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Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the Algonquin stock of American Indians ; by some authorities spelled dodeme ( Father de Smet ), todem (Father Petitot), Toodaim , dodaim , totam (J. Long); the original signification was apparently a person's family or tribe, and in a narrower sense his belongings.

Totemism constitutes the group of superstitions and customs of which the totem is the centre. It is defined as the intimate relation supposed to exist between an individual or a group of individuals and a class of natural objects, i.e. the totem, by which the former regard the latter as identified with them in a mystical manner and in a peculiar sense their own belongings, so that they bear the name of the totem and show this belief in certain customs. The conviction of the intimate union constitutes the religious aspect of Totemism; the customs which result therefrom form its sociological aspect. If the union exists between an individual and a class of natural objects, we have individual Totemism. When it exists between a clan and a natural class we have clan Totemism. Frazer mentions sex Totemism, but that is peculiar to Australia. The totem is most frequently an animal species, more rarely a plant, occasionally an inanimate object, e.g. sun, wind, rock, etc. Totemism is widespread and developed among the American Indians and the aborigines of Australia. Traces of it are found in South Africa, in the Polynesian Islands, and among the Dyaks of India. Mauss says it does not exist in all savage races of our day (Année sociologique, IV, 1899-1900); Reinach maintains that it existed among the Greeks and Celts (Cultes, Mythes et Religions, II, Paris, 1905); Gomme, in the British Isles (Archæological Rev., III, 1889); Thomas, in Wales (Rev. de l'histoire des religions, XXXVIII, 1898); Renel, among the Romans (Cultes militaires de Rome, Lyons, 1903). It is doubtful whether Totemism existed among the Aryan races, and the facts alleged can be explained by idolatry. Loret maintains that Totemism existed among the early Egyptians, but evidently confounds this belief with animal-worship. Robertson Smith holds that Totemism lies at the basis of the Semitic religions. Zapletal has opened up anew this problem, and questions Smith's conclusions. Evidence from animal names is now admitted to be a precarious support for the Totem theory. Frazer clearly shows that there are sacred animals and plants which are not totems; and Levy denies to Totemism any rôle among the early Hebrews. Hence the present writer rejects the opinion of A. Lang that in the education of mankind Totemism has played a part everywhere.

I. HISTORY

The phenomena of Totemism were first brought to the knowledge of the civilized world by the Jesuit missionaries to North America in the seventeenth century. The earliest accounts in English came from J. Long (Voyages and Travels, London, 1791). Following these are accounts of Major S. H. Long (ed. by Edwin James, London, 1823), James, Warren, Morgan, Schoolcraft, and Catlin. Phenomena of the same kind were observed by travellers and missionaries in Australia. The importance of Totemism in the early history of society was first pointed out by J. F. McLennan, who proposed as a working hypothesis that the ancient nations of the world had passed through a peculiar kind of Fetishism or Animism which finds its typical representation in the totem-tribes of Australia and of North America ("Fortnightly Rev.", Oct.-Nov., 1869; Feb., 1870; "Studies in Ancient History", London, 1896). On these lines Robertson Smith attempted to show that Totemism lay at the root of the Semitic religions and thus was the basis of the faith now embraced by the most civilized nations of the world ("Animal Worship among Arabs " in "Cambridge Jour. of Phil." 1879; "Kinship and Marriage in early Arabia ", 2nd ed., London, 1903; "Religion of the Semitics", Edinburgh, 1889; "Sacrifice" in Encyc. Britannica, 9th ed.); F. B. Jevons went further and affirmed that here are found the germs out of which all religion and all material progress have been evolved (Introd. to the History of Religion, London, 1896); hence Totemism was regarded as an established theory with the foundation laid by McLennan and the superstructure by Frazer, Smith, and Jevons. This theory is now rejected by scholars. Father Brun, writing of French West Africa, says that Totemism does not appear as a precise stage of religious evolution exclusive of all other beliefs ; it is simply an element of these beliefs. Murillier criticises Jevons (Revue de l'hist. des religions, XXXVI). The investigation of Franz Boas among the Indians of North-West Canada and of Spencer and Gillen among the Australian aborigines gave the decisive blow to the theory and opened a new phase in the study of Totemism. Hence Hill-Tout says that Totemism is not the ideal and exact social or religious system of savage regimentation which some writers have tried to show. It is found among races varying much in modes of living, e.g. hunting, pastoral, agricultural, and industrial, and, becoming part of their varied beliefs and customs, has a ear to assume differing forms.

II. ORIGIN

Totemism must be simple to the savage mind, yet it is a puzzle to anthropologists. A great mass of facts different and at times in seeming contradiction have been gathered in America and Australia, yet the resemblances are so many and so close as to justify the classification under one common name. Different explanations have been proposed, and these have varied as new data were added. There is scarcely any other class of social phenomena more difficult to explain. Frazer says a definition is only provisional and A. Lang resorts to "conjectures" and "guesses" (Secret of the Totem, p. 28). The discussion has produced a wealth of literature which has served to exaggerate the real position and influence of Totemism. The difficulty is to define the nature of the relation between the individual or clan and their totem. Hence: —

(a) The Name-Theory

Herbert Spencer classes Totemism under animal-worship and says its explanation is found in the primitive custom of naming children after natural objects from some accidental circumstances or fanciful resemblance, and then in confounding these metaphorical names or nicknames with the real objects, i.e. ancestors, and consequently paying to the animals the same reverence they paid their ancestors. Hence a phase of ancestor-worship founded on mistaking metaphors for facts (Prin. of Sociol., I, xxii). Akin to the "nickname" theory of Spencer is the explanation of Lord Avebury. He views Totemism as nature-worship and says it arose from the practice of naming individuals and then their families after particular animals; the individuals would look upon the animals at first with interest then with respect, and at length with a sort of awe (Marriage, Totemism, and Religion, London, 1911). A. Lang proposes the "sobriquet" theory. He adopts the opinion of de la Vega that totems were names imposed by outsiders to distinguish the individuals or families from one another (Secret of the Totem, pref.). Hence he agrees with J. F. McLennan, Loret, and Wake that totems were merely ethnic attributes, symbols, or ensigns of clans. A. K. Keane also holds that Totemism arose in "heraldic badges" (Ethnology, 9). Max Muller writes, "A totem is a clan mark, then a clan name, then the name of the ancestor of the clan, and lastly the name of something worshiped by the clan" (Contributions to the Science of Mythology, I, 201). Lang, however, holds that the name came into use before, not after, its pictorial representation, i.e., the clan mark. Pikler says the germ of Totemism is in the naming and has "its original germ not in religion but in the practical every-day needs of man ". Risley also says that the totem is an ancient nickname, usually derived from some animal, of the supposed founder of the exogamous sept, now stripped of its personal association and remembered solely in virtue of the part it plays in giving effect to the rule of exogamy. In criticism it can he said that the name-theory fails to explain the intimate relation of the individual or clan to the totem. Hence Durkheim writes "a totem is not only a name; it is first and above all a religious principle" ("Année sociologique", 1902, 119).

Lang admits that his "theory is not in accordance with any savage explanations of the origin of the totem" (Social Origins, 188). Howlett writes: "It seems most improbable that any such nicknames would have been adopted and have given rise to Totemism, nor do I know of a single instance in which such nicknames have been adopted." Reinach holds that animal names are an effect, not a cause of Totemism (Cultes, Mythes, et Religions, I, 22). Tyler says the theory is not vouched for by sufficient evidence (Primitive Marriage, II, 214). Boas distinguishes three classes of tribal and of clan names, e.g. collective forms of the name of the ancestor, names of region inhabited and names of honour. Miss Fletcher says that with the Wezhishta gens of the Amaha names are classified as nikie , i.e. pertaining to the gens, "dream", "fanciful" and "borrowed" names, and nicknames, and women never had more than one name which was of nikie class. Hill-Tout declares that the commonest of Indian names in British Columbia are not nicknames, but true prœnomina , mostly given to infants shortly after birth before any resemblance is apparent or possible.

(b) The Transmigration Theory

Advocated by G. A. Wilkin, and also by Tylor (Jour. Anth. Inst., XXVIII, 1899), regards the totem as the bridge over the gap between a clan of men and a species of animals, so that they "become united in kinship and mutual alliance". In criticism it may be said that the notion of transmigration is not primitive, for with Tylor Totemism is regarded as primitive. Again the belief in transmigration is found among peoples who show no trace of Totemism, while it is unknown to the African Baganda and to most if not all of the North American Indians whose Totemism is clearly marked. Hence Frazer holds that Totemism and transmigration are distinct and independent. Finally, transmigration may enter into phases of Totemism under the form of the reincarnation of ancestors; this, however, is not the original element but a corrupted phase found only occasionally and hence a later development.

(c) The Economic Theory

Proposed in accord with those anthropologists who hold that the starting-point of social organization was the necessity of procuring food, appears in two forms. Dr. A. C. Haddon maintains that totems originally were the animals or plants on which the local groups of people chiefly subsisted and after which they were named by the neighbouring groups ("Rep. of the British Assoc.", Belfast, 1902; "Folk Lore", XIII, 393). But this theory fails to explain the existence of inanimate objects as totems. Again, Baldwin Spencer denies such specialization of diet between the local groups (Northern Tribes of Central Australia, p. 767). The second form was advocated by Prof. Frazer, who, following Spencer and Gillen (Jour. Anth. Inst., XXVIII, 1899, 273), taught that Totemism is not so much a religious as an economic system, and held that it originated as a system of magic designed to supply a community with the necessities of life, especially food and drink. Thus each totem group performs magic ceremonies called intichiuma for the multiplication of the totem-plant or animal. Hence the prime duty of a totem clan was to provide a supply of its totem-animal or plant for consumption by the rest of the tribe, and thus ensure a plentiful supply of food ("Fort. Rev.", April and May, 1899). Frazer afterwards rejected this theory as too complex, and says that probably the co-operative communities of totemic magicians in Australia are developments of Totemism rather than its germ (Totemism and Exogamy, IV, p. 57). In fact the economic theory does not account for the sense of kinship between man and animal, and the belief prevailing in places that the clan is descended from the animal.

(d) The External Soul Theory

Earlier propounded by Prof. Frazer, i.e., the possibility of depositing the souls of living people for safety in external objects such as animals or plants, but not knowing which individual of the species is the receptacle of his soul, the savage spares the whole species from a fear of injuring unwittingly the particular individual with which his fate is bound up ("Golden Bough", II, London, 1890). Frazer rejected this theory on the ground that it was not confirmed by subsequent research.

(e) The Conception Theory

The conception theory is the third and last explanation of Frazer, He says Totemism has its source in the savage ignorance of paternity, and is a primitive explanation of conception and childbirth, viz, that conception is due to a spirit of an ancestor entering the body of a woman, that she associates it with the object which was nearest her when the child was first felt in the womb, and that this object is regarded as the deserted receptacle of the spirit. And since the spirits of people of one particular totem are believed to congregate in one spot, and the natives know these spots, the totem of the child can easily be determined ("Totemism and Exogamy", IV, 57). In criticism we may say that the theory is based on the beliefs of the Arunta tribe in Australia, that, while van Gennep holds to Arunta primitiveness, A. Lang considers it a decadent sport (Secret of the Totem, appendix), that Spencer and Gillen testify to changes in Arunta Totemism, that it does not explain Totemism in its wide extent, and finally that these beliefs find another and a much better explanation.

(f) The Manitou, or Guardian Spirit, Theory

The Manitou theory first proposed by the Jesuit missionaries to North America in the seventeenth century and revived in our day by Dr. Franz Boas, Miss Alice Fletcher, Father Morice, Mr. Hill-Tout, and J. Owen Dorsay, teaches that the manitou of the individual has developed into the totem of the clan. This can be explained in two ways. First by real inheritance, e.g. the guardian spirit of an ancestor is transmitted to his descendants. Hence the clan totem is the hereditary manitou of a family. Dr. Boas states that the guardian spirit of the North Pacific Coast becomes hereditary. Father Brun says that the Totemism of French West Africa is essentially familial in the sense of the Roman gens . A. Lang objects to the inheritance of the personal totem by the clan on the ground that mother descent is more primitive than paternal descent. But the objection assumes that Totemism is primitive: a contention by no means established. Frazer says the clans would be stable and permanent even with mother descent, if the husband took up his abode with the wife's people or the wife remained at home (Totemism and Exogamy, II, 103, n). Morgan states that this condition is true of the Iroquois, whose clans are permanent even with mother descent. Hill-Tout writes that in North-West Canada the totem is hereditary either from father to son in the paternal right, or from the man to his sister's children in the maternal right. For even under maternal right the head of the clan is invariably a man — the elder male relative on the maternal side. Thus the founders of families and of totem-crests are as invariably men under matriarchy as under patriarchy; in the former, indirectly through the man's sister, in the latter, directly to his children (Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, IX, XI; B. A. A. S., London, 1889). Frazer points out that among the Melanesians, where mother-kin prevails, the nearest male relative of the children is the mother's brother (loc. cit., II, 74). And Swanton says of the Tlingit shamans that spirits descended from uncle to nephew. The great difficulty with the real inheritance theory is that it does not explain enough. If may account in places for the change of the personal totem of an ancestor into the clan totem, but it fails to tell how or why the same totem is held by different clans or tribes or stocks not connected by ties of blood-relationship. The natural explanation is that the fauna and flora of a country are substantially the same, and individuals in different parts belonging to different tribes could in the usual way acquire a totem which they would transmit to their descendants. Thus with members of the same clan there would be the same totem with consanguinity. With members of different clans having the Same totem there would not be consanguinity but a kind of relationship based in the possession of the same. Hence Dr. Fison writes of the Australians : "All men of the same generation who bear the same totem are tribally brothers, though they may belong to different and widely separated tribes" (quoted by Lang, "Secret of the Totem", 45). If therefore real inheritance be supplemented by supposed inheritance, it can be safely maintained that the clan totem, taken in its widest extent, is a development or extension of the individual totem or manitou through real or supposed inheritance. The nature of the supposed inheritance becomes clear from the following.

III. NATURE

The basis of Totemism is the animistic conception of nature. The life revealed in living things, the forces manifested by physical objects are ascribed to spirits animating them or dwelling therein. "There is indeed nothing in nature ", writes Charlevoix, "if we can believe the savages, which has not its spirit" ("Histoire de la Nouv. France ", Paris, 1744, VI, 67). The feeling of weakness in the midst of powers and forces greater than his own leads him to seek union with one or more of these powers. It becomes his guide and support; its power is added to his; its life or "essence" or "mystery" becomes part of his very own, he is called by its name, and some part of its physical embodiment is viewed as his most valued possession, as the mark of his spirit protector and the sign of his strengthened life, i.e. his "medicine" or "mystery". Thus savages believe themselves endowed with the qualities of their totems. Thus we can understand the birth and death ceremonies of the totem tribes, the facts that in the tribal dances and ceremonies the individuals imitate in action or costume the appearance and habits of their totems. So also we can understand the respect or reverence which the individual has for his totem, the intimate relation existing between them, the fact that he regards them as his kin and calls them brothers, and as far as possible identifies himself with them. Thus the savage with a totem has his own human life and strength plus the spirit-life and strength of the animal or object whose totem he possesses. For, as with the natives of British Columbia, the inua or uya , i.e. the "essence" or "mystery", becomes the totem, not the mere outward form of the animal or object. He either has this spirit-life actually and habitually compenetrating and augmenting his own natural powers or at least possesses the right to invoke the spirit-life to the augmentation of his natural powers in time of need, e.g. an Indian in a canoe, seeing the enemy gaining upon him, reverently calls upon his totem, e.g. sawbill duck, and receives such additional strength that he soon escapes his pursuers (Frazer, "Totemism and Exogamy", III, p. 385). In the former case the possession of the spirit-life is habitual and can be conceived as passing to his descendants; in the latter case it is occasionally present and therefore need not be hereditary. To possess intact this spirit-life, or at least to keep the claim to its assistance clear and unhampered, seems to be the reason for the regular religious ceremonies practised in regard to the totem.

Furthermore, in studying the relation of the spirit-life of the totem to the natural life of the individual, we can conceive that the latter is at times more prominent and at times the spirit-life is principally considered. In the former case the members of the totemic clan are united, not only in the possession of the same common spirit-life, but through ties of consanguinity, by participation in a common human life, In the latter case the members of the totem clan would not of necessity be related to one another by blood, but would consider themselves relatives by a common participation in the spirit-life of the same totem. Thus we can understand why some tribes have both clan and individual totems, and again why some clans have two or more totems. Finally, in the theory that the clan totem is the natural development of the individual totem, the contention of some scholars that the term totem should be reserved to the clan totem is of little moment. Thus van Gennep, E. B. Tylor, and Lang hold that the clan totem alone deserves the name; and Frazer now advocates the opinion of van Gennep (Totemism and Exogamy, III, 456).

Hence Totemism, like Fetishism and Shamanism, is based on Animism, but differs from them in the way the spirits are conceived to enter into the lives of men and manifest their power. Miss Kingsley, however, maintains that Totemism is based on the pantheistic conception of the universe, which she says was held by the American Indians. But this is not correct. The Indians always made a distinction between the spirit-life of the totem and the ordinary human life or strength of men. The former was considered sacred, mysterious, mystic, supernatural. This is shown by the terms used to designate the spirit-life, e.g. wakan of the Dakotas, orenda of the Iroquois, tlokoala of the Kwatiutl Indians. Dorsay says that an Indian's wakaned is considered inspired and as possessing supernatural power. Thus the Indian's "medicine bag" is his "mystery bag", writes Catlin, and Dr. Hoffman tells us that the young Algonquin receives from the Great Mystery the particular animal form he might adopt as his guardian mystery, and this becomes his advisor, monitor, and intercessor with the superior manidos .

The real nature of Totemism, therefore, is the savage conception of a twofold power or life or strength in the individual, i.e. his human life plus the spirit-life of the totem. But the measure in which the spirit-life enters into the human life of the totemic individual varies in different tribes and races, giving rise to the difficulties experienced by students of this subject. Thus we have the spirit-life holding a subordinate position in relation to the human life ; or the spirit-life so prominent that the human life is absorbed by it and consequently ignored and forgotten; or we find both the spirit life and the human life equally recognized but at times in a confused manner. In the first case the human element predominates and descent is reckoned by human generation. Miss Fletcher assures us that the Omahas do not hold descent from the totem animals; and Father Brun says the same is true of the natives in West Sudan. Boas writes that the Kwatiutl Indians do not consider themselves to be descendants of the totem; they believe the totem came from an ancestor who had an adventure with an animal which he took as his totem and transmitted to his clan; and that the connexion between the totem and the clan has become so slight that it has degenerated into a crest. The Tlingit do not believe in descent from the totem, yet count the totem as their relative or protector, as e.g. Indians of the Wolf totem implore the wolves: "we are your relations, pray do not hurt us." Hence Powell's statement, that the totem of the clan is considered to be the progenitor or prototype of the clan, is not universally true. This also solves the difficulty experienced by Hill-Tout, who says that the Totemism of British Columbia appears to differ in important and characteristic features from the Totemism of peoples elsewhere.

In the second case, where the spirit-life is considered as absorbing the human life, the fact of human generation is ignored and forgotten. Thus, e.g. among the Aruntes human paternity is unknown. They believe that conception is the entrance of the spirit of an ancestor into the body of a woman, and thus every child born is the reincarnation of an animal or plant ancestor. In the olden times the totemic ancestors were families or groups of families who lived in some definite part of the tribal territory. Some would be swans, others dogs, kangaroos, snakes, etc. They carried with them sacred stones called churinga , i.e. soul or spirit-life. Upon death the spirit-life would remain in the churinga and would haunt the place where these were. In the course of time all the camping-places, water-holes, large rocks, springs, hills, trees, etc., would be thronged with spirits of all kinds. The exact locality of these ancestral spots, with the specific kind of spirits dwelling there, was known from oral tradition. In virtue of the spirit-life, these spots were considered as related to one another in the same way that human beings are related, e.g. a soakage may be the mother's brother of a certain hill, a rock may be the father of a particular sand-hill, a tree may be the brother of a sand-hole, etc. If in passing a particular spot a woman feels the quickening of the child, she ascribes it to the fact that an ancestral spirit of that spot has at that moment entered her body. The object, e.g. stone, piece of wood, etc., that met her eye at that moment is carefully taken as the churinga of the child and placed in the secret storehouse of the tribe kept for that purpose. Thus the totem of the child will be the totem of the spot whence the churinga was taken. Hence there could be children of the same parents all possessing different totems.

In the third case, where both the spirit-life of the totem and the human life of the individual are recognized but in a confused manner, we find the explanation of another class of beliefs and myths which have gathered around Totemism. Thus we can understand how the North American Indians, in explanation of their origin, can neglect the human so that in the remote past it is lost in the animal. Thus Indians of the Wolf totem say they are descended from wolves, of the Crane totem from cranes, of the Turtle totem from turtles, etc. So too we can see how they were led to believe that their ancestors were monstrosities endowed with superhuman powers, e.g. Salish tribes, or were transformed human or semi-human, e.g. Urabunna or creatures partaking of both human and animal natures with power of transforming themselves into animal or human shapes at will, e.g. Northern Australian tribes, or of retransforming themselves, e.g. Iroquois (Hesitt, "Iroquois Cosmology " in "21st Am. Rep. of Bur. of Ethnol.", Washington, 1904, p. 219). On this hypothesis we can grasp the myths of mixed generation so universal among totemic peoples and see also why the Haides, in venerating the killer-whale, blend in their belief the actual animal and the demon Skana supposed to be embodied in it.

IV. PERSONAL TOTEM

A personal totem, i.e. manitou of Algonquins, tu kinajek of Tlingit, augud of Torres Straits, sulia of British Columbia, bunjan of south-east Australia, ari of north-east Australia, oubarre of West Australia, atai and tamaniu of Melanesia, nyarong of Borneo, nagual of South America, tamanous of Twana Indians, is not hereditary ; it is acquired by the individual and it is his own personal property, whereas the clan totem is considered the possession of the clan. It is obtained either accidentally, as when a savage believes that he owes his life to an animal which he immediately takes as his totem; or bestowed at birth, e.g. in Central America by the parents casting a horoscope; or bestowed on the youth by old wise men, e.g. Sioux ; or regularly at the puberty ceremonies. On reaching this age the young Indian goes off alone to the forest and wanders for days without food except roots, etc. After a time when asleep he sees in a dream the animal which is to be his guardian. It or its spirit comes to him. Ever after he wears on his person the object seen, or some portion of it, which is known as his medicine. Catlin describes this in detail. The Salish word sulia , from ulia , i.e. to dream, indicates the ordinary method by which it is obtained. Boas says that with the Kwatiutl Indians the personal totem must be selected from the totems of the clan, hence the number is limited.

V. RELIGIOUS ASPECT

Totemism has both a religious and a social aspect. These aspects vary; thus with the interior Australian tribes the religious aspect is predominant; with the coastal tribes the social aspect prevails. Lord Avebury and Spencer hold that Totemism began as a social system only, and that the superstitious regard for the totem is an aftergrowth. A. Lang, failing to grasp the religious meaning of the totem, has helped to popularize this view. McLennan and Robertson Smith teach that the religious reverence for the totem was original. Father Morice says that Totemism among the Dénés is essentially and exclusively connected with their religious system. Investigation into the nature of Totemism shows this to be the true opinion. Durkheim holds the totem to be a god. This is a mistake. The respect paid to the totem is like that given to relatives or brothers; it is his friend and helper, not his superior. Frazer says Totemism has done little to foster the higher forms of religion, and Murillier does not admit the possibility of any transition from Totemism to any other stage of religious evolution. McGee quotes Darsey, that among the Sioux totems were reverenced rather than worshiped. Frazer at first maintained the religious aspect of Totemism ("Totemism", Edinburgh, 1887); now he denies this (Totemism and Exogamy, 1911, IV, 6). He says the key to the Totemism of Australian natives is furnished by the Intichiuma ceremonies ; and as these ceremonies, peculiar to each totem group, are performed with spells and enchantments for the multiplication of the totem animal, therefore in its origin Totemism is simply an organized and co-operative system of magic devised for economic purposes. The criticism is that this view is superficial and unsatisfactory, that investigations show the Australian savage life to be saturated with the belief in spirits, e.g. the explanation of conception and birth, and that whereas the Intichiuma ceremonies on the surface may appear to be for the multiplication of the totem animal and thus secure a food supply, yet if we study them in the background of the belief in spirits, their purposes more probably are the multiplication of the reincarnated forms of the spirits. When, e.g. the members of the Kangaroo clan perform magic ceremonies for the multiplication of Kangaroos, we are not warranted in stating that kangaroo animals are in question, for members of this clan are also called Kangaroos. Hence the multiplication of the human species may be intended, so that the Kangaroo spirits may be reincarnated. This seems to be confirmed by the rites having a reference to human generation performed at the puberty or Engwura ceremonies.

The main features in the religious aspect of Totemism are shown in the rites and ceremonies performed with a view to show or to attain identity with the totem.

  • (a) Thus at solemn totemic festivals the totem animal is sacrified and eaten even by its own clan. In Australia the eating of the totem animal was considered essential to the rites for the multiplication of the totem. Hill-Tout says that in British Columbia these ceremonies would last through the winter and the people would be grouped according to their totems, thus changing the usual form of tribal organization.
  • (b) By adoption of personal names referring to the appearance or habits of the totem animal.
  • (c) By dressing in the skin or other parts of the totem animal, wearing badges, masks, crest-hats of the totem, arranging hair, painting face or body, tattooing and mutilating the body so as to resemble the totem ; so also totems are painted or carved on weapons, canoes, huts, etc. From this custom we have the totem poles decorated with crests of clan and personal totems, and with red crosses representing the ghosts of their vanquished foes, who are to be their slaves in the other world.
  • (d) By dances and songs as dramatic performances of the myth relating to the acquisition of the spirit protector.
  • (e) By consulting totems as auguries, e.g. the Algonquins and natives of Torres Straits.

VI. SOCIAL ASPECT

In its social aspect;

  • (a) the totem is generally taboo to the members of the clan. They could not kill it or eat its flesh. An exception is in the solemn totemic ceremonies. According to traditions the Australians in earlier times regularly killed and ate their totem. This is not now the custom. The American Indian will address an apology to his totem before killing it. The Melanesian is supposed to have peculiar success in hunting his totem animal. Hill-Tout says the Salish tribes considered the real sulia to be a spirit or mystery-being, though it might take the form of an animal and it could not be killed or hurt if the animal were slain, hence the hunter did not respect the life of the totem in fact he was considered more successful in hunting his sulia animals than other men. Again, on the African Gold Coast a hunter of the Leopard family would not hesitate to kill a troublesome leopard, but he would put oil in the wounds (Haruer in "Jour. Anth. Inst.", XXXVI).
  • (b) Among the Iroquois and the Southern Mewuks of California the totem governs the choice of partners in games, the placing and treatment of visitors.
  • (c) The main social feature of Totemism is shown in binding together the members of the totem clans. All members of the totem clan regard one another as kinsmen and brothers, and are bound to mutual help and protection. Tylor says every Indian looked for and found hospitality in a hut where he saw his own totem figured and, if he was taken captive in war, his clansmen would ransom him (Jour. Anth. Inst., XXVIII). Morgan shows the superiority of the totem bond over the tribal bond among the Iroquois. In the Torres Straits warfare could not affect the friendship of the totem-brethren. Yet Harper says that on the Gulf Coast a man cannot safely visit a person of the same totem belonging to an unfriendly tribe, nor does he hesitate to kill another having the same totem as himself.
  • (d) In the social phase must be viewed the secret societies so widely prevalent among the American Indians.
  • (e) Ford holds that in totemic obligations we are confronted with the beginnings of authority ("Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science ", XXIII, Philadelphia, 1904). Jevons and Reinach teach that the totem clan is the earliest social organization known in the evolution of society (Folk Lore, X). Loret sees in Totemism the explanation of the early Egyptian hieroglyphics, and says it is the parent of writing (Musée Guimet, XIX, 1904-05). Frazer says that it had an indirect influence on agriculture, the domestication of animals and the use of metals, that its influence on economic progress appears to be little more than a shadowy conjecture, but it has done something for pictorial and plastic art, e.g. in totemic representations (Totemism and Exogamy, IV, 19-25). Father Brun, however, warns us that although certain social institutions are placed under the protection of totemic beliefs, the social institutions as a whole are not based upon Totemism. The truth is that Totemism, like any other belief which enters into the life of a people, has an influence on their culture.
  • (f) The influence of Totemism is shown also in the birth, marriage, and death ceremonies. Thus, e.g. a child of the Ottawa deer clan on the fifth day after birth was painted with red spots or stripes in imitation of a fawn; the bride and groom in the Kolong red-dog clan of Java were rubbed before marriage with the ashes of a red-dog's bones; a member of the Amaha buffalo clan was on dying wrapped in a buffalo robe, etc.

VII. EXOGAMY

The relation of exogamy to Totemism is a problem of great difficulty, and will not be completely solved until the origin of exogamy is definitely established. It is a fact that the custom prevails in many tribes that a man cannot marry a woman of his own totem, but must seek a wife from another totem clan. Hence many writers inferred that Totemism and exogamy existed together as different sides of the same institution. Thus A. Lang regards exogamy as the essential feature of Totemism. Hill-Tout takes issue with him maintaining that it is accidental or secondary, that the possession of the same totem becomes a bar to marriage only because it marks kinship by blood, which is the real bar. Lang by totem means "the hereditary totem of the exogamous clan" and admits that if we take totem in its wider extent as comprehending the "personal" totem, the "secret society" totem and the "tribal" totem, then members of these totem groups can intermarry (ibid., p. 204). McLennan and Robertson Smith held that Totemism is found generally in connexion with exogamy, but must be older than exogamy. This view has been confirmed by the investigations of Spencer and Gillen among the Australian savages. They teach that Totemism is a primary and exogamy a secondary feature, and give traditions proving the existence of totems long before that of exogamous groups, and that when the latter did arise, the totems were not affected by them. Hence the exogamous class is a social organization totally different in origin and nature from the totemic clan, and not a mere extension of it, although they have crossed and blended in many places. Again Totemism and exogamy are found existing separately. Father Brun says the totemic clans of the Sudan are not exogamous. Dr. Rivers points out that the natives of Banks Islands have pure Totemism and pure exogamy existing side by side without influencing each other.

Different theories have been proposed to account for the origin of exogamy, Westermark says it arose in the aversion to marriage between blood relatives or near kin, i.e. in horror of incest. This is very probably the true solution. McLennan holds that exogamy was due originally to scarcity of women, which obliged men to seek wives from other groups, i.e. marriage by capture, and this in time grew into a custom. Durkheim derives exogamy from Totemism, and says it arose from a religious respect for the blood of a totemic clan, for the clan totem is a god and is especially in the blood. Morgan and Howitt maintain that exogamy was introduced to prevent marriage between blood relations: especially between brother and sister, which had been common in a previous state of promiscuity. Frazer says this is the true solution, that it really introduced group marriage, which is an advance to monogamy, and that the most complete record of this is the classificatory system of relationship. Lang, however, denies there is any group marriage, and says the so-called group marriage is only tribe-regulated licence. Hill-Tout writes that exogamous rules arose for political reasons by marriage treaties between the groups. Darwin denies primitive promiscuous intercourse, and says exogamy arose from the strongest male driving the other males out of the group. This is also the opinion of Lang, Atkinson, and Letourneau.

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Tænarum

Tænarum, a titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth. Tænarum, or Tænarus, ...

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Téllez, Gabriel

Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, b. at Madrid, c. ...

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Tübingen, University of

Located in Würtemberg ; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477, after Pope ...

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Tabæ

Titular see in Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis ; according to Strabo (XII, 570, 576) it was ...

Tabasco

(TABASQUENSIS) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archbishopric of ...

Tabb, John Bannister

An American poet and educator, born at "The Forest" near Richmond, 1845; died at Ellicott City, ...

Tabbora

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Tabbora or Talbora has been ...

Tabernacle

(TABERNACULUM). Tabernacle signified in the Middle Ages sometimes a ciborium-altar, a ...

Tabernacle

(Latin tabernaculum , tent). Tabernacle in Biblical parlance usually designates the ...

Tabernacle Lamp

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Tabernacle Societies

The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches ...

Tabernacle Society

Notre Dame Convent, Philadelphia; a society of persons affiliated with the Association of ...

Tabernacles, Feast of

One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...

Tabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Tacana Indians

The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...

Tacapæ

Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...

Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...

Taché, Etienne-Pascal

Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...

Tadama

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...

Taensa Indians

A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...

Tahiti

Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...

Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...

Tait Indians

( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...

Takkali

(More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...

Talbot, James

Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...

Talbot, John

English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...

Talbot, Peter

Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...

Talbot, Thomas Joseph

Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...

Tallagaht, Monastery of

The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...

Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...

Tallis, Thomas

English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...

Talmud

1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...

Talon, Jean

First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...

Talon, Nicolas

French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...

Talon, Pierre

A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...

Tamanac Indians

A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...

Tamassus

A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...

Tamaulipas

(CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...

Tamburini, Michelangelo

Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...

Tamburini, Thomas

Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...

Tametsi

("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

(Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

Tanagra

A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...

Tancred

Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

Taney, Roger Brooke

(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

Tanguay, Cyprien

Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...

Tanis

A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...

Tanner, Adam

Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...

Tanner, Conrad

Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...

Tanner, Edmund

Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...

Tanner, Matthias

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

Tanucci, Bernardo

Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

Taoism

(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

Taos Pueblo

An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...

Taparelli, Aloysius

(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

Tapestry

A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...

Tapis, Esteban

Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...

Tarabotti, Helena

Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...

Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Taranto

DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...

Tarapacá

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...

Tarasius, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...

Tarazona

DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

Tarbes

DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...

Tarentaise

(TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...

Targum

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...

Tarisel, Pierre

Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...

Tarkin, Saint

(Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...

Tarnow

DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...

Tarquini, Camillus

Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...

Tarragona

ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...

Tarsicius, Saint

Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...

Tarsus

A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...

Tartaglia, Nicolò

(T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...

Tartini, Giuseppe

Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...

Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...

Tassé, Joseph

Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...

Tassach, Saint

Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...

Tassin, René-Prosper

French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...

Tasso, Torquato

Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...

Tassoni, Alessandro

Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...

Tatian

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...

Tatwin, Saint

(TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...

Taubaté

(DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...

Tauler, John

German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...

Taunton, Ethelred

Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...

Taverner, John

Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...

Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...

Tavium

A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...

Taxa Innocentiana

A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...

Taxster, John de

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

Taylor, Frances Margaret

(MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...

Taylor, Ven. Hugh

English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...

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Te 69

Te Deum, The

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

Tebaldeo, Antonio

Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...

Tegernsee

Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...

Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

Teilo, Saint

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Teleology

(From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...

Telepathy

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

Telesio, Bernardino

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

Telesphorus, Pope Saint

(Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...

Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

Tellier, Michel Le

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

Tempel, Wilhelm

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

Temple, Sisters of the

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

Ten Commandments, The

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

Tenebræ

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

Teniers, David

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

Tenney, William Jewett

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...

Tenure, Ecclesiastical

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

Teresa of Avila, Saint

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

Terill, Anthony

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

Ternan, Saint

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

Terrasson, André

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

Terrestrial Paradise

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

Test-Oath, Missouri

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

Testament, New

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

Testament, Old

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

Tetzel, Johann

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

Textual Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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Th 147

Thænæ

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

Thébaud, Augustus

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

Théophane Vénard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Thabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

Thais, Saint

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

Thalberg, Sigismond

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

Thalhofer, Valentin

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

Thanksgiving before and after Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

Thayer, John

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

Theatre, The

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

Thecla, Saint

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

Thecla, Saints

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

Theiner, Augustin

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

Theobald, Saint

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

Theodard, Saint

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

Theodore I, Pope

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

Theodore II, Pope

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

Theodore of Amasea, Saint

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

Theodore of Studium, Saint

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

Theology, Ascetical

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

Theology, History of Dogmatic

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

Theology, Moral

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

Theology, Mystical

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

Theophanes, Saint

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

Theotocopuli, Domenico

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Thera (Santorin)

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

Thierry of Freburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

Thimelby, Richard

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

Thomas á Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

Thomas à Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

Thomas Abel, Blessed

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

Thomas Alfield, Venerable

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

Thomas Aquinas, Saint

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

Thomas Becket, Saint

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

Thomas Christians, Saint

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

Thomas Ford, Blessed

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

Thomas Garnet, Saint

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Thomas More, Saint

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

Thomas of Cantimpré

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

Thomas of Villanova, Saint

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

Thomas Percy, Blessed

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

Thomas the Apostle, Saint

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Thomas, Charles L.A.

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

Thomassin, Louis

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

Thompson, Blessed James

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

Thompson, Francis

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

Thorlaksson, Arni

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

Thorns, Crown of

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

Thou, Nicolas de

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

Three Rivers

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

Thulis, Venerable John

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

Thurmayr, Johannes

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

Thyräus, Hermann

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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Ti 45

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

Tiberias, Sea of

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

Tieffentaller, Joseph

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

Tigris, Saint

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

Tincker, Mary Agnes

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

Tinin

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

Tintoretto, Il

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

Tissot, James

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

Tithes, Lay

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

Titopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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Tl 2

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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Toaldo, Giuseppe

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

Tokio

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

Toledo, Francisco

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

Tolentino and Macerata

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

Toleration, History of

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

Toleration, Religious

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

Tolomei, John Baptist

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

Tomb, Altar

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

Tongerloo, Abbey of

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

Tongiorgi, Salvator

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

Tongues, Gift of

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

Tootell, Hugh

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

Torbido, Francesco

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

Torquemada, Tomás de

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

Torres, Francisco

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

Torricelli, Evangelista

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

Torrubia, José

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

Toscanella and Viterbo

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

Tostado, Alonso

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

Tosti, Luigi

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

Touchet, George Anselm

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

Tournély, Honoré

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

Touron, Antoine

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

Toustain, Charles-François

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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Tr 77

Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

Transubstantiation

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

Treason, Accusations of

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

Tredway, Lettice Mary

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

Tregian, Francis

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

Trent, Council of

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

Tresham, Sir Thomas

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

Tribe, Jewish

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

Tricarico, Diocese of

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

Tricassin, Charles Joseph

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

Trichinopoly, Diocese of

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

Trinitarians, Order of

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

Trinity, The Blessed

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

Trissino, Giangiorgio

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

Trithemius, John

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

Trivet, Nicholas

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

Trokelowe, John de

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

Trondhjem, Ancient See of

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

Tropology, Scriptural

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

Troy, John Thomas

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

Trudo, Saint

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

Trudpert, Saint

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

True Cross, The

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

Trueba, Antonio de

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

Trullo, Council in

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

Trumpets, Feast of

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Trumwin, Saint

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

Truth Societies, Catholic

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

Tschupick, John Nepomuk

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

Tuam, School of

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

Tucumán

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

Tulasne, Louis-René

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

Tunstall, Cuthbert

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

Tunsted, Simon

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

Turin, Shroud of

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

Turin, University of

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

Turnebus, Adrian

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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Tw 2

Twenge, Saint John

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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Ty 7

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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