Province of Barcelona, Spain, 17 April, 1845; d. at Vallvidrera, ...

Verdi, Giuseppe

Composer, b. at Le Roncole, Parma, Italy, 10 October, 1813; d. at S. Agata, near Busseto, 27 ...

Verdun, Diocese of

(VIRODUNENSIS.) Comprises the Department of the Meuse. Suppressed by the Concordat of 1802, ...

Verecundus

sentence --> Bishop of Junca, in the African Province of Byzacena, in the middle of the ...

Vergani, Paolo

Italian political economist, b. in Piedmont, 1753; d. in Paris, about 1820. As a student, he ...

Vergerio, Pier Paolo, the Elder

Humanist, statesman, and canonist, b. at Capodistria, 23 July, 1370; d. at Budapest, 8 July, 1444 ...

Vergil, Polydore

Born at Ubino about 1470; died there probably in 1555. Having studied at Bologna and Padua, he ...

Vergilius of Salzburg, Saint

Irish missionary and astronomer, of the eighth century. Vergilius (or Virgilius, in Irish ...

Vering, Friedrich Heinrich

A German canonist, b. at Liesborn in Westphalia, 9 March, 1833; d. at Prague, 30 March, 1896. ...

Vermont

One of the New England states, extends from the line of Massachusetts, on the south 42° 44' N. ...

Verna, La

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...

Vernazza, Tommasina

Born at Genoa, 1497; died there, 1587. Her father, Ettore Vernazza, was a patrician, founder of ...

Verne, Jules

Novelist, b. at Nantes, France, 1828; d. at Amiens, 1905. His first literary venture was a ...

Vernier, Pierre

Inventor of the instrument which bears his name, b. at Ornans, Franche-Comte, c. 1580; d. there, ...

Veroli, Diocese of

(VERULANA). Located in the Province of Rome. The city of Veroli (Verulae) is situated on the ...

Verona

(VERONENSIS.) Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The city, situated on both branches of ...

Veronica Giuliani, Saint

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

Veronica, Saint

In several regions of Christendom there is honored under this name a pious matron of ...

Verot, Augustin

Third Bishop of Savannah, first of St. Augustine, b. at Le Puy, France, May, 1804; d. at St. ...

Verrazano, Giovanni da

Navigator, b. about 1485, of good family, at Val di Greve, near Florence ; executed at Puerto ...

Verreau, Hospice-Anthelme

A French-Canadian priest, educator, and historian, b. at l'Islet, P.Q., 6 Sept., 1828, of Germain ...

Verri, Count Pietro

Economist, b. at Milan, Dec., 1728; d. there, 29 June, 1797. After studying at Monza, Rome, and ...

Verrocchio, Andrea del

Born at Florence, 1435; d. at Venice, 1488. He was called Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' ...

Versailles

(VERSALIENSIS). Diocese ; includes the Department of Seine-et-Oise, France. Created in ...

Versions of the Bible

Synopsis GREEK : Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions. VERSIONS FROM THE ...

Versions of the Bible, Coptic

DIALECTS The Coptic language is now recognized in four principal dialects, Bohairic (formerly ...

Verstegan, Richard

( Alias ROWLANDS). Publisher and antiquarian, born at London, about 1548; died at Antwerp ...

Vertin, John

Third Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A. b. at Doblice, Diocese of Laibach (Carniolia), Austria, 17 ...

Vertot, Réné-Aubert, Sieur de

French historian, b. at Benetot, Normandy, 25 Nov., 1655; d. in Paris, 15 June, 1735. He was for ...

Veruela

A celebrated Cistercian monastery and church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. It is situated ...

Vesalius, Andreas

(WESALIUS.) The reorganizer of the study of anatomy ; b. at Brussels, 31 Dec., 1514; d. in a ...

Vespasian

(TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS). Roman Emperor, b. at Reate (now Rieti ), the ancient capital of ...

Vespasiano da Bisticci

( Or FIORENTINO.) Florentine humanist and librarian, b. in 1421; d. in 1498. He was ...

Vespers

This subject will be treated under the following headings: I. Vespers in the sixth century; II. ...

Vespers, Music of

The texts (e.g. antiphons, psalms, hymn ) sung in Vespers vary according to the feast or the ...

Vespers, Sicilian

The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 ...

Vespucci, Amerigo

A famous Italian navigator, born at Florence, 9 March, 1451; died at Seville, 22 February, 1512. ...

Vessels, Altar

The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained. ...

Vestibule (in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Vestments

IN WESTERN EUROPE By liturgical vestments are meant the vestments that, according to the rules ...

Veszprém

(VESPRIMIENSIS.) Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, one of the sees founded about 1009 by ...

Veto, The Royal

(In the appointment of Bishops in Ireland and England.) Although the penal laws enacted ...

Vetter, Conrad

Preacher and polemical writer, b. at Engen in the present Grand Duchy of Baden, 1547; d. at ...

Veuillot, Louis

Journalist and writer, b. at Boynes, Loiret, 11 Oct., 1813; d. in Paris, 7 April, 1883. He was ...

Vexiö, Ancient See of

(WEPIONENSIS.) The Ancient See of Vexiö, in Sweden, comprised the County of Kronoberg ...

Vexilla Regis Prodeunt

This "world-famous hymn, one of the grandest in the treasury of the Latin Church " (Neale), and ...

Vezzosi, Antonio Francesco

Member of the Theatine Congregation and biographical writer, born at Arezzo, Italy, 4 October, ...

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Vi 116

Via Crucis

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Via Dolorosa

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Viader, José

Born at Gallimes, Catalonia, 27 August, 1765. He received the habit of St. Francis at Barcelona ...

Vianney, Saint Jean-Baptiste-Marie

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...

Viaticum

Name Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a ...

Viator, Clerics of Saint

St. Viator, lector of the cathedral at Lyons, France, lived in the fourth century and is the ...

Viborg, Ancient See of

(VIBERGAE, VIBERGENSIS.) The ancient See of Viborg, in Denmark, comprised the Province of ...

Vicar

( Latin vicarius , from vice , "instead of") In canon law, the representative of a person ...

Vicar Apostolic

(1) In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the ...

Vicar Capitular

The administrator of a vacant diocese, elected by a cathedral chapter. On the death of a ...

Vicar of Christ

(Latin Vicarius Christi ). A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal ...

Vicar-General

The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary. He is a cleric legitimately deputed to ...

Vicari, Hermann von

Archbishop of Freiburg in Baden, b. at Aulendorf in Wurtemberg, 13 May, 1773; d. at Freiburg, ...

Vicariate Apostolic (Updated List)

The following is an account of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and of those changed so ...

Vice

( Latin vitium , any sort of defect) is here regarded as a habit inclining one to sin. It is ...

Vicelinus, Saint

Bishop of Oldenburg, apostle of Holstein, b. at Hameln about 1086; d. 12 Dec., 1154. Orphaned ...

Vicente, Gil

Portuguese dramatist, b. about 1470; he was living in 1536. He took up the study of law but ...

Vicenza, Diocese of

(VICENTINA). The city is the capital of a province in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The ...

Vich, Diocese of

(Vicensis, Ausonensis). Suffragan of Tarragona, bounded on the north by Gerona, on the east ...

Vico, Francescoe de

Astronomer, b. at Macerata, States of the Church, 19 May, 1805; d. at London, England, 15 Nov., ...

Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani

The first stanza of the Easter sequence. Medieval missals placed it on various days within the ...

Victor

Bishop of Tunnunum (Tonnenna, Tunnuna) in Northern Africa and zealous supporter of the Three ...

Victor I, Pope Saint

(189-198 or 199), date of birth unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" makes him a native of Africa ...

Victor II, Pope

(GEBHARD, COUNT OF CALW, TOLLENSTEIN, AND HIRSCHBERG.) Born about 1018; died at Arezzo, 28 ...

Victor III, Pope Blessed

(DAUFERIUS or DAUFAR). Born in 1026 or 1027 of a non-regnant branch of the Lombard dukes of ...

Victor IV

Two antipopes of this name. I. Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II ...

Victor of Capua

A sixth-century bishop about whose life nothing is known except what is found in his epitaph ...

Victor Vitensis

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Victoria

(VICTORIEN. IN INS. VANCOUVER.) Diocese in southwestern British Columbia, of which province it ...

Victoria Nyanza, Northern

The Mission of Victoria Nyanza, founded in 1878 by the White Fathers of Cardinal Lavigerie, was ...

Victoria Nyanza, Southern

Vicariate apostolic erected from the mission of Nyanza, 13 June, 1894, lies north of the ...

Victorinus, Caius Marius

(Called also VICTORINUS MARIUS, or MARIUS FABIUS VICTORINUS, and frequently referred to as ...

Victorinus, Saint

An ecclesiastical writer who flourished about 270, and who suffered martyrdom probably in 303, ...

Vida, Marco Girolamo

Italian Humanist, b. at Cremona about 1490; d. in 1566. He came to Rome under Julius II ; a ...

Vieira, Antonio

Missionary, diplomat, orator, b. at Lisbon, 6 February, 1608; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 July, 1697. ...

Viel, Nicholas

Died 1625, the first victim of apostolic zeal on the shores of the St. Lawrence. After ...

Vienna

Vienna -- the capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin ...

Vienna, University of

Foundation of the University Next to the University of Prague that of Vienna is the oldest ...

Vienne, Council of

Pope Clement V, by the Bull "Regnans in coelis" of 12 Aug., 1308, called a general council to ...

Vierthaler, Franz Michael

A distinguished Austrian pedagogue, b. at Mauerkirchen, Upper Austria, 25 September, 1758; d. ...

Vieta, François

(VIÈTE.) Father of modern algebra, b. at Fontenay-le-Comte (Poitou), 1540; d. in ...

Viger, Denis-Benjamin

French-Canadian statesman and writer, b. at Montreal, 19 Aug., 1774; d. 1861. After studying ...

Viger, Jacques

French-Canadian antiquarian and archaeologist, b. at Montreal, 7 May, 1787; d. 12 Dec., 1858. ...

Vigevano

(VIGLEVANENSIS.) Diocese in Lombardy, Province of Pavia. The city is a great agricultural ...

Vigilius

Bishop of Tapsus, in the African Province of Byzacena. Mentioned in the "Notitia" appended to ...

Vigilius, Pope

Reigned 537-55, date of birth unknown; died at Syracuse, 7 June 555. He belonged to a ...

Vigilius, Saint

Bishop of Trent, martyr, patron of Trent and of Tyrol, b. c. 353; d. 26 June, 405; feast 26 ...

Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi da

A theoretical and practical architect of the Transition Period between the Renaissance and ...

Vigor, Simon

French bishop and controversialist, b. at Evreux, Normandy, about 1515; d. at Carcassonne, 1 ...

Vikings

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

Villalpandus, Juan Bautista

Born at Cordova, Spain, in 1552; entered the Society of Jesus in 1575; died on 22 May, 1608. His ...

Villani, Giovanni

Florentine historian, b. about 1276; d. of the plague in 1348. Descended from a wealthy family ...

Villanovanus, Arnaldus

(ARNALDUS OF VILLANUEVA, or VILLENEUVE, or BACHUONE). Celebrated in his day as a physician, ...

Villefranche, Jacques-Melchior

Publicist, b. at Couzon-sur-Saone, 17 Dec., 1829; d. at Bourg, 10 May, 1904. After excellent ...

Villehardouin, Geoffroi de

Maréchal de Champagne, warrior, and first historian in the French language, b. about 1150; ...

Villeneuve-Barcement, Jean-Paul-Alban

Vicomte de, b. at Saint-Auban, Var, 8 Aug., 1784; d. at Paris, 8 June, 1850. After having taken ...

Villermé, Louis-René

French economist, b. at Paris, 10 March, 1782; d. there, 16 Nov., 1863. He was devoted to ...

Villers, Cistercian Abbey of

Situated on the confines of Villers and Tilly, Duchy of Brabant, present Diocese of Namur ...

Vilna

(VILENSIS). Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, is situated at the junction of the Rivers ...

Vincent de Paul, Saint

Born at Pouy, Gascony, France, in 1580, though some authorities have said 1576; died at Paris, ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint

A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint (New York)

(Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of ...

Vincent de Paul, Society of Saint

An international association of Catholic laymen engaging systematically in personal service of ...

Vincent Ferrer, Saint

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

Vincent Kadlubek, Blessed

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Vincent of Beauvais

Priest and encyclopedist. Little is known of his personal history. The years of his birth and ...

Vincent of Lérins, Saint

Feast on 24 May, an ecclesiastical writer in Southern Gaul in the fifth century. His work is ...

Vincent, Saint

(MALDEGARIUS). Founder and abbot of the monasteries of Hautmont and Soignies, b. of a noble ...

Vincent, Saint

Deacon of Saragossa, and martyr under Diocletian, 304; mentioned in the Roman Martyrology, 22 ...

Vincentians

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Vincenzo de Vit

Latinist, b. at Mestrina, near Padua, 10 July, 1810; d. at Domo d'Ossola, 17 Aug., 1892. He made ...

Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Vindicianus, Saint

Bishop of Cambrai - Arras, b. if tradition is to be believed, perhaps at Beaulaincourt, near ...

Vineam Domini

An Apostolic Constitution issued by Clement XI against the Jansenists on 16 July, 1705. It ...

Violence

Violence ( Latin vis ), an impulse from without tending to force one without any concurrence on ...

Viotti, Giovanni Battista

Founder of the modern school of violinist, b. at Fontanetto, Piedmont, 23 May, 173; d. 3 ...

Viraggio, Jacopo di

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Virgilius, Saint

(VIRGILE). Archbishop of Arles, died c. 610. According to a life written in the eighth ...

Virgin Birth of Christ

The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, ...

Virgin Mary, Devotion to the

Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...

Virgin Mary, Name of

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...

Virgin Mary, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

Virginia

Surnamed "The Old Dominion", "The Mother of States and of Statesmen", one of the thirteen original ...

Virginity

Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous ...

Virtue

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Definitions; II. Subjects; III. ...

Virtue, Heroic

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

Vischer, Peter

Sculptor and metal founder, b. at Nuremberg about 1460; d. in 1529. His father Hermann, who ...

Visdelou, Claude de

Born at the Château de Bienassis, Pléneuf, Brittany, 122 Aug., 1656; died at ...

Visigoths

One of the two principal branches of the Goths. Until 375 their history is combined with that of ...

Visions

This article will deal not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to ...

Visit ad Limina

(Sc. Apostolorum ) The visit ad limina means, technically, the obligation incumbent on ...

Visitation Convent, Georgetown

Located in the District of Columbia , United States of America . This convent was founded by ...

Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

I. THE EVENT Assuming that the Annunciation and the Incarnation took place about the vernal ...

Visitation Order

The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and ...

Visitation, Canonical

The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or ...

Visitors Apostolic

Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates. Visitors differ from other Apostolic ...

Visits to the Blessed Sacrament

By this devotional practice, which is of comparatively modern development, the presence of ...

Vitalian, Pope Saint

(Reigned 657-72). Date of birth unknown; d. 27 January, 672. Nothing is known of Vitalian's ...

Vitalini, Bonifazio

(DE VITALINIS). Jurist, b. at Mantua, Italy, about 1320; d. at Avignon after 1388. After ...

Vitalis and Agricola, Saints

Martyred at Bologna about 304 during Diocletian's persecution. Agricola, who was beloved for ...

Vitalis of Savigny, Saint

Founder of the monastery and Congregation of Savigny (1112), b. at Tierceville near Bayeaux ...

Vitalis, Saint

Martyr. His legend, which is of little historical value, relates that he was martyred by order ...

Vitelleschi, Muzio

Born at Rome 2 Dec., 1563; died there 9 Feb., 1645. He belonged to a distinguished family but ...

Vitellius, Lucius

Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, ...

Vitensis, Victor

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Vitoria

(VICTORIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Burgos, in Spain, bounded on the north by the Bay of ...

Vittorino da Feltre

(VITTORINO DE' RAMBALDONI). Humanist educator, b. at Feltre, 1397; d. at Mantua, 1446. He was ...

Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia, Saints

According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...

Viva, Domenico

Writer, b. at Lecce, 19 Oct., 1648; d. 5 July, 1726. He entered the Society of Jesus 12 May, ...

Vivarini

A family of Italian painters. Alvise Vivarini Born in 1446 or 1447; died in 1502. He was the ...

Vives, Juan Luis

Spanish humanist and philosopher, b. at Valencia, 6 March, 1492; d. at Bruges, 6 May, 1540. ...

Viviers

(VIVARIUM). Diocese ; includes the Department of Ardèche, France. It was suppressed ...

Vivisection

Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures; ordinarily it ...

Vizagapatam, Diocese of

Located in the east of India, suffragan to Madras. It is bounded on the north by the River ...

Vizeu

(VISENSIS). Diocese in north central Portugal. The bishopric dates from the sixth century and ...

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Vladimir the Great, Saint

(VLADIMIR or VOLODOMIR). Grand Duke of Kieff and All Russia, grandson of St. Olga, and the ...

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Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious

An ecclesiastical or religious vocation is the special gift of those who, in the Church of God, ...

Vogüé, Eugène-Melchior, Vicomte de

Critic, novelist, and historian, born at Nice, 25 February, 1848; died in Paris, 24 February, ...

Vogler, George Joseph

Theorist, composer and organist, b. at Würzburg, 15 June 1749, d. at Darmstadt, 6 May, ...

Volk, Wilhelm

(Pseudonym, LUDWIG CLARUS). Born at Halberstadt 25 Jan., 1804; died at Erfurt 17 March, 1869. ...

Volksverein

(PEOPLE'S UNION) FOR CATHOLIC GERMANY. A large and important organization of German Catholics ...

Volta, Alessandro

Physicist, b. at Como, 18 Feb., 1745; d. there, 5 March, 1827. As his parents were not in ...

Volterra

(VOLTARRANENSIS). Diocese in Tuscany. The city stands on a rocky mountain 1770 feet above the ...

Volterra, Daniele da

(RICCIARELLI). Italian painter, b. at Volterra, 1509; d. in Rome, 1566. Ricciarelli was called ...

Voluntarism

Voluntarism ( Latin voluntas , will) in the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which ...

Voluntary

Wilful, proceeding from the will. It is requisite that the thing be an effect of the will ...

Voluntary Association, Right of

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

Von Gagern, Max, Freiherr

Born at Weilburg (in Nassau), Germany, 25 March, 1810; died at Vienna, 17 October, 1889. He was ...

Vondel, Joost van Den

Netherland poet and convert, b. at Cologne, 17 Nov., 1587, of parents whose residence was ...

Voragine, Jacopo de

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Votive Mass

( Missa votiva ) A Mass offered for a votum , a special intention. So we frequently find ...

Votive Offerings

The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in ...

Votive Offices

A votive office is one not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying ...

Vows

I. GENERAL VIEW A vow is defined as a promise made to God. The promise is binding, and so differs ...

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Vrau, Philibert

"The holy man of Lille ", organizer of numerous Catholic activities; b. at Lille, 19 Nov., ...

Vrie, Theodoric

Historian of the Council of Constance . He describes himself as a brother of the Order of ...

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