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Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression of the Society(1541-1773)

(1) St. Ignatius Loyola

(19 April 1541-31 July, 1556). The society spread rapidly, and at the time of St. Ignatius' death had twelve provinces: Italy, Sicily, Portugal, Aragon, Castile, Andalusia, Upper Germany, Lower Germany, France, India (including Japan ), Brazil, and Ethiopia, the last-mentioned province lasting but a short time. It met with opposition at the University of Paris ; while in Spain it was severely attacked by Melchior Cano.

(2) James Lainez

(2 July, 1558-19 January, 1565). Lainez served two years as vicar-general, and was chosen general in the first general congregation, retarded until 1558 (19 June-10 Sept.) owing to the unfortunate war between Paul IV and Philip II. Paul IV gave orders that the Divine Office should be recited in choir, and also that the generalate should only last three years. The pope died on 18 August, 1559, and his orders were not renewed by his successor, Pius IV ; indeed he refused Fr. Lainez leave to resign when his first triennium closed. Through Pius' nephew, St. Charles Borromeo, the Society now received many privileges and openings, and progress was rapid. Father Lainez himself was sent to the "Colloquy of Poissy", and to the Council of Trent (1563-4), St. Francis Borgia being left in Rome as his vicar-general. At the death of Lainez the Society numbered 3500 members in 18 provinces and 130 houses.

(3) St. Francis Borgia

(2 July 1565-1 October, 1572). One of the most delicate tasks of his government was to negotiate with Pope St. Pius V, who desired to reintroduce the singing of Office. This was in fact begun in May, 1569, but only in professed houses, and it was not to interfere with other work. Pius also ordained (Christmas, 1566) that no candidate for any religious order for the priesthood should be ordained until after his profession; and this indirectly caused much trouble to the Society, with its distinct grades of professed and non-professed priests. All therefore had to be professed of three vows, until Gregory XIII (December, 1572) allowed the original practice to be restored. Under his administration the foreign missionary work of the order greatly increased and prospered. New missions were opened by the Society in Florida, Mexico, and Peru.

(4) Everard Mercurian

Belgian (23 April, 1573-1 August 1580). Fr. Mercurian was born in 1514 in the village of Marcour (Luxembourg), whence his name, which he signed Everard de Marcour. He became the first non-Spanish general of the Society. Pope Gregory XIII , without commanding, had expressed his desire for this change. This, however, caused great dissatisfaction and opposition among a number of the Spanish and Portuguese members, which came to a crisis during the generalate of Father Mercurian's successor, Father Claudius Acquaviva . Father Tolet was entrusted with the task of obtaining the submission of Michael Baius to the decision of the Holy See ; he succeeded, but his success later served to draw on the Society the hatred of the Jansenists. Father Mercurian, when general, brought the rules to their final form, compiling the "Summary of the Constitutions" from the manuscripts of St. Ignatius, and drawing up the "Common Rules" of the Society, and the particular rules of each office. He was greatly interested in the foreign missions and established the Marionite and English missions, and sent to the latter Blessed Edmund Campion and Father Robert Persons. Father Everard Mercurian passed thirty-two years in the Society, and died at the age of sixty-six. At that time the Society numbered 5000 members in eighteen provinces.

(5) Claudius Acquaviva (Aquaviva)

Neapolitan (19 February, 1581-31 January, 1615). (For the disputations on grace, see Congregatio de Auxiliis ). After Ignatius, Acquaviva was perhaps the ablest ruler of the Society. As a legislator he reduced to its present form the final parts of the Institute, and the Ratio Studiorum. He had also to contend with extraordinary obstacles both from without and within. The Society was banished from France and from Venice ; there were grave differences with the King of Spain, with Sixtus V, with the Dominican theologians ; and within the Society the rivalry between Spaniards and Italian led to unusual complications and to the calling of two extraordinary general congregations (fifth and sixth). The origin of these troubles is perhaps eventually to be sought in the long wars of religion, which gradually died down after the canonical absolution of Henry IV, 1595 (in which Fathers Georges, Toledo, and Possevinus played important parts). The fifth congregation in 1593 supported Acquaviva steadily against the opposing parties, and the sixth, in 1608, completed the union of opinions. Paul V in 1606 re-confirmed the Institute, which from now onwards may be considered to have won a stable position in the Church at large, until the epoch of the Suppression and the Revolution. Missions were established in Canada, Chile, Paraguay, the Philippine Islands, and China. At Father Acquaviva's death the Society numbered 13,112 members in 32 provinces and 559 houses.

(6) Mutius Vitelleschi

Roman (15 November, 1615-9 February, 1645). His generalate was one of the most pacific and progressive, especially in France and Spain ; but the Thirty Years' War worked havoc in Germany. The canonization of Sts. Ignatius and Francis Xavier (1622) and the first centenary of the Society (1640) were celebrated with great rejoicings. The great mission of Paraguay began, that of Japan was stamped out in blood. England was raised in 1619 to the rank of a province of the order, having been a mission until then. Missions were established in Tibet (1624), Tonkin (1627), and Maranhao (1640). (See VITELLESCHI )

(7) Vincent Caraffa

Neapolitan (7 January 1646-8 June 1649). A few days before Father Caraffa's election as general, Pope Innocent X published a brief "Prospero felicique statui", in which he ordered a general congregation of the Society to be held every nine years; it was ordained also that no office in the Society except the position of master of novices should be held for more than three years. The latter regulation was revoked by Innocent's successor, Alexander VII on 1 January, 1658; and the former by Benedict XIV in 1746 by the Bull "Devotam", many dispensations having been granted in the mean time.

(8) Francis Piccolomini of Sienna

(21 December, 1649-17 June, 1651). Before his election as general he had been professor of philosophy at the Roman college ; he died at the age of sixty-nine, having passed fifty-three years in the Society.

(9) Aloysius Gottifredi

Roman (21 January, 1652-12 March 1652). Father Gottifredi died at the house of the professed Fathers, Rome, within two months after his election, and before the Fathers assembled for the election and congregation had concluded their labour. He had been a professor of theology and rector at the Roman College, and later secretary of the Society under Father Mutius Vitelleschi.

(10) Goschwin Nickel

German (b. at Jülich in 1582; 17 March, 1652-31 July, 1664). During these years the struggle with Jansenism was growing more and more heated. The great controversy on the Chinese Rites (1645) was continued (see MATTEO RICCI ). Owing to his great age, Father Nickel obtained from the eleventh congregation the appointment of John Paul Oliva as vicar-general (on 7 June, 1661), with the approval of Alexander VII.

(11) John Paul Oliva

Genoese (elected vicar cum jure successionis on 7 June, 1661) 31 July, 1664-26 November 1681. During his generalate, the Society established a mission in Persia, which at first met with great success, four hundred thousand converts being made within twenty-five years; in 1736, however, the mission was destroyed by violent persecution. Father Oliva's generalate occurred during one of the most difficult periods in the history of the Society, as the controversy on Jansenism, the droit de régale , and moral theology were being carried on by the opponents of the Society with the greatest acrimony and violence. Father John Paul Oliva laboured earnestly to keep up the Society's high reputation for learning, and in a circular letter sent to all the houses of study urged the cultivation of the oriental languages.

(12) Charles de Noyelle

Belgian, 5 July 1682-12 December, 1868. Father de Noyelle was born at Brussels on 28 July, 1615; so great was his reputation for virtue and prudence that at his election he received unanimous vote of the congregation. He had been assistant for the Germanic provinces for more than 20 years; he died at the age of seventy, after fifty years spent in the Society. Just about the time of his election, the dispute between Louis XIV of France and Pope Innocent XI had culminated in the publication of the "Déclaration du clergé de France" (19 March, 1682). This placed the Society in a difficult position in France, as its spirit of devotion to the papacy was not in harmony with the spirit of the "Déclaration". It required all the ingenuity and ability of Pere La Chaise and Father de Noyelle to avert a disaster. Innocent XI was dissatisfied with the position the Society adopted, and threatened to suppress the order, proceeding even so far as to forbid the reception of novices.

(13) Thyrsus González

Spaniard, 6 July, 1687-27 October, 1705. He interfered in the controversy between Probabilism and Probabiliorism, attacking the former doctrine with energy in a book published at Dilligen in 1691. As Probabilism was on the whole in favour in the Society, this caused discussions which were not quieted until the fourteenth congregation, 1696, when, with the pope's approval, liberty was left to both sides. Father Gonzalez in his earlier days had laboured with great fruit as a missionary, and after his election as general encouraged the work of popular home missions. His treatise "De infallibitate Romani pontificis in definiendis fidei et morum controversiis" which was a vigorous attack on the doctrines laid down in the "Déclaration du clergé de France" was published at Rome in 1689 by order of Pope Innocent XI ; however, Innocent's successor, Alexander VIII, caused the work to be withdrawn, as its effects had been to render the relations between France and the Holy See more difficult. Father González laboured earnestly to spread devotion to the saints of the Society ; he died at the age of eighty-four, having passed sixty-three years in the order, during nineteen of which he was general.

(14) Michelangelo Tamburini

Of Modena, 31 January, 1706-28 February, 1730. The long reign of Louis XIV , so favorable to the Jesuits in many respects, saw the beginning of those hostile movements which were to lead to the Suppression. The king's autocratic powers, his Gallicanism, his insistence on the repression of the Jansenists by force, the way he compelled the Society to take his part in the quarrel with Rome about the régale (1684-8), led to a false situation in which the parts might be reversed, when the all-powerful sovereign might turn against them, or by standing neutral leave them the prey of others. This was seen at his death, 1715, when the regent banished the once influential father confessor Le Tellier, while the gallicanizing archbishop of Paris, Cardinal de Noailles , laid them under an interdict (1716-29). Father Tamburini who before his election as general had taught philosophy and theology for twelve years and had been chosen by Cardinal Renauld d'Este as his theologian ; he had also been provincial of Venice, secretary-general of the Society, and vicar-general. During the disputes concerning the Chinese Rites, the Society was accused of resisting the orders of the Holy See. Father Tamborini protested energetically against this calumny, and when in 1711 the procurators of all the provinces of the Society were assembled in Rome, he had them sign a protest which he dedicated to Pope Clement XI. The destruction of Port Royal and the condemnation of the errors of Quesnel by the Bull "Unigenitus" (1711) testified to the accuracy of the opinions adopted by the Society in these disputes. Father Tamburini procured the canonization of Saints Aloysius Gonzaga and Stanislaus Kostka, and the beatification of St. John Francis Régis. During his generalate the mission of Paraguay reached its highest degree of success; in one year no fewer than 77 missionaries left for it; the missionary labors of St. Francis de Geronimo and Blessed Anthony Baldinucci in Italy, and Venerable Manuel Padial in Spain, enhanced the reputation of the Society. Father Tamburini died at the age of 82, having spent sixty-five years in religion. At the time of his death, the Society contained 37 provinces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 612 colleges, 59 novitiates, 340 residences, 200 mission stations; in addition, one hundred and fifty-seven seminaries were directed by the Jesuits.

(15) Francis Retz

Austrian (born at Prague in 1673) 7 March, 1730-19 November 1750. Father Retz was elected general unanimously, his able administration contributed much to the welfare of the Society ; he obtained the canonization of St. John Francis Regis. Father Retz's generalate was perhaps the quietest in the history of the order. At the time of his death, the Society contained 39 provinces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 669 colleges, 61 novitiates, 335 residences, 273 mission stations 176 seminaries, and 22,589 members of whom 11,293 were priests.

(16) Ignatius Viscanti

Milanese, 4 July, 1751-4 May 1755. It was during this generalate that the accusations of trading were first made against Father Antonine de La Valette, who was recalled from Martinique in 1753 to justify his conduct. Shortly before dying, Fr. Viscanti allowed him to return to his mission, where the failure of his commercial operations, somewhat later, gave an opportunity to the enemies of the Society in France to begin a warfare that ended only with the Suppression (see below). Trouble with Pombal also began at this time. Father Visconti died at the age of seventy-three.

(17) Aloysius Centurioni

Genoese, 30 November, 1755-2 October 1757. During his brief generalate, the most noteworthy facts were the persecution by Pombal of the Portuguese Jesuits and the troubles caused by Father de La Valette's commercial activities and disasters. Father Centurioni died at Castel Gandolfo, at the age of seventy-two.

(18) Lorenzo Ricci

Florentine, 21 May, 1758 until the Suppression in 1773. In 1759, the Society contained 41 provinces, 270 mission posts, and 171 seminaries. Father Ricci founded the Bavarian province of the order in 1770. His generalate saw the slow death agony of the Society ; within two years the Portuguese, Brazilian and East Indian provinces and missions were destroyed by Pombal ; close to two thousand members of the Society were cast destitute on the shores of Italy and imprisoned in fetid dungeons in Portugal. France, Spain, and the two Sicilies followed in the footsteps of Pombal. The Bull, "Apostolicum" of Clement XIII in favor of the Society produced no fruit. Clement XIV at last yielded to the demand for the extinction of the Society. Father Ricci was seized, and cast a prisoner into the Castel San Angelo, were he was treated as a criminal until death ended his sufferings on 24 November, 1775. In 1770, the Society contained 42 provinces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 669 colleges, 61 novitiates, 335 residences, 273 mission stations, and about 23,000 members.

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Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression

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Jo 163

Joachim of Flora

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(V AN K ALKAR ). Otherwise JAN JOOST VAN CALCKER. Dutch painter, b. at Calcker, or ...

Jogues, Saint Isaac

French missionary, born at Orléans, France, 10 January, 1607; martyred at Ossernenon, ...

John and Cyrus, Saints

Celebrated martyrs of the Coptic Church, surnamed thaumatourgoi anargyroi because they healed ...

John and Paul, Saints

Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

John Baptist de la Salle, Saint

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...

John Baptist de Rossi, Saint

(De Rubeis). Born at Voltaggio in the Diocese of Genoa, 22 February, 1698; died at Rome, 23 ...

John Beche, Blessed

( Alias THOMAS MARSHALL). English Benedictine abbot and martyr ; date of birth unknown; ...

John Berchmans, Saint

Born at Diest in Brabant, 13 March, 1599; died at Rome, 13 August, 1621. His parents watched ...

John Bosco, Saint

( Or St. John Bosco; Don Bosco.) Founder of the Salesian Society. Born of poor parents in ...

John Boste, Saint

(Or JOHN BOAST.) Priest and martyr, b. of good Catholic family at Dufton, in Westmoreland, ...

John Britton, Venerable

(Or Bretton). A layman and martyr, of all ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in ...

John Buckley, Venerable

( Alias John Jones; alias John Griffith; in religion, Godfrey Maurice). Priest and martyr, ...

John Cantius, Saint

Born at Kenty, near Oswiecim, Diocese of Krakow, Poland, 1412 (or 1403); died at Krakow, 1473, ...

John Capistran, Saint

Born at Capistrano, in the Diocese of Sulmona, Italy, 1385; died 23 October, 1456. His father had ...

John Chrysostom, Saint

( Chrysostomos , "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). Doctor of the ...

John Climacus, Saint

Also surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, and THE SINAITA, b. doubtlessly in Syria, about 525; d. on Mount ...

John Colombini, Blessed

Founder of the Congregation of Jesuati; b. at Siena, Upper Italy, about 1300; d. on the way to ...

John Cornelius and Companions, Venerable

John Cornelius (called also Mohun) was born of Irish parents at Bodmin, in Cornwall, on the ...

John Damascene, Saint

Born at Damascus, about 676; died some time between 754 and 787. The only extant life of the ...

John de Britto, Blessed

Martyr ; born in Lisbon, 1 March, 1647, and was brought up in court; martyred in India 11 ...

John Felton, Blessed

Martyr, date and place of birth unknown, was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 8 ...

John Fisher, Saint

Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, and martyr ; born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1459 ...

John Forest, Blessed

Born in 1471, presumably at Oxford, where his surname was then not unknown; suffered 22 May, ...

John Francis Regis, Saint

Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...

John Hambley, Venerable

English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...

John I, Pope Saint

Died at Ravenna on 18 or 19 May (according to the most popular calculation), 526. A Tuscan by ...

John II, Pope

(533-535). The date of the birth of this pope is not known. He was a Roman and the son of ...

John III, Pope

(561-574). A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574. He was of a distinguished family, ...

John Ingram, Venerable

English martyr, born at Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, in 1565; executed at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 ...

John IV, Pope

(640-642). A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. The ...

John IX, Pope

(898-900). Not only is the date of John's birth unknown, but the date of his election as ...

John Joseph of the Cross, Saint

Born on the Island of Ischia, Southern Italy, 1654; d. 5 March, 1739. From his earliest years ...

John Larke, Blessed

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

John Malalas

A Monophysite Byzantine chronicler of the sixth century, born at Antioch where he spent most if ...

John Nelson, Blessed

English Jesuit martyr, b. at Skelton, four miles from York, in 1534; d. at Tyburn, 3 February, ...

John Nepomucene, Saint

Born at Nepomuk about 1340; died 20 March, 1393. The controversy concerning the identity of John ...

John of Antioch

There are four persons commonly known by this name. I John, Patriarch of Antioch ...

John of Avila, Blessed

Apostolic preacher of Andalusia and author, b. at Almodóvar del Campo, a small town in ...

John of Beverley, Saint

Bishop of Hexham and afterwards of York; b. at Harpham, in the East Riding of Yorkshire; d. at ...

John of Biclaro

(Johannes Biclariensis.) Chronicler, born in Portugal, probably about the middle of the sixth ...

John of Cornwall

(JOHANNES CORNUBIENSIS, JOHANNES DE SANCTO GERMANO). John of Cornwall lived about 1176. He was ...

John of Ephesus

(Also known as JOHN OF ASIA). The earliest, and a very famous, Syriac historian. He was born ...

John of Fécamp

(Also known as JEANNELIN on account of his diminutive stature). Ascetic writer, b. near Ravenna ...

John of Falkenberg

Author, b. at Falkenberg, Pomerania, Prussia, date unknown; d. about 1418 in Italy &151; ...

John of Fermo, Blessed

More often called JOHN OF LA VERNA, from his long sojourn on that holy mountain, b. at Fermo ...

John of Genoa

(Often called Balbi, or de Balbis.) Grammarian; born at Genoa, date unknown; died there ...

John of God, Saint

Born at Montemor o Novo, Portugal, 8 March, 1495, of devout Christian parents ; died at ...

John of Hauteville

Moralist and satirical poet of the twelfth century (flourished about 1184). Little is known of his ...

John of Janduno

An Averroistic philosopher, theologian, and political writer of the fourteenth century. John of ...

John of Montecorvino

A Franciscan and founder of the Catholic mission in China, b. at Montecorvino in Southern ...

John of Montesono

Theologian and controversialist, born at Monzón, Spain ; dates of birth and death ...

John of Nikiû

An Egyptian chronicler who flourished in the latter part of the seventh century. The little we ...

John of Paris

( Called also Quidort and de Soardis). Theologian and controversialist; born at Paris, ...

John of Parma, Blessed

Minister General of the Friars Minor (1247-1257), b. at Parma about 1209; d. at Camerino 19 ...

John of Ragusa

(Sometimes confounded with John of Segovia ). A Dominican theologian, president of the ...

John of Roquetaillade (de Rupescissa)

Franciscan alchemist, date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1362. After pursuing the ...

John of Rupella

Franciscan theologian, b. at La Rochelle (Rupella), towards the end of the twelfth century; d. ...

John of Sahagun, Saint

Hermit, b. 1419, at Sahagún (or San Fagondez) in the Kingdom of Leon, in Spain ; d. 11 ...

John of Saint Thomas

(Family name John Poinsot), theologian, born at Lisbon, 9 June, 1589; died at Fraga, Spain, 17 ...

John of Salisbury

(JOHANNES DE SARESBERIA, surnamed PARVUS). Born about 1115; died 1180; a distinguished ...

John of Segovia

A Spanish theologian, b. at Segovia towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. probably in ...

John of the Cross, Saint

Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b. at ...

John of Victring

(JOHANNES VICTORENSIS or DE VICTORIA). Chronicler, b. probably between 1270 and 1280; d. at ...

John of Winterthur

(Johannes Vitoduranus.) Historian, born about 1300 at Winterthur (Switzerland); died ...

John Parvus

Called in his day, JEHAN PETIT or LE PETIT. A French theologian and professor in the ...

John Payne, Blessed

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

John Rigby, Saint

English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

John Roberts, Saint

First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

John Rochester, Blessed

Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

John Sarkander, Blessed

Martyr of the seal of confession, born at Skotschau in Austrian Silesia, 20 Dec., 1576; died at ...

John Scholasticus

( ho Scholastikos ; also called J OHN OF A NTIOCH ) Patriarch of Constantinople (J OHN ...

John Shert, Blessed

A native of Cheshire; took the degree of B.A. at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1566. Successively ...

John Stone, Blessed

English martyr, executed at the Dane-John, Canterbury, probably in December, 1539, for denying ...

John Story, Blessed

( Or Storey.) Martyr ; born 1504; died at Tyburn, 1 June, 1571. He was educated at ...

John Talaia

Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (481-482) at the time of the Monophysite troubles. He had ...

John the Almsgiver, Saint

(JOANNES ELEEMOSYNARIUS; JOANNES MISERICORS). Patriarch of Alexandria (606-16), b. at Amathus ...

John the Baptist, Saint

The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are ...

John the Deacon

(J OHANNES D IACONUS ). Among the writers of the Middle Ages who bear this name, four ...

John the Evangelist, Saint

I. New Testament Accounts II. The Alleged Presbyter John III. The Later Accounts of John IV. Feasts ...

John the Faster

( ‘o nesteutés, jejunator ) Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), ...

John the Silent, Saint

(Hesychastes, Silentiarius). Bishop of Colonia, in Armenia, b. at Nicopolis, Armenia, 8 ...

John Twenge, Saint

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

John V, Pope

(685-686). A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 ...

John VI, Pope

(701-705). A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705. He ascended the ...

John VII, Pope

(705-707). The year of his birth is unknown; d. 18 October, 707. Few particulars of his life ...

John VIII, Pope

(Reigned 872-82) A Roman and the son of Gundus. He seems to have been born in the first ...

John X, Pope

Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928. First a deacon, he became ...

John XI, Pope

Date of birth unknown, became pope in 931; d. 936. He was the son of Marozia by her first ...

John XII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64. The younger Alberic, after the downfall of his mother, ...

John XIII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972. After the death of John XII ...

John XIV, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 984. After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, ...

John XIX (XX), Pope

Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032. After the death of the last patricius of the House of Crescentius, ...

John XV (XVI), Pope

Enthroned 985; d. April, 996. After John XIV had been removed by force, the usurper, Boniface ...

John XVI (XVII)

Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013. After the death of John XV, Bruno, a relative of Otto ...

John XVII (XVIII), Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003. When Sylvester II died on 12 May, 1003, there was no ...

John XVIII (XIX), Pope

Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009. He was the son of a Roman ...

John XXI (XX), Pope

Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277. The son ...

John XXII, Pope

(JACQUES D'EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 ...

John XXIII

Antipope of the Pisan party (1400-15), b. about 1370; d. 22 November, 1419. Cardinal Baldassare ...

John, Epistles of

Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. The subject will ...

John, Gospel of

This subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Contents and Scheme of the ...

Johnson, Blessed Robert

Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

Johnson, Blessed Thomas

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Johnson, Lionel Pigot

Born at Broadstairs on the Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; died 4 Oct., 1902. He was the youngest ...

Johnston, Richard Malcolm

Educator, author, b. 8 March, 1822, at Powellton, Georgia, U.S.A.; d. at Baltimore, Maryland, 23 ...

Joinville, Jean, Sire de

Seneschal of Champagne, historian, b. in 1225; d. at Joinville, 1317. His family held an ...

Joliet, Louis

(Or JOLLIET). Louis Joliet, a discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, ...

Joliette

(JOLIETTENSIS). Diocese created by Pius X , 27 January, 1904 by division of the Archdiocese ...

Jolly, Philipp Johann Gustav von

German physicist, born at Mannheim, 26 September, 1809; died at Munich, 24 December, 1884. His ...

Jonas

The fifth of the Minor Prophets. The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the ...

Jonas of Bobbio

(Or Jonas of Susa ) Monk and hagiographer, b. about the close of the sixth century at ...

Jonas of Orléans

Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, born in Aquitaine; died in 843 or 844. From 818, when he ...

Jonathan

(Hebrew, " Yahweh hath given", cf. Theodore; Septuagint 'Ionáthan .) Name of several ...

Jones, Inigo

A famous English architect, b. 15 July, 1573, in London ; d. 21 June, 1652, and was buried in ...

Jones, Venerable Edward

Priest and martyr, b. in the Diocese of St. Asaph, Wales, date unknown; d. in London, 6 May ...

Jordan, The

(In Hebrew Yâdên, from the root Yârâd, to descend). The difference ...

Jordanis

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...

Jordanus of Giano

(DE JANO). Italian Minorite, b. at Giano in the Valley of Spoleto, c. 1195; d. after 1262. ...

Jornandes

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...

Josaphat

( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...

Josaphat and Barlaam

The principal characters of a legend of Christian antiquity, which was a favourite subject of ...

Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...

Josaphat, Valley of

(JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...

Joseph

The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes ...

Joseph Calasanctius of the Mother of God, Pious Workers of Saint

Founded at Vienna, 24 November, 1889, by Father Anton Maria Schwartz for all works of charity, ...

Joseph Calasanctius, Saint

Called in religion "a Matre Dei", founder of the Piarists, b. 11 Sept., 1556, at the castle of ...

Joseph II

(1741-90). German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and ...

Joseph of Arimathea

All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels. He was born ...

Joseph of Cupertino, Saint

Mystic, born 17 June, 1603; died at Osimo 18 September, 1663; feast, 18 September. Joseph ...

Joseph of Exeter

(JOSEPHUS ISCANUS.) A twelfth-century Latin poet; b. at Exeter, England. About 1180 he went ...

Joseph of Issachar

A man of the tribe of Issachar, and the father of Igal who was one of the spies sent by Moses ...

Joseph of Leonessa, Saint

In the world named Eufranio Desiderio; born in 1556 at Leonessa in Umbria; died 4 February, ...

Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, Saint

This organization began its labours in 1871, when four young priests from Mill Hill were put in ...

Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, Saint

(Mill Hill, London, N.W.) A society of priests and laymen whose object is to labour for ...

Joseph, Saint

Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ . LIFE Sources ...

Joseph, Sisters of Saint

CONGREGATION OF THE SISTERS OF ST. JOSEPH Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. ...

Josephites

(Sons of St. Joseph) A congregation devoted to the Christian education of youth, founded in ...

Josephus, Flavius

Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem ; died about 101. He belonged to a distinguished ...

Joshua

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...

Josias

(J OSIAH – Hebrew for " Yahweh supports"; Septuagint 'Iosías ). A pious ...

Josue

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...

Joubert, Joseph

French philosopher ; b. at Martignac (Dordogne), 7 May, 1754, d. at Villeneuve-le-Roi (Yonne), 4 ...

Jouffroy, Claude-François-Dorothée de

M ARQUIS d' A BBANS . Mechanician, b. at Abbans, near Besançon, 30 Sept., 1751; d. ...

Jouffroy, Jean de

French prelate and statesman; b. at Luxeuil (Franche-Comté) about 1412; d. at the priory ...

Jouin, Louis

Linguist, philosopher, author, b. at Berlin, 14 June, 1818, d. at New York, 10 June, 1899. He ...

Jouvancy, Joseph de

(JOSEPHUS JUVENCIUS). Poet, pedagogue, philologist, and historian, b. at Paris, 14 September, ...

Jouvenet, Jean

Surnamed T HE G REAT . French painter, b. at Rouen in 1644, d. at Paris, 5 April, 1717. ...

Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de

(Also written JOVE-LLANOS). Spanish statesman and man of letters, at Gijon, Asturias, 5 Jan., ...

Jovianus, Flavius Claudius

Roman Emperor, 363-4. After the death of Julian the Apostate (26 June, 363), the army making ...

Jovinianus

An opponent of Christian asceticism in the fourth century, condemned as a heretic (390). Our ...

Jovius, Paulus

(GIOVIO). Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552. Having ...

Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de

Born in 1563 and not, as is mistakenly stated in the "Biographic Michaud ", in 1567; died at ...

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Ju 57

Juan Bautista de Toledo

An eminent Spanish sculptor and architect; b. at Madrid (date not known); d. there 19 May, ...

Jubilate Sunday

The third Sunday after Easter, being so named from the first word of the Introit at Mass ...

Jubilee, Holy Year of

The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew)

According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that ...

Jubilees, Book of

( ta Iobelaia ). An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and ...

Juda

The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the ...

Judaism

At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...

Judaizers

(From Greek Ioudaizo , to adopt Jewish customs -- Esther 8:17 ; Galatians 2:14 ). A ...

Judas Iscariot

The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master . The name Judas ( Ioudas ) is the Greek form of ...

Judas Machabeus

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...

Judde, Claude

French preacher and spiritual father; born at Rouen, about 20 December, 1661; died at Paris, ...

Jude, Epistle of Saint

The present subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Author and the ...

Judea

Like the adjective Ioudaios , the noun Ioudaia comes from the Aramæan Iehûdai ...

Judge, Ecclesiastical

(J UDEX E CCLESIASTICUS ) An ecclesiastical person who possesses ecclesiastical ...

Judges, The Book of

The seventh book of the Old Testament , second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon. I. ...

Judgment, Divine

This subject will be treated under two heads: I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively ...

Judgment, General

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Judgment, Last

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Judgment, Particular

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

Judica Sunday

Name given to the fifth Sunday of Lent, and derived from the first words of the Introit of ...

Judith, Book of

HISTORY Nabuchodonosor, King of Nineveh, sends his general Holofernes to subdue the Jews. The ...

Julia Billiart, Saint

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

Julian and Basilissa, Saints

Husband and wife; died at Antioch or, more probably, at Antinoe, in the reign of Diocletian, ...

Julian of Eclanum

Born about 386; died in Sicily, 454; the most learned among the leaders of the Pelagian ...

Julian of Speyer

Often called J ULIANUS T EUTONICUS . A famous composer, poet, and historian of the ...

Julian the Apostate

(FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS). Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, ...

Juliana Falconieri, Saint

Born in 1270; died 12 June, 1341. Juliana belonged to the noble Florentine family of Falconieri. ...

Juliana of Liège, Saint

Nun, b. at Retinnes, near Liège, Belgium, 1193; d. at Fosses, 5 April, 1258. At the age ...

Juliana of Norwich

English mystic of the fourteenth century, author or recipient of the vision contained in the book ...

Juliana, Saint

Suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution. Both the Latin and Greek Churches mention ...

Julie Billiart, Saint

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...

Juliopolis

Titular see in the province of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicaea. The city was founded under ...

Julitta and Quiricus

Martyred under Diocletian. The names of these two martyrs, who in the early Church enjoyed a ...

Julius Africanus

(c. 160-c. 240; the full name is Sextus Iulius Africanus, Greek Sextos Ioulios Aphrikanos ). ...

Julius I, Pope Saint

(337-352). The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for ...

Julius II, Pope

(GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE). Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 ...

Julius III, Pope

(GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE). Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555. ...

Jumièges, Abbey of

Jumièges, situated on the north bank of the Seine, between Duclair and Caudebec, in ...

Junípero Serra

Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, ...

Jungmann, Bernard

A dogmatic theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Münster in Westphalia, 1 ...

Jungmann, Josef

Born 12 Nov., 1830, at Münster, Westphalia ; died at Innsbruck, 25 Nov., 1885. In 1850 he ...

Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical

The right to guide and rule the Church of God. The subject is here treated under the following ...

Jus Spolii

(RIGHT OF SPOIL; also called JUS EXUVIARUM and RAPITE CAPITE) Jus Spolii, a claim, exercised in ...

Jussieu, De

Name of five French botanists. (1) ANTOINE DE JUSSIEU, physician and botanist, b. at Lyons, ...

Juste

The name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors, whose real name was Betti, ...

Justice

Justice is here taken in its ordinary and proper sense to signify the most important of the ...

Justification

(Latin justificatio ; Greek dikaiosis .) A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the ...

Justin de Jacobis, Blessed

Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis, h. at San Fele, Province of ...

Justin Martyr, Saint

Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about ...

Justina and Cyprian, Saints

Christians of Antioch who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian at ...

Justinian I

Roman Emperor (527-65) Flavius Anicius Julianus Justinianus was born about 483 at Tauresium ...

Justiniani, Benedetto

(GIUSTINIANI). Theological and Biblical writer, born at Genoa, about the year 1550; died at ...

Justiniani, Nicholas

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...

Justinianopolis

A titular see of Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebaste. This see is better known in history ...

Justus, Saint

Fourth Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 627 (?). For the particulars of his life we are almost ...

Juvencus, C. Vettius Aquilinus

Christian Latin poet of the fourth century. Of his life we know only what St. Jerome tells us ...

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