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Krain

(Or CARNIOLA; Slov. KRANJSKO)

A duchy and crownland in the Austrian Empire, bounded on the north by Karinthia, on the north-east by Styria, on the south-east and south by Croatia, and on the west by Trieste, Goritza, and Istria; area, 3857 sq. miles; population, 510,000. The Julian and Karavanken Alps traverse the country. The highest mountain peaks are Nanos, 4200 feet; Vremscica, 3360 feet; Sneznik, 5900 feet; Triglav, 9300 feet, on the top of which Jacob Aljaz, priest and tourist, erected a cylindrical hut of steel, capable of accommodating 4 or 5 persons. The principal rivers are the Save, the Trzaska Bistrica, the Kokra, the Kamniska Bistrica, the Sora, the Ljubljanica, the Mirna, the Krka, and the Kupa which serves as a boundary with Croatia. The principal lakes are Crno, spreading into seven lakes, of which the highest is over 6000 feet above sea-level; Bohinjsko; Blesko, in the middle of which on an island is built a church to the Blessed Virgin, amidst most picturesque scenery; Cerknisko, 1700 feet above sea-level, varies annually in extent from over ten to about five sq. miles. It was known to the Romans as Lugea palus , and is a natural curiosity. Dante Alighieri mentions it in his "Divina Commedia" (Inferno, xxxii). The Ljubljana fens cover an area of 76 sq. miles. Hot and mineral springs are to be found at Susica, Smarjetske, and Medijske. There is an interesting cave at Postojna. Of the inhabitants 95 per cent are Slovenes, kinsmen to the Croats; the remainder are Germans, 700 Croats, and Italians. In the districts of Gotschee and Crnomelj dwell the White Krainers, the connecting link between the Croats and Slovenes. One-half of the Germans live in Gotschee, 5000 in Ljubljana, 3500 at Novo Mesto, and 1000 at Radovljice. The Germans at Gotschee were settled there by Otho, Count of Ortenburg, in the fourteenth century, and they preserve their Tyrolean German dialect. Over 99 per cent of the people are Catholics, the remainder includes 319 Schismatics, 509 Protestants, 24 Armenians, 96 Jews, 7 infidels. Ninety-six per cent of the soil is productive.

Agriculture thrives better in Upper than in Lower Krain. The valley of Vipava is especially famous for its wine and vegetables, and for its mild climate. The principal exports are all kinds of vegetables, clover-seed, lumber, carvings, cattle, and honey. In the mineral kingdom the principal products are iron, coal, quicksilver, manganese, lead, and zinc. Upper Krain has the most industries, among the products being lumber, linen, woollen stuffs, and laces (in Idria), bells, straw hats, wicker-work, and tobacco. The railroads are the Juzna, the Prince Rudolf, the Bohinjska, the Kamniska, the Dolenjska, and the Vrhniska. The capital is Ljubljana, see of the prince-bishop, population, 40,000; it was known to the Romans as Aemona, and was destroyed by Obri in the sixth century. Krain is divided into Upper Krain or Gorenjsko, Lower Krain or Dolenjsko, and Central Krain or Notranjsko. The principal cities and towns are: Kamnik, Kranj, Trzic, Vrhnika, Vipava, Idria (which has the richest quicksilver mine in the world), Turjak, Ribnica, Metlika, Novo Mesto, Vace (famous for its prehistoric graveyard). The mean average temperature in spring is 56 deg.; in summer, 77 deg.; in autumn, 59 deg. and in winter, 26 deg. Politically the country is divided into 11 districts consisting of 359 communes; the state capital is the residence of the imperial governor. The districts are: Kamnik, Kranj, Radovljica, the neighbourhood of Ljubljana, Logatec, Postojna, Litija, Krsko, Novo Mesto, Crnomelj, and Gotschee or Kocevje. There are 31 judicial circuits. The duchy was constituted by rescript of 20 December, 1860, and by imperial patent of 26 February, 1861, modified by legislation of 21 December, 1867, granting power to the home parliament to enact all laws not reserved to the imperial diet, at which it is represented by eleven delegates, of whom two are elected by the landowners, three by the cities, towns, commercial and industrial boards, five by the village communes, and one by a fifth curia. The ballot is secret, every duly registered male twenty-four years of age has the right to vote. The home legislature consists of a single chamber of thirty-seven members, among whom the prince-bishop sits ex-officio. The emperor convenes the legislature, and it is presided over by the governor. The landed interests elect ten members, the cities and towns eight, the commercial and industrial boards two, the village communes sixteen. The business of the chamber is restricted to legislating on agriculture, public and charitable institutions , administration of communes, church and school affairs, the transportation and housing of soldiers in war and during manoeuvres, and other local matters. The land budget of 1901 amounted to 3,573,280 crowns ($714,656).

Ecclesiastical History

In early Christian times the duchy was under the jurisdiction of the metropolitans of Aquileia, Syrmium, and Salona ;, but in consequence of the immigration of the pagan Slovenes, this arrangement was not a lasting one. After they had embraced Christianity in the seventh and eighth centuries Charlemagne conferred the major part of Krain on the Patriarchate of Aquileia, and the remainder on the Diocese of Trieste. In 1100 that patriarchate was divided into five archdeaconries, of which Krain was one. Emperor Frederick III, 6 December, 1461, established the Diocese, of Ljubljana or Laibach, subject directly to the pope, and this was confirmed by a Bull of Pope Pius II , 10 September, 1462. The new diocese consisted of part of Upper Krain, two parishes in Lower Krain, and a portion of Lower Styria and Karinthia ; the remaining portion of Krain was attached to Aquileia, later on to Goritza and Trieste. At the redistribution of dioceses (1787 to 1791) not all the parishes in Krain were included in the Diocese of Ljubljana, but this was accomplished in 1833, by taking two deaneries from the Diocese of Trieste, one from Goritza, and one parish from the Diocese of Lavant, so as to include all the territory within the political boundaries of the crownland. The diocese is divided into 5 archdeaconries, comprising 22 deaneries, two chapters with 17 canons, 296 parishes, 1336 churches, 204 chapels, 722 priests, 572,613 Catholics of the Latin Rite, and 360 of the Oriental Rite. The following congregations of men have houses in Krain: Cistercian Franciscans 4, Capuchins 2, Brothers of Charity 1, Jesuits 1, Congregation of Missions 1, priests of the German Order 1, Salesians 2. Congregations of Women : Ursulines 3 convents, Carmelites 1, Sisters of Charity 12 houses, including two schools. Krain has a diocesan seminary and one resident college for boys. The patron of the duchy is St. Joseph, and the patrons of the diocese, St. Hermagora and St. Fortunatus, Martyrs.

Education

The school system was founded by state law of 14 May, 1869, and of 2 May, 1883. There are 386 schools, of which 327 are public. Attendance is compulsory, from the age of seven to fourteen. There are two training schools for teachers: one for males, one for females, connected with the school of agriculture. There are 7 colleges, in which both Slovenian and German are taught. The first college was founded in 1418 by a parish priest. There is a high school for girls. The industrial schools have commercial courses, besides teaching wood carving, trades, domestic economy, horse-shoeing; instruction is also given in singing and on the pipe organ . The Museum Rudolfinum has a famous library. The inspection of the schools is under a school-board. The parish priests have the right of visiting the schools or of appointing substitutes. The schools are supported from national, regional, and local taxes. The provincial school-board is the highest school authority for all the schools, except those subject directly to the minister of instruction and worship. It consists of twelve members, of whom two are priests. There is a literary society, the "Matica Slovenska," one Catholic daily paper, and a few monthly magazines.

Slovenes in the United States

There are in the United States about 100,000 Slovenes organized into two great benevolent associations on religious principles. They possess the following churches: St. Joseph's, Joliet, Ill.; St. Stephen's, Chicago, Ill.; St. Mary's, West Allis, Wisconsin ; St. Joseph's, Calumet, Michigan ; St. Joseph's, Leadville, Col.; St. Mary's, Pueblo, Col.; St. Lawrence's, St. Vitus's, St. Mary's, Cleveland, Ohio ; St. Mary's, Steelton, Pa.; St. Mary's, Pittsburgh, Pa.; St. Joseph's, Forest City, Pa.; Holy Family, Kansas City, Kansas. Joliet has one parish school, and one Catholic weekly paper. The saintly bishop, Frederic Baraga, author of the first grammar of the Indian language, Bishops Ignatius Mrak, and John Vertin, Slovenes, were pioneers in apostolic work in upper Michigan, as well as Bishops James Trobec and John Stariha, who are still living.

Civil History

Before the coming of the Romans (c. 200 B.C.) the Taurisci dwelt in the north of Krain, the Pannones in the south-east, the Iapodes or Carni, a Celtic tribe, in the south-west. Under Roman rule, the northern part was joined to Noricum, the south-western and south-eastern parts and the city of Aemona to Venice and Istria. In the time of Augustus all the region from Aemona to Culpa belonged to the province of Savia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476), Krain was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, and (493) under Theodoric it formed part of the Ostrogothic kingdom. Between the upper Save and the Sotcha lived the Carni, and towards the end of the sixth century the Slovenes peopled that region called by Latin writers Carnia, or Carniola, i.e. part of greater Carnia. Later on with the coming of the Slovenian language, the name was changed to "Krajino" or in German "Chrainmarcha," Chreine, "the boundary." The new inhabitants were subjected to the Avars, but threw off their yoke, and joined the great Slavic state of Samo. Krain was governed by the Franks about the year 788. When Charlemagne established the province of Friuli he added to it a part of Krain. After the division of Friuli, it became an independent province, having its own Slovenian margrave residing at Kranj, subject to the governor of Bavaria at first, and after 876 to the Dukes of Karinthia. Henry IV gave it to the Patriarch of Aquileia (1071).

In the Middle Ages the Church held much property in Krain, thus in Upper and Lower Krain the Bishop of Friesing became (974) a feudal lord of the city of Skofja Loka, the Bishop of Brixen held Bled and possessions in the valley of Bohinj, and the Bishop of Lavant got Mokronog. Among secular potentates the Dukes of Meran, Goritzza, Babenberg, and Zilli held possessions given to them in fief by the patriarchs of Aquileia. The dukes governed the province nearly half a century, and finally Krain was given in fief with the consent of the patriarch to Frederick II, of Austria, who obtained the title of duke, 1245. Frederick was succeeded by Ulrich III, Duke of Karinthia, who married a relative of the patriarch, and endowed the churches and monasteries, established the government mint at the city of Kostanjevica, and finally (1268) willed to Otokar II, King of Bohemia, all his possessions and the government of Karinthia and Carniola. Otokar was defeated by Rudolf II of Hapsburg, and at the meeting at Augsburg, 1282, he gave in fief to his sons Albrecht and Rudolf the province of Krain, but it was leased to Count Majnhardt. Duke Henry of Karinthia claimed Krain; and the Dukes of Austria asserted their claim as successors to the Bohemian kingdom. Henry died 1335, Jan, King of Bohemia, renounced his claims, and Albrecht, Duke of Austria, got Krain; it was proclaimed a duchy by Rudolf IV, in 1364. Frederick IV united Upper, Lower, and Central Krain as Metlika and Pivka into one duchy. The union of the dismembered parts was completed by 1607. The French occupied Krain in 1797, and from 1805 to 1806. After the Treaty of Vienna, 1809, Napoleon erected Illyria, with Ljubljana as its capital, and Krain formed a part of the new territory from 1809 to 1813. The defeat of Napoleon restored Krain to Francis I, with larger boundaries, but at the extinction of the Illyrian Kingdom. Krain was confined to the limits outlined at the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

More Volume: K 165

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Kögler, Ignaz

(Called LAI in Chinese). Along with Father Adam Schall the most important of the fifty German ...

König, Joseph

Theologian and exegete, born at Hausen on the Aach, District of Hegau, Grand Duchy of Baden, 7 ...

Königgrätz

(REGINAE HRADECENSIS). This Bohemian see owes its origin to Emperor Ferdinand III, who, soon ...

Königshofen, Jacob

More properly JACOB TWINGER VON KÖNIGSHOFEN. Chronicler, b. in 1346 at Königshofen, a ...

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Ka 32

Kabbala

The term is now used as a technical name for the system of esoteric theosophy which for many ...

Kadlubek, Blessed Vincent

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Kafiristan and Kashmir, Prefecture Apostolic of

Created (1887) by Leo XIII in the extreme North of India. As regards India proper, the ...

Kafirs

A term popularly to nearly all the natives of South Africa. It was originally imposed by the Arab ...

Kager, Johann Matthias

German historical painter, born at Munich, 1566; died at Augsburg, 1634. He was originally a ...

Kaiser, Kajetan Georg von

Chemist, born at Kelheim on the Danube (Bavaria), 5 January, 1803; died at Munich, 28 August, ...

Kaiserchronik

(Der Keiser und der Kunige buoch.) A German epic poem of the twelfth century. It is at once a ...

Kaiserwilhelmsland

Comprises the German part of the island of New Guinea, area about 460,000 sq. miles; about ...

Kalands Brethren

(Kalandbrüder, Fratres Calendarii.) The name given to religious and charitable ...

Kalcker, Jan Stephanus van

(GIOVANNI DA CALCAR and JOANNES STEPHANUS CALCARENSIS.) Flemish painter, native of the Duchy ...

Kalinka, Valerian

Polish historian, born near Cracow in 1826; died at Jaroslaw in 1886. He fled from Poland in ...

Kalispel Indians

Popularly known under the French name of Pend d'Oreilles, "ear pendants", an important tribe of ...

Kalocsa-Bacs, Archdiocese of

(Colocensis et Bachiensis.) This archdiocese embraces within its territories an archdiocese ...

Kamerun, Vicariate Apostolic of

(Cameroons; Cameroon.) Located in German West Africa, between British Nigeria and French ...

Kan-Su, Prefecture Apostolic of Southern

Separated from the Northern Kan-su mission in 1905, and committed to the Belgian Congregation of ...

Kan-Su, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

This vicariate includes the territory of Ku-ku-nor, northern part of Tibet, and the five ...

Kandy, Diocese of

(Kandiensis.) Formerly part of the Vicariate of Southern Colombo, Ceylon, India, from which ...

Kansas

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Geography Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central ...

Kansas City, Diocese of

(Kansanopolitana.) Established 10 September, 1880, to include that part of the State of ...

Kant, Philosophy of

Kant's philosophy is generally designated as a system of transcendental criticism tending ...

Karinthia

(CARANTANUM; Slovene, KOROSKO; German KÄRNTEN). A crownland in the Austrian Empire , ...

Karnkowski, Stanislaw

(Karncovious.) Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, born about 1526; died at Lowicz,in ...

Kaskaskia Indians

Formerly chief tribe of the confederacy of Illinois Indians (q.v.). The name is of uncertain ...

Kassai, Upper

Erected as a simple mission in 1901, and detached, as a prefecture Apostolic, from the Vicariate ...

Kateri Tekakwitha, Blessed

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Kauffmann, Angelica

Born at Coire, in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, 30 October, 1741; died at Rome, 5 November, ...

Kaufmann, Alexander

Poet and folklorist, born at Bonn, 14 May, 1817; died at Wertheim, 1 May, 1893. He came of a ...

Kaufmann, Leopold

Chief Burgomaster of Bonn, brother of the poet and folklorist Alexander Kaufmann, born 13 March, ...

Kaulen, Franz Philip

Scriptural scholar, born 20 March, 1827, at Düsseldorf; died at Bonn, 11 July, 1907. He ...

Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton

An Austrian prince and statesman, born at Vienna 2 February, 1711; died there 27 June, 1794. ...

Kavanagh, Edward

American statesman and diplomat, born at Newcastle, Maine, 27 April, 1795; died there, 21 Jan., ...

Kavanagh, Julia

Novelist and biographer, born 7 Jan., 1824, at Thurles, Ireland ; died 28 October, 1877, at ...

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Ke 32

Kearney, Diocese of

(KEARNEYIENSIS). By Decree of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation of 8 March, 1912, Pius X ...

Keating, Geoffrey

Irish theologian, historian, and poet, b. at Burgess in the parish of Tubbrid, Co. Tipperary, ...

Keewatin, Vicariate Apostolic of

The Vicariate Apostolic of Keewatin includes the northern half of the Province of Saskatchewan, ...

Kehrein, Joseph

Educator, philologist, and historian of German literature, born at Heidesheim, near Mainz, 20 ...

Keller, Jacob

Controversialist, born at Sackingen, Baden, Germany, in 1568; died at Munich, Bavaria, 23 ...

Kellner, Lorenz

Educationist, born at Kalteneber in the district of Eichsfeld, 29 January, 1811; died at Trier, ...

Kells, Book of

An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian ...

Kells, School of

Kells (in Gaelic Cenannus ) was the chief of the Irish Columban monasteries. It was founded ...

Kemble, Ven. John

Martyr, b. at Rhydicar Farm, St. Weonard's, Herefordshire, 1599; d. at Widemarsh Common, ...

Kemp, John

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Chancellor of England ; b. at Wye, Kent, about 1380; ...

Kenia

Coextensive with the civil province of Kenia (Kenya) in British East Africa, to which the ...

Kenites

(A.V. Kenites). A tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as ...

Kennedy, James

Bishop of St. Andrews, Scotland. Born about 1406; died 10 May, 1466. Of the ancient house of ...

Kenneth, Saint

(Or KENNY). Commemorated on 11 October, born in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now ...

Kenny, Saint

(Or KENNY). Commemorated on 11 October, born in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now ...

Kenosis

A term derived from the discussion as to the real meaning of Phil. 2:6 sqq.: "Who being in the ...

Kenraghty

(KIMRACHA, KINRECHTIN, or MAKENRACHTUS; in Irish MACIONNRACHTAIGH, anglicized HANRATTY and ...

Kenrick, Francis Patrick and Peter Richard

Archbishops respectively of Baltimore, Maryland, and of St. Louis, Missouri. They were sons of ...

Kent, Nun of

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...

Kentigern, Saint

(Or M UNGO ) Bishop, founder of the See of Glasgow, b. about 518; d. at Glasgow, 13 ...

Kentucky

A state situated between the parallels of latitude 36° 30 and 39°6' N., and between the ...

Keon, Miles Gerard

Journalist, novelist, colonial secretary, lecturer, last descendent of the Keons, of Keonbrooke, ...

Kerkuk

(CHERCHENSIS). A Chaldean Catholic diocese. The ancient name of the city was Karka of ...

Kernan, Francis

Lawyer, statesman; born in Steuben County, New York, 14 January, 1816; d. at Utica, New York, 7 ...

Kerry and Aghadoe

The Diocese of Kerry and Aghadoe (Kerriensis Et Aghadoensis), suffragan of Cashel, Ireland, is ...

Kerssenbroch, Hermann von

(KERSSENBROICK). A teacher and historian, b. at Monchshof, near Barntrup (Lippe), about 1520; ...

Kervyn de Lettenhove, Joseph-Marie-Bruno-Constantin, Baron

Belgian statesman and historian, b. at Saint-Michel-lez-Bruges, 17 August, 1817; d. there, 3 ...

Kessels, Matthias

Sculptor, b. at Maastricht, 1784; d. at Rome, 3 March, 1836. He was first apprenticed to a ...

Ketteler, Wilhelm Emmanuel, Baron von

Bishop of Mainz, b. at Münster, in Westphalia, 25 Dec., 1811; d. at Burghausen, 13 July, ...

Kevin of Glendalough, Saint

Abbot of Glendalough, Ireland, b. about 498, the date being very obscure; d. 3 June, 618; son ...

Keyes, Erasmus Darwin

Soldier, convert, b. at Brimfield, Massuchusetts, U.S.A. 29 May, 1810; d. at Nice, France, ...

Keys, Power of the

The expression "power of the keys" is derived from Christ's words to St. Peter (in Matthew ...

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Kh 1

Kharput

Armenian Uniat diocese created in 1850. The city of Kharput, Armenian Kharpert, which means ...

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Ki 33

Kiang-nan

(Vicariate Apostolic) The present Vicariate comprises the two provinces of Kiang-su and ...

Kiang-si, Eastern

(Vicariate Apostolic) The mission of Eastern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of ...

Kiang-si, Northern

(Vicariate Apostolic) Father Matteo Ricci of the Society of Jesus was the first missionary ...

Kiang-si, Southern

(Vicariate Apostolic) Southern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of Northern Kiang-si in ...

Kickapoo Indians

Apparently corrupted from a longer term signifying "roamers", a tribe of Algonquian stock, ...

Kickham, Charles Joseph

Patriot, novelist, and poet, b. at Mullinahone, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1828; d. at Blackrock, Co. ...

Kielce

(Russian K IELTZY ; Latin K IELCENSIS ) Diocese in the sourthern part of Russian Poland, ...

Kieran, Saints

There are many Irish saints of this name, but the most celebrated is St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise ...

Kildare and Leighlin

(KILDARENSIS ET LEIGHLINENSIS) One of the four suffragans of Dublin, Ireland. These two ...

Kildare, School of

Kildare (Irish: Cill-Dara ), originally known as Druim Criaidh , or the Ridge of Clay, ...

Kilian, Saint

(Killena, Cillíne). Apostle of Franconia and martyr, born about 640 of noble parents ...

Killala

(ALLADENSIS). Diocese. It is one of the five suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical Province ...

Killaloe

(LAONIA) A suffragan diocese of Cashel ; it comprises the greater part of County Clare, a ...

Kilmore

(KILMORENSIS) Diocese in Ireland, includes almost all Cavan and about half of Leitrim. It ...

Kilwardby, Robert

Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina ; died at Viterbo, 11 ...

Kilwinning, Benedictine Abbey of

Located in Ayrshire, Scotland, in the town of the same name, where a church was said to have been ...

Kimberley

(KIMBERLIENSIS) Vicariate apostolic ; suffragan of Adelaide, erected by Leo XIII , 5 May, ...

Kimberley in Orange

(KYMBERLEYENSIS IN ORANGIA). The portion of South Africa which at the present day forms the ...

Kingdom of God

(In Matthew, generally, Kingdom of Heaven ). In this expression the innermost teaching of the ...

Kingisel

The name of two abbots who ruled Glastonbury in the seventh and eighth centuries respectively. ...

Kings

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

Kings, Chronology of the

First, we append a table in which the data of the Bible are put together. For the kings of Juda, ...

Kings, First and Second Books of

(Also know as the F IRST AND S ECOND B OOKS OF S AMUEL. For the First and Second Books of ...

Kings, Third and Fourth Books of

The historical book called in the Hebrew Melakhim, i.e. Kings, is in the Vulgate, in imitation ...

Kingston

(KINGSTONIENSIS or REGIOPOLITANA) The Archdiocese of Kingston comprises the territory from the ...

Kinloss

(Gaelic ceann-loch , "head of the loch"). Cistercian abbey on the coast of Morayshire, ...

Kino, Eusebius

A famous Jesuit missionary of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. 10 August, 1644, in ...

Kiowa Indians

(Pronounced Kai-o-wa , Latin spelling. Spanish form: Caygua ; Comanche form: Kaiwa , from ...

Kirby, Blessed Luke

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

Kircher, Athanasius

Celebrated for the versatility of his knowledge and particularly distinguished for his ...

Kirkwall

A parish, also a royal and parliamentary burgh and chief or county town of Orkney, in the north ...

Kisfaludy

Sándor Kisfaludy Born at Suemeg, Hungary, 27 Sept., 1772; died at Suemeg, 28 October, ...

Kiss

Four times in the Epistles of St. Paul we meet the injunction, used as a sort of formula of ...

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Kl 6

Klaczko, Julian

Polish author, b. at Vilna, 6 November, 1825, of Jewish parents ; d. at Cracow, 26 November, ...

Klee, Heinrich

German theologian and exegete, b. at Münstermaifeld, in the Rhine province, 20 April, ...

Klesl, Melchior

A cardinal and Austrian statesman, b. at Vienna, 19 February, 1552; d. at Wiener-Neustadt, 18 ...

Kleutgen, Josef Wilhelm Karl

German theologian and philosopher, b. at Dortmund, Westphalia, 9 April, 1811; d. at St. Anton ...

Klinkowström

Friedrich August von Klinkowström Artist, author and teacher; b. at Ludwigsburg in Swedish ...

Klopp, Onno

Historian, b. on 9 October, 1822, at Leer (East Friesland); d. at Vienna, 9 August 1903. After ...

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Kn 17

Knabl, Joseph

A master of religious plastic art, b. at Fliess, Tyrol, in 1819; d. at Munich in 1881. He was ...

Kneeling

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

Kneipp, Sebastian

Bavarian priest and hydrotherapist, b. at Stephansreid, Bavaria, 17 May, 1821; d. at ...

Knight, Venerable William

Put to death for the Faith at York, on 29 November, 1596; with him also suffered Venerables ...

Knighthood

Chivalry (derived through the French cheval from the Latin caballus ) as an institution is ...

Knighton, Henry

(CNITTHON) A fourteenth-century chronicler. Nothing is known of his career except that he was ...

Knights of Christ, Order of the

A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple (see Knights Templars ). ...

Knights of Columbus

A fraternal and beneficent society of Catholic men, founded in New Haven, Connecticut, 2 ...

Knights of Malta

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

Knights of the Cross

(Ordo Militaris Crucigerorum cum Rubea Stella.) A religious order famous in the history of ...

Knights Templars, The

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Knoblecher, Ignatius

Catholic missionary in Central Africa, born 6 July, 1819, at St. Cantian in Lower Carniola; died ...

Knoll, Albert (Joseph)

Dogmatic theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, born at Bruneck in northern Tyrol, ...

Knowledge

I. Essentials of Knowledge II. Kinds of Knowledge III. The Problem of Knowledge Knowledge, ...

Knowledge of Jesus Christ

" Knowledge of Jesus Christ," as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know ...

Knownothingism

This was a name applied to a movement in American politics which attracted a large share of public ...

Knox, John

Scotch Protestant leader, b. at Haddington, Scotland, between 1505 and 1515; d. at Edinburgh, ...

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Ko 19

Kober, Franz Quirin von

German canonist and pedagogist, b. of simple countryfolk on 6 March, 1821, at Warthausen, ...

Koberger, Anthony

(KOBURGER, COBERGER). German printer, publisher, and bookseller, b. about 1445; d. at ...

Kobler, Andreas

An historian, b. at Muhldorf in Bavaria, 22 June, 1816; d. at Klagenfurt, 15 November, 1892. He ...

Kochanowski, Jan

Born at Sycyna, 1530, died at Lublin, 22 August, 1584. He was inscribed in 1544 as a student in ...

Kochowski, Vespasian

Born at Sandomir ?, 1633; died at Krakow, 1699. He received his education at the Jesuit ...

Kohlmann, Anthony

Educator and missionary, b. 13 July, 1771, at Kaiserberg, Alsace; d. at Rome, 11 April, 1836. He ...

Koller, Marian Wolfgang

Scientist and educator, b. at Feistritz in Carniola, Austria, 31 October, 1792; d. of cholera at ...

Konarski, Stanislaus

Born in 1700; died in 1773. This great reformer of Polish schools was a Piarist who, during a ...

Konings, Anthony

Born at Helmond, Diocese of Bois-1e-Duc, Holland, 24 August, 1821; died 30 June, 1884. After a ...

Konrad ("der Pfaffe")

Surnamed DER PFAFFE ("The Priest"). A German epic poet of the twelfth century, author of the ...

Konrad of Lichtenau

A medieval German chronicler, d. at Ursperg, in the year 1240. He descended from a noble Swabian ...

Konrad of Megenberg

(KUNRAT). Scholar and writer, b. probably at Mainberg, near Schweinfurt, Bavaria, 2 February, ...

Konrad of Würzburg

A Middle High German poet, b. about 1230; d. at Basle, 1287. He was the most important of the ...

Konsag, Ferdinand

A German missionary of the eighteenth century, b. 2 December, 1703, at Warasdin, Croatia ; d. 10 ...

Koran, The

The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God. Supplemented by ...

Kosciuszko, Tadeusz

Polish patriot and soldier, b. near Novogrudok, Lithuania, Poland, 12 February, 1746; d. at ...

Kostka, Saint Stanislas

Born at Rostkovo near Prasnysz, Poland, about 28 October, 1550; died at Rome during the night of ...

Kottayam, Vicariate Apostolic of

Located on the Malabar Coast, India. This vicariate forms part of the territory of the ancient ...

Kozmian, Stanislaus and John

Two brothers who took part in the Polish insurrection of 1831, and subsequently fled the country. ...

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Krämer, John

(Also called INSTITOR, the Latin form of his name). Born about the end of the fourteenth ...

Krafft, Adam

Sculptor, b. about 1440 at Nuremberg ; d. Jan., 1509 at Schwabach. He carved at Nuremberg the ...

Krain

(Or CARNIOLA; Slov. KRANJSKO) A duchy and crownland in the Austrian Empire, bounded on the ...

Krasicki, Ignatius

Born in 1735; died at Berlin, 1801. He took orders in early youth, and soon after became a canon, ...

Krasinski, Sigismund

Count, son of a Polish general, b. at Paris, 19 Feb., 1812; d. there, 23 Feb., 1859. He lost his ...

Kraus, Franz Xaver

An ecclesiastical and art historian, b. at Trier, 18 September, 1840; d. at San Remo, 28 ...

Kreil, Karl

Austrian meteorologist and astronomer, b. at Ried, Upper Austria, 4 Nov., 1798; d. at Vienna, 21 ...

Kreiten, William

Literary critic and poet, b. 21 June, 1847, at Gangelt near Aschen; d. 6 June, 1902, at Kerkrade ...

Kremsmünster

A Benedictine abbey in Austria, on the little river Krems, about twenty miles south of Linz, ...

Kromer, Martin

A distinguished Polish bishop and historian; b. at Biecz in Galicia in 1512; d. at Heilsberg, ...

Krzycki, Andrew

Date of birth uncertain; d. in 1535. — A typical humanistic poet, a most supple courtier ...

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Kuhn, Johannes von

Theologian, b. at Waeschenbeuren in Wuertemberg, 19 Feb., 1806; d. at Tübingen, 8 May, 1887. ...

Kulturkampf

The name given to the political struggle for the rights and self-government of the Catholic ...

Kumbakonam

(KUMBAKONENSIS). Kumbakonam, signifying in English the "Jug's Corner," is a town of 60,000 ...

Kuncevyc, Saint Josaphat

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...

Kutenai Indians

An important tribe of south-eastern British Columbia and the adjacent portions of Montana and ...

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Kwang-si

(Prefecture Apostolic) The mission of Kwang-si comprises the entire province of that name. As ...

Kwang-tung

(Prefecture Apostolic) This prefecture comprises the whole province of that name except the ...

Kwango

(Prefecture Apostolic) Kwango is the name of a river which flows into the Kassai, which itself ...

Kwei-chou

(Vicariate Apostolic) The mission of Kwei-chou embraces the entire province of that name. The ...

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