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Habit

Habit is an effect of repeated acts and an aptitude to reproduce them, and may be defined as "a quality difficult to change, whereby an agent whose nature it is to work one way or another indeterminately, is disposed easily and readily at will to follow this or that particular line of action" (Rickaby, Moral Philosophy ). Daily experience shows that the repetition of actions or reactions produces, if not always an inclination, at least an aptitude to act or react in the same manner. To say that a man is accustomed to a certain diet, climate, or exercise, that he is an habitual smoker or early-riser, that he can dance, fence, or play the piano, that he is used to certain points of view, modes of thinking, feeling, and willing, etc., signifies that owing to past experience he can do now that which formerly was impossible, do easily that which was difficult, or dispense with the effort and attention which were at first necessary. Like any faculty or power, habit cannot be known directly in itself, but only indirectly--retrospectively from the actual processes which have given rise to it, and prospectively from those which proceed from it. Habit will be considered:


I. Habit in general
II. Physiological aspects
III. Psychological aspects
IV. Ethical aspects
V. Pedagogical aspects
VI. Philosophical aspects
VII. Theological aspects

I. HABIT IN GENERAL

If an attitude, action, or series of actions resulting from a well-formed and deep-rooted habit is compared with the corresponding attitude, action, or series before the habit was contracted, the following differences are generally observed:

  • Uniformity and regularity have succeeded diversity and variety; under the same circumstances and conditions the same action recurs invariably and in the same manner, unless a special effort is made to inhibit it;
  • Selection has taken the place of diffusion; after a number of attempts in which the energy was scattered in several directions, the proper movements and adaptations have been singled out; the energy now follows a straight line and goes forth directly toward the expected result;
  • Less stimulus is required to start the process, and, where perhaps resistance had to be overcome, the slightest cue now suffices to give rise to a complex action;
  • Difficulty and effort have disappeared; the elements of the action, every one of which used to require distinct attention, succeed one another automatically;
  • Where there was merely desire, often difficult to satisfy, or indifference, perhaps even repugnance, there is now tendency, inclination, or need, and the unwonted interruption of an habitual action or mode of thinking generally results in a painful feeling of uneasiness;
  • Instead of the clear and distinct perception of the action in its details, there is only a vague consciousness of the process in its totality, together with a feeling of familiarity and naturalness. In a word, habit is selective, produces quickness of response, causes the processes to be more regular, more perfect, more rapid and tends to automatism.
  • From these effects of habit, together with the wideness of the field which it covers, its importance is easily inferred. Progress requires flexibility, power to change and to conquer, fixity of useful modifications and the power to retain conquests. Adaptability to new surroundings, and facility of processes presuppose the power of acquiring habits. Without them, not only mental functions like reflecting, reasoning, counting, but even the most ordinary actions like dressing, eating, walking, would necessitate a distinct effort for every detail, consume a great deal of time, and withal remain very imperfect. Hence habit has been called a second nature, and man termed a bundle of habits; and, although such expressions, like all aphorisms, may be open to criticism if taken too literally, yet they contain much truth. Nature is the common groundwork of all activities and essentially the same in all men, but its special direction and manifestations, the special emphasis of certain forms of activity together with their manifold individual features, are, for the most part, the results of habits. Speech, writing, skill in its varied applications, in fact every complex action of organism and mind, which are matters of course for the adult or the adept, appear simple only because they are habitual; the child or the beginner knows how complex they are in reality. Even in merely physiological functions the influence of habit is felt: the stomach becomes accustomed to certain foods; the blood to certain stimulants and poisons; the whole organism to certain hours for resting and awaking, to the climate and surroundings. All mental functions in the adult are the results of habits, or are modified by them. Habits of thought, speculative and practical, habits of feelings and will, religious and moral attitudes, etc., are constantly shaping man's views of things, persons, and events, and determine his behaviour toward those who agree with or differ from him. Observation and reflection show that the empire of habit is wellnigh unlimited, and that there is no form of human activity to which it does not extend. It is hardly possible to exaggerate its importance; the danger is rather that one may under-estimate, or at least fail to fully appreciate it.

    Habit is acquired by exercise; in this it differs from the instincts and other natural predispositions and aptitudes which are innate. In a series of actions, it begins with the first act, for, if this left no trace whatsoever, there would be no more reason why it should begin with the second or any subsequent act. Yet at this early stage the trace or disposition is too weak to be called a habit; it must grow and be strengthened by repetition. The growth of habit is twofold, intensive and extensive, and may be compared to that of a tree which extends its branches and roots farther and farther, and at the same time acquires a stronger vitality, can resist more effectively obstacles to life, and becomes more difficult to uproot. A habit also ramifies; its influence, restricted at first to one line of action, gradually extends, making itself felt in a number of other processes. Meanwhile it takes deeper root, and its intensity increases so that to remove or change it becomes a more and more arduous task.

    The main factors in the growth of habit are:

    • The number of repetitions, as every repetition strengthens the disposition left by previous exercise;
    • their frequency: too long an interval of time allows the disposition to weaken, whereas too short an interval fails to give sufficient rest, and results in organic and mental fatigue;
    • their uniformity: at least change must be slow and gradual, new elements being added little by little;
    • the interest taken in the actions, the desire to succeed, and the attention given;
    • the resulting pleasure or feeling of success which becomes associated with the idea of the action.
    No general rules, however, can be given for a strict determination of these factors. For instance, how frequently the actions should be repeated, or how rapidly the complexity may be increased, will depend not only on actual psychological factors of interest, attention, and application, but also on the nature of the actions to be performed and on natural aptitudes and tendencies. Habits decrease or disappear negatively by abstaining from exercising them, and positively by acting in an opposite direction, antagonistic to the existing habits.

    II. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    All organic functions are due to, facilitated or modified by, habit. Some habits, like those referring to climate, temperature, certain foods, etc., are purely physiological, the mind contributing little or nothing. For instance, the same dose of alcohol or stimulants might be fatal for some organisms, while it is necessary for those which have been used to it. Or again, a bird, confined in an enclosed place in which the air gradually becomes foul, grows so far accustomed to the fetid condition of the atmosphere that it may continue to live for several hours after the air has been so poisoned with carbonic acid as to kill almost immediately another bird suddenly placed therein. In the acquisition of other physiological habits, especially those of skill and dexterity, psychological factors have a great importance, above all the antecedent idea of the end, which directs the selection of the appropriate movements, and the subsequent idea of success associated with them. Moreover a number of such habits are made use of under the guidance of the mind. Thus the acquired facility for writing is adapted to the ideas to be expressed; fencing consists in the adaptation of certain movements facilitated by habit to the perceived or foreseen movements of the adversary. They are therefore mixed habits of organism and mind.

    Physiological habit supposes that an action, after being performed, leaves some trace in the organism, especially in the nervous system. In the present stage of physiological science, the nature of these traces cannot be determined with certainty. By some they are described as persisting movements and vibrations; by others, as fixed impressions and structural modifications; by others finally, as tendencies and dispositions to certain functions. These views are not exclusive, but may be combined, for the disposition, which has a more direct reference to future processes, may result from permanent impressions and movements, which have special reference to past processes. Somewhat metaphorically, physiological habit has also been explained as a canalization, or the creation of paths of least resistance which the nervous energy tends to follow.

    III. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Psychologically habit signifies the acquired facility of conscious processes. The education of the senses, association of ideas, memory, mental attitudes derived from experience and from studies general or special, the powers of attention, reflection, reasoning, insight, etc., and all these complex factors which form man's frame of mind and character, such as strength of will, weakness or obstinacy, irascibility or calmness, likes and dislikes, prejudices, and so on, are due largely to habits intentionally or unintentionally contracted. Owing to the great variety of conscious processes and the complexity of their determinants, it is difficult to reduce the psychological effects of habit to universal laws. The statement frequently made that habit lessens consciousness cannot be accepted without qualification; for sometimes the being accustomed to a stimulus means ceasing to have a clear consciousness of it, as in the case of the ticking of a clock which little by little ceases to be perceived distinctly, while sometimes on the contrary it means an increase of consciousness, as in the case of the developed keenness of the musician's ear in discriminating sounds of slightly different pitch. Here a few distinctions must be kept in mind. First, between prolonged sensation, producing fatigue and consequently dullness of the sense-organ, and repeated sensation allowing sufficient rest. A second, between mental processes in which the mind is chiefly passive, and those in which it is chiefly active, as habit lessens passive and augments active sensitiveness. Finally one must see whether conscious processes are ends or simply means. Compared to the quality of the sounds to be produced, the special activity of the pianist's fingers or the singer's vocal organs is but a means to an end. Hence the musician becomes less conscious of this activity but more conscious of its result. In any case, since the energy flows naturally in the wonted direction, effort and attention are in inverse ratio to habit.

    To pleasures as a rule applies the proverb "Assueta vilescunt" (Familiarity breeds contempt). By being repeated the same experience loses its novelty, which is one of the elements of pleasure and interest. But the rapidity of the decrease depends, not only on the frequency of the repetitions, but also on the wealth and variety contained in the experiences; hence it is that some musical compositions become tiresome much sooner than others in which the mind continues to discover some new pleasurable element. Pleasures resulting from the satisfaction of periodical wants, like resting or eating, undergo no change from the mere fact of repetition. Inclinations (i.e. desire and aversion) decrease; desires frequently change into needs of, or unconscious cravings after, experiences which formerly were pleasurable, but have now become tasteless or are even known to be injurious. Persons or things habitually met with, even if they are the source of no pleasure, are missed if they happen to disappear. Painful impressions become less keen unless they are increased in reality or exaggerated by the imagination. By exercise mental activity is strengthened in proportion to natural dispositions and to the quantity and quality of the energy employed. Hence habit is a force which impels to act, diminishes the strength of the will, and may become so strong as to be almost irresistible.

    IV. ETHICAL ASPECTS

    From the point of view of ethics, the main division of habits is into good and bad, i.e. into virtues and vices, according as they lead to actions in conformity with or against the rules of morality. It is needless to insist on the importance of habit in moral conduct; the majority of actions are performed under its influence, frequently without reflection, and in accordance with principles or prejudices to which the mind has become accustomed. The actual dictates of an upright conscience are dependent on intellectual habits, especially those of rectitude and honesty without which it happens too often that reason is used, not to find out what is right or wrong, but to justify a course of action one has taken or wishes to take. Custom also is an important factor, as that which is of frequent occurrence, even if known at first to be wrong, little by little becomes familiar, and its commission no longer produces in us feelings of shame or remorse. The voice of conscience is stifled; it ceases to give its warning, or at least no attention is paid to it.

    By lessening freedom, habit also lessens the actual responsibility of the agent, for actions are less perfectly attended to, and in varying degrees escape the control of the will. But it is important to note the distinction between habits acquired and retained knowingly, voluntarily, and with some foresight of the consequences likely to result, and habits acquired unconsciously, without our noticing them, and therefore without our thinking of the possible consequences. In the former case, actions good or bad, though actually not quite free, are nevertheless imputable to the agent, since they are voluntary in their cause, that is, in the implied consent given them at the beginning of the habit. If on the contrary the will had no part at all in acquiring or retaining the habit, actions proceeding from it are not voluntary, but, as soon as the existence and dangers of a bad habit are noticed, efforts to uproot it become obligatory.

    V. PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS

    Between the child and the adult there is not merely a difference in the quantity of energy, bodily and mental, which they command, but especially a difference of adaptability, co-ordination or habit, thanks to which such energy is made more available for a definite purpose. Growth or increase and development or organization must proceed together. The main end of education is to direct the harmonious development of all the child's faculties according to their relative importance, and thus to do for the child that which it is not yet able to do for itself, namely to fit its various energies for future use, and to select from among the tendencies deposited in its nature those which are to be cultivated and those which are to be destroyed. While the work must proceed gradually according to the increasing capacities of the child, the fact must always be kept in view that in early years both organism and mind are plastic and more easily influenced. Later their power of adaptability is much less, and frequently the learning of a new habit implies the difficult task of breaking off an old one.

    As the complexity of functions increases, it becomes imperative, as far as possible, that the new elements find at once their proper place and associations, and take root there, since otherwise it would be necessary later on to eradicate them and perhaps transplant them somewhere else. Hence all habits necessary to human perfection must be cultivated so as to be grooved into one another. Hence also the principle of negative education advocated by Rousseau is inadmissible. In early years, according to him, "the only habit which the child should be allowed to form is that of contracting no habit whatsoever", not even that of using one hand rather than the other, or that of eating, sleeping, acting at the same regular hours. Up to twelve, the child should not be able to distinguish its right from its left hand. With regard to intelligence and will, "the first education must be purely negative. It consists not in teaching virtue or truth, but in guarding the heart against vice and the mind against error ". To judge this principle, it must be remembered that there are three periods in the development of activity: one of diffusion during which actions take place largely at random, and the energy is dispersed in many channels; the second of effort at co-ordination during which the proper modes of functioning are selected and practised; the third of habit which removes everything superfluous, and greatly facilitates correct modes of functioning. To prolong the first of these periods, since the last is the most perfect, would be an injustice against the child, who has a right not only to the necessaries of life, but also to the help required for its development. Moreover, it may be asked, how can the heart be guarded against vice, and the mind against error, without showing what vice and error are, and without teaching virtue and truth ? How in general can a bad habit be avoided or combated more effectively than by the acquisition of the contrary habit? Experience shows that many good habits, if not cultivated in childhood, are never acquired at all, or not so perfectly, and defects in the adult may often be traced back to early education.

    To obtain the best results, it is important for the teacher to know the natural aptitudes of every pupil, for the effort which is possible for one might be, if required of another, a source of discouragement, or exercise even a still more deleterious influence on the mind of the child. The use of rewards and punishments must always be made in a manner suited to the child's dispositions and directed by the general effects of habit upon pleasurable and painful impressions and emotions. At the same time that habits grow, attention has to be paid to their dangers, and the child must not be allowed to become a mere automaton. Habits of reflection and attention, together with determination and strength of will, will enable the child to control, direct, and govern other habits.

    VI. PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS

    In Aristotelean and Scholastic metaphysics habit comes under the category called quality. To be the subject of habits a being must be in potentia (see ACTUS ET POTENTIA), i.e. capable of determination and perfection; and this potentia must not be restricted to only one mode of activity or receptivity, for, where there is absolute fixity, where one and the same line is invariably followed, there is no room for habit, which implies adaptation and specification. On the strength of this condition, Saint Thomas holds that habit properly so-called cannot be found in the material world, but only in the spiritual faculties of intellect and will. In man, however, we may speak of organic habits for such functions as are under the dependence of these spiritual faculties. Matter, even in plants and animals, is the subject merely of dispositions, and the difference between habit and disposition is that the former is more stable, the latter more easily changed. Against this position several objections have been urged. In the first place, the proposed distinction of habit and disposition is not based on anything essential, but on a difference of degree, which seems insufficient to draw a strict line between beings that are the subjects of habits and those that are the subjects of dispositions only. If it is clear that moral habits of will differ from merely organic habits, it is impossible to say why, e.g. the habit of a horse of stopping at certain places, or the habits of trained animals differ radically from human habits of skill and dexterity and why to the latter alone the name of habits can be given. Furthermore it is true, as Aristotle remarks, that, by being thrown in the air, a stone will never acquire any facility for taking the same direction, but will always tend to fall toward the centre of attraction according to a vertical line; and that after any number of revolutions in the same direction a mill-stone acquires no facility for that special movement, unless it be an extrinsic one due to the adaptation of the mechanism. Nevertheless, in proportion as the elements of a material system are more varied, there is room for different arrangements, and consequently for new permanent aptitudes. In the sheet of paper which, after being folded, is more easily folded again; in the clothes or shoes which fit better after being worn for some time; in the mechanism which gives the best results after some functioning; in the violin which good use improves and bad use deteriorates, in domestic or trained animals, etc., there is something at least analogical to habit, and which cannot be distinguished from it on the mere ground of greater changeableness.

    Hence if habit is considered exclusively from the point of view of retentiveness, there is no reason to deny its existence in the material world. It has been even said that, being simply an application of the law of inertia, it finds its maximum of application in inorganic matter, which, unless acted on by some contrary force, keeps indefinitely its modifications and conditions of rest or movement. Hence James writes that "the philosophy of habit is thus, in the first instance, a chapter in physics rather than in physiology or psychology " (Principles of Psychology I, 105). However, since habit means essentially specificizing of that which was indetermined, and the fixating of that which was indifferent, from this point of view of plasticity, adaptability, indetermination, selectiveness, it applies more strictly to organic than to inorganic matter, and more strictly still to the will which is capable even of such contrary determinations as temperance and intemperance, speaking the truth and lying, and, in general, of acting in one or another way and of abstaining entirely from action.

    VII. THEOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    In theology, the question of habits has several important applications. In fundamental morals, its discussion is necessary for the determination of the degree of responsibility in human actions, and the treatise de paenitentia deals with the attitude to be taken by the confessor toward penitents who habitually fall into the same sins, with the rules for granting or denying absolution, and with the advice to be given such persons in order to help them out of their habits. The scholastics, using a terminology. which is little in accordance with the modern meaning of habit and somewhat confusing to the lay reader, make a distinction between natural and supernatural, and between acquired and infused habits. Of the natural habits some are acquired by practice, others are innate like the habitus primorum principiorum , that is, the innate aptitude of the human mind to grasp at once the truth of self-evident principles as soon as their meaning is understood. Supernatural habits cannot be acquired, since they direct man to his supernatural end, and, therefore, are above the exigencies and the forces of nature. They suppose a higher principle, given by God, which is sanctifying or "habitual" grace. With habitual grace the three theological virtues, which are also habitus supernaturales , and, according to the more common opinion, the four cardinal virtues and the gifts of the Holy Ghost , are infused in the soul. Of themselves, such "habitus" give no facility to act, but only the power, the mere potentia . The facility--habit proper, or virtue in the strict sense--is acquired by the co-operation of man with Divine grace and the repetition of acts. By sin, on the contrary, these habitus are lessened or lost.

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    (B LAATAND ) Born 911; died 1 November, 985 or 986. He was the son of King Gorm the Old of ...

    Harold, Francis

    Irish Franciscan and historical writer, d. at Rome, 18 March, 1685. He was for some time ...

    Harpasa

    A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. Nothing is known of the history of this ...

    Harper, Thomas Morton

    Priest, philosopher, theologian and preacher. Born in London 26 Sept., 1821, of Anglican ...

    Harrington, Ven. William

    English martyr ; b. 1566; d. 18 February, 1594. His father had entertained Campion at the ...

    Harris, Joel Chandler

    Folklorist, novelist, poet, journalist; born at Eatonton, Georgia, U.S.A. 1848; died at Atlanta, ...

    Harrisburg

    (Harrisburgensis.) Established 1868, comprises the Counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, Lancaster, ...

    Harrison, James

    Priest and martyr ; b. in the Diocese of Lichfield, England, date unknown; d. at York, 22 ...

    Harrison, William

    Third and last archpriest of England, b. in Derbyshire in 1553; d. 11 May, 1621. He was ...

    Harrowing of Hell

    This is the Old English and Middle English term for the triumphant descent of Christ into hell ...

    Hart, William

    Born at Wells, 1558; suffered at York, 15 March, 1583. Elected Trappes Scholar at Lincoln ...

    Hartford

    Diocese of Hartford, established by Gregory XVI, 18 Sept., 1843. When erected it embraced the ...

    Hartley, Ven. William

    Martyr ; b. at Wyn, in Derbyshire, England, of a yeoman family about 1557; d. 5 October, 1588. ...

    Hartmann von Aue

    A Middle High German epic poet and minnesinger; died between 1210 and 1220. Little is known ...

    Hartmann, Georg

    Mechanician and physicist ; b. at Eckoltsheim, Bavaria, 9 Feb. 1489; d. at Nuremberg, 9 ...

    Hasak, Vincenz

    Historian, b. at Neustadt, near Friedland, Bohemia, 18 July, 1812; d. 1 September, 1889, as ...

    Haschka, Lorenz Leopold

    A poet-author of the Austrian national anthem; b. at Vienna, 1 Sept. 1749, d. there 3 Aug., ...

    Haspinger, Johann Simon

    A Tyrolese priest and patriot ; b. at Gries, Tyrol, 28 October, 1776; d. in the imperial palace ...

    Hassard, John Rose Greene

    An editor, historian; b. in New York, U.S.A. 4 September, 1836; d. in that city, 18 April, 1888. ...

    Hasslacher, Peter

    Preacher; b. at Coblenz, 14 August, 1810; d. at Paris, 5 July, 1876. He was one of that band of ...

    Hatred

    Hatred in general is a vehement aversion entertained by one person for another, or for ...

    Hatto

    Archbishop of Mainz ; b. of a noble Swabian family, c. 850; d. 15 May, 913. He was educated at ...

    Hatton, Edward Anthony

    Dominican, apologist ; b. in 1701; d. at Stourton Lodge, near Leeds, Yorkshire, 23 October, ...

    Hauara

    A titular see of Palestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. Peutinger's map locates a place of ...

    Haudriettes

    A religious congregation founded in Paris early in the fourteenth century by Jeanne, wife of ...

    Haughery, Margaret

    Margaret Haughery, "the mother of the orphans ", as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, ...

    Hauréau, Jean-Barthélemy

    Historian and publicist; b. at Paris, 1812; d. there, 1896. He was educated at the Louis le Grand ...

    Hautecombe

    (Altacomba, Altæcombæum) A Cistercian monastery near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, ...

    Hautefeuille, Jean de

    French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...

    Hautefeuille, Jean de

    French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...

    Hauteserre

    (ALTESERRA). Antoine Dadin d'Hauteserre Born 1602, died 1682; a distinguished French historian ...

    Hauzeur, Mathias

    A Franciscan theologian, b. at Verviers, 1589; d. at Liège 12 November, 1676, for many ...

    Havana

    Diocese of Havana (San Cristóbal de la Habana) — Avanensis The city of Havana is ...

    Havestadt, Bernhard

    German Jesuit ; b. at Cologne, 27 February, 1714; died at Münster after 1778. He entered ...

    Hawarden, Edward

    (HARDEN). Theologian and controversialist, b. in Lancashire, England, 9 April, 1662; d. in ...

    Hawes, Stephen

    Poet; b. in Suffolk about 1474; d. about 1523. Very little is known of his life. He was educated ...

    Hawker, Robert Stephen

    Poet and antiquary; b. at Plymouth 3 December, 1803, d. there 15 August, 1875, son of Jacob ...

    Hawkins, Sir Henry

    Raised to the peerage as Lord Brampton, eminent English lawyer and Judge, b. at Hitchin, ...

    Hay, Edmund and John

    (1) Edmund Hay Jesuit, and envoy to Mary Queen of Scots, b. 1540?; d. at Rome, 4 Nov., 1591. he ...

    Hay, George

    Bishop and writer, b. at Edinburgh, 24 Aug., 1729; d. at Aquhorties, 18 Oct., 1811. His parents ...

    Haydn, Franz Joseph

    Born of staunch Catholic parents at Rohrau, Austria, 1 April, 1732; died at Gumpendorf, Vienna, ...

    Haydn, Johann Michael

    A younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn ; born at Rohrau, Austria, 14 September, 1737; died at ...

    Haydock, George Leo

    Priest and Biblical scholar; b. 11 April, 1774, at Cottam, near Wood Plumpton, Lancashire; d. 29 ...

    Haydock, Venerable George

    English martyr ; born 1556; executed at Tyburn, 12 February, 1583-84. He was the youngest son of ...

    Haymo

    ( Or Haimo). A Benedictine bishop of the ninth century; d. 26 March, 853. The exact date ...

    Haymo of Faversham

    English Franciscan and schoolman, b. at Faversham, Kent; d. at Anagni, Itlay, in 1243, according ...

    Haynald, Lajos

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Kalocsa-Bács in Hungary ; b. at Szécsény, 3 ...

    Hazart, Cornelius

    Controversialist, orator, and writer, b. 28 October, 1617, at Oudenarde in the Netherlands ; ...

    × Close

    He 165

    Healy, George Peter Alexander

    An American portrait and historical painter, b. at Boston, 15 July, 1808; d. at Chicago, 14 June ...

    Hearse, Tenebrae

    The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

    Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the

    The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...

    Heart of Mary, Congregations of

    I. Sisters of the Holy Heart of Mary Founded in 1842 at Nancy, by Mgr Menjaud, Bishop of ...

    Heart of Mary, Devotion to the

    As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...

    Heath, Ven. Henry

    English Franciscan and martyr, son of John Heath; christened at St. John's, Peterborough, 16 ...

    Heaven

    This subject will be treated under seven headings: I. Name and Place of Heaven; II. Existence of ...

    Hebrew Bible

    As compared with the Latin Vulgate , the Hebrew Bible includes the entire Old Testament with ...

    Hebrew Language and Literature

    Hebrew was the language spoken by the ancient Israelites, and in which were composed nearly all ...

    Hebrews, Epistle to the

    This will be considered under eight headings: (I) Argument; (II) Doctrinal Contents; (III) ...

    Hebrides, New

    Vicariate Apostolic in Oceania; comprises the New Hebrides, with Banks and Torres, islands ...

    Hebron

    ( hbrwn, chebrón ) An ancient royal city of Chanaan, famous in biblical history, ...

    Hecker, Isaac Thomas

    Missionary, author, founder of the Paulists ; b. in New York, 18 December, 1819; d. there, 22 ...

    Hedonism

    ( hedoné, pleasure). The name given to the group of ethical systems that hold, with ...

    Hedwig, Saint

    Duchess of Silesia, b. about 1174, at the castle of Andechs ; d. at Trebnitz, 12 or 15 ...

    Heeney, Cornelius

    Merchant and philanthropist; b. in King's County, Ireland, 1754; d. at Brooklyn, U.S.A. 3 May, ...

    Heereman von Zuydwyk, Freiherr von

    (Clemens Aug. Ant.). Catholic statesman and writer on art, b. 26 Aug., 1832, at Surenburg near ...

    Heeswijk

    A village in the diocese of Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), Holland, in which the dispersed ...

    Hefele, Karl Joseph von

    Bishop of Rottenburg, b. at Unterkochen, Würtemberg, 15 March, 1809; d. at Rottenburg, 5 ...

    Hegelianism

    (1) Life and Writings of Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born at Stüttgart in 1770; ...

    Hegesippus, Saint

    (Roman Martyrology, 7 April). A writer of the second century, known to us almost exclusively ...

    Hegesippus, The Pseudo-

    A fourth-century translator of the "Jewish War" of Flavius Josephus. The name is based on an ...

    Hegius, Alexander

    Humanist ; b. probably in 1433, at Heeck (Westphalia); d. 7 December, 1498, at Deventer ...

    Heidelberg, University of

    Heidelberg, a city of 41,000 inhabitants, is situated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, on the left ...

    Heiligenkreuz

    (SANCTA CRUX). An existing Cistercian monastery in the Wienerwald, eight miles north-west of ...

    Heilsbronn

    (FONS SALUTIS). Formerly a Cistercian monastery in the Diocese of Eichstätt in Middle ...

    Heilsbronn, Monk of

    This name indicates the unknown author of some small mystical treatises, written about the ...

    Heim, François Joseph

    French historical painter, b. near Belfort, 1787, d. in Paris, 1865. This clever painter ...

    Heinrich der Glïchezäre

    ( Glïchezäre , i.e. the hypocrite, in the sense of one who adopts a strange name or ...

    Heinrich von Ahaus

    (Hendrik van Ahuis) Founder of the Brethren of the Common Life in Germany, b. in 1371, the ...

    Heinrich von Laufenberg

    A German poet of the fifteenth century, d. at Strasburg in 1460; he was a priest in Freiburg ...

    Heinrich von Meissen

    Usually called "Frauenlob" (Woman's praise), a Middle High German lyric poet; b. at Meissen ...

    Heinrich von Melk

    German satirist of the twelfth century; of knightly birth and probably a lay brother in the ...

    Heinrich von Veldeke

    A medieval German poet of knightly rank; b. near Maastricht in the Netherlands about the ...

    Heinz, Joseph

    Swiss painter ; b. at Basle, 11 June, 1564; d. near Prague, Bohemia, October, 1609. He appears ...

    Heis, Eduard

    German astronomer, b. at Cologne, 18 February, 1806; d. at Münster, Westphalia, 30 June, ...

    Heisterbach

    (Vallis S. Petri). A former Cistercian monastery in the Siebengebirge near the little town ...

    Helen of Sköfde, Saint

    Martyr in the first half of the twelfth century. Her feast is celebrated 31 July. Her life ...

    Helena (Montana)

    (Helenensis) Erected from the Vicariate of Montana, 7 March, 1884. It comprises the western ...

    Helena, Saint

    The mother of Constantine the Great , born about the middle of the third century, possibly in ...

    Helenopolis

    A titular see of Bithynia Prima, suffragan of Prusa. On the southern side of the Sinus Astacenus ...

    Heli

    Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

    Heliae, Paul

    (POVL HELGESEN) A Carmelite, opponent of the Reformation in Denmark, born at Warberg (in the ...

    Heliand, The

    ( German Heiland , Saviour) The oldest complete work of German literature . Matthias Flacius ...

    Heliogabalus

    (E LAGABAL ) The name adopted by Varius Avitus Bassianus, Roman emperor (218-222), born of ...

    Hell

    This subject is treated under eight headings: (I) Name and Place of Hell; (II) Existence of ...

    Hell, Maximilian

    (Höll). Astronomer, b. at Schemnitz in Hungary, 15 May, 1720; d. at Vienna, 14 April, ...

    Hello, Ernest

    French philosopher and essayist, b. at Lorient, Brittany, 4 Nov., 1828; d. at Kéroman, ...

    Helmold

    A historian, born in the first half of the twelfth century; died about 1177. He was a native of, ...

    Helmont, Jan Baptista van

    Born at Brussels, 1577; died near Vilvorde, 30 December, 1644. This scientist, distinguished in ...

    Helpers of the Holy Souls, Society of the

    ( Auxiliatrices des Ames du Purgatoire ) A religious order of women founded in Paris, ...

    Helpidius, Flavius Rusticius

    The name of several Latin writers. It appears in the manuscript of Pomponius Mela and Julius ...

    Hemmerlin, Felix

    (MALLEOLUS) properly HEMERLI A provost at Solothurn, in Switzerland, born at Zurich, in 1388 ...

    Henderson, Issac Austin

    Born at Brooklyn, 1850; died in Rome, March, 1909. His family was of Scotch and Irish ...

    Hendrick, Thomas Augustine

    First American and the twenty-second Bishop of Cebú, Philippine Islands, b. at Penn Yan, ...

    Hengler, Lawrence

    Catholic priest and the inventor of the horizontal pendulum, b. at Reichenhofen, ...

    Hennepin, Louis

    One of the most famous explorers in the wilds of North America during the seventeenth century, b. ...

    Henoch

    (Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

    Henoch, Book of

    The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

    Henoticon

    The story of the Henoticon forms a chapter in that of the Monophysite heresy in the fifth and ...

    Henríquez, Crisóstomo

    A Cistercian religious of the Spanish Congregation; b. at Madrid, 1594; d. 23 December, 1632, ...

    Henríquez, Enrique

    Noted Jesuit theologian, b. at Oporto, 1536; d. at Tivoli, 28 January, 1608. At the age of ...

    Henri de Saint-Ignace

    A Carmelite theologian, b. in 1630, at Ath in Hainaut, Belgium ; d. in 1719 or 1720, near ...

    Henrion, Mathieu-Richard-Auguste

    Baron, French magistrate, historian, and journalist; b. at Metz, 19 June, 1805; d. at Aix, ...

    Henry Abbot

    Layman, martyred at York, 4 July, 1597, pronounced Venerable in 1886. His acts are thus related ...

    Henry II

    King of England, born 1133; died 6 July, 1189; was in his earlier life commonly known as Henry ...

    Henry II, Saint

    German King and Holy Roman Emperor, son of Duke Henry II (the Quarrelsome) and of the Burgundian ...

    Henry III

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Conrad II; b. 1017; d. at Bodfeld, in the Harz Mountains, 5 ...

    Henry IV

    King of France and Navarre, son of Jeanne d'Albret and Antoine de Bourbon, b. 14 December, 1553, ...

    Henry IV

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry III and Agnes of Poitou, b. at Goslar, 11 November, ...

    Henry of Friemar

    (DE VRIMARIA) German theologian ; b. at Friemar, a small town near Gotha in Thuringia, about ...

    Henry of Ghent

    (HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, known as the DOCTOR SOLEMNIS) A notable scholastic philosopher and ...

    Henry of Herford

    (Or HERWORDEN; HERVORDIA) Friar and chronicler; date of birth unknown; died at Minden, 9 Oct., ...

    Henry of Huntingdon

    Historian; b. probably near Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, between 1080 and 1085; d. 1155. Little is ...

    Henry of Kalkar

    (Egher). Carthusian writer, b. at Kalkar in the Duchy of Cleves in 1328; d. at Cologne, 20 ...

    Henry of Langenstein

    (Henry of Hesse the Elder.) Theologian and mathematician; b. about 1325 at the villa of ...

    Henry of Nördlingen

    A Bavarian secular priest, of the fourteenth century, date of death unknown; the spiritual ...

    Henry of Rebdorf

    Alleged author of an imperial and papal chronicle of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is ...

    Henry of Segusio, Blessed

    Usually called Hostiensis , an Italian canonist of the thirteenth century, born at Susa (in ...

    Henry Suso, Blessed

    (Also called Amandus , a name adopted in his writings). German mystic, born at Constance on ...

    Henry the Navigator, Prince

    Born 4 March, 1394; died 13 November, 1460; he was the fourth son of John I, King of Portugal, by ...

    Henry V

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV ; b. in 1081; d. at Utrecht, 23 May, 1125. He ...

    Henry VI

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy ; b. in ...

    Henry VIII

    King of England, born 28 June, 1491; died 28 January, 1547. He was the second son and third ...

    Henryson, Robert

    Scottish poet, born probably 1420-1430; died about 1500. His birthplace, parentage, and place of ...

    Henschen, Godfrey

    (Or Henskens .) Jesuit, hagiographer ; b. at Venray (Limburg), 21 June, 1601; d. at ...

    Hensel, Luise

    Poetess and convert ; born at Linum, 30 March, 1798; died at Paderborn, 18 December, 1876. Her ...

    Henten, John

    Biblical exegete, born 1499 at Nalinnes Belgium ; died 10 Oct., 1566, at Louvain. When quite ...

    Heortology

    (From the Greek heorte , festival, and logos , knowledge, discourse) Heortology ...

    Hephæstus

    A titular see of Augustamnica Prima, mentioned by Hierocles (Synecd., 727, 9), by George of ...

    Heptarchy

    (A NGLO -S AXON H EPTARCHY ) By the term heptarchy is understood that complexus of ...

    Heraclas

    Bishop of Alexandria from 231 or 232; to 247 or 248. Of his earlier life Origen tells us, ...

    Heraclea

    A titular see of Thracia Prima. Heraclea is the name given about four centuries before the ...

    Heraldry, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical heraldry naturally divides itself into various branches, principally: the arms of ...

    Herbart and Herbartianism

    The widespread and increasing influence of Herbart and his disciples in the work of education ...

    Herbert of Bosham

    A biographer of St. Thomas Becket , dates of birth and death unknown. He was probably born in ...

    Herbert of Derwentwater, Saint

    (Hereberht). Date of birth unknown; d. 20 March, 687; an anchorite of the seventh century, ...

    Herbert of Lea, Lady Elizabeth

    Authoress, and philanthropist, b. in 1822; d. in London 30 Oct., 1911. Lady Herbert was the ...

    Herbst, Johann Georg

    Born at Rottweil, in Würtemberg, 13 January, 1787; died 31 July, 1836. His college course, ...

    Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo, Alejandro

    Born at Lisbon, 28 March, 1810; died near Santarem, 13 Sept., 1877. Because of his liberal ...

    Herder

    The name of a German firm of publishers and booksellers. Bartholomäus Herder Founder of the ...

    Herdtrich, Christian Wolfgang

    (According to Franco, Christianus Henriques ; Chinese, Ngen ). An Austrian Jesuit ...

    Heredity

    The offspring tends to resemble, sometimes with extraordinary closeness, the parents ; this is ...

    Hereford, Ancient Diocese of

    (HEREFORDENSIS) Located in England. Though the name of Putta, the exiled Bishop of ...

    Hereswitha, Saint

    (HAERESVID, HERESWYDE). Daughter of Hereric and Beorhtswith and sister of St. Hilda of Whitby. ...

    Heresy

    I. Connotation and DefinitionII. Distinctions III. Degrees of heresy IV. Gravity of the sin of ...

    Hergenröther, Joseph

    Church historian and canonist, first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives, b. at ...

    Heribert

    (ARIBERT) Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045) An ambitious and warlike prince of the ...

    Heribert, Saint

    Archbishop of Cologne ; born at Worms, c. 970; died at Cologne, 16 March, 1021. His father was ...

    Heriger of Lobbes

    A medieval theologian and historian; born about 925; died 31 October, 1007. After studying at ...

    Herincx, William

    A theologian, born at Helmond, North Brabant, 1621; died 17 Aug., 1678. After receiving his ...

    Hermann Contractus

    (Herimanus Augiensis, Hermann von Reichenau ). Chronicler, mathematician, and poet; b. 18 ...

    Hermann I

    Landgrave of Thuringia (1190-1217), famous as a patron of medieval German poets. He was the ...

    Hermann Joseph, Saint

    Premonstratensian monk and mystic; b. at Cologne about 1150; d. at Hoven, 7 April, 1241. ...

    Hermann of Altach

    (Niederaltaich). A medieval historian; b. 1200 or 1201; d. 31 July, 1275. He received his ...

    Hermann of Fritzlar

    With this name are connected two works on mysticism written in German. The first, "Das ...

    Hermann of Minden

    Provincial of the German province of Dominicans ; b. at or near Minden on an unknown date ; d. ...

    Hermann of Salza

    Fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , descendant of the noble Thuringian house of Salza; ...

    Hermanos Penitentes, Los

    (The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

    Hermas

    (First or second century), author of the book called "The Shepherd" ( Poimen , Pastor), a work ...

    Hermas, Saint

    Martyr The Roman Martyrology sets down for 18 August (XV Kal. Septembris) the feast of the ...

    Hermeneutics

    Derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god Hermes, the reputed messenger and ...

    Hermengild, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 585. Leovigild, the Arian King of the Visigoths (569-86), ...

    Hermes, George

    Philosopher and theologian, b. at Dreierwalde near Theine (Westphalia), 22 April, 1775; d. at ...

    Hermes, Saint

    Martyr, Bishop of Salano (Spalato) in Dalmatia. Very little is known about him; in Romans ...

    Hermite, Charles

    Born at Dieuze, Lorraine, 24 December, 1822; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1901; one of the greatest ...

    Hermits

    ( Eremites , "inhabitants of a desert ", from the Greek eremos ), also called anchorites, ...

    Hermits of St. Augustine

    (Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons ). A ...

    Hermon

    [From the Hebrew meaning "sacred (mountain)"; Septuagint, Aermon ] A group of mountains ...

    Hermopolis Magna

    A titular see of Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoe, in Egypt. The native name was Khmounoun; ...

    Hermopolis Parva

    A titular see of Ægyptus Prima, suffragan of Alexandria. Its ancient name, Dimanhoru or ...

    Herod

    (Greek Herodes , from Heros .) Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. ...

    Herodias

    Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus -- son of Herod the Great and Mariamne -- was a descendant of ...

    Heroic Act of Charity

    A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences dated 18 December, 1885, and confirmed the ...

    Heroic Virtue

    The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

    Herp, Henry

    (Or HARP, Latin CITHARŒDUS, or ERP as in the old manuscripts ) A fifteenth century ...

    Herrad of Landsberg

    (or LANDSPERG) A twelfth-century abbess, author of the "Hortus Deliciarum"; born about 1130, ...

    Herregouts

    There were three artists of the name of Herregouts, father, son, and grandson, of whom the chief ...

    Herrera Barnuevo, Sebastiano de

    A painter, architect, sculptor and etcher; born in Madrid, 1611 or 1619; died there, 1671; son ...

    Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de

    A Spanish historian; born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia, in 1559; died at Madrid, 27 ...

    Herrera, Fernando de

    A Spanish lyric poet; born 1537; died 1597. The head of a school of lyric poets who gathered ...

    Herrera, Francisco

    (1) Francisco Herrera (el Viejo, the Elder) A Spanish painter, etcher, medallist, and architect; ...

    Herrgott, Marquard

    A Benedictine historian and diplomat; born at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 9 October, 1694; died ...

    Hersfeld

    An ancient imperial abbey of the Benedictine Order, situated at the confluence of the Geisa and ...

    Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo

    Spanish Jesuit and famous philologist; b. at Horcajo, 1 May, 1735; d. at Rome, 24 August, 1809. ...

    Hervetus, Gentian

    French theologian and controversialist; b. at Olivet, near Orléans, in 1499; d. at ...

    Hesebon

    (A.V. HESHBON; Greek Esebon, Esbous ; Latin Esbus). A titular see of the province of ...

    Hesse

    (H ESSEN ). The name of a German tribe, and also a district in Germany extending along the ...

    Hessels, Jean

    A distinguished theologian of Louvain ; born 1522; died 1566. He had been teaching for eight ...

    Hesychasm

    (Greek hesychos , quiet). The story of the system of mysticism defended by the monks of ...

    Hesychius of Alexandria

    Grammarian and lexicographer; of uncertain date, but assigned by most authorities to the later ...

    Hesychius of Jerusalem

    Presbyter and exegete, probably of the fifth century. Nothing certain is known as to the dates ...

    Hesychius of Sinai

    A priest and monk of the Order of St. Basil in the Thorn-bush (Batos) monastery on Mt. ...

    Hethites

    (A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

    Hettinger, Franz

    A Catholic theologian ; born 13 January, 1819, at Aschaffenburg; died 26 January, 1890, at ...

    Heude, Pierre

    Missionary to China and zoologist; b. at Fougères in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine, ...

    Hewett, John

    (Alias WELDON). English martyr ; son of William Hewett of York; date of birth unknown; ...

    Hewit, Augustine Francis

    Priest and second Superior General of the Institute of St. Paul the Apostle ; b. at Fairfield, ...

    Hexaemeron

    Hexaemeron signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of ...

    Hexapla

    The name given to Origen's edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek, the most colossal ...

    Hexateuch

    A name commonly used by the critics to designate the first six books of the Old Testament, i.e. ...

    Hexham and Newcastle

    Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle (Hagulstadensis et Novocastrensis). Hexham, in ...

    Heynlin of Stein, Johann

    (A LAPIDE) A theologian, born about 1425; died at Basle, 12 March, 1496. He was apparently of ...

    Heywood, Jasper and John

    (1) Jasper Heywood A poet and translator; born 1535 in London ; died 1598 at Naples. As a boy ...

    Hezekiah

    Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

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    Hi 47

    Hibernians, Ancient Order of

    This organization grew up gradually among the Catholics of Ireland owing to the dreadful ...

    Hickey, Antony

    A theologian, born in the Barony of Islands, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1586; died in Rome, 26 ...

    Hidalgo, Miguel

    Born on the ranch of San Vicente in the district of Guanajuato, 8 May, 1753; executed at ...

    Hierapolis

    Titular Archdiocese, metropolis of the Province of Euphrates, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. ...

    Hierapolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. It is usually called by its ...

    Hierarchy

    (Greek Hierarchia ; from hieros , sacred; archein , rule, command). This word has been ...

    Hierarchy of the Early Church

    The word hierarchy is used here to denote the three grades of bishop, priest, and deacon ( ...

    Hierocæsarea

    A titular see of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. This town is mentioned by Ptolemy (VI, ii, 16). ...

    Hieronymites

    In the fourth century, certain Roman ladies, following St. Paula, embraced the religious life ...

    Hierotheus

    All attempts to establish as historical a personality corresponding to the Hierotheus who ...

    Higden, Ranulf

    (HYDON, HYGDEN, HIKEDEN.) Benedictine chronicler; died 1364. He was a west-country man, and ...

    High Altar

    (ALTARE SUMMUM or MAJUS.) The high altar is so called from the fact that it is the chief altar ...

    High Priest, The

    The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

    Higher Criticism

    Overview Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary ...

    Hilarion, Saint

    Founder of anchoritic life in Palestine; born at Tabatha, south of Gaza, Palestine, about 291; ...

    Hilarius of Sexten

    (In the world, CHRISTIAN GATTERER.) Moral theologian ; born 1839, in the valley of Sexten in ...

    Hilarius, Pope Saint

    [ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

    Hilarus, Pope Saint

    [ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

    Hilary of Arles, Saint

    Archbishop, b. about 401; d. 5 May, 449. The exact place of his birth is not known. All that may ...

    Hilary of Poitiers, Saint

    Bishop, born in that city at the beginning of the fourth century; died there 1 November, according ...

    Hilda, Saint

    Abbess, born 614; died 680. Practically speaking, all our knowledge of St. Hilda is derived from ...

    Hildebert of Lavardin

    Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours, and celebrated medieval poet; b. about 1056, at the ...

    Hildegard, Saint

    Born at Böckelheim on the Nahe, 1098; died on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, 1179; feast 17 ...

    Hildesheim

    Diocese of Hildesheim (Hildesheimensis). An exempt see, comprising the Prussian province of ...

    Hilduin, Abbot of St-Denis

    He died 22 November, 840. He was a scion of a prominent Frankish family, hut the time and place ...

    Hill, Ven. Richard

    English Martyr, executed at Durham, 27 May, 1590. Very little is known of him and his ...

    Hillel

    A famous Jewish rabbi who lived about 70 B.C.-A.D. 10. Our only source of information concerning ...

    Hilton, Walter

    Augustinian mystic, d. 24 March, 1396. Little is known of his life, save that he was the head of a ...

    Himeria

    A titular see in the province of Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. The "Notitia" of Anastasius, ...

    Himerius

    (called also EUMERIUS and COMERIUS) An Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, 385. He is the ...

    Hincmar

    An archbishop of Reims ; born in 806; died at Epernay on 21 December, 882. Descended from a ...

    Hincmar

    Bishop of Laon; died 879. In the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar, a nephew on the mother's ...

    Hinderer, Roman

    (Chinese TE). A German missionary in China, born at Reiningen, near Mülhausen, date ...

    Hinduism

    Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices ...

    Hingston, Sir William Hales

    Canadian physician and surgeon, b. at Hinchinbrook near Huntingdon, Quebec, June 29, 1829; d. at ...

    Hippo Diarrhytus

    (Or HIPPO ZARRHYTUS.) A titular see of Northern Africa, now called Bizerta, originally a ...

    Hippo Regius

    A titular see of Numidia, now a part of the residential see of Constantine. Hippo was a Tyrian ...

    Hippolytus of Rome, Saint

    Martyr, presbyter and antipope ; date of birth unknown; d. about 236. Until the publication ...

    Hippolytus, Saints

    Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

    Hippos

    Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

    Hirena

    A titular see of southern Tunis. Nothing is known of the city, the name of which may have been ...

    Hirschau, Abbey of

    A celebrated Benedictine monastery in Würtemberg, Diocese of Spires, about twenty-two ...

    Hirscher, Johann Baptist von

    Born 20 January, 1788, at Alt-Ergarten, Ravensburg; died 4 September, 1865. He studied at ...

    Historical Criticism

    Historical criticism is the art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of ...

    History, Ecclesiastical

    I. NATURE AND OFFICE Ecclesiastical history is the scientific investigation and the methodical ...

    Hittites

    (A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

    Hittorp, Melchior

    A theologian and liturgical writer, born about 1525, at Cologne ; died there in 1584. On the ...

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    Hl 1

    Hladnik, Franz von Paula

    Botanist and schoolmaster, b. 29 March, 1773, at Idria, Carniola, Austria ; d. 25 November, ...

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    Ho 121

    Hobart

    (HOBARTENSIS) Hobart comprises Tasmania, Bruni Island, and the Cape Barren, Flinders, King, ...

    Hodgson, Sydney

    A lawman and martyr ; date and place of birth unknown; d. at Tyburn, 10 Dec., 1591. He was a ...

    Hofer, Andreas

    A patriot and soldier, born at St. Leonhard in Passeyrthale, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1767; executed at ...

    Hogan, John Baptist

    Better known, on account of his long sojourn in France, as Abbé Hogan, born near Ennis in ...

    Hohenbaum van der Meer, Moritz

    A Benedictine historian; born at Spörl near Belgrade, 25 June, 1718; died at the monastery ...

    Hohenburg

    (ODILIENBERG; ALTITONA) A suppressed nunnery, situated on the Odilienberg, the most famous of ...

    Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Alexander Leopold

    A titular Bishop of Sardica, famous for his many supposedly miraculous cures, born 17 August, ...

    Holbein, Hans

    (The Elder Holbein) A German painter ; b. at Augsburg about 1460; d. at Isenheim, Alsace, in ...

    Holden, Henry

    An English priest ; born 1596; died March, 1662. Henry Holden was the second son of Richard ...

    Holiness

    (A.S. hal , perfect, or whole). Sanctitas in the Vulgate of the New Testament is the ...

    Holland, Ven. Thomas

    An English martyr, b. 1600 at Sutton, Lancashire; martyred at Tyburn, 12 December, 1642. He ...

    Hollanders in the United States

    The Hollanders played by no means an insignificant part in the early history of the United ...

    Holmes, John

    Catholic educator and priest ; born at Windsor, Vermont, in 1799; died at Lorette, near ...

    Holocaust

    As suggested by its Greek origin ( holos "whole", and kaustos "burnt") the word designates an ...

    Holstenius, Lucas

    (HOLSTE). German philologist, b. at Hamburg, 1596; d. at Rome, 2 February, 1661. He studied ...

    Holtei, Karl von

    German novelist, poet, and dramatist; b. at Breslau, 24 January, 1798; d. in that city, 12 ...

    Holy Agony, Archconfraternity of

    An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony ...

    Holy Alliance

    The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I ...

    Holy Child Jesus, Society of the

    The Society was founded in England in 1840 by Mrs. Cornelia Connelly, née Peacock, ...

    Holy Childhood, Association of the

    A children's association for the benefit of foreign missions. Twenty years after the foundation of ...

    Holy Coat

    (OF TRIER AND ARGENTEUIL). The possession of the seamless garment of Christ (Gr. chiton ...

    Holy Communion

    By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Ascetic writers ...

    Holy Cross Abbey

    The picturesque ruins of this monastery are situated on the right bank of the River Suir, about ...

    Holy Cross, Congregation of

    A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state by the simple vows of ...

    Holy Cross, Sisters Marianites of

    The congregation of the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross was founded in 1841, in the parish of ...

    Holy Cross, Sisters of the

    (Mother House, St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame, Indiana) As an offset to ...

    Holy Faith, Sisters of the

    Founded at Dublin, in 1857, by Margaret Aylward, under the direction of Rev. John Gowan, C.M., ...

    Holy Family, Archconfraternity of the

    This archconfraternity owes its origin to Henri Belletable, an officer in the Engineers' Corps, ...

    Holy Family, Congregations of the

    I. ASSOCIATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY Founded in 1820 by the Abbé Pierre Bienvenue Noailles (d. ...

    Holy Ghost

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

    Holy Ghost, Orders of the

    The Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome was the cradle of an order, which, beginning in the ...

    Holy Ghost, Religious Congregations of the

    I. THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY GHOST AND OF THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY This Congregation was ...

    Holy Grail, The

    The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

    Holy House of Loreto

    (The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

    Holy Humility of Mary, Sisters of the

    Founded at Dommartin-sous-Amance, France, in 1855, by John Joseph Begel (b. 5 April, 1817; d. 23 ...

    Holy Infancy, Brothers of the

    Founded in 1853 by the Right Rev. John Timon, the first Bishop of Buffalo. The special aim of ...

    Holy Innocents

    The children mentioned in St. Matthew 2:16-18 : Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise ...

    Holy Name of Jesus

    We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...

    Holy Name, Feast of the

    This feast is celebrated on the second Sunday after Epiphany (double of the second class). ...

    Holy Name, Litany of the

    An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

    Holy Name, Society of the

    (Confraternity of the Most Holy Name of God and Jesus). An indulgenced confraternity in the ...

    Holy Oils

    (OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

    Holy Oils, Vessels for

    In Christian antiquity there existed an important category of vessels used as receptacles for ...

    Holy Orders

    Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

    Holy Saturday

    In the primitive Church Holy Saturday was known as Great, or Grand, Saturday, Holy Saturday, the ...

    Holy See

    (From the Latin Sancta Sedes , Holy Chair). A term derived from the enthronement ...

    Holy Sepulchre

    Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Canonesses Regular of the

    Concerning the foundation there is only a tradition connecting it with St. James the Apostle and ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Fathers of the

    (Guardians) The Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre are the six or seven Franciscan Fathers, who ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the

    Neither the name of a founder nor a date of foundation can be assigned to the so-called Order of ...

    Holy Spirit

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

    Holy Stairs (Scala Sancta)

    Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition ...

    Holy Synod

    In its full form M OST H OLY D IRECTING S YNOD , the name of the council by which the ...

    Holy Thursday

    The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

    Holy Water

    The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...

    Holy Water Fonts

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

    Holy Week

    Holy Week is the week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and ...

    Holy Year of Jubilee

    The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

    Holyrood Abbey

    Located in Edinburgh, Scotland ; founded in 1128 by King David I for the Canons Regular of ...

    Holywell

    A town in North Wales, situated on the declivity of a hill overlooking a picturesque valley, ...

    Holywood, Christopher

    ( Latinized , A Sacrobosco.) Jesuit ; b. At Artane, Dublin, in 1559; d. 4 September, 1626. ...

    Holywood, John

    (John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...

    Holzhauser, Bartholomew

    Parish priest, ecclesiastical writer, and founder of a religious community; born 24 Aug., ...

    Homes

    This term, when used in an eleemosynary sense, covers all institutions that afford the general ...

    Homicide

    ( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

    Homiletics

    Homiletics is the science that treats of the composition and delivery of a sermon or other ...

    Homiliarium

    A collection of homilies, or familiar explanations of the Gospels (see HOMILY). From a very ...

    Homily

    The word homily is derived from the Greek word homilia (from homilein ), which means to ...

    Homoousion

    (Gr. homoousion - from homos , same, and ousia , essence ; Latin consubstantialem , of ...

    Honduras

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF BRITISH HONDURAS. The territory of the vicariate is co-extensive with ...

    Hong-Kong

    The island of Hong-Kong was ceded by the Chinese Government to Great Britain in January, 1841, ...

    Honoratus a Sancta Maria

    A Discalced Carmelite ; born at Limoges, 4 July, 1651 ; died at Lille, 1729. Blaise Vauxelles ...

    Honoratus, Saint

    Archbishop of Arles; b. about 350; d. 6 (or, according to certain authors, 14 or 15) January, ...

    Honorius I, Pope

    Pope (625-12 October, 638), a Campanian, consecrated 27 October (Duchesne) or 3 November ...

    Honorius II, Pope

    (Lamberto Scannabecchi) Born of humble parents at Fagnano near Imola at an unknown date ; ...

    Honorius III, Pope

    (Cencio Savelli) Born at Rome, date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 18 March, 1227. For a ...

    Honorius IV, Pope

    (Giacomo Savelli) Born at Rome about 1210; died at Rome, 3 April, 1287. He belonged to the ...

    Honorius of Autun

    (HONORIUS AUGUSTODUNENSIS) A theologian, philosopher, and encyclopedic writer who lived in ...

    Honorius, Flavius

    Roman Emperor, d. 25 August, 423. When his father, the Emperor Theodosius, divided up the ...

    Honorius, Saint

    Archbishop of Canterbury, fifth in succession from St. Augustine, elected 627; consecrated at ...

    Honour

    Honour may be defined as the deferential recognition by word or sign of another's worth or ...

    Hontheim, Johannes Nicolaus von

    (FEBRONIUS) An auxiliary Bishop of Trier ; born at Trier, 27 January, 1701; died at ...

    Hood

    A flexible, conical, brimless head-dress, covering the entire head, except the face. It is either ...

    Hoogstraten, Jacob van

    (also HOCHSTRATEN) A theologian and controversialist, born about 1460, in Hoogstraeten, ...

    Hooke, Luke Joseph

    Born at Dublin in 1716; died at St. Cloud, Paris, 16 April, 1796, son of Nathaniel Hooke the ...

    Hope

    Hope, in its widest acceptation, is described as the desire of something together with the ...

    Hope-Scott, James Robert

    (Originally H OPE ) Parliamentary barrister, Q.C.; b. 15 July, 1812, at Great Marlow, ...

    Hopi Indians

    (From Hopita, "peaceful ones" their own name; also frequently known as Moki, or Moqui, an alien ...

    Hopkins, Gerard Manley

    Jesuit and poet, born at Stratford, near London, 28 July, 1844; died at Dublin, 8 June, 1889. ...

    Hormisdas, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown, elected to the Holy See, 514; d. at Rome, 6 August, 523. This able and ...

    Horner, Nicholas

    Layman and martyr, born at Grantley, Yorkshire, England, date of birth unknown; died at ...

    Horns, Altar

    On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns ...

    Hornyold, John Joseph

    A titular Bishop of Phiomelia, Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England ; born 19 ...

    Hortulus Animæ

    (L ITTLE G ARDEN OF THE S OUL ). A prayer book which both in its Latin and German ...

    Hosanna

    "And the multitudes that went before and that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of ...

    Hosea

    NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

    Hosius of Cordova

    The foremost Western champion of orthodoxy in the early anti-Arian struggle; born about 256; ...

    Hosius, Stanislaus

    (HOE, HOSZ) Cardinal and Prince- Bishop of Ermland ; born of German parents at Cracow, 5 ...

    Hospice

    ( Latin hospitium , a guest house). During the early centuries of Christianity the hospice ...

    Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus

    These sisters are established in religion under the Rule of St. Augustine, the institute being ...

    Hospitality

    The Council of Trent in its twenty-fifth session, cap. viii, De Ref., enjoins "all who hold any ...

    Hospitallers

    During the Middle Ages, among the hospitals established throughout the West ( Maisons-Dieu ...

    Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem

    (Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

    Hospitals

    (Latin hospes , a guest; hence hospitalis , hospitable; hospitium , a guest-house or ...

    Hospitius, Saint

    (Sospis) Recluse, b. according to tradition in Egypt, towards the beginning of the sixth ...

    Hossche, Sidron de

    ( Latin HOSSCHIUS) Sidron de Hossche, poet and priest ; born at Mercken, West Flanders, in ...

    Host

    Archaeological and Historical Aspects The bread destined to receive Eucharistic Consecration is ...

    Host, Johann

    One of the seven Dominicans, who distinguished themselves in the struggle against Luther in ...

    Hottentots

    The Hottentot is one of three tribes of South Africa which may be divided — Bantus, ...

    Houbigant, Charles François

    Born in Paris, 1686; died there 31 October, 1783. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in ...

    Houdon, Jean-Antoine

    Born at Versailles, 1741; died 16 July, 1828; the most distinguished sculptor of France ...

    Houdry, Vincent

    Preacher and writer on ascetics; b. 23 January, 1631, at Tours ; d. 21 March, 1729, at Paris. ...

    Houghton, John, Blessed

    Protomartyr of the persecution under Henry VIII, b. in Essex, 1487; d. at Tyburn, 4 May, 1535. ...

    Houghton, William

    (Variously called DE HOTUM, DE HOTHUM, DE HOZUM, BOTHUM, DE HONDEN, HEDDON, HEDDONEM, according as ...

    Hours, Canonical

    I. IDEA By canonical hour is understood all the fixed portion of the Divine Office which the ...

    Hours, Liturgy of the

    ("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

    Hove, Peter van

    Friar Minor, lector in theology and exegete ; b. at Rethy, in Campine (Belgium); d. at Antwerp, ...

    Howard, Mary, of the Holy Cross

    Poor Clare, born 28 December, 1653; died at Rouen, 21 Mary's 1735, daughter of Sir Robert Howard, ...

    Howard, Philip Thomas

    Dominican and cardinal, commonly called the "Cardinal of Norfolk"; born at Arundel House, ...

    Howard, Philip, Venerable

    Martyr, Earl of Arundel; born at Arundel House, London, 28 June 1557, died in the Tower of London, ...

    Howard, Venerable William

    Viscount Stafford, martyr ; born 30 November, 1614; beheaded Tower-Hill, 29 December, 1680. He ...

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    Hr 1

    Hroswitha

    A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

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    Hu 61

    Huánuco

    (Huanucensis) Suffragan of Lima in Peru. The department of Huánuco contains an ...

    Huajuápam de León

    (Huajuapatamensis) Diocese in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, erected by Bull of Leo XIII , ...

    Huaraz

    Diocese of Huaraz (Huaraziensis) Suffragan of Lima. It comprises the entire department of ...

    Huber, Alphons

    An historian; born 14 October, 1834, at Fügen, Zillerthal (Tyrol); died 23 November, 1898, at ...

    Hubert Walter

    Archbishop of Canterbury (1193-1205); died 13 July, 1205; son of Hervey (Herveus) Walter and ...

    Hubert, Jean-François

    The ninth Bishop of Quebec, born at Quebec, 23 February, 1739; died 17 October, 1799; son of ...

    Hubert, Saint

    Confessor, thirty-first Bishop of Maastricht, first Bishop of Liège, and Apostle of ...

    Hubert, Saint, Military Orders of

    I. The highest order of Bavaria, founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard V, Duke of Jülich, in ...

    Huc, Evariste Régis

    A French Lazarist missionary and traveller; born at Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne), 1 June, 1813; died ...

    Hucbald of St-Amand

    (HUGBALDUS, UBALDUS, UCHUBALDUS) A Benedictine monk ; born in 840; died in 930 or 932. The ...

    Huddleston, John

    Monk of the Order of St. Benedict; b. at Farington Hall, Lancashire, 15 April, 1608; exact date ...

    Hudson, Blessed James

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

    Hueber, Fortunatus

    A Franciscan historian and theologian, born at Neustadt on the Danube; died 12 Feb., 1706, at ...

    Huelgas de Burgos

    The royal monastery of Las Huelgas de Burgos was founded by Alfonso VIII at the instance of ...

    Huesca

    (OSCENSIS) Huesca embraces parts of the province of Huesca in north-eastern Spain, seven ...

    Huet, Pierre-Daniel

    A distinguished savant and celebrated French bishop ; born 8 February, 1630, at Caen (Normandy), ...

    Hug, Johann Leonhard

    A German Catholic exegete, b. at Constance, 1 June, 1765; d. at Freiburg im Br., 11 March, ...

    Hugh Capet

    King of France, founder of the Capetian dynasty, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. ...

    Hugh Faringdon, Blessed

    ( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

    Hugh of Digne

    Friar Minor andascetical writer; b. at Digne, south-east France, date uncertain; d. at ...

    Hugh of Flavigny

    Benedictine monk and historian; b. about 1064, probably at Verdun (Lorraine); d. before the ...

    Hugh of Fleury

    (Called also HUGO A SANTA MARIA, from the name of the church of his native village). ...

    Hugh of Lincoln, Saint

    Born about the year 1135 at the castle of Avalon, near Pontcharra, in Burgundy ; died at London, ...

    Hugh of Remiremont

    Surnamed CANDIDUS or BLANCUS. Cardinal, born of a noble family, probably in Lorraine, died soon ...

    Hugh of St-Cher

    (Latin D E S ANCTO C ARO ; D E S ANCTO T HEODORICO ). A Dominican cardinal of the ...

    Hugh of St. Victor

    Medieval philosopher, theologian, and mystical writer; b. 1096, at the manor of Hartingham in ...

    Hugh of Strasburg

    Theologian, flourished during the latter half of the thirteenth century. The dates of his birth ...

    Hugh the Great, Saint

    Abbot of Cluny, born at Semur (Brionnais in the Diocese of Autun, 1024; died at Cluny, 28 ...

    Hugh, Saint

    (Called LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN.) St. Hugh was the son of a poor woman of Lincoln ...

    Hughes, John

    Fourth bishop and first Archbishop of New York, born at Annaloghan, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, 24 ...

    Hugo, Charles-Hyacinthe

    Born 20 Sept., 1667, at St. Mihiel (Department of Meuse, France ); died 2 August, 1739. He ...

    Huguccio

    (HUGH OF PISA) Italian canonist, b. at Pisa, date unknown; d. in 1210. He studied at ...

    Huguenots

    A name by which the French Protestants are often designated. Its etymology is uncertain. ...

    Hulst, Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'

    A prelate, writer, orator; born at Paris, 10 Oct., 1841; died there, 6 Nov., 1896. After a ...

    Human Acts

    Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are ...

    Humanism

    Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the ...

    Humbert of Romans

    (DE ROMANIS). Fifth master general of the Dominican Order, b. at Romans in the Diocese of ...

    Humeral Veil

    This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

    Humiliati

    I. A penitential order dating back, according to some authorities, to the beginning of the ...

    Humility

    The word humility signifies lowliness or submissiveness an it is derived from the Latin ...

    Humphrey Middlemore, Blessed

    English Carthusian martyr, date of birth uncertain; d. at Tyburn, London, 19 June, 1535. His ...

    Humphreys, Laurence

    Layman and martyr, born in Hampshire, England, 1571; died at Winchester, 1591. Of Protestant ...

    Hungarian Catholics in America

    The Kingdom of Hungary (Magyarország) comprises within its borders several races or ...

    Hungarian Literature

    The language which has prevailed in Hungary for nearly a thousand years and is spoken at the ...

    Hungary

    GEOGRAPHY AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ...

    Hunolt, Franz

    The most popular German preacher of the early part of the eighteenth century, b. 31 March, 1691, ...

    Hunt, Ven. Thurston

    An English martyr (March, 1601), who belonged to the family seated at Carlton Hall, near ...

    Hunter, Sylvester Joseph

    English Jesuit priest and educator; b. at Bath, 13 Sept., 1829; d. at Stonyhurst, 20 June, 1896. ...

    Hunting, Canons on

    From early times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics. Thus, in the ...

    Huntington, Jedediah Vincent

    Clergyman, novelist; born 20 January, 1815, in New York City; died 10 March, 1862, at Pau, France. ...

    Hunyady, János

    (JOHN) Governor of Hungary, born about 1400; died 11 August, 1456; the heroic defender of the ...

    Huron Indians

    The main divisions of the subject are: I. THE HURONS BEFORE THEIR DISPERSION (1) Their Place in ...

    Hurst, Richard

    (Or HERST.) Layman and martyr, b. probably at Broughton, near Preston, Lancashire, England, ...

    Hurtado, Caspar

    A Spanish Jesuit and theologian, b. at Mondejar, New Castle, in 1575; d. at Alcalá, 5 ...

    Hurter

    (1) Friedrich Emmanuel Von Hurter Convert and historian, b. at Schaffhausen, 19 March, 1787; d. at ...

    Hus, Jan

    (Also spelled John ). Born at Husinetz in southern Bohemia, 1369; died at Constance 6 ...

    Husenbeth, Frederick Charles

    Born at Bristol, 30 May, 1796; died at Cossey, Norfolk, 31 October, 1872. The son of a Bristol ...

    Hussey, Thomas

    Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, b. at Ballybogan, Co. Meath, in 1746; d. at Tramore, Co. ...

    Hussites

    The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they ...

    Hutton, Peter

    Priest, b. at Holbeck, Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 29 June, 1811; d. at Ratcliffe, ...

    Huysmans, Joris Karl

    A French novelist; born in Paris, 5 February, 1848; died 12 May, 1907. He studied at the Lycee ...

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    Hy 16

    Hyacinth and Protus, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

    Hyacinth, Saint

    Dominican, called the Apostle of the North, son of Eustachius Konski of the noble family of ...

    Hyacintha Mariscotti, Saint

    A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

    Hydatius of Lemica

    ( Also IDATIUS; LEMICA is more correctly LIMICA.) A chronicler and bishop, born at the end ...

    Hyderabad-Deccan, Diocese of

    Hyderabad, also called Bhagnagar, and Fakhunda Bunyad, capital of the Nizam's dominions, was ...

    Hyginus, Pope Saint

    Reigned about 138-142; succeeded Pope Telesphorus, who, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., IV, ...

    Hylozoism

    (Greek hyle , matter + zoe , life ) The doctrine according to which all matter ...

    Hymn

    A derivative of the Latin hymnus , which comes from the Greek hymnos , derived from hydein ...

    Hymnody and Hymnology

    Hymnody, taken from the Greek ( hymnodia ), means exactly " hymn song", but as the hymn-singer ...

    Hypæpa

    Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus; it was a small town on the southern slope of ...

    Hypnotism

    (Greek hypnos , sleep) By Hypnotism , or Hypnosis , we understand here the nervous ...

    Hypocrisy

    (Greek hypo , under, and krinesthai , to contend — hence adequately "to answer" on the ...

    Hypostatic Union

    A theological term used with reference to the Incarnation to express the revealed truth ...

    Hypsistarians

    Hypsistarians or worshippers of the Hypsistos , i.e. of the "Most High" God ; a distinct ...

    Hyrtl, Joseph

    Austrian anatomist, b. at Eisenstadt in Hungary, December 7, 1810; d. 17 July, 1894, on his ...

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