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University of Alcalá

This university may be said to have had its inception in the thirteenth century, when Sancho IV, the Brave, King of Castile, conceived the idea of founding a Studium Generale in Alcalá de Henares, and (20 May, 1293), conferred full faculties on the Archbishop of Toledo, Gonzalo Gudiel, to carry out his plan. What success attended these efforts is, however, not known; we know only that on 16 July, 1459, Pius II gave permission to the Archbishop of Toledo, Alonso Carrillo, to establish some professorships where, "on certain days at the time appointed or to be appointed", grammar and the liberal arts would be taught. It does not appear that the chairs of theology and canon law were established then, and even grammar was taught only irregularly in the Franciscan convent of San Diego. The honour of founding the University, or more properly speaking, the College, of San Ildifonso, belongs to the Franciscans, Francisco Ximenez de Cisneros, Prime Minister of Spain, who submitted his plan to Pope Alexander VI, and received his approbation 13 April, 1499. Nevertheless, prior to this there existed "certain chairs in some of the faculties", as he himself says in his petition. The Pope granted to the College of San Ildefonso the same concessions allowed to the College of San Bartolomé at Salamanca, and to the college founded at Bologna by Cardinal Albornoz. To the professors and scholars he granted the privileges enjoyed by those of Salamanca, Valladolid, and the other General Colleges. He conferred the degree of Bachelor on the professors, and Doctor of Laws and Master of Arts on the abbot, or, in his absence, on the treasurer, of the Collegiate Church of San Justo and San Pastor. Those who were thus honoured enjoyed the same privileges as the professors of Bologna, and other universities, and could occupy prebendary stalls for which university degrees were necessary (13 May, 1501). In 1505 ecclesiastical benefices were aggregated to the Collegium scholarium , and 22 January, 1512, the archbishop published the statutes of the College. Denfile says that research in Germany regarding this university is incomplete and inexact. Meiners and Savigny know nothing regarding its origin; the dates are not reliable even in Hefele and Gams. Neither can Rashdall's assertion that "the Universities of Spain were essentially royal creations" (II, pt. I, p. 69) be sustained here. On 24 July, 1508, Cisneros went to Alcalá with a scholastic colony recruited in Salamanca to found his College of San Ildefonso. The rector was to be chosen by the students (not by the professors, as was the custom at Salamanca) each year about the feast of St. Luke when studies were resumed. The older students were obliged to study theology ; civil law was excluded, although the canonists introduced it in the seventeenth century. Besides theology and canon law, the course of study included logic, philosophy, medicine, Hebrew, Greek, rhetoric, and grammar. Demetrio de Creta was engaged to teach Greek, and the mathematician, Pedro Ciruelo, explained the theology of St. Thomas. Cisneros not only founded a university, but built a new town, certain portions of which were devoted to the houses of the students and booksellers. Numerous colleges also sprang up; Santa Catalina and Santa Balbina for philosophers ; San Eugenio and San Isidoro for grammarians; and the Trilingüe. He erected a hospital in honour of the Mother of God for the students, and established three places of recreation: the Abbey of San Tuy, near Buitrago; the Aldehuela, near Torrelaguna; and the Anchuelo, near Alcalá. Soon, however, a spirit of insubordination began to show itself in the wrangling of the students with the townspeople, the severe Cisneros apparently showing a strange leniency towards the students. This want of discipline caused the faculty in 1518 to consider the advisability of returning to Madrid. Some of the professors left the university because of the reduction of their salaries. In 1623 an effort was once more made to return to Madrid, but the change was not effected until 1822, and even then it was not permanent, as they returned to Alcalá in 1823. The final and definite removal took place in 1836. The revenues left to the College of San Ildefonso by Cisneros reached the sum of 14,000 ducats, and in the sixteenth century reached 42,000, or 6,000 less than those of Salamanca. The celebrated grammarian, Antonio de Nebrija, received 3,333 maravedis a month; the professor of medicine, Dr. Tarragona, was paid 53,000 a year, and Demetrio de Creta an equal sum (100 florins). Cisneros enforced very rigid examinations. In the theological course which was divided into ten terms, there were five tests. The first and most dreaded was the Alfonsina , which corresponded to that of the Sorbonne of Paris. Those who failed usually went to other universities. To the successful licentiates, letras de orden were given, the first being designated by an L, and the others by superior or inferior letters, according to their merit. The number of students never exceeded 2,000, one-third of the attendance at Salamanca. About 1570 the magnificent building of the university was completed, the twenty-five letters of the motto E T L UTEAM O LIM M ARMOREAM N UNC being displayed on as many columns. The patronage exercised by the kings over the universities they had founded or protected led to the sending of visitors and reformers. The principal one sent to the University of Alcalá was Don García de Medrano. The reforms which were instituted brought to an end the university autonomy which had been cherished and encouraged by the Catholic Church.

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Ub 8

Ubaghs, Casimir

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Ubaldus, Saint

Confessor, Bishop of Gubbio, born of noble parents at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy, towards the ...

Ubanghi

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Ubanghi, Belgian

In Belgian Congo, separated on 7 April, 1911, from the Vicariate of the Belgian Congo and ...

Ubanghi-Chari

Prefecture Apostolic in Equatorial Africa, lies west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal territory and south ...

Uberaba

(DE UBERABA.) Suffragan diocese of Marianna, in Brazil, created by the Consistorial ...

Ubertino of Casale

Leader of the Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330. He assumed the ...

Ubiquitarians

Also called Ubiquists , a Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 ...

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Uc 2

Ucayali

(SAN FRANCISCO DE UCAYALI.) Prefecture Apostolic in Peru. At the request of the Peruvian ...

Uccello

Painter, born at Florence, 1397; died there, 1475. His real name was Paolo di Dono, but from his ...

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Ud 1

Udine

(UTINENSIS) The city of Udine, the capital of a province and archdiocese in Friuli, northern ...

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Ug 2

Ugento

(UXENTIN) The city of Ugento, with its small harbour, is situated in the Province of Leece, in ...

Ughelli, Ferdinando

Historian, born at Florence, 21 March, 1595; died 19 May, 1670. Having entered the Cistercian ...

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Uh 1

Uhtred

(Also spelled: Uhtred or Owtred ), an English Benedictine theologian and writer, born at ...

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Uj 1

Ujejski, Cornelius

Polish poet, born at Beremiany, Galicia, 1823; died at Cholojewie, 1897. His father was a ...

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Ul 12

Ulenberg, Kaspar

Convert, theological writer and translator of the Bible , born at Lippstadt on the Lippe, ...

Ulfilas

(Also: Ulphilas ), apostle of the Goths, missionary, translator of the Bible , and inventor ...

Ullathorne, William Bernard

English Benedictine monk and bishop, b. at Pocklington, Yorkshire, 7 May, 1806; d. at Oscott, ...

Ullerston, Richard

Born in the Duchy of Lancaster, England ; d. in August or September, 1423. Having been ordained ...

Ulloa, Antoine de

Naval officer and scientist, born at Seville, Spain, 12 Jan., 1716; died near Cadiz, Spain, 5 ...

Ulloa, Francisco de

Died 1540. It is not known when he came to Mexico nor if he accompanied Hernan Cortés in ...

Ulrich of Bamberg

(Udalricus Babenbergensis), a cleric of the cathedral church of Bamberg, of whom nothing more ...

Ulrich of Richenthal

Chronicler of the Council of Constance , date of birth unknown; died about 1438. Ulrich was ...

Ulrich of Zell

(Wulderic; called also of Cluny, and of Ratisbon ), born at Ratisbon, at the beginning of 1029; ...

Ulrich, Saint

Bishop of Augsburg, born at Kyburg, Zurich, Switzerland, in 890; died at Augsburg, 4 July, ...

Ultan of Ardbracca

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, Ireland, was the maternal uncle of St. Brigid, and collected a life of ...

Ultramontanism

A term used to denote integral and active Catholicism, because it recognizes as its spiritual ...

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Un 22

Unam Sanctam

(Latin the One Holy , i.e. Church ), the Bull on papal supremacy issued 18 November, 1302, ...

Unclean and Clean

The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral, cleanness and uncleanness ...

Unction, Extreme

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

Ungava

A Canadian territory lying north of the Province of Quebec, detached (1876) from the Great ...

Uniformity Acts

These statutes, passed at different times, were vain efforts to secure uniformity in public ...

Unigenitus

A celebrated Apostolic Constitution of Clement XI, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier ...

Union of Brest

Brest -- in Russian, Brest-Litovski; in Polish, Brzesc; in the old chronicles, called Brestii, or ...

Union of Christendom

The Catholic Church is by far the largest, the most widespread, and the most ancient of ...

Unions of Prayer

A tendency to form unions of prayer among the faithful has recently manifested itself in the ...

Unitarians

A Liberal Protestant sect which holds as it distinctive tenet the belief in a uni-personal ...

Unitas Fratrum

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...

United States of America, The

BOUNDARIES AND AREA On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary ...

Unitive Way

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Unity

The marks of the Church are certain unmistakeable signs, or distinctive characteristics which ...

Universalists

A Liberal Protestant sect -- found chiefly in North America -- whose distinctive tenet is the ...

Universals

The name refers on the one hand to the inclination towards uniformity ( uni-versus ) existing in ...

Universe

Universe (or "world") is here taken in the astronomical sense, in its narrower or wider ...

Universe, Relation of God to the

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

Universities

The principal Catholic foundations have been treated in special articles; here the general ...

University College (Dublin)

A constitutional college of the National University of Ireland. By its charter, granted 2 Dec., ...

Unjust Aggressor

According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, ...

Unyanyembe

Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyanza ...

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Up 4

Upper Nile

Vicariate apostolic ; separated from the mission of Nyanza, 6 July, 1894, comprises the eastern ...

Upper Rhine

Ecclesiastical province; includes the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the suffragan Dioceses of ...

Upsala, Ancient See of

When St. Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, went to Sweden in 829 the Swedes were still heathen ...

Upsala, University of

The oldest and most celebrated university of Sweden. Even today the arrangement of its ...

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Ur 26

Uranopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ancyra in Galatia Prima. It is vainly sought in any ...

Urban I, Pope Saint

Reigned 222-30, date of birth unknown; died 23 May, 230. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," ...

Urban II, Pope Blessed

(Otho, Otto or Odo of Lagery), 1088-1099, born of a knightly family, at Châtillon-sur-Marne ...

Urban III, Pope

Reigned 1185-87, born at Milan ; died at Ferrara, 19 October, 1187. Uberto, of the noble ...

Urban IV, Pope

Reigned 1261-64 (Jacques Pantaléon), son of a French cobbler, born at Troyes, probably in ...

Urban V, Pope Blessed

Guillaume de Grimoard, born at Grisac in Languedoc, 1310; died at Avignon, 19 December, 1370. ...

Urban VI, Pope

Bartolomeo Prignano, the first Roman pope during the Western Schism, born at Naples, about ...

Urban VII, Pope

Giambattista Castagna, born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1521; elected pope, 15 September, 1590; died at ...

Urban VIII, Pope

Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 ...

Urbi et Orbi

The term Urbi et Orbi (which means "for the city and for the world") signifies that a papal ...

Urbino

(URBINATENSIS) Province of Pesaro and Urbino, Italy. The city of Urbino is situated on a ...

Urbs beata Jerusalem dicta pacis visio

The first line of a hymn of probably the seventh or eighth century, comprising eight stanzas ...

Urdaneta, Andrés

Augustinian, born at Villafranca, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1498; died in the City of Mexico, ...

Urgel

(U RGELLENSIS ). Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; bounded on the N. by France ...

Urim and Thummim

The sacred lot by means of which the ancient Hebrews were wont to seek manifestations of the ...

Urmiah

A residential see in Chaldea, in the Province of Adherbaidjan, Persia. The primitive name of this ...

Urráburu, Juan José

Scholastic philosopher, born at Ceanuri, Biscay, 23 May, 1844; died at Burgos, 13 August, 1904. ...

Ursperger Chronicle

A history of the world in Latin that begins with the Assyrian King Ninius and extends to the year ...

Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, Society of the Sisters of Saint

Religious congregation of women founded in 1606 at Döle (then a Spanish possession), ...

Ursula, Saint, and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

The history of these celebrated virgins of Cologne rests on ten lines, and these are open to ...

Ursulines of Quebec, The

The Ursuline monastery of Quebec is the oldest institution of learning for women in North ...

Ursulines, The

A religious order founded by St. Angela de Merici for the sole purpose of educating young ...

Ursus, Saint

Patron of the principal church of Solothurn (Soleure) in Switzerland, honoured from very early ...

Urubamba

(MISIONES DE SANTO DOMINGO DE URUBAMBA Y MADRE DE DIOS) This prefecture apostolic was created ...

Uruguay

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY). The smallest independent state in South America, extending ...

Uruguayana

(URUGUAYANESIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Porto Alegre, Brazil. By a Decree dated 15 August, ...

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Us 4

Ushaw College

(College of St. Cuthbert) A combined college and seminary for the six dioceses that were ...

Usilla

A titular see of Byzacena in Africa. Nothing is known of the history of this city; it is ...

Usuard, Martyrology of

Usuard was a Benedictine monk of the Abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris. He seems to have ...

Usury

In the article INTEREST we have reserved the question of the lawfulness of taking interest on ...

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Ut 8

Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

The first line of a hymn in honour of St. John the Baptist. The Roman Breviary divides it ...

Utah

Utah, the thirty-second state admitted to the Union, takes its name from an Indian tribe known ...

Uthina

A titular see of Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Uthina is mentioned by Ptolemy ...

Utica

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis. The city was founded by Tyrian colonists at the mouth ...

Utilitarianism

( Latin utilis , useful). Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory ...

Utopia

(Greek ou no or not, and topos place), a term used to designate a visionary or an ideally ...

Utraquism

The principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites . It was first ...

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