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Kiang-nan

(Vicariate Apostolic)

The present Vicariate comprises the two provinces of Kiang-su and Ngan-hwei. Its alluvial lands make it, especially Kiang-su, one of the richest and most populous countries of China. The number of inhabitants of both provinces exceeds 60,000,000. Father Matteo Ricci, S.J. , was its first missionary, introducing the Catholic religion into this country at the end of the sixteenth century. He found a powerful aid in the person of the emperor's minister, the famous academician Paul Siu Kwang-k'i, whom he met first at Kwang-tung and later at Peking. Baptized in 1603 at Nan-king, Paul Siu returned to Shang-hai, his native place, and there converted many pagans. In 1607 he took with him from Peking Father Lazzaro Cattaneo, who built a residence and a chapel still to be seen at Shanghai. Returning to Peking, he first followed the Jesuit fathers in their disgrace, was restored to favour in 1628, and died there in 1633. In 1641 his remains wee transferred to Zi-ka-wei, where they still rest, and the principal establishment of the new mission is in the vicinity his tomb. The Jesuits Franciso Brancati and Geronimo de Gravina were at this period building the churches of Sun-kiang, Su-chou, Tsong-ming; Father Sambriani, those of Nan-king, Shanking, Yang-chou, Hwai-ngan. The mission of Kiang-nan enjoyed peace from 1644 to 1661, but the missionaries were too few for the work. In 1660 the Vicariate Apostolic of Kiang-nan was created and confided to Bishop Ignazio Cotolendi of the Paris Society of Foreign Missions . During the persecutions from 1664 to 1671 twenty Jesuits were exiled to Macao, Father Verbiest in Peking obtaining their release in the latter year. After the death of K'ang-hi, Yung Chen exiled all the missionaries of the provinces; a few, however, succeeded in hiding themselves, and, helped by twelve or fifteen Chinese priests, attended to the wants of the Christians. In 1690 Alexander VIII created the Diocese of Nan-king, placing it under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Goa and with authority over the provinces of Kiang-nan and Ho-nan. The first bishop of Nan-king was Allessandro Ciceri of Milan, a Jesuit, consecrated at Macao on 2 Feb., 1696. His last successor was Gaietano Pires-Pireira, a Portuguese Lazarist (d. at Peking, 1846). After 18336 the Diocese of Nan-king was governed by Apostolic administrators until 1856, when the episcopal see was abandoned.

In 1736 the mandarins commenced a bloody persecution which lasted a whole century. At Kiang-nan Fr. Tristan of Athemis was the first priest arrested. The superior of the mission, Father Anthony Joseph Henriquez, was pursued and surrendered on 21 Dec., 1747. Both missionaries were strangled as Su-chou 17 Sept., 1748. The process of their beatification is not yet finished. Three Jesuit missionaries followed in Kiang-nan, viz., Fathers Ignatius Perez, Martin Correa, and Godefroy of Lambeckhoven, named Bishop of Nan-king on 15 May, 1752, and consecrated at Macao on 22 July, 1756. He remained thirty years at Kiang-nan with two Chinese Jesuit priests, Mark Kwan and John Yau. It is related that in 1784 Bishop Godefroy entered Su-chou as a chair-dealer to ordain some new priests. He died on 22 May, 1787, but not before sorrowfully proclaiming, as bishop, the dissolution of his own Society. Before his death he obtained the favour of re-entering the Society, yet surviving in Russia. For the next fifty years only Chinese priests conducted the Kiang-nan mission. In 1830, two Portuguese Lazarists, Fathers Maranda and Henriquez, arrived in Kiang-nan. From 1835 to 1840 Father Ferdinand Faivre and Peter Lavaissière made temporary sojourns in the mission. In reality, from 1787 to the return of the Jesuits in 1840, Kiang-nan was governed by native priests, who kept alive the Faith.

In 1833 Gaietano Peres-Pereira was made Bishop of Kiang-nan, and resided at Peking, relegating his powers to Father Henriquez, a Lazarist like himself residing at Macao. On 1 Oct., 1838, Mgr Peres, last Bishop of Nan-king, conferred the powers of vicar-general to Father Louis de Besi, named in 1841 Vicar-Apostolic of Shan-tung and administrator of the diocese of Nan-king and consecrated titular Bishop of Canopus. He arrived at Kiang-nan in 1842, and obtained some French Jesuits from Propaganda, and from Father Roothan, then General of the Society of Jesus. Fathers Gotteland, Benjamin Brueye, and François left Europe on 28 April, 1840. In 1842 a treaty between England and China resulted in the opening of five Chinese ports, among them Shanghai. Five new fathers and one brother left France for China in 1842. They made the voyage with M. de Lagrené, ambassador of France to Peking, who in 1844 obtained permission for the preaching of the Catholic religion in China. Bishop de Besi appointed Fr. Brueye to found the seminary, which was opened on 3 Feb., 1843, with twenty-three students. In 1853 it was established at Song-kia-tu. In 1849 all the Christian settlements were confided to the French Jesuits ; they contained four thousand seven hundred and fifty Christians. The rebels invaded in 1853 a great part of the province and remained there eleven years. The Jesuit Fathers established themselves in 1847 at Za-ka-wei, near the tomb of Paul Siu, at which period of the orphanages of the mission were commenced. An asylum for girls was a founded in 1855 near Wang-tan. In 1853 the Chang-mau rebels (Tai-ping) took possession of Nan-king, then of Shanghai, but abandoned the latter in 1854.

Bishop de Besi left for Rome in 1847, leaving the government of the mission to his co-adjutor, Bishop Maresca. In 1849 the latter was named administrator of the Diocese of Nan-king, but returned to Europe, owing to ill-health, on 8 April, 1855. On 13 Nov. of the same year he died at Naples. The Diocese of Nan-king was then suppressed, and the Vicariate Apostolic of Kiang-nan the entrusted to the French Jesuits. Father Pierre André Borgniet became administrator Apostolic in 1856. During the eight years of his administratorship the rebels laid waste all the Christian missions of Kiang-nan except that of Shanghai. Then followed the wars of the French and English against China, beginning in 1857. A treaty was signed in 1858, but the war was renewed in 1860, at the end of which entrance into China was obtained. In 1859 the rebels held only Nan-king, but suddenly became stronger. Father Massa was arrested by them but made his escape; his brother Louis, however, was killed by defending the orphanage of Tsai-kia-wan. The orphan asylum was pillaged and burned, and many Christians were massacred. A few Christian natives of Manila were able to defend Tung-kia-tu and Za-ka-wei. In 1862 Admirals Hope and Protet opened a campaign, but the latter as killed at Nan-kiau. Major Gordon, who commanded some four to five thousand men, gained some advantage, but was dismissed in 1866 by the Chinese. At the end of the same year the rebels were driven out of every place they had held. The missions, however, suffered much in the meantime. Father Vuillaume was killed on 4 March, 1862; between 1856 and 1864 twenty-four missionaries died, and before the close of 1865 six or seven were victims of typhus. Bishop Borgniet died of cholera on 31 July, 1862. Mgr Hippolyte Adrien Languillat, Bishop of Sergioplois and Vicar Apostolic of Chi-li since Sept., 1856, was named Vicar Apostolic of Kiang-nan on 2 Feb., 1865, and at once undertook to restore the ruins occasioned by the rebels. He went in Rome in 1867 and brought back with him religious Helpers of the Souls in Purgatory and some Carmelites. He founded the observatory about the same period, and took part in the Vatican Council in 1870, but in 1874 a stroke of apoplexy almost disabled him for any active service. The following are the statistics for the years 1865 and 1878. In 1865, 42 European priests and 12 Chinese priests, 184 missions, 71,184 Christians, and 5038 pupils in the schools ; in 1878, 56 European and 26 native priests, 585 missions, 93,310 Christians, 9135 pupils in the schools.

Father Carrére suffered much at Nan-king. Driven out of this city by Li Hung Chang, he was recalled by the consul of France from Shanghai; he died on 17 Aug., 1868. A hospital for aged men was established at Shanghai in 1867, and the St. Francis Xavier School was opened. A severe persecution broke out in 1876. In March some residences were pillaged, and a catechist massacred. On 13 July a Chinese priest was massacred with some of his students and a boy from the school. The chapel was set afire, and the bodies of the victims were consumed. The girls of the school and their teachers were taken into captivity. Everywhere the property of the Christians wee pillaged, and their chapels burned. Bishop Languillat died during this persecution, at Zi-ka-wei, on 29 Nov., 1878. Bishop Valentine Garnier, already chosen coadjutor, was named his successor; he was fifty-four years old, and governed the mission nineteen years. The accounts of his administration from 1879 to 1878 are as follows: in 1879, 50 European and 29 Chinese priests, 580 missions, 345 schools for boys with 6222 pupils, 213 schools for girls with 2791 pupils, 91,175 Christians ; in 1898, 116 European and 40 Chinese priests, 896 missions, 390 schools for boys with 10,663 pupils, 449 schools for girls with 5208 pupils, 155,177 Christians.

The fathers succeeded in establishing themselves finally in the centre of Ngan-hwei. In 1882, Bishop Garnier sent missionaries to Su-chou-fu, the most northern prefecture of the province of Kiang-su. The fathers bought a house in the city, and then commenced their difficulties, which lasted fourteen years. On 5 Feb., 1889, the European concession of Chin-kiang was attacked by the Chinese, the consulate of the United States was pillaged and burned, but the church and residence of the mission was spared. On 2 May, 1891, some of the rabble besieged the orphanage of the mission, but soldiers rescued the orphans. On 12 May, 1891, Wu-hu and then Ngan-king were attacked, but the presence of a French vessel saved them. However, five or six chapels were pillaged and burned in the interior of the province. Tranquility was restored, thanks to the presence of Admiral Besnard. Bishop Garnier died on 14 July, 1898. Bishop Simon was named Vicar Apostolic in Jan., 1899, and consecrated on 25 June; he died on 25 Aug. of the same year at Wu-hu. At the end of 1900, Bishop Paris, superior of the mission, was named Vicar Apostolic and titular Bishop of Silanda. The following was the condition of the mission in 1907: 1 bishop ; 142 Jesuits of whom 26 are Chinese; 35 native priests ; 696 churches or chapels ; one grand seminary at Zi-ka-wei with 29 students; one little seminary with 15 students; 558 schools for boys with 14,175 pupils; 604 schools for girls with 9360 pupils; two colleges for boys with 408 students; 2 colleges for European girls with 766 students (in Shanghai); 1 English school with 543 pupils; 1 French schools with 336 pupils; 6 hospitals with 3898 patients; 6 asylums for old men with 198 inmates; 37 orphanages with 6584 children; 29 Little Brothers of Mary ; 32 Carmelite nuns, 20 of whom are natives; 91 Helpers of the Souls in Purgatory, 33 of whom are natives; 31 Sisters of Charity; 9 Little Sisters of the Poor ; 173 Chinese religious; 145,219 Catholics, and 92,018 catechumens. (See China ).

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Kögler, Ignaz

(Called LAI in Chinese). Along with Father Adam Schall the most important of the fifty German ...

König, Joseph

Theologian and exegete, born at Hausen on the Aach, District of Hegau, Grand Duchy of Baden, 7 ...

Königgrätz

(REGINAE HRADECENSIS). This Bohemian see owes its origin to Emperor Ferdinand III, who, soon ...

Königshofen, Jacob

More properly JACOB TWINGER VON KÖNIGSHOFEN. Chronicler, b. in 1346 at Königshofen, a ...

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Ka 32

Kabbala

The term is now used as a technical name for the system of esoteric theosophy which for many ...

Kadlubek, Blessed Vincent

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Kafiristan and Kashmir, Prefecture Apostolic of

Created (1887) by Leo XIII in the extreme North of India. As regards India proper, the ...

Kafirs

A term popularly to nearly all the natives of South Africa. It was originally imposed by the Arab ...

Kager, Johann Matthias

German historical painter, born at Munich, 1566; died at Augsburg, 1634. He was originally a ...

Kaiser, Kajetan Georg von

Chemist, born at Kelheim on the Danube (Bavaria), 5 January, 1803; died at Munich, 28 August, ...

Kaiserchronik

(Der Keiser und der Kunige buoch.) A German epic poem of the twelfth century. It is at once a ...

Kaiserwilhelmsland

Comprises the German part of the island of New Guinea, area about 460,000 sq. miles; about ...

Kalands Brethren

(Kalandbrüder, Fratres Calendarii.) The name given to religious and charitable ...

Kalcker, Jan Stephanus van

(GIOVANNI DA CALCAR and JOANNES STEPHANUS CALCARENSIS.) Flemish painter, native of the Duchy ...

Kalinka, Valerian

Polish historian, born near Cracow in 1826; died at Jaroslaw in 1886. He fled from Poland in ...

Kalispel Indians

Popularly known under the French name of Pend d'Oreilles, "ear pendants", an important tribe of ...

Kalocsa-Bacs, Archdiocese of

(Colocensis et Bachiensis.) This archdiocese embraces within its territories an archdiocese ...

Kamerun, Vicariate Apostolic of

(Cameroons; Cameroon.) Located in German West Africa, between British Nigeria and French ...

Kan-Su, Prefecture Apostolic of Southern

Separated from the Northern Kan-su mission in 1905, and committed to the Belgian Congregation of ...

Kan-Su, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

This vicariate includes the territory of Ku-ku-nor, northern part of Tibet, and the five ...

Kandy, Diocese of

(Kandiensis.) Formerly part of the Vicariate of Southern Colombo, Ceylon, India, from which ...

Kansas

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Geography Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central ...

Kansas City, Diocese of

(Kansanopolitana.) Established 10 September, 1880, to include that part of the State of ...

Kant, Philosophy of

Kant's philosophy is generally designated as a system of transcendental criticism tending ...

Karinthia

(CARANTANUM; Slovene, KOROSKO; German KÄRNTEN). A crownland in the Austrian Empire , ...

Karnkowski, Stanislaw

(Karncovious.) Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, born about 1526; died at Lowicz,in ...

Kaskaskia Indians

Formerly chief tribe of the confederacy of Illinois Indians (q.v.). The name is of uncertain ...

Kassai, Upper

Erected as a simple mission in 1901, and detached, as a prefecture Apostolic, from the Vicariate ...

Kateri Tekakwitha, Blessed

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Kauffmann, Angelica

Born at Coire, in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, 30 October, 1741; died at Rome, 5 November, ...

Kaufmann, Alexander

Poet and folklorist, born at Bonn, 14 May, 1817; died at Wertheim, 1 May, 1893. He came of a ...

Kaufmann, Leopold

Chief Burgomaster of Bonn, brother of the poet and folklorist Alexander Kaufmann, born 13 March, ...

Kaulen, Franz Philip

Scriptural scholar, born 20 March, 1827, at Düsseldorf; died at Bonn, 11 July, 1907. He ...

Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton

An Austrian prince and statesman, born at Vienna 2 February, 1711; died there 27 June, 1794. ...

Kavanagh, Edward

American statesman and diplomat, born at Newcastle, Maine, 27 April, 1795; died there, 21 Jan., ...

Kavanagh, Julia

Novelist and biographer, born 7 Jan., 1824, at Thurles, Ireland ; died 28 October, 1877, at ...

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Ke 32

Kearney, Diocese of

(KEARNEYIENSIS). By Decree of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation of 8 March, 1912, Pius X ...

Keating, Geoffrey

Irish theologian, historian, and poet, b. at Burgess in the parish of Tubbrid, Co. Tipperary, ...

Keewatin, Vicariate Apostolic of

The Vicariate Apostolic of Keewatin includes the northern half of the Province of Saskatchewan, ...

Kehrein, Joseph

Educator, philologist, and historian of German literature, born at Heidesheim, near Mainz, 20 ...

Keller, Jacob

Controversialist, born at Sackingen, Baden, Germany, in 1568; died at Munich, Bavaria, 23 ...

Kellner, Lorenz

Educationist, born at Kalteneber in the district of Eichsfeld, 29 January, 1811; died at Trier, ...

Kells, Book of

An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian ...

Kells, School of

Kells (in Gaelic Cenannus ) was the chief of the Irish Columban monasteries. It was founded ...

Kemble, Ven. John

Martyr, b. at Rhydicar Farm, St. Weonard's, Herefordshire, 1599; d. at Widemarsh Common, ...

Kemp, John

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Chancellor of England ; b. at Wye, Kent, about 1380; ...

Kenia

Coextensive with the civil province of Kenia (Kenya) in British East Africa, to which the ...

Kenites

(A.V. Kenites). A tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as ...

Kennedy, James

Bishop of St. Andrews, Scotland. Born about 1406; died 10 May, 1466. Of the ancient house of ...

Kenneth, Saint

(Or KENNY). Commemorated on 11 October, born in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now ...

Kenny, Saint

(Or KENNY). Commemorated on 11 October, born in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now ...

Kenosis

A term derived from the discussion as to the real meaning of Phil. 2:6 sqq.: "Who being in the ...

Kenraghty

(KIMRACHA, KINRECHTIN, or MAKENRACHTUS; in Irish MACIONNRACHTAIGH, anglicized HANRATTY and ...

Kenrick, Francis Patrick and Peter Richard

Archbishops respectively of Baltimore, Maryland, and of St. Louis, Missouri. They were sons of ...

Kent, Nun of

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...

Kentigern, Saint

(Or M UNGO ) Bishop, founder of the See of Glasgow, b. about 518; d. at Glasgow, 13 ...

Kentucky

A state situated between the parallels of latitude 36° 30 and 39°6' N., and between the ...

Keon, Miles Gerard

Journalist, novelist, colonial secretary, lecturer, last descendent of the Keons, of Keonbrooke, ...

Kerkuk

(CHERCHENSIS). A Chaldean Catholic diocese. The ancient name of the city was Karka of ...

Kernan, Francis

Lawyer, statesman; born in Steuben County, New York, 14 January, 1816; d. at Utica, New York, 7 ...

Kerry and Aghadoe

The Diocese of Kerry and Aghadoe (Kerriensis Et Aghadoensis), suffragan of Cashel, Ireland, is ...

Kerssenbroch, Hermann von

(KERSSENBROICK). A teacher and historian, b. at Monchshof, near Barntrup (Lippe), about 1520; ...

Kervyn de Lettenhove, Joseph-Marie-Bruno-Constantin, Baron

Belgian statesman and historian, b. at Saint-Michel-lez-Bruges, 17 August, 1817; d. there, 3 ...

Kessels, Matthias

Sculptor, b. at Maastricht, 1784; d. at Rome, 3 March, 1836. He was first apprenticed to a ...

Ketteler, Wilhelm Emmanuel, Baron von

Bishop of Mainz, b. at Münster, in Westphalia, 25 Dec., 1811; d. at Burghausen, 13 July, ...

Kevin of Glendalough, Saint

Abbot of Glendalough, Ireland, b. about 498, the date being very obscure; d. 3 June, 618; son ...

Keyes, Erasmus Darwin

Soldier, convert, b. at Brimfield, Massuchusetts, U.S.A. 29 May, 1810; d. at Nice, France, ...

Keys, Power of the

The expression "power of the keys" is derived from Christ's words to St. Peter (in Matthew ...

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Kh 1

Kharput

Armenian Uniat diocese created in 1850. The city of Kharput, Armenian Kharpert, which means ...

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Kiang-nan

(Vicariate Apostolic) The present Vicariate comprises the two provinces of Kiang-su and ...

Kiang-si, Eastern

(Vicariate Apostolic) The mission of Eastern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of ...

Kiang-si, Northern

(Vicariate Apostolic) Father Matteo Ricci of the Society of Jesus was the first missionary ...

Kiang-si, Southern

(Vicariate Apostolic) Southern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of Northern Kiang-si in ...

Kickapoo Indians

Apparently corrupted from a longer term signifying "roamers", a tribe of Algonquian stock, ...

Kickham, Charles Joseph

Patriot, novelist, and poet, b. at Mullinahone, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1828; d. at Blackrock, Co. ...

Kielce

(Russian K IELTZY ; Latin K IELCENSIS ) Diocese in the sourthern part of Russian Poland, ...

Kieran, Saints

There are many Irish saints of this name, but the most celebrated is St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise ...

Kildare and Leighlin

(KILDARENSIS ET LEIGHLINENSIS) One of the four suffragans of Dublin, Ireland. These two ...

Kildare, School of

Kildare (Irish: Cill-Dara ), originally known as Druim Criaidh , or the Ridge of Clay, ...

Kilian, Saint

(Killena, Cillíne). Apostle of Franconia and martyr, born about 640 of noble parents ...

Killala

(ALLADENSIS). Diocese. It is one of the five suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical Province ...

Killaloe

(LAONIA) A suffragan diocese of Cashel ; it comprises the greater part of County Clare, a ...

Kilmore

(KILMORENSIS) Diocese in Ireland, includes almost all Cavan and about half of Leitrim. It ...

Kilwardby, Robert

Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina ; died at Viterbo, 11 ...

Kilwinning, Benedictine Abbey of

Located in Ayrshire, Scotland, in the town of the same name, where a church was said to have been ...

Kimberley

(KIMBERLIENSIS) Vicariate apostolic ; suffragan of Adelaide, erected by Leo XIII , 5 May, ...

Kimberley in Orange

(KYMBERLEYENSIS IN ORANGIA). The portion of South Africa which at the present day forms the ...

Kingdom of God

(In Matthew, generally, Kingdom of Heaven ). In this expression the innermost teaching of the ...

Kingisel

The name of two abbots who ruled Glastonbury in the seventh and eighth centuries respectively. ...

Kings

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

Kings, Chronology of the

First, we append a table in which the data of the Bible are put together. For the kings of Juda, ...

Kings, First and Second Books of

(Also know as the F IRST AND S ECOND B OOKS OF S AMUEL. For the First and Second Books of ...

Kings, Third and Fourth Books of

The historical book called in the Hebrew Melakhim, i.e. Kings, is in the Vulgate, in imitation ...

Kingston

(KINGSTONIENSIS or REGIOPOLITANA) The Archdiocese of Kingston comprises the territory from the ...

Kinloss

(Gaelic ceann-loch , "head of the loch"). Cistercian abbey on the coast of Morayshire, ...

Kino, Eusebius

A famous Jesuit missionary of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. 10 August, 1644, in ...

Kiowa Indians

(Pronounced Kai-o-wa , Latin spelling. Spanish form: Caygua ; Comanche form: Kaiwa , from ...

Kirby, Blessed Luke

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

Kircher, Athanasius

Celebrated for the versatility of his knowledge and particularly distinguished for his ...

Kirkwall

A parish, also a royal and parliamentary burgh and chief or county town of Orkney, in the north ...

Kisfaludy

Sándor Kisfaludy Born at Suemeg, Hungary, 27 Sept., 1772; died at Suemeg, 28 October, ...

Kiss

Four times in the Epistles of St. Paul we meet the injunction, used as a sort of formula of ...

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Kl 6

Klaczko, Julian

Polish author, b. at Vilna, 6 November, 1825, of Jewish parents ; d. at Cracow, 26 November, ...

Klee, Heinrich

German theologian and exegete, b. at Münstermaifeld, in the Rhine province, 20 April, ...

Klesl, Melchior

A cardinal and Austrian statesman, b. at Vienna, 19 February, 1552; d. at Wiener-Neustadt, 18 ...

Kleutgen, Josef Wilhelm Karl

German theologian and philosopher, b. at Dortmund, Westphalia, 9 April, 1811; d. at St. Anton ...

Klinkowström

Friedrich August von Klinkowström Artist, author and teacher; b. at Ludwigsburg in Swedish ...

Klopp, Onno

Historian, b. on 9 October, 1822, at Leer (East Friesland); d. at Vienna, 9 August 1903. After ...

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Kn 17

Knabl, Joseph

A master of religious plastic art, b. at Fliess, Tyrol, in 1819; d. at Munich in 1881. He was ...

Kneeling

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

Kneipp, Sebastian

Bavarian priest and hydrotherapist, b. at Stephansreid, Bavaria, 17 May, 1821; d. at ...

Knight, Venerable William

Put to death for the Faith at York, on 29 November, 1596; with him also suffered Venerables ...

Knighthood

Chivalry (derived through the French cheval from the Latin caballus ) as an institution is ...

Knighton, Henry

(CNITTHON) A fourteenth-century chronicler. Nothing is known of his career except that he was ...

Knights of Christ, Order of the

A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple (see Knights Templars ). ...

Knights of Columbus

A fraternal and beneficent society of Catholic men, founded in New Haven, Connecticut, 2 ...

Knights of Malta

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

Knights of the Cross

(Ordo Militaris Crucigerorum cum Rubea Stella.) A religious order famous in the history of ...

Knights Templars, The

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Knoblecher, Ignatius

Catholic missionary in Central Africa, born 6 July, 1819, at St. Cantian in Lower Carniola; died ...

Knoll, Albert (Joseph)

Dogmatic theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, born at Bruneck in northern Tyrol, ...

Knowledge

I. Essentials of Knowledge II. Kinds of Knowledge III. The Problem of Knowledge Knowledge, ...

Knowledge of Jesus Christ

" Knowledge of Jesus Christ," as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know ...

Knownothingism

This was a name applied to a movement in American politics which attracted a large share of public ...

Knox, John

Scotch Protestant leader, b. at Haddington, Scotland, between 1505 and 1515; d. at Edinburgh, ...

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Ko 19

Kober, Franz Quirin von

German canonist and pedagogist, b. of simple countryfolk on 6 March, 1821, at Warthausen, ...

Koberger, Anthony

(KOBURGER, COBERGER). German printer, publisher, and bookseller, b. about 1445; d. at ...

Kobler, Andreas

An historian, b. at Muhldorf in Bavaria, 22 June, 1816; d. at Klagenfurt, 15 November, 1892. He ...

Kochanowski, Jan

Born at Sycyna, 1530, died at Lublin, 22 August, 1584. He was inscribed in 1544 as a student in ...

Kochowski, Vespasian

Born at Sandomir ?, 1633; died at Krakow, 1699. He received his education at the Jesuit ...

Kohlmann, Anthony

Educator and missionary, b. 13 July, 1771, at Kaiserberg, Alsace; d. at Rome, 11 April, 1836. He ...

Koller, Marian Wolfgang

Scientist and educator, b. at Feistritz in Carniola, Austria, 31 October, 1792; d. of cholera at ...

Konarski, Stanislaus

Born in 1700; died in 1773. This great reformer of Polish schools was a Piarist who, during a ...

Konings, Anthony

Born at Helmond, Diocese of Bois-1e-Duc, Holland, 24 August, 1821; died 30 June, 1884. After a ...

Konrad ("der Pfaffe")

Surnamed DER PFAFFE ("The Priest"). A German epic poet of the twelfth century, author of the ...

Konrad of Lichtenau

A medieval German chronicler, d. at Ursperg, in the year 1240. He descended from a noble Swabian ...

Konrad of Megenberg

(KUNRAT). Scholar and writer, b. probably at Mainberg, near Schweinfurt, Bavaria, 2 February, ...

Konrad of Würzburg

A Middle High German poet, b. about 1230; d. at Basle, 1287. He was the most important of the ...

Konsag, Ferdinand

A German missionary of the eighteenth century, b. 2 December, 1703, at Warasdin, Croatia ; d. 10 ...

Koran, The

The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God. Supplemented by ...

Kosciuszko, Tadeusz

Polish patriot and soldier, b. near Novogrudok, Lithuania, Poland, 12 February, 1746; d. at ...

Kostka, Saint Stanislas

Born at Rostkovo near Prasnysz, Poland, about 28 October, 1550; died at Rome during the night of ...

Kottayam, Vicariate Apostolic of

Located on the Malabar Coast, India. This vicariate forms part of the territory of the ancient ...

Kozmian, Stanislaus and John

Two brothers who took part in the Polish insurrection of 1831, and subsequently fled the country. ...

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Kr 11

Krämer, John

(Also called INSTITOR, the Latin form of his name). Born about the end of the fourteenth ...

Krafft, Adam

Sculptor, b. about 1440 at Nuremberg ; d. Jan., 1509 at Schwabach. He carved at Nuremberg the ...

Krain

(Or CARNIOLA; Slov. KRANJSKO) A duchy and crownland in the Austrian Empire, bounded on the ...

Krasicki, Ignatius

Born in 1735; died at Berlin, 1801. He took orders in early youth, and soon after became a canon, ...

Krasinski, Sigismund

Count, son of a Polish general, b. at Paris, 19 Feb., 1812; d. there, 23 Feb., 1859. He lost his ...

Kraus, Franz Xaver

An ecclesiastical and art historian, b. at Trier, 18 September, 1840; d. at San Remo, 28 ...

Kreil, Karl

Austrian meteorologist and astronomer, b. at Ried, Upper Austria, 4 Nov., 1798; d. at Vienna, 21 ...

Kreiten, William

Literary critic and poet, b. 21 June, 1847, at Gangelt near Aschen; d. 6 June, 1902, at Kerkrade ...

Kremsmünster

A Benedictine abbey in Austria, on the little river Krems, about twenty miles south of Linz, ...

Kromer, Martin

A distinguished Polish bishop and historian; b. at Biecz in Galicia in 1512; d. at Heilsberg, ...

Krzycki, Andrew

Date of birth uncertain; d. in 1535. — A typical humanistic poet, a most supple courtier ...

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Ku 5

Kuhn, Johannes von

Theologian, b. at Waeschenbeuren in Wuertemberg, 19 Feb., 1806; d. at Tübingen, 8 May, 1887. ...

Kulturkampf

The name given to the political struggle for the rights and self-government of the Catholic ...

Kumbakonam

(KUMBAKONENSIS). Kumbakonam, signifying in English the "Jug's Corner," is a town of 60,000 ...

Kuncevyc, Saint Josaphat

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...

Kutenai Indians

An important tribe of south-eastern British Columbia and the adjacent portions of Montana and ...

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Kw 4

Kwang-si

(Prefecture Apostolic) The mission of Kwang-si comprises the entire province of that name. As ...

Kwang-tung

(Prefecture Apostolic) This prefecture comprises the whole province of that name except the ...

Kwango

(Prefecture Apostolic) Kwango is the name of a river which flows into the Kassai, which itself ...

Kwei-chou

(Vicariate Apostolic) The mission of Kwei-chou embraces the entire province of that name. The ...

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Ky 1


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