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Nuremberg

(NÜRNBERG)

The second largest city in Bavaria, situated in a plain on both sides of the river Pegnitz. Of uncertain Origin, it is first mentioned as Noremberc in a document issued by Emperor Henry III at a diet held in the town. The palace was reconstructed as a fortified castle between 1025 and 1050. The population increased when Henry IV transferred (1062) from Fürth to Nuremberg the right to hold a fair and to coin money. The cult of its patron St. Sebald, also helped its development. In times of war the emperors often found refuge in the town, for which. Henry V granted it freedom from custom duties (1112), King Lothair (1112-1137) claimed Nuremberg as part of his empire, while the Hohenstaufen brothers, Conrad and Frederick, claimed it as part of their inheritance under the Salic law. In 1130 the city surrendered to the emperor and the Guelph Henry. The latter possessed it until 1138, when it reverted to the empire. Conrad III liked to visit the flourishing city, and made it an asylum for the then persecuted Jews. Several diets took place in Nuremberg under Frederick Barbarossa , who built a splendid new imperial castle adjoining the old castle of the burggraves ( Burggrafen ). From the end of the eleventh century the city was independent of the burggraves, who, in the early times, in their capacity as imperial officials, exercised jurisdiction in all judicial and military matters and appropriated two-thirds of all moneys collected in criminal and civil cases. When the burggraves (at first descendants of the house of Raabs in Lower Austria, and, when it became extinct in 1190, the house of Zollern) endeavoured to extend their private possessions at the expense of the empire, the emperors of the twelfth century took over the administration of the imperial possessions belonging to the burg , and installed a castellan or overseer in the imperial castle. This castellan not only administered the imperial lands surrounding Nuremberg, but levied taxes and constituted the highest judicial court in matters relating to poaching and forestry; he also was the appointed protector of the various ecclesiastical establishments, churches, and monasteries, even of the Bishopric of Bamberg. The privileges of this castellanship were transferred to the city during the last years of the fourteenth, and the first years of the fifteenth centuries. The strained relations between the burggraves and the castellan finally broke into out open enmity, which greatly influenced the history of the city.

In 1219 Nuremberg became a free imperial city, when Frederick II presented it with a most important charter, freeing it from all authority excepting that of the emperor himself. The administration was entrusted to a council, presided over, since the middle of the thirteenth century, by the Reichsschultheiss . The "Schöffenkollegium", who assisted this official in his judicial work, also sat in the council. The council became more and more independent, and in 1320 was invested by Louis the Bavarian with supreme jurisdiction. This conflicted with the rights of the Schultheiss (usually a knight ), whose appointment, however, rested with the council after 1396. This accumulation of rights and privileges made the power of the council equal to that of the sovereign or territorial lords, while the acquisition of the imperial forest near Nuremberg had furnished a basis for future development. Until the middle of the thirteenth century, the Kleine (little) or reigning council consisted of thirteen magistrates and thirteen councillors; towards the end of the century were added eight members of the practically unimportant Grosse (great) council, and, since 1370, eight representatives of the artisans' associations. The members of the council were chosen by the people usually from the wealthier class; this custom led to the establishment of a circle of "eligibles", to which the artisan class was strongly opposed as being politically an illegal element. With the increasing importance of handicraft a spirit of independence developed among the artisans, and they determined to have a voice in the government of the city. In 1349 the members of the trade unions unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians. Their unions were then dissolved, and the oligarchic element remained in power while Nuremberg was a free city.

Ecclesiastically speaking, Nuremberg belonged first to the Bishopric of Eichstätt, and from 1015 to that of Bamberg. In place of the oldest chapel in Nuremberg, the Peterskapelle , a church was consecrated in 1070 to St. Sebaldus; this was replaced by a new edifice in the thirteenth century. The second church in importance was the Lorenzkirche , built about 1278. There also arose the Gothic St, Jacob's Church (twelfth century), which was transferred to the Teutonic Knights in 1209; the Scots Abbey (1140); the monasteries and chapels of the Franciscans, 1227 (thirteenth century), the Augustinians (1218); the Dominicans (1248); the Carmelites (1255); the Carthusians (1382); the Order of Mary Magdalene ( Reuerinnen ) incorporated with the Poor Clares in 1279, and the cloister of St. Catherine, a society of nurses. The hospital of the Holy Ghost was founded 1334-39. At the beginning of the fourteenth century Nuremberg had become wonderfully developed. Charles IV conferred upon it the right to conclude alliances independently, thereby placing it upon a politically equal footing with the princes of the empire. The city protected itself from hostile attacks by a wall and successfully defended its extensive trade against the barons. Frequent fights took place with the burggraves without, however, inflicting lasting damage upon the city. After the castle had been destroyed by fire in 1420 during a feud between Count Frederick (since 1417 Margrave of Brandenburg ) and the Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, the ruins and the forest belonging to the castle were purchased by the city (1427), which thereby became master of all that lay within its boundaries. The imperial castle had been ceded to the city by Emperor Sigismund in 1422, on condition that the imperial suite of rooms should be reserved for the emperor. Through these and other acquisitions the city accumulated considerable territory. In 1431 the population was about 22,800 including 7146 persons qualified to bear arms, 381 secular and regular priests ; 744 Jews and non-citizens. The Hussite wars, the plague of 1437, the fights with the burggraves (then also margraves of Brandenburg, Anspach, and Bayreuth, reduced it to 20,800 in 1450.

At the beginning of the sixteenth century the war of succession in Landshut brought new possessions to Nuremberg (the ally of Duke Albert of Bavaria-Munich), so that it possessed more (25 sq. miles) than any imperial free city; it was called the Empire's Treasure Box on account of its political importance, its industrial power, and superior culture. It had now reached the pinnacle of its splendour. As an indication of its importance as an art and science centre during the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries it records such names as Peter Vischer, Adam Krafft, Veit Stoss, Michael Wohlgemuth, Albert Dürer, Hans Sachs, Conrad Celtes, Willibald and Charitas Pirkheimer, Johann Müller (Regiomontanus), Hartmann Schedel, Martin Behaim and others.

In 1521 Luther's creed was preached by some of the clergy, among whom was Andrew Osiander, preacher at St. Lornzkirche; there was also a distinct leaning towards the new teaching among the members of the council. They prohibited processions, passion plays during the Easter tide, and other celebrations. After 1524 the possessions of the monasteries and clerical institutions were confiscated; in 1525 the council accepted Luther's religion; the Dominicans, Carmelites and Minorites were forbidden to preach or to hear confessions ; a preacher was placed over convents and the reception of any more novices forbidden. About the middle of the sixteenth century the city had become almost Protestant ; only the members of the Teutonic Knights remained faithful; they suffered many restrictions and the loss of their church. After the Diet of Augsburg, 1529, when most of the Protestant estates of the empire formed the League of Smalkald, Nuremberg did not join. The Diet of Nuremberg, 1532, gave religious freedom at least for a time: Protestants were allowed to continue the innovations already introduced by them and all processes begun against them in the Imperial Chamber, on account of these innovations, were suspended, pending the settlement of the whole religious question by a great council to be called within the year. The aid against the Turks which the emperor and king desired was granted. By consent of the Lutherans the followers of Zwingli were exempted from the provisions of this peace. During this period Nuremberg remained as neutral as possible, so as not to quarrel with the emperor and yet to retain its whole creed of the Gospel; it therefore accepted the interim regulation. During the revolution of the princes against Charles V, in 1552, Nuremberg endeavoured to purchase its neutrality by the payment of 100,000 gulden; but Margrave Albert Alcibiades, one of the leaders of the revolt, attacked the city without declaring war and forced it to conclude a disadvantageous peace. At the Religious Peace of Augsburg the possessions of the Protestants were confirmed by the emperor, their religious privileges extended and their independence from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Bamberg affirmed while the secularizing of the possessions of the monasteries was approved.

The unsettled state of affairs in the first half of the sixteenth century, the revolution in commerce and trade due to the discovery of America and the circumnavigation of Africa, and the difficulties in trade caused by the territorial sovereigns, were responsible for the decline of the importance and affluence of the city. During the Thirty Years' War it did not always succeed in preserving its policy of neutrality. Frequent quartering of Imperial, Swedish and League soldiers, war-contributions, demands for arms, semi-compulsory presents to commanders of the warring armies and the cessation of trade, caused irreparable damage to the city. The population, which in 1620 had been over 45,000, sank to 25,000.

After the religious war Nuremberg remained aloof from the quarrels and affairs of the world at large; but contributions were demanded for the Austrian War of Succession and the Seven Years' War, the former amounting to Six and a half million guldens. Restrictions of imports and exports deprived the city of many markets for its manufactures, especially in Austria, Prussia and Bavaria, and the eastern and northern countries of Europe. The Bavarian elector, Charles Theodore, appropriated part of the land which had been obtained in the war of succession in Landshut and which ever since had been claimed by Bavaria ; Prussia also claimed part of the territory of Nuremberg Realizing its weakness, the city asked to be incorporated in the Kingdom of Prussia but Frederick William II refused the request, fearing to offend Austria, Russia, and France. At the imperial diet in 1803 the independence of Nuremberg was affirmed. But on the signing of the Rheinbund (Rhenish Federation) 12 July, 1806, the city was handed over to Bavaria 8 Sept. Its population was then 25,200 and its public debt twelve and a half million guldens. After the fall of Napoleon its trade and commerce revived; the skill of its inhabitants together with its favourable situation soon rendered the city prosperous, particularly after its public debt had been acknowledged as a part of the Bavarian national debt. Incorporated in a Catholic country the city was compelled to refrain from further discrimination against the Catholics, who had been excluded from the rights of citizenship. Catholic services had been celebrated in the city by the priests of the order of the Teutonic Knights, often under great difficulties. Their possessions having been confiscated by the Bavarian government in 1806, they were given the Frauenkirche on the Market in 1809; in 1810 the first Catholic parish was established, which in 1818 numbered 1010 souls.

In 1817 the city was included in the department Rezatkreis (later Mittelfranken). The establishment of railways and the joining of Bavaria to the German Customs Union (Zollverein), commerce and industry opened the way to great prosperity. In 1852 there were 53,638 inhabitants, 46,441 Protestants and 6616 Catholics. Since that time it has become the most important industrial city of Bavaria and one of the most prosperous towns of southern Germany. In 1905 its population, including several incorporated suburbs, was 291,351 — 86,943 Catholics, 196,913 Protestants, 3738 Jews and 3766 members of other creeds ; the present population is estimated at 340,000.

Nuremberg belongs to the Archdiocese of Bamberg and possesses notable churches. For want of means the building of churches could not keep pace with the growth of the community; this condition rendered difficult the work of ministry. The Catholic churches at present accommodate barely 8000 people, while the Catholics in the city number over 90,000. The most beautiful church is the Liebfrauenkirche (Church of Our Dear Lady), built 1315-61 in Gothic style; it is one of the greatest ornaments of the city (Essenwein, "Die Liebfrauenkirche in Nürnberg", Nuremberg, 1881). Other churches are, the St. Elisabethenkirche, a mighty edifice, in antique style, begun in 1784, secularized in 1806, purchased by the Catholics in 1885 (Schrötter, "Die Kirche der heiligen Elisabeth in Nürnberg", Nuremberg, 1903); the St. Klarakirche, a Gothic structure, built in 1339, turned over to the Catholics in 1857; the Herz-Jesu-kirche, a basilica in early Gothic style, erected 1898-1902; the Walpurgiskapelle in the castle, dating from the thirteenth century; the temporary structures: St. Joseph (1897-8); St. Anthony (1899-1900); St. Karl Borromäus (1903-4); and a new church at present being erected.

More Volume: N 287

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Nélaton, Auguste

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Nève, Felix-Jean-Baptiste-Joseph

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Nîmes

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Nabo

( Septuagint, Nabau ). A town mentioned in several passages of the Old Testament, v.g., ...

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Neale, Leonard

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The most northerly of the thirteen original states of the United States, lying between 70°37' ...

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One of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the Declaration of ...

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(NOVARCENSIS) Diocese created in 1853, suffragan of New York and comprising Hudson, Passaic, ...

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Executed at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. A younger son of John Newdigate of Harefield Place, Middlesex, ...

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A British colony of North America (area 42,734 square miles), bounded on the north by the Strait ...

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(NEOPORTENSIS) This diocese takes its name from Newport, a town of about 70,000 inhabitants, ...

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Ni 70

Niagara University

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Nicholas Garlick, Venerable

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...

Nicholas I, Saint, Pope

Born at Rome, date unknown; died 13 November, 867. One of the great popes of the Middle ...

Nicholas II, Pope

(GERHARD OF BURGUNDY) Nicholas was born at Chevron, in what is now Savoy ; elected at Siena, ...

Nicholas III, Pope

(GIOVANNI GAETANI ORSINI) Born at Rome, c. 1216; elected at Viterbo, 25 November, 1277; died ...

Nicholas IV, Pope

(GIROLAMO MASCI) Born at Ascoli in the Rome, 4 April, 1292. He was of humble extraction, ...

Nicholas Justiniani

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...

Nicholas of Cusa

German cardinal, philosopher, and administrator, b. at Cues on the Moselle, in the Archdiocese ...

Nicholas of Flüe, Blessed

(D E R UPE ). Born 21 March, 1417, on the Flüeli, a fertile plateau near Sachseln, ...

Nicholas of Gorran

(Or GORRAIN) Medieval preacher, and scriptural commentator; b. in 1232 at Gorron, France ; ...

Nicholas of Lyra

( Doctor planus et utilis ) Exegete, b. at Lyra in Normandy, 1270; d. at Paris, 1340. The ...

Nicholas of Myra, Saint

( Also called NICHOLAS OF BARI). Bishop of Myra in Lycia; died 6 December, 345 or 352. ...

Nicholas of Osimo

(AUXIMANUS). A celebrated preacher and author, b. at Osimo, Italy, in the second half of the ...

Nicholas of Strasburg

Mystic ; flourished early in the fourteenth century. Educated at Paris, he was later on lector ...

Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint

Born at Sant' Angelo, near Fermo, in the Hermits of St. Augustine -- a star above him or on his ...

Nicholas Owen, Saint

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...

Nicholas Pieck, Saint

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

Nicholas V, Pope

(TOMMASO PARENTUCELLI) A name never to be mentioned without reverence by every lover of ...

Nichols, Venerable George

(Or NICOLLS). English martyr, born at Oxford about 1550; executed at Oxford, 19 October, ...

Nicholson, Francis

A controversial writer; b. at Manchester, 1650 ( baptized 27 Oct.); d. at Lisbon, 13 Aug., 1731. ...

Nicodemus

A prominent Jew of the time of Christ, mentioned only in the Fourth Gospel . The name is of ...

Nicodemus, Gospel of

(Or the Gospel of Nicodemus.) This work does not assume to have written by Pilate, but to have ...

Nicolò de' Tudeschi

("abbas modernus" or "recentior", "abbas Panormitanus" or "Siculus") A Benedictine canonist, ...

Nicolaï, Jean

Celebrated Dominican theologian and controversialist, b. in 1594 at Mouzay in the Diocese of ...

Nicolaites

(Also called Nicolaitans), a sect mentioned in the Apocalypse (ii,6,15) as existing in ...

Nicolas, Armella

Popularly known as "La bonne Armelle", a saintly French serving-maid held in high veneration among ...

Nicolas, Auguste

French apologist, b. at Bordeaux, 6 Jan., 1807; d. at Versailles 18 Jan., 1888. He first studied ...

Nicolaus Germanus

(Often called "Donis" from a misapprehension of the title "Donnus" or "Donus" an abbreviated form ...

Nicole, Pierre

Theologian and controversialist, b. 19 October, 1625, at Chartres, d. 16 November, 1695, at ...

Nicolet

(NICOLETANA) Diocese in the Province of Quebec, Canada, suffragan of Quebec. It comprises the ...

Nicomedes, Saint

Martyr of unknown era, whose feast is observed 15 September. The Roman Martyrologium and the ...

Nicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I ...

Nicopolis

A titular see, suffragan of Sebasteia, in Armenia Prima. Founded by Pompey after his decisive ...

Nicopolis

(NICOPOLITANA) Diocese in Bulgaria. The city of Nicopolis (Thrace or Moesia), situated at the ...

Nicopolis

A titular see and metropolis in ancient Epirus. Augustus founded the city (B.C. 31) on a ...

Nicosia

A city of the Province of Catania, in Sicily situated at a height of about 2800 feet above the ...

Nicosia

Titular archdiocese in the Province of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhummer' "Aus Cypern" in ...

Nicotera and Tropea

(NICOTERENSIS ET TROPEIENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Reggio di Calabria. Nicotera, the ancient ...

Nider, John

Theologian, b. 1380 in Swabia; d. 13 August, 1438, at Colmar. He entered the Order of Preachers ...

Nieremberg y Otin, Juan Eusebio

Noted theologian and polygraphist, b. of German parents at Madrid, 1595; d. there, 1658. ...

Niessenberger, Hans

An architect of the latter part of the Middle Ages, whose name is mentioned with comparative ...

Niger, Peter George

(NIGRI, German SCHWARTZ) Dominican theologian, preacher and controversialist, b. 1434 at ...

Nigeria

A colony of British East Africa extending from the Gulf of Guinea to Lake Chad (from 4° 30' ...

Nihilism

The term was first used by Turgeniev in his novel, "Fathers and Sons" (in "Russkij Vestnik", Feb., ...

Nihus, Barthold

Convert and controversialist, b. at Holtorf in Hanover, 7 February, 1590 (according to other ...

Nikolaus von Dinkelsbühl

Theologian, b. c. 1360, at Dinkelsbühl; d. 17 March, 1433, at Mariazell in Styria. He ...

Nikon

Patriarch of Moscow (1652-1658; d. 1681). He was of peasant origin, born in the district of ...

Nilles, Nikolaus

Born 21 June, 1828, of a wealthy peasant family of Rippweiler, Luxemburg ; died 31 January, ...

Nilopolis

A titular see and a suffragan of Oxyrynchos, in Egypt. According to Ptolemy (IV, v, 26) the ...

Nilus the Younger

Of Rossano, in Calabria; born in 910, died 27 December, 1005. For a time he was married (or ...

Nilus, Saint

( Neilos ) Nilus the elder, of Sinai (died c. 430), was one of the many disciples and ...

Nimbus

(Latin, related to Nebula, nephele , properly vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies ...

Nimrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...

Ninian, Saint

(NINIAS, NINUS, DINAN, RINGAN, RINGEN) Bishop and confessor ; date of birth unknown; died ...

Nirschl, Joseph

Theologian and writer, b. at Durchfurth, Lower Bavaria, 24 February, 1823; d. at ...

Nisibis

A titular Archdiocese of Mesopotamia, situated on the Mygdonius at the foot of Mt. Masius. It is ...

Nithard

Frankish historian, son of Angilbert and Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne ; died about 843 or ...

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Noah

[Hebrew Nôah , "rest"; Greek Noah ; Latin Noah ]. The ninth patriarch of the ...

Noah's Ark

The Hebrew name to designate Noah's Ark, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' ...

Noailles, Louis-Antoine de

Cardinal and bishop, b. at the Château of Teyssiére in Auvergne, France, 27 May, ...

Nobili, Robert de'

Born at Montepulciano, Tuscany, September, 1577; died at Mylapore, India, in 1656. He entered the ...

Noble, Daniel

Physician, b. 14 Jan., 1810; d. at Manchester, 12 Jan, 1885. He was the son of Mary Dewhurst and ...

Nocera

DIOCESE OF NOCERA (NUCERINENSIS) Diocese in Perugia, Umbria, Italy, near the sources of the ...

Nocera dei Pagani

(NUCERIN PAGANORUM; dei Pagani ="of the Pagans") Diocese in Salermo, Italy, at the foot of ...

Nocturns

( Nocturni or Nocturna ). A very old term applied to night Offices. Tertullian speaks of ...

Nogaret, Guillaume de

Born about the middle of the thirteenth century at St. Felix-en-Lauragais; died 1314; he was one ...

Nola

(NOLANA) Diocese ; suffragan of Naples. The city of Nola in the Italian Province of Caserta, ...

Nola, Giovanni Marliano da

Sculptor and architect, b., it is said, of a leather merchant named Giuseppe, at Nola, near ...

Nolasco, Saint Peter

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

Nollet, Jean-Antoine

Physicist, b. at Pimpré, Oise, France, 19 November, 1700; d. at Paris, 25 April, 1770. His ...

Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...

Nomination

The various methods of designating persons for ecclesiastical benefices or offices have been ...

Nomocanon

(From the Greek nomos , law, and kanon , a rule) A collection of ecclesiastical law, the ...

Non Expedit

("It is not expedient"). Words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the ...

Non-Jurors

The name given to the Anglican Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of allegiance to ...

Nonantola

A former Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius , six miles north-east of Modena ...

Nonconformists

A name which, in its most general acceptation, denotes those refusing to conform with the ...

None

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Origin of None; II. None from the ...

Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien

Controversialist; b. in Besançon, 29 July, 1711; d. there, 3 September, 1793. At nineteen ...

Nonnus

Nonnus, of Panopolis in Upper Egypt (c. 400), the reputed author of two poems in hexameters; ...

Norbert, Saint

Born at Kanten on the left bank of the Rhine, near Wesel, c. 1080; died at Magdeburg, 6 June, ...

Norbertines

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

Norcia

(NORSIN). A diocese and city in Perugia, Italy, often mentioned in Roman history. In the ...

Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of

(Since the Reformation) Under this title are accounts only of the prominent Catholic Dukes of ...

Noris, Henry

Cardinal, b. at Verona, 29 August, 1631, of English ancestry; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1704. He ...

Normandy

An ancient French province, from which five "departments" were formed in 1790: ...

Norris, Sylvester

( Alias SMITH, NEWTON). Controversial writer and English missionary priest ; b. 1570 or ...

Norsemen

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

North Carolina

One of the original thirteen States of the United States, is situated between 33° 53' and ...

North Dakota

One of the United States of America , originally included in the Louisiana Purchase. Little was ...

Northampton

(NORTANTONIENSIS) Diocese in England, comprises the Counties of Northampton, Bedford, ...

Northcote, James Spencer

Born at Feniton Court, Devonshire, 26 May, 1821; d. at Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, 3 March, ...

Northern Territory

(Prefecture Apostolic) The Northern Territory, formerly Alexander Land, is that part of ...

Northmen

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

Norton, Christopher

Martyr ; executed at Tyburn, 27 May, 1570. His father was Richard Norton of Norton Conyers, ...

Norway

Norway, comprising the smaller division of the Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by ...

Norwich, Ancient Diocese of

(NORDOVICUM; NORVICUM). Though this see took its present name only in the eleventh century, ...

Notaries

( Latin notarius ). Persons appointed by competent authority to draw up official or authentic ...

Notburga

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...

Notburga, Saint

Patroness of servants and peasants, b. c. 1265 at Rattenberg on the Inn; d. c. 16 September, 1313. ...

Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...

Notitia Dignitatum

(Register of Offices). The official handbook of the civil and military officials in the later ...

Notitia Provinciarum et Civitatum Africae

(List of the Provinces and Cities of Africa). A list of the bishops and their sees in the ...

Notitiae Episcopatuum

The name given to official documents that furnish for Eastern countries the list and hierarchical ...

Notker

Among the various monks of St. Gall who bore this name, the following are the most important: ...

Noto

(NETEN). Noto, the ancient Netum and after the Saracen conquest the capital of one of the ...

Notoriety, Notorious

( Latin Notorietas, notorium , from notus , known). Notoriety is the quality or the ...

Notre Dame de Montreal, Congregation of

Marguerite Bourgeoys, the foundress, was born at Troyes, France, 17 April, 1620. She was the ...

Notre Dame, School Sisters of

A religious community devoted to education. In the United Sates they have conducted parish ...

Notre Dame, Sisters of (of Cleveland, Ohio)

A branch of the congregation founded by Blessed Julie Billiart. In 1850, Father Elting of ...

Notre Dame, University of

(Full name is the University of Notre Dame du Lac ). Notre Dame is located in Northern ...

Notre-Dame de Namur, Institute of

Founded in 1803 at Amiens, France, by Bl. Julie Billiart (b. 1751 d. 1816) and ...

Notre-Dame de Sion, Congregation of

Religious institute of women, founded at Paris in May 1843, by Marie-Théodore and ...

Nottingham

(NOTTINGHAMIEN) One of the original twelve English dioceses created at the time of the ...

Nourrisson, Jean-Felix

Philosopher, b. at Thiers, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, 18 July, 1825; d. at Paris, 13 June, ...

Nova Scotia

I. GEOGRAPHY Nova Scotia is one of the maritime provinces of Canada. It forms part of what was ...

Novara

(NOVARIENSIS). A diocese and the capital of the province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy, noted ...

Novatianism

Novatian was a schismatic of the third century, and founder of the sect of the Novatians; he ...

Novatus, Saint

St. Novatus, who is mentioned on 20 June with his brother, the martyr Timotheus, was the son of ...

Novello, Blessed Agostino

(Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...

Novena

(From novem , nine.) A nine days' private or public devotion in the Catholic Church to ...

Novice

I. DEFINITION AND REQUIREMENTS The word novice , which among the Romans meant a newly acquired ...

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Nubia

Located in North-eastern Africa, extending from Sennar south to beyond Khartoum and including the ...

Nueva Cáceres

(NOVA CACERES) Diocese created in 1595 by Clement VIII ; it is one of the four suffragan ...

Nueva Pamplona

(NEO-PAMPILONENSIS). Diocese in Colombia, South America, founded in 1549 and a see erected by ...

Nueva Segovia

(NOVAE SEGOBIAE) Diocese in the Philippines, so called from Segovia, a town in Spain. The town ...

Nugent, Francis

Priest of the Franciscan Capuchin Order, founder of the Irish and the Rhenish Provinces of said ...

Nugent, James

Philanthropist, temperance advocate and social reformer b. 3 March, 1822 at Liverpool ; d. 27 ...

Numbers, Use of, in the Church

No attentive reader of the Old Testament can fail to notice that a certain sacredness seems to ...

Numismatics

(From the Greek nomisma , "legal currency") Numismatics is the science of coins and of ...

Nun of Kent

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...

Nunc Dimittis

(The Canticle of Simeon). Found in St. Luke's Gospel (2:29-32) , is the last in historical ...

Nuncio

An ordinary and permanent representative of the pope, vested with both political and ...

Nunez, Pedro

(Pedro Nonius). Mathematician and astronomer, b. at Alcacer-do-Sol, 1492; d. at Coimbra, ...

Nuns

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various ...

Nuptial Mass

"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...

Nuremberg

(NÜRNBERG) The second largest city in Bavaria, situated in a plain on both sides of the ...

Nusco

(N USCANA ) Diocese in the province of Avellino, Italy, suffragan of Salerno ; dates from ...

Nussbaum, Johannn Nepomuk von

German surgeon, b. at Munich 2 Sept., 1829; d. there 31 Oct., 1890. He made his studies in the ...

Nutter, Robert, Ven.

English martyr ; b. at Burnley, Lancashire, c. 1550; executed at Lancaster, 26 July, 1600. He ...

Nuyens, Wilhelmus

Historian, b. 18 August, 1823, at Avenhorn in Holland ; d. 10 December, 1894, at Westwoud near ...

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Ny 4

Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...

Nympha, Tryphon, and Respicius

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

Nyssa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...

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