Skip to content

Johann Adam Schall von Bell

An especially prominent figure among the missionaries to China, b. of an important family at Cologne in 1591; d. at Peking, 15 Aug., 1666. He studied at Rome, where he entered the Society of Jesus on 20 Oct., 1611. After his novitiate and some years devoted to philosophy and theology, he asked to be sent on the missions and in April, 1618, he set sail from Lisbon for China. When he reached Macao (1619) the Chinese Christian settlements were still deeply troubled by the war waged against them since 1615 by the high mandarin Kio Shin. Four of the chief missionaries, two of them from Peking, had been expelled and conducted to Macao ; the others had only escaped the same fate through the devotion of some Christian mandarins who hid them in their houses. It was only in 1622, when the persecution began to relax, that Schall could penetrate to the interior. He laboured first at Si-ngan-fu in Shen-si. His ministry, which for a long time was difficult and thwarted, had just begun to afford him great consolation when he was summoned to Peking in 1630. He had to replace Father Terrentius (deceased) in the work of reforming the Chinese calendar. The task was far removed from his ordinary duties of the apostolate but it was one on which the future of the mission then depended.

In China the establishment of the annual calendar was from time immemorial one of the most important affairs of State. The official astronomers who were entrusted therewith composed the "Board of Mathematics"; there were 200 members in this board, which was divided into several sections, presided over by exalted mandarins. They had to make known in advance the astronomical situation for the whole year, the days of new and full moons, movements of the sun with the dates of its entrance into each of the twenty-eight constellations forming the Chinese zodiac, the times of the solstices and equinoxes, and the beginnings of seasons, the positions and conjunctions of planets, finally, and especially, eclipses of the moon as well as of the sun. For these announcements the Chinese had several empirical rules, inherited from their ancestors, and especially those which the Mohammedan astronomers had brought to China during the Yuen, or Mongol dynasty. These rules were insufficient to prevent errors, which were sometimes very serious, and, having no scientific principle, the Chinese astronomers were incapable of discovering the defects of their methods and calculations, far less correcting them. Here was an opportunity for the missionaries to render a service and thus do much to strengthen their position in China. This had already been well understood by the founder of the mission, Father Matteo Ricci ; his direct offer of assistance would have been ill received, but he had discreetly inspired in the most intelligent of the Chinese literati a desire for his aid. A translation of the Catholic liturgical calendar which he had communicated in manuscript to his neophytes had very greatly excited this wish. That the mission might be ready for the official appeal which would come sooner or later he repeatedly urged the general of the Society to send a good astronomer, and in 1606 Father Sabbatino de Ursis, a Neapolitan, arrived.

Father Ricci had been dead but a few months when because of the mistake of an hour by the Board of Mathematics in the announcement of an eclipse, the Government decided to request the aid of the missionaries for its tangled astronomy. At the beginning of 1611 an imperial decree entrusted the missionaries with the correction of the calendar and requested them to translate books containing the rules of European astronomy. Father de Ursis at once undertook this task, assisted by two Christian doctors, Paul Siu Koang and Leon Li-ngo-tsen, but the work was scarcely begun when it was halted by the intrigues of the native astronomers. Then the persecution of Kio Shin forced Father Sabbatino and his companion, Father Diego Tantoya, to withdraw to Macao, where both ended their days. Nevertheless these same illustrious neophytes, who had saved the mission from total ruin, succeeded not only in securing other missionaries from Peking but in having confided to them anew the duties of official correctors of the calendar. This mandate was renewed by an imperial decree of 27 Sept., 1629. The great Christian mandarin Paul Siu again resumed the high offices of which the persecution had deprived him and received by the same decree the direction of the reform with full power for its execution. The fathers were certain of obtaining through him all the means necessary for the success of the undertaking. The first missionary to resume the work was unable to devote to it his remarkable abilities for any length of time. This was Father John Terrentius, or to call him by his true name, Schreck. Born at Constance on Lake Geneva in 1576, he embraced the religious life in Rome at the age of thirty-five being then in possession of an enviable renown as physician, botanist, and mathematician. The Academia dei Lincei (founded at Rome by Prince Frederico Cesi) had admitted him among its earliest members; here he had as colleague Galilei, whose discoveries he followed with sympathy. In his first letters from China, which he had entered secretly in 1621, we find Father Terrentius endeavouring to obtain from the Florentine astronomer through the mediation of mutual friends, "a calculation of the eclipses, especially solar, according to the new observations", for he says, "this is supremely necessary to us for the correction of the [ Chinese] calendar. And if there is any means by which we may escape expulsion from the empire it is this". This learned missionary died prematurely on 13 May, 1630, and Father Schall was summoned to Peking to replace him. Father James Rho, a native of Milan, who had also come from Europe to China in 1618, and who since 1624 had been working in the Christian settlements, was also called to the capital to assist Father Schall in his scientific undertaking.

The task imposed on the two missionaries was very difficult; they had not only to convince the Chinese of the errors of their calendar, but also to make them understand the causes of these errors, and to demonstrate to them the reliability of the principles on which they themselves based their corrections. To do this they had to establish at the Board of Mathematics a complete course in astronomy, and they had to begin by compiling in Chinese a whole series of text-books comprising not only astronomy properly so-called but also even the most elementary foundations of the science, such as arithmetic, geometry, and other parts of mathematics. In 1634 they had composed as many as one hundred and thirty-seven of these works, of which they printed a hundred. The foreign reformers were not without opposition from superstitious believers of the traditional methods and especially from the envious. These became particularly violent on the death of Paul Siu (1633, when he was Colao or prime minister ). Happily, Emperor Ts'ungcheng, who judged very intelligently of the methods in dispute by the results of the prediction of celestial phenomena, continued to support the fathers in the kindest manner. In 1638 Father Schall lost his deserving fellow-worker, Father Rho, but by that time the reform had already been accomplished in principle; it had become law and needed only to be put into execution.

All the provinces of China were soon informed of the important commission of reforming the calendar which had been entrusted to the missionaries. The news created a great sensation which benefited the whole mission. The honour paid to the missionaries of Peking redounded to the credit of all their brethren; many mandarins felt it necessary to offer public congratulations to those working within their territory. Everywhere the preaching of the Gospel was allowed unprecedented liberty. Father Schall profited by this, interrupting from time to time his scientific labours for the apostolate, not only in Peking but also in the neighbouring provinces. Thus he founded a new Christian congregation at Ho-Kien, capital of one of the prefectures of Chi-li. However, his zeal was especially exercised at the court itself. Christianity, which hitherto had won but few souls in the imperial palace, now took an important place there through the conversion of ten eunuchs, among whom were the sovereign's most qualified servants. This class had always been most opposed to the preaching of the missionaries. This happy progress of evangelization was disturbed and for a time stopped by the invasion of the Tatars and the revolution which, by overthrowing the throne of the Ming dynasty, brought about the accession of the Manchu dynasty of the T'sings, which still reigns. In the provinces laid waste by the insurrection prior to the foreign conquest several missionaries were massacred by the rebel leaders. At Peking Father Schall assisted the last of the Ming in his useless resistance by casting cannon for him. Nevertheless the Tatars regarded him favourably. Shun-chi, the first of the Ts'ings to reign at Peking, was only eight or eleven years old when he was proclaimed emperor (1643). The regent who governed in his name for six years confirmed all Schall's power regarding the calendar. The young emperor was still kinder to the missionary; not only did he summon him to familiar interviews in his palace, but, in spite of the most sacred rules of Chinese etiquette, he used unexpectedly to visit him in his house, remaining in his modest room a long time and questioning him on all kinds of subjects.

The imperial favour became a source of serious embarrassment to Father Schall and his fellow-workers. Prior to Shun-chi the "new rules" established by the Jesuits for the making of the Chinese calendar became compulsory for the official astronomers, but the correctors themselves had no authority to insure application of them. Shun-chi wished to alter this, impelled no doubt by his affection for Father Schall, but also because he had recognized the inefficiency of the native direction of the Board of Mathematics. He therefore appointed Father Schall president of this Board, at the same time conferring on him high rank as a mandarin to correspond with this important office. The missionary thought he might accept the office, which was more onerous than honourable; the success of the reform, which was theoretically accomplished, required it. But the rank of mandarin accorded ill with religious humility. Schall did all in his power to avoid it; from 1634, when it was conferred on him for the first time, until 1657, he made five appeals to the emperor or to the Supreme Tribunal of Rites, to be relieved of it. In his explanations to his brethren in the mission (16 Dec., 1648) he declared that he had refused it eight times, that he had pleaded on his knees before the Tribunal of Rites to be delivered from it, and that he only finally accepted it at the command of his regular superior and renouncing most of the advantages whether honorary or financial which were connected with the rank. Nevertheless this acceptance, notwithstanding the reservations made, was the occasion of other conscientious scruples concerning which the sentiments of the Jesuits in China were divided for several years. First of all, was not every rank of mandarin as exercised by a missionary a violation of the canon law which forbade priests to hold civil offices?

A more serious question arose regarding the contents of the Chinese calendar. The latter, as it was drawn up by the Board of Mathematics and subsequently spread throughout the empire, gave not only astronomical information of a purely scientific nature, but the Chinese likewise sought and found there indications concerning lucky and unlucky days, that is those which should be chosen or avoided for certain actions, and much superstition was mixed with this part. When the calendar was seen to contain the same things after Father Schall became president, uneasiness was felt among the missionaries. Everybody did not know how the publication was made. No one supposed that Father Schall had the slightest share in the superstitions ; they were in fact the exclusive work of a section of the Board of Mathematics which worked independently of Father Schall. Furthermore, the definitive and official publication of the calendar was not within the father's province. That was reserved to the Li-pou (Bureau of Rites ) to which Father Schall merely transmitted his astronomical calculations. Besides, Father Schall's data were expressly distinguished in the calendar itself by the words, "according to the new rule". Nevertheless, even when they were aware of these explanations, which Father Schall hastened to give, several learned and zealous missionaries considered that his responsibility was too greatly involved, and consequently, since his office did not permit him to suppress the superstitions of the calendar, he was bound in conscience to resign. Five theologians of the Roman College to whom the question was submitted with incomplete information decided in this sense on 3 Aug., 1655. However, fresh explanations given by Father Schall and the approval of other very competent missionaries eventually placed the case in a different light, and a new and better informed commission at Rome concluded (31 Jan., 1664) that there was no valid reason for Father Schall's resignation of the presidency of the Board of Mathematics. The preamble of the decision repeated and adopted the arguments of Father Verbiest : "The father president of the board", it stated, "does not concur positively in the insertion of the superstitious matters which have been noted in the calendar; he does not concur therein, either himself, for he does not sign these additions or set his seal to them, nor through his pupils (in the Board of Mathematics), for the latter only make the insertion, without the father taking any share therein. With regard to the distribution of the calendar, which he makes in virtue of his office, it bears directly only on the notification of astronomical observations. If the calendar also contains things which savour of superstition it may be said that they are published under the head of information and are indifferent in themselves, that is the calendar simply shows the days on which such and such things are done according to the customs of the empire, or that they are the days having the conditions which popular superstition considers favourable for certain acts; and Father Schall is passive under the abuse which is following this distribution, which he was forced to make by serious reasons and even necessity.

To remove the last scruples concerning this burning question, Father Oliva, General of the Society of Jesus, appealed to the pope. Alexander VII , after having taken account of the whole affair, declared vivoe vocis oraculo (3 April, 1664) that he authorized the Jesuits of China, "even professed, to exercise the office and dignity of mandarin and imperial mathematician". The decision set at rest not only Father Schall's conscience, but also those of the missionaries who might be called to the same duties. In fact, except for a short interruption caused by the persecution of which we shall speak later, the presidency of the astronomical bureau remained with the mission till the nineteenth century. It was always the best human protection both for liberty of preaching and freedom to practice Christianity throughout the Chinese empire. Even in Father Schall's time this was clearly proved by the rapid increase in the number of neophytes ; in 1617 they were only 13,000; in 1650, 150,000, and from 1650 to the end of 1664 they grew to at least 254,980. The missionaries who furnished these statistics at the very period did not hesitate to give the correction of the calender as the indirect cause of the progress of evangelization, although the extraordinary tokens of kindness which Father Schall received from the young emperor contributed a great deal. One of the most valuable of these tokens, especially from the Chinese standpoint, was the diploma, dated 2 April, 1653, by which Shun-chi expressed his lively satisfaction with the services rendered in the revision of the calendar and the direction of the Board of Mathematics, and conferred on Father Schall the title of Tung hiuen kiao shi , "most profound doctor". This diploma, written in Tatar and Chinese, the text being encircled with dragons and other carved ornaments, was delivered to the father engraved on a marble tablet. The tablet, which was recovered at Peking in 1880 by M. Deveria, who presented it to the Jesuit missionaries of southeast Chili, measures eighty-eight by fifty-one inches. Father Schall appreciated still more the gift of a new house and a church for the building of which the emperor gave a thousand crowns. This was the first public church opened in the capital since the coming of the missionaries; it was dedicated in 1650.

Some years later Shun-chi gave Father Schall and the mission a still greater gift, an imperial declaration praising not only European learning but also the law of the Lord of Heaven, that is the Christian religion, and permitting it to be preached and adopted everywhere. This declaration, made in 1657, was also engraved in Tatar and Chinese on a large marble plate and placed before the church. All his goodwill towards Christianity and the welcome which the young monarch accorded to the discreet preaching of Father Schall, had inspired the latter with the hope that one day he would request baptism, but Shun-chi died (1662) before giving him this joy, aged at most twenty-four years. The child who was proclaimed his successor became the famous K'ang-hi and favoured the Christians even more than his father, but during his minority the government was in the hands of four regents who were enemies of Christianity. At the denunciation of a Mohammedan self-styled astronomer, Yang-koang-sien, Father Schall and the other missionaries residing at Peking were loaded with chains and thrown into prison in November, 1664. They were accused of high treason but chiefly of the propagation of an evil religion.

The principal charge against Father Schall was that he had shown to the deceased emperor images of the Passion of Jesus Christ. Brought before various tribunals the aged missionary, who had just been stricken with paralysis, could only reply to his judges through his companion, Father Verbiest. The first complaint against him was that he had secured the presidency of the Board of Mathematics in order that he might use the authority accruing from this high office for the propagation of the Christian Faith ; Father Verbiest replied for him: "John Adam took the presidency of the Board of Mathematics because he was on several occasions urged to do so by the emperor. On a stone tablet, erected before the church, the emperor publicly attested that he raised John Adam, against the latter's wishes, to that dignity." Another complaint of the accuser — that Father Schall had badly determined the day on which a little imperial prince was to be buried — was set aside by the regents themselves for, on investigation, they found that the priest had never meddeled with the determination of lucky or unlucky days. Finally, on 15 April, 1665, sentence of death was passed against Father Schall; he was condemned to be cut in pieces and to be beheaded. Almost immediately afterwards a violent earthquake was felt at Peking, a thick darkness covered the city, a meteor of strange aspect appeared in the heavens, and fire reduced to ashes the part of the imperial palace where the sentence was delivered. The missionaries as well as the Christians could not but see Divine intervention in these events, while the superstitious Tatars and Chinese were terrified. In consequence the death sentence was revoked (2 May) and Father Schall was authorized to return to his church with his fellow missionaries. The venerable old man survived these trials a year, dying at the age of seventy-five, having consecrated forty-five years to the Chinese missions. Peace was not entirely restored to the Christian communities until 1669, when the young emperor assumed the reigns of government. One of K'ang-hi's first acts was to have the sentence against Father Schall declared void and iniquitous by the Tribunal of Rites and to order solemn funeral ceremonies in his honour, the prince himself composing for his tomb an extremely eulogistic epitaph.

Father Schall worthily ended as a confessor for the Faith, almost as a martyr, a long life filled not only with great services to religion, but also marked by every virtue. All witnesses testify to this, and we might treat with contempt an infamous accusation directed against his memory nearly a century after his death. In 1758 was published for the first time, and afterwards reissued in several works against the Jesuits, a story according to which Father Schall spent his last years "separated from the other missionaries and removed from obedience to his superiors, in the house given him by the emperor with a woman whom he treated as his wife and who bore him two children; finally, having led a pleasant life with his family for some time he ended his days in obscurity." This is reported by Marcel Angelita, secretary to Mgr de Tournon during his legation in China (1705-1710), who died at Rome in 1749. The narrative gives no inkling of the source of this strange story. Its value may readily be judged by the manner in which it contradicts what has been related of the last days of Father Schall according to contemporaneous witnesses and even official Chinese documents.

Prior to Angelita no one ever formulated or insinuated such an accusation against the celebrated missionary. If what it presumes were true it could not have been concealed; Yang-koang-sien and other enemies would have exploited it. In particular Navarrete, author of the "Tratados historicos", in which were collected so many more or less false stories concerning the Jesuit missionaries (including Father Schall), could not have failed to learn of this during his stay at Peking in 1665 and to recount it at length. At any rate such complete disregard of the duties of a priest would not have escaped his fellow-religious (of whom there were always some at Peking), and they would not have continued to honour him, as they did, to the end as one of their most venerable brethren. These reasons and others which could be adduced are so clear that there is not the slightest doubt concerning the falseness of Angelita's story. It may be asked, however, how the latter, whose calling should have prevented him from being a calumniator of the lowest class, could invent and publish such a villainous tale. The fact is that Schall's life might have furnished a foundation on which Angelita's imagination, inflamed against the Jesuits, worked and finally reared this story, but it furnished not a shadow of proof. Several contemporaries of Father Schall, Jesuits and others, including Chinese, mention the name of a Chinese Christian, a servant of Father Schall's, who seems to have made use of the priest's goodness for the benefit of his own ambition. Pountsin-hia (thus he was called) obtained for himself a mandarinship of the fifth rank; for his son John he secured even more, for Father Schall regularly adopted him as his grandson, and the emperor Shun-chi granted many weighty favours to this "adopted grandson" of the missionary whom he loved. Father Gabiani in a relation (written between 1666 and 1667, and published in 1671) states that the "arrogance" of this upstart "slave" prejudiced many persons of rank against his master. Father Schall himself, when at the point of death (21 July, 1665), made a public confession to his brethren of his "excessive indulgence towards this servant, of the scandal he had caused in adopting as his grandson the son of Puon," finally of irregular gifts made to both, contrary to his vow of poverty. The avowal of these human weaknesses, doubtless exaggerated by the humility of the dying missionary, does not lessen our esteem for him. Hence the conclusion may be drawn that the source of Angelita's story was probably this fact of the adoption of the son of Puon by Father Schall. But this fact, doubtless learned by Tournon's secretary during his stay in China, forty years after the death of Father Schall, had perhaps been distorted when it reached him, or rather his prejudice against the Jesuits caused him to regard it as something quite different from what it implied and to add to it false and calumniating circumstances. Finally it should be added that he wrote his relation many years after his return from China, when his mind was perhaps enfeebled by age and under the influence of a more passionately prejudiced man than himself, the ex-Capuchin Norbert.

More Volume: J 331

Click/Touch the sub-volume below to view encyclopedia articles within the sub-volume.

1

Jáuregui, Juan de

A Spanish painter and poet, born at Seville c. 1570, or, according to some, as late as 1583; ...

× Close

1

Jíbaro Indians

Jíbaro (Spanish orthography) "forest man", i.e. native. An important tribal group of ...

× Close

1

Jörg, Joseph Edmund

Historian and politician, b. 23 Dec., 1819 at Immenstadt (Ahgau); d. at Landshut, 18 Nov., 1901. ...

× Close

Ja 49

Jaén

(GIENNENSIS) Diocese in Southern Spain. The city of Jaén, capital of the province of ...

Jaca, Diocese of

( Also JACCA; Latin JACCENSIS). Located in the Spanish province of Huesca. Jaca, the chief ...

Jackson, Henry Moore

Knight, born in Grenada, 1849; died in London, 29 August, 1908. The youngest son of the Anglican ...

Jacob

The son of Isaac and Rebecca, third great patriarch of the chosen people, and the immediate ...

Jacob of Jüterbogk

(In the world BENEDICT STOLZENHAGEN). Theologian and canonist, born of poor parents near ...

Jacobus de Teramo

(AB ANCHARANO), belonging to the family of Palladini, canonist and bishop, born in 1349 at ...

Jacopo de Voragine, Blessed

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Jacopone da Todi

(Properly called JACOPO BENEDICTI or BENEDETTI). Franciscan poet, born at Todi in the first ...

Jacotot, Joseph

French educator, b. at Dijon, March, 1770; d. at Paris, 30 July, 1840. He studied in the college ...

Jacques de Vitry

Historian of the crusades, cardinal Bishop of Acre, later of Tusculum, b. at Vitry-sur-Seine, ...

Jacquier, François

French mathematician and physicist, born at Vitry-le-Francois, 7 June, 1711; died at Rome, 3 ...

Jaenbert

(Jaenberht, Janbriht, Janibert, Jambert, Lambert, Lanbriht, Genegberht.) Thirteenth ...

Jaffa

A titular see in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The city of Jaffa is very ancient. Even before ...

Jaffna, Diocese of

(JAFFNENSIS.) Situated in the northern portion of Ceylon, Jaffna comprises the northern and ...

Jainism

A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in ...

Jamaica

The largest of the British West Indian islands, is situated in the Caribbean Sea, between latitude ...

Jamay, Denis

Franciscan, missionary, date and place of birth unknown; died in France, 1625; an important ...

James of Brescia

Theologian of the fifteenth century. He entered the Dominican Order at Brescia, his native ...

James of Edessa

A celebrated Syrian writer, b. most likely in A.D. 633; d. 5 June, 708. He was a native of the ...

James of Sarugh

A writer of the Syrian Church "the flute of the Holy Spirit and the harp of the believing ...

James of the Marches, Saint

Franciscan, b. of a poor family named Gangala, at Monteprandone, Italy, 1391; d. at Naples, 28 ...

James Primadicci

(Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

James the Greater, Saint

( Hebrew Yakob ; Septuagint Iakob ; N.T. Greek Iakobos ; a favourite name among the later ...

James the Less, Saint

THE IDENTITY OF JAMES The name "James" in the New Testament is borne by several: James, the ...

James Thompson, Blessed

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

James, Epistle of Saint

The questions concerning this epistle are treated in the following order: I. Author and ...

Janauschek, Leopold

Cistercian, born at Brünn, Moravia, 13 October, 1827; died 23 July, 1898, at Baden, near ...

Jandel, Alexandre Vincent

General of the Dominican order, born at Gerbevilliers (Lorraine), 18 July, 1810; died at Rome, ...

Jane Frances de Chantal, Saint

Born at Dijon, France, 28 January, 1572; died at the Visitation Convent Moulins, 13 December, ...

Janner, Ferdinand

Theologian, born at Hirschau, in the Upper Palatinate (Bavaria), 4 Feb., 1836; died 1 November, ...

Janow, Matthew of

A medieval ecclesiastical author, born in the fourteenth century in Bohemia ; died at ...

Jansen, Cornelius

( Also Jansens, Janssen, Janssenius or Jansenius Gandaviensis). Exegete, born at Hulst, ...

Jansenius and Jansenism

Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres ( Cornelius Jansenius Yprensis ), from whom Jansenism derives ...

Janssen, Arnold

Founder and first superior-general of the Society of the Divine Word, b. at Goch in the Rhine ...

Janssen, Johann

Historian, born 10 April, 1829, at Kanten, Germany ; died 24 December, 1891, at ...

Janssens, Abraham

Flemish painter, b. at Antwerp about 1573; d. probably in the same place about 1631. He is also ...

Janssens, Johann Hermann

Catholic theologian, b. at Maeseyck, Belgium, 7 Dec., 1783; d. at Engis, 23 May, 1853. After ...

Januarius, Saint

Martyr, Bishop of Beneventum. St. Januarius is believed to have suffered in the ...

Japan

AREA AND POPULATION Japan, called in the language of the country Nihon or Nippon (Land of the ...

Japanese Martyrs

There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the ...

Jarcke, Karl Ernst

Born 10 November, 1801, at Danzig, Prussia ; died 27 December, 1852, at Vienna. He belonged to a ...

Jaricot, Pauline-Marie

Foundress of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith and the Association of the Living ...

Jarlath, Saint

Patron of the Archdiocese of Tuam , born in Connaught about 445; died 26 December, ( al. , 11 ...

Jaro

Diocese in the Philippine Islands, formerly a part of the Diocese of Cebú, was made a ...

Jarric, Pierre de

Missionary writer, born at Toulouse in 1566; d. at Saintes, 2 March, 1617. He entered the ...

Jason

A Greek name adopted by many Jews whose Hebrew designation was Joshua (Jesus). In the Old ...

Jassus

A titular see of Caria, and suffragan of Aphrodisias. The city was founded by colonists from ...

Jassy

(Jassiensis). Diocese in Rumania. The town of Jassy stands in a very fertile plain on the ...

Javouhey, Venerable Anne-Marie

Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, born at Chamblanc, Diocese of Dijon, 11 ...

× Close

Je 59

Jealousy

Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...

Jean de La Bruyère

Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of ...

Jean Eudes, Blessed

French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...

Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney, Saint

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...

Jean-Gabriel Perboyre, Blessed

Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

Jeanne de Valois, Saint

Queen and foundress of the Order of the Annonciades, b. 1464; d. at Bourges, 4 Feb., 1505. ...

Jeaurat, Edmond

(EDME JEAURAT) French engraver, b. at Vermenton, near Auxerre, 1688; d. at Paris, 1738. He ...

Jedburgh

(Eighty-two different spellings of the name are given in the "Origines Parochiales Scotiæ"). ...

Jehoshaphat

( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...

Jehoshaphat, Valley of

(JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...

Jehovah

The proper name of God in the Old Testament ; hence the Jews called it the name by ...

Jehu

The derivation of the name is uncertain. By some it is translated " Yahweh is he". I. J EHU ...

Jemez Pueblo

An Indian pueblo situated upon the north bank of the river of the same name about twenty miles ...

Jeningen, Venerable Philipp

Born at Eichstätt, Bavaria, 5 January, 1642;d, at Ellwangen, 8 February, 1704. Entering the ...

Jenks, Silvester

Theologian, born in Shropshire, c. 1656; died in December, 1714. He was educated at Douai ...

Jennings, Sir Patrick Alfred

An Australian statesman, b. at Newry, Ireland, 1831; d. July, 1897. He received his education, ...

Jephte

One of the judges of Israel. The story of Jephte is narrated in chapters xi and xii of the Book ...

Jeremias

[Hebrew Irmeyah; often in the paragogic form Irmeyahu, especially in the Book of ...

Jeremias the Prophet

( THE P ROPHET .) Jeremias lived at the close of the seventh and in the first part of the ...

Jericho

Three cities of this name have successively occupied sites in the same neighbourhood. I. A ...

Jeroboam

(Septuagint `Ieroboám ), name of two Israelitish kings. (1) J EROBOAM I was the ...

Jerome Emiliani, Saint

Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...

Jerome, Saint

Born at Stridon, a town on the confines of Dalmatia and Pannonia, about the year 340-2; died at ...

Jerusalem (71-1099)

I. TO THE TIME OF CONSTANTINE (71-312) When Titus took Jerusalem (April-September, A.D. 70) he ...

Jerusalem (After 1291)

(1) Political History The Latin dominion over Jerusalem really came to an end on 2 October, ...

Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71)

This article treats of the "City of God", the political and religious centre of the People of ...

Jerusalem, Assizes of

The signification of the word assizes in this connection is derived from the French verb ...

Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291)

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...

Jerusalem, Liturgy of

The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...

Jesi

(ÆSINA) Diocese in the Province of Ancona, Italy, immediately subject to the Holy ...

Jesu Dulcis Memoria

A poem ranging from forty two to fifty three stanzas (in various manuscripts ), to form the three ...

Jesuit Apologetic

The accusations brought against the Society have been exceptional for their frequency and ...

Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression

(1) St. Ignatius Loyola (19 April 1541-31 July, 1556). The society spread rapidly, and at the ...

Jesuit's Bark

(C HINA B ARK ; C INCHONA ; C ORTEX C HINÆ ; P ERUVIAN B ARK ). Jesuit's ...

Jesuits, Distinguished

Saints Ignatius Loyola ; Francis Xavier ; Francis Borgia ; Stanislaus Kostka; Alfonso ...

Jesuits, History of the (1773-1814)

The execution of the Brief of Suppression having been largely left to local bishops, there was ...

Jesuits, History of the (1814-1912)

Pius VII had resolved to restore the Society during his captivity in France ; and after his ...

Jesuits, History of the (pre-1750)

Italy The history of the Jesuits in Italy was generally very peaceful. The only serious ...

Jesuits, Suppression of the (1750-1773)

The Suppression is the most difficult part of the history of the Society. Having enjoyed very high ...

Jesuits, The

(Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...

Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy Childhood of

(1) A congregation founded in 1835 in the Diocese of Fréjus, for the education of girls ...

Jesus Christ

Origin of the Name of Jesus In this article, we shall consider the two words -- "Jesus" and ...

Jesus Christ, Character of

The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most ...

Jesus Christ, Chronology of the Life of

In the following paragraphs we shall endeavour to establish the absolute and relative chronology ...

Jesus Christ, Devotion to the Heart of

The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...

Jesus Christ, Early Historical Documents on

The historical documents referring to Christ's life and work may be divided into three classes: ...

Jesus Christ, Genealogy of

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...

Jesus Christ, Holy Name of

We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...

Jesus Christ, Knowledge of

" Knowledge of Jesus Christ," as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know ...

Jesus Christ, Origin of the Name of

In this article, we shall consider the two words which compose the Sacred Name. JESUS The word ...

Jesus Christ, Resurrection of

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...

Jesus Mary, Religious of

The Congregation of the Religious of Jesus Mary was founded at Lyons, France, in October, 1818, by ...

Jesus, Daughters of

Founded at Kermaria, in the Diocese of Vannes , France, in 1834, for the care of the sick poor, ...

Jesus, The Society of

(Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...

Jewish Calendar

Days From the remotest time to the present the Israelites have computed the day ( yôm ...

Jewish Tribe

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

Jews (as a Religion)

At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...

Jews, History of the

( Yehúd`m; Ioudaismos ). Of the two terms, Jews and Judaism , the former denotes ...

Jezabel

( Septuagint, 'Iezabél, ). Wife of Achab, King of Israel. She was the daughter of ...

× Close

Jo 163

Joachim of Flora

Cistercian abbot and mystic; b. at Celico, near Cosenza, Italy, c. 1132; d. at San Giovanni in ...

Joachim, Saint

Joachim (whose name means Yahweh prepares ), was the father of the Blessed Virgin Mary. If we ...

Joan of Arc, Saint

In French Jeanne d'Arc ; by her contemporaries commonly known as la Pucelle (the Maid). ...

Joan, Popess

The fable about a female pope, who afterwards bore the name of Johanna (Joan), is first noticed ...

Joanna of Portugal, Blessed

Born at Lisbon, 16 February, 1452; died at Aveiro, 12 may, 1490; the daughter of Alfonso V, King ...

Joannes de Sacrobosco

(John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...

Job

One of the books of the Old Testament , and the chief personage in it. In this article it is ...

Jocelin

Cistercian monk and Bishop of Glasgow ; d. at Melrose Abbey in 1199. On 22 April, 1170, ...

Jocelin de Brakelond

An English chronicler, of the late twelfth century. He was the monk of Bury St. Edmund's ...

Jocelin of Wells

(Or JOSCELINE) Bishop of Bath and Wells (JOCELINUS THOTEMAN), d. 19 Nov., 1242. He was ...

Joel

The son of Phatuel, and second in the list of the twelve Minor Prophets. Nothing is known of his ...

Joest, Jan

(V AN K ALKAR ). Otherwise JAN JOOST VAN CALCKER. Dutch painter, b. at Calcker, or ...

Jogues, Saint Isaac

French missionary, born at Orléans, France, 10 January, 1607; martyred at Ossernenon, ...

John and Cyrus, Saints

Celebrated martyrs of the Coptic Church, surnamed thaumatourgoi anargyroi because they healed ...

John and Paul, Saints

Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

John Baptist de la Salle, Saint

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...

John Baptist de Rossi, Saint

(De Rubeis). Born at Voltaggio in the Diocese of Genoa, 22 February, 1698; died at Rome, 23 ...

John Beche, Blessed

( Alias THOMAS MARSHALL). English Benedictine abbot and martyr ; date of birth unknown; ...

John Berchmans, Saint

Born at Diest in Brabant, 13 March, 1599; died at Rome, 13 August, 1621. His parents watched ...

John Bosco, Saint

( Or St. John Bosco; Don Bosco.) Founder of the Salesian Society. Born of poor parents in ...

John Boste, Saint

(Or JOHN BOAST.) Priest and martyr, b. of good Catholic family at Dufton, in Westmoreland, ...

John Britton, Venerable

(Or Bretton). A layman and martyr, of all ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in ...

John Buckley, Venerable

( Alias John Jones; alias John Griffith; in religion, Godfrey Maurice). Priest and martyr, ...

John Cantius, Saint

Born at Kenty, near Oswiecim, Diocese of Krakow, Poland, 1412 (or 1403); died at Krakow, 1473, ...

John Capistran, Saint

Born at Capistrano, in the Diocese of Sulmona, Italy, 1385; died 23 October, 1456. His father had ...

John Chrysostom, Saint

( Chrysostomos , "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). Doctor of the ...

John Climacus, Saint

Also surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, and THE SINAITA, b. doubtlessly in Syria, about 525; d. on Mount ...

John Colombini, Blessed

Founder of the Congregation of Jesuati; b. at Siena, Upper Italy, about 1300; d. on the way to ...

John Cornelius and Companions, Venerable

John Cornelius (called also Mohun) was born of Irish parents at Bodmin, in Cornwall, on the ...

John Damascene, Saint

Born at Damascus, about 676; died some time between 754 and 787. The only extant life of the ...

John de Britto, Blessed

Martyr ; born in Lisbon, 1 March, 1647, and was brought up in court; martyred in India 11 ...

John Felton, Blessed

Martyr, date and place of birth unknown, was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 8 ...

John Fisher, Saint

Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, and martyr ; born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1459 ...

John Forest, Blessed

Born in 1471, presumably at Oxford, where his surname was then not unknown; suffered 22 May, ...

John Francis Regis, Saint

Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...

John Hambley, Venerable

English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...

John I, Pope Saint

Died at Ravenna on 18 or 19 May (according to the most popular calculation), 526. A Tuscan by ...

John II, Pope

(533-535). The date of the birth of this pope is not known. He was a Roman and the son of ...

John III, Pope

(561-574). A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574. He was of a distinguished family, ...

John Ingram, Venerable

English martyr, born at Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, in 1565; executed at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 ...

John IV, Pope

(640-642). A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. The ...

John IX, Pope

(898-900). Not only is the date of John's birth unknown, but the date of his election as ...

John Joseph of the Cross, Saint

Born on the Island of Ischia, Southern Italy, 1654; d. 5 March, 1739. From his earliest years ...

John Larke, Blessed

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

John Malalas

A Monophysite Byzantine chronicler of the sixth century, born at Antioch where he spent most if ...

John Nelson, Blessed

English Jesuit martyr, b. at Skelton, four miles from York, in 1534; d. at Tyburn, 3 February, ...

John Nepomucene, Saint

Born at Nepomuk about 1340; died 20 March, 1393. The controversy concerning the identity of John ...

John of Antioch

There are four persons commonly known by this name. I John, Patriarch of Antioch ...

John of Avila, Blessed

Apostolic preacher of Andalusia and author, b. at Almodóvar del Campo, a small town in ...

John of Beverley, Saint

Bishop of Hexham and afterwards of York; b. at Harpham, in the East Riding of Yorkshire; d. at ...

John of Biclaro

(Johannes Biclariensis.) Chronicler, born in Portugal, probably about the middle of the sixth ...

John of Cornwall

(JOHANNES CORNUBIENSIS, JOHANNES DE SANCTO GERMANO). John of Cornwall lived about 1176. He was ...

John of Ephesus

(Also known as JOHN OF ASIA). The earliest, and a very famous, Syriac historian. He was born ...

John of Fécamp

(Also known as JEANNELIN on account of his diminutive stature). Ascetic writer, b. near Ravenna ...

John of Falkenberg

Author, b. at Falkenberg, Pomerania, Prussia, date unknown; d. about 1418 in Italy &151; ...

John of Fermo, Blessed

More often called JOHN OF LA VERNA, from his long sojourn on that holy mountain, b. at Fermo ...

John of Genoa

(Often called Balbi, or de Balbis.) Grammarian; born at Genoa, date unknown; died there ...

John of God, Saint

Born at Montemor o Novo, Portugal, 8 March, 1495, of devout Christian parents ; died at ...

John of Hauteville

Moralist and satirical poet of the twelfth century (flourished about 1184). Little is known of his ...

John of Janduno

An Averroistic philosopher, theologian, and political writer of the fourteenth century. John of ...

John of Montecorvino

A Franciscan and founder of the Catholic mission in China, b. at Montecorvino in Southern ...

John of Montesono

Theologian and controversialist, born at Monzón, Spain ; dates of birth and death ...

John of Nikiû

An Egyptian chronicler who flourished in the latter part of the seventh century. The little we ...

John of Paris

( Called also Quidort and de Soardis). Theologian and controversialist; born at Paris, ...

John of Parma, Blessed

Minister General of the Friars Minor (1247-1257), b. at Parma about 1209; d. at Camerino 19 ...

John of Ragusa

(Sometimes confounded with John of Segovia ). A Dominican theologian, president of the ...

John of Roquetaillade (de Rupescissa)

Franciscan alchemist, date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1362. After pursuing the ...

John of Rupella

Franciscan theologian, b. at La Rochelle (Rupella), towards the end of the twelfth century; d. ...

John of Sahagun, Saint

Hermit, b. 1419, at Sahagún (or San Fagondez) in the Kingdom of Leon, in Spain ; d. 11 ...

John of Saint Thomas

(Family name John Poinsot), theologian, born at Lisbon, 9 June, 1589; died at Fraga, Spain, 17 ...

John of Salisbury

(JOHANNES DE SARESBERIA, surnamed PARVUS). Born about 1115; died 1180; a distinguished ...

John of Segovia

A Spanish theologian, b. at Segovia towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. probably in ...

John of the Cross, Saint

Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b. at ...

John of Victring

(JOHANNES VICTORENSIS or DE VICTORIA). Chronicler, b. probably between 1270 and 1280; d. at ...

John of Winterthur

(Johannes Vitoduranus.) Historian, born about 1300 at Winterthur (Switzerland); died ...

John Parvus

Called in his day, JEHAN PETIT or LE PETIT. A French theologian and professor in the ...

John Payne, Blessed

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

John Rigby, Saint

English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

John Roberts, Saint

First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

John Rochester, Blessed

Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

John Sarkander, Blessed

Martyr of the seal of confession, born at Skotschau in Austrian Silesia, 20 Dec., 1576; died at ...

John Scholasticus

( ho Scholastikos ; also called J OHN OF A NTIOCH ) Patriarch of Constantinople (J OHN ...

John Shert, Blessed

A native of Cheshire; took the degree of B.A. at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1566. Successively ...

John Stone, Blessed

English martyr, executed at the Dane-John, Canterbury, probably in December, 1539, for denying ...

John Story, Blessed

( Or Storey.) Martyr ; born 1504; died at Tyburn, 1 June, 1571. He was educated at ...

John Talaia

Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (481-482) at the time of the Monophysite troubles. He had ...

John the Almsgiver, Saint

(JOANNES ELEEMOSYNARIUS; JOANNES MISERICORS). Patriarch of Alexandria (606-16), b. at Amathus ...

John the Baptist, Saint

The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are ...

John the Deacon

(J OHANNES D IACONUS ). Among the writers of the Middle Ages who bear this name, four ...

John the Evangelist, Saint

I. New Testament Accounts II. The Alleged Presbyter John III. The Later Accounts of John IV. Feasts ...

John the Faster

( ‘o nesteutés, jejunator ) Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), ...

John the Silent, Saint

(Hesychastes, Silentiarius). Bishop of Colonia, in Armenia, b. at Nicopolis, Armenia, 8 ...

John Twenge, Saint

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

John V, Pope

(685-686). A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 ...

John VI, Pope

(701-705). A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705. He ascended the ...

John VII, Pope

(705-707). The year of his birth is unknown; d. 18 October, 707. Few particulars of his life ...

John VIII, Pope

(Reigned 872-82) A Roman and the son of Gundus. He seems to have been born in the first ...

John X, Pope

Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928. First a deacon, he became ...

John XI, Pope

Date of birth unknown, became pope in 931; d. 936. He was the son of Marozia by her first ...

John XII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64. The younger Alberic, after the downfall of his mother, ...

John XIII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972. After the death of John XII ...

John XIV, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 984. After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, ...

John XIX (XX), Pope

Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032. After the death of the last patricius of the House of Crescentius, ...

John XV (XVI), Pope

Enthroned 985; d. April, 996. After John XIV had been removed by force, the usurper, Boniface ...

John XVI (XVII)

Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013. After the death of John XV, Bruno, a relative of Otto ...

John XVII (XVIII), Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003. When Sylvester II died on 12 May, 1003, there was no ...

John XVIII (XIX), Pope

Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009. He was the son of a Roman ...

John XXI (XX), Pope

Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277. The son ...

John XXII, Pope

(JACQUES D'EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 ...

John XXIII

Antipope of the Pisan party (1400-15), b. about 1370; d. 22 November, 1419. Cardinal Baldassare ...

John, Epistles of

Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. The subject will ...

John, Gospel of

This subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Contents and Scheme of the ...

Johnson, Blessed Robert

Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

Johnson, Blessed Thomas

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Johnson, Lionel Pigot

Born at Broadstairs on the Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; died 4 Oct., 1902. He was the youngest ...

Johnston, Richard Malcolm

Educator, author, b. 8 March, 1822, at Powellton, Georgia, U.S.A.; d. at Baltimore, Maryland, 23 ...

Joinville, Jean, Sire de

Seneschal of Champagne, historian, b. in 1225; d. at Joinville, 1317. His family held an ...

Joliet, Louis

(Or JOLLIET). Louis Joliet, a discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, ...

Joliette

(JOLIETTENSIS). Diocese created by Pius X , 27 January, 1904 by division of the Archdiocese ...

Jolly, Philipp Johann Gustav von

German physicist, born at Mannheim, 26 September, 1809; died at Munich, 24 December, 1884. His ...

Jonas

The fifth of the Minor Prophets. The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the ...

Jonas of Bobbio

(Or Jonas of Susa ) Monk and hagiographer, b. about the close of the sixth century at ...

Jonas of Orléans

Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, born in Aquitaine; died in 843 or 844. From 818, when he ...

Jonathan

(Hebrew, " Yahweh hath given", cf. Theodore; Septuagint 'Ionáthan .) Name of several ...

Jones, Inigo

A famous English architect, b. 15 July, 1573, in London ; d. 21 June, 1652, and was buried in ...

Jones, Venerable Edward

Priest and martyr, b. in the Diocese of St. Asaph, Wales, date unknown; d. in London, 6 May ...

Jordan, The

(In Hebrew Yâdên, from the root Yârâd, to descend). The difference ...

Jordanis

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...

Jordanus of Giano

(DE JANO). Italian Minorite, b. at Giano in the Valley of Spoleto, c. 1195; d. after 1262. ...

Jornandes

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...

Josaphat

( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...

Josaphat and Barlaam

The principal characters of a legend of Christian antiquity, which was a favourite subject of ...

Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...

Josaphat, Valley of

(JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...

Joseph

The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes ...

Joseph Calasanctius of the Mother of God, Pious Workers of Saint

Founded at Vienna, 24 November, 1889, by Father Anton Maria Schwartz for all works of charity, ...

Joseph Calasanctius, Saint

Called in religion "a Matre Dei", founder of the Piarists, b. 11 Sept., 1556, at the castle of ...

Joseph II

(1741-90). German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and ...

Joseph of Arimathea

All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels. He was born ...

Joseph of Cupertino, Saint

Mystic, born 17 June, 1603; died at Osimo 18 September, 1663; feast, 18 September. Joseph ...

Joseph of Exeter

(JOSEPHUS ISCANUS.) A twelfth-century Latin poet; b. at Exeter, England. About 1180 he went ...

Joseph of Issachar

A man of the tribe of Issachar, and the father of Igal who was one of the spies sent by Moses ...

Joseph of Leonessa, Saint

In the world named Eufranio Desiderio; born in 1556 at Leonessa in Umbria; died 4 February, ...

Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, Saint

This organization began its labours in 1871, when four young priests from Mill Hill were put in ...

Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, Saint

(Mill Hill, London, N.W.) A society of priests and laymen whose object is to labour for ...

Joseph, Saint

Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ . LIFE Sources ...

Joseph, Sisters of Saint

CONGREGATION OF THE SISTERS OF ST. JOSEPH Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. ...

Josephites

(Sons of St. Joseph) A congregation devoted to the Christian education of youth, founded in ...

Josephus, Flavius

Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem ; died about 101. He belonged to a distinguished ...

Joshua

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...

Josias

(J OSIAH – Hebrew for " Yahweh supports"; Septuagint 'Iosías ). A pious ...

Josue

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...

Joubert, Joseph

French philosopher ; b. at Martignac (Dordogne), 7 May, 1754, d. at Villeneuve-le-Roi (Yonne), 4 ...

Jouffroy, Claude-François-Dorothée de

M ARQUIS d' A BBANS . Mechanician, b. at Abbans, near Besançon, 30 Sept., 1751; d. ...

Jouffroy, Jean de

French prelate and statesman; b. at Luxeuil (Franche-Comté) about 1412; d. at the priory ...

Jouin, Louis

Linguist, philosopher, author, b. at Berlin, 14 June, 1818, d. at New York, 10 June, 1899. He ...

Jouvancy, Joseph de

(JOSEPHUS JUVENCIUS). Poet, pedagogue, philologist, and historian, b. at Paris, 14 September, ...

Jouvenet, Jean

Surnamed T HE G REAT . French painter, b. at Rouen in 1644, d. at Paris, 5 April, 1717. ...

Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de

(Also written JOVE-LLANOS). Spanish statesman and man of letters, at Gijon, Asturias, 5 Jan., ...

Jovianus, Flavius Claudius

Roman Emperor, 363-4. After the death of Julian the Apostate (26 June, 363), the army making ...

Jovinianus

An opponent of Christian asceticism in the fourth century, condemned as a heretic (390). Our ...

Jovius, Paulus

(GIOVIO). Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552. Having ...

Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de

Born in 1563 and not, as is mistakenly stated in the "Biographic Michaud ", in 1567; died at ...

× Close

Ju 57

Juan Bautista de Toledo

An eminent Spanish sculptor and architect; b. at Madrid (date not known); d. there 19 May, ...

Jubilate Sunday

The third Sunday after Easter, being so named from the first word of the Introit at Mass ...

Jubilee, Holy Year of

The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew)

According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that ...

Jubilees, Book of

( ta Iobelaia ). An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and ...

Juda

The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the ...

Judaism

At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...

Judaizers

(From Greek Ioudaizo , to adopt Jewish customs -- Esther 8:17 ; Galatians 2:14 ). A ...

Judas Iscariot

The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master . The name Judas ( Ioudas ) is the Greek form of ...

Judas Machabeus

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...

Judde, Claude

French preacher and spiritual father; born at Rouen, about 20 December, 1661; died at Paris, ...

Jude, Epistle of Saint

The present subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Author and the ...

Judea

Like the adjective Ioudaios , the noun Ioudaia comes from the Aramæan Iehûdai ...

Judge, Ecclesiastical

(J UDEX E CCLESIASTICUS ) An ecclesiastical person who possesses ecclesiastical ...

Judges, The Book of

The seventh book of the Old Testament , second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon. I. ...

Judgment, Divine

This subject will be treated under two heads: I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively ...

Judgment, General

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Judgment, Last

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Judgment, Particular

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

Judica Sunday

Name given to the fifth Sunday of Lent, and derived from the first words of the Introit of ...

Judith, Book of

HISTORY Nabuchodonosor, King of Nineveh, sends his general Holofernes to subdue the Jews. The ...

Julia Billiart, Saint

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

Julian and Basilissa, Saints

Husband and wife; died at Antioch or, more probably, at Antinoe, in the reign of Diocletian, ...

Julian of Eclanum

Born about 386; died in Sicily, 454; the most learned among the leaders of the Pelagian ...

Julian of Speyer

Often called J ULIANUS T EUTONICUS . A famous composer, poet, and historian of the ...

Julian the Apostate

(FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS). Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, ...

Juliana Falconieri, Saint

Born in 1270; died 12 June, 1341. Juliana belonged to the noble Florentine family of Falconieri. ...

Juliana of Liège, Saint

Nun, b. at Retinnes, near Liège, Belgium, 1193; d. at Fosses, 5 April, 1258. At the age ...

Juliana of Norwich

English mystic of the fourteenth century, author or recipient of the vision contained in the book ...

Juliana, Saint

Suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution. Both the Latin and Greek Churches mention ...

Julie Billiart, Saint

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

Juliopolis

Titular see in the province of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicaea. The city was founded under ...

Julitta and Quiricus

Martyred under Diocletian. The names of these two martyrs, who in the early Church enjoyed a ...

Julius Africanus

(c. 160-c. 240; the full name is Sextus Iulius Africanus, Greek Sextos Ioulios Aphrikanos ). ...

Julius I, Pope Saint

(337-352). The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for ...

Julius II, Pope

(GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE). Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 ...

Julius III, Pope

(GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE). Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555. ...

Jumièges, Abbey of

Jumièges, situated on the north bank of the Seine, between Duclair and Caudebec, in ...

Junípero Serra

Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, ...

Jungmann, Bernard

A dogmatic theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Münster in Westphalia, 1 ...

Jungmann, Josef

Born 12 Nov., 1830, at Münster, Westphalia ; died at Innsbruck, 25 Nov., 1885. In 1850 he ...

Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical

The right to guide and rule the Church of God. The subject is here treated under the following ...

Jus Spolii

(RIGHT OF SPOIL; also called JUS EXUVIARUM and RAPITE CAPITE) Jus Spolii, a claim, exercised in ...

Jussieu, De

Name of five French botanists. (1) ANTOINE DE JUSSIEU, physician and botanist, b. at Lyons, ...

Juste

The name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors, whose real name was Betti, ...

Justice

Justice is here taken in its ordinary and proper sense to signify the most important of the ...

Justification

(Latin justificatio ; Greek dikaiosis .) A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the ...

Justin de Jacobis, Blessed

Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis, h. at San Fele, Province of ...

Justin Martyr, Saint

Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about ...

Justina and Cyprian, Saints

Christians of Antioch who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian at ...

Justinian I

Roman Emperor (527-65) Flavius Anicius Julianus Justinianus was born about 483 at Tauresium ...

Justiniani, Benedetto

(GIUSTINIANI). Theological and Biblical writer, born at Genoa, about the year 1550; died at ...

Justiniani, Nicholas

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...

Justinianopolis

A titular see of Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebaste. This see is better known in history ...

Justus, Saint

Fourth Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 627 (?). For the particulars of his life we are almost ...

Juvencus, C. Vettius Aquilinus

Christian Latin poet of the fourth century. Of his life we know only what St. Jerome tells us ...

Never Miss any Updates!

Stay up to date with the latest news, information, and special offers.

Catholic Online Logo

Copyright 2016 Catholic Online. All materials contained on this site, whether written, audible or visual are the exclusive property of Catholic Online and are protected under U.S. and International copyright laws, © Copyright 2016 Catholic Online. Any unauthorized use, without prior written consent of Catholic Online is strictly forbidden and prohibited.