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Visitation Order

The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and Salesian Sisters, were founded in 1610 at Annecy in the Duchy of Savoy by St. Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva, and by St. Jane de Chantal. Their aim was to secure the benefit of the religious life for persons who had neither the physical strength nor the attraction for the corporal austerities at that time general in religious orders. St. Francis wished especially to apply in souls of good will and in a permanent institution the spiritual method dear to him: to reach God chiefly through interior mortification and to endeavour to do in every action only the Divine Will with the greatest possible love. The Visitation is therefore the principal work of St. Francis de Sales , the perpetuation of his doctrine and spirit, the living commentary on the "Introduction à la vie dévote" and the "Traité de l'amour de Dieu".

At first the founder had not a religious order in mind ; he wished to form a congregation without external vows, where the cloister should be observed only during the year of novitiate, after which the sisters should be free to go out by turns to visit the sick poor. This was why he called his institute the Visitation. The project was quite different from the idea realized later by St. Vincent de Paul in the Sisters of Charity, for what the bishop desired above all was the contemplative life ; to this he added visitation of the sick, but merely by way of devotion. The undertaking was begun on Trinity Sunday, 6 June, 1610. The Baronne de Chantal, a widow, native of Burgundy, was destined to be the first superioress. Marie-Jacqueline Favre, daughter of the Savoyard juris-consult Antoine Favre, and Mlle Charlotte de Brechard, a Burgundian, accompanied the foundress as did also a servant, Anne-Jacqueline Coste, destined to be the first outdoor sister of the Visitation. After having receive the bishop's blessing they assembled in the house of "la Galerie", still standing, in a suburb of Annecy. Trials, especially those arising from ridicule, were not wanting to the young congregation. People did not readily understand the mild and simple rule of the new institute. Superficial observers did not take into account that the bishop was in his conduct and direction really the most mortified of all the saints. Nevertheless the novices arrived, and the names of two, Peronne-Marie de Chatel and Marie-Amee de Blonay, have remained noted in the history of the Visitation.

When the establishment was an accomplished fact (1615) Archbishop de Marquemont of Lyons undertook to persuade the founder to follow the common practice and erect his congregation into a religious order under the Rule of St. Augustine, with the cloister imposed by the Council of Trent. At first the saint resisted. It cost him much to abandon the sick poor and leave to his daughters only the apostolate of prayer and sacrifice, but he eventually yielded. He then (1616) undertook the compilation of the "Constitutions pour les religieuses de la Visitation Sainte-Marie". The Church has thus characterized this work: "He had added to the rule of St. Augustine constitutions which are admirable for wisdom, discretion, and sweetness" (Brev. Rom., 29 Jan., sixth lesson). At once the founder opened the door of the monastery to all of good will. No severity, however great, could prevent the weak and infirm from coming "there to seek the perfection of Divine love ". He expressly ordered the reception at the Visitation not only of virgins but also of widows, on condition that they were legitimately freed from the care of their children; the aged, provided they were of right mind ; the crippled, provided they were sound in mind and heart; even the sick, except those who had contagious diseases.

Austerities of the cloister, like rising at night, sleeping on hard surfaces, were suppressed. Instead of chanting the canonical office in the middle of the night the sisters recited the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin at half-past eight in the evening. There was no perpetual abstinence nor prolonged fast. Besides the ordinary fast days of the Church, he retained only that on every Friday and certain vigils. Corporal mortifications properly so called were limited to the use of discipline every Friday. But the wise legislator was careful to give to interior mortification what he withdrew from exterior mortification. His first concern was for poverty, which is nowhere so strict as in the Visitation, where everything is absolutely in common. No sister may "have as property anything however little, or under any pretext whatever". Not only the rooms and the beds, but medals, crosses, rosary beads, even pictures, are changed every year in order that the sisters may never come to consider them as their own. Next comes obedience. Whether general or particular it extends to every moment of the day, and the superior is to be obeyed as a mother, "carefully, faithfully, promptly, simply, frankly, and cordially". The most trying mortification is perhaps that of the common life as understood by St. Francis de Sales . The day of the Visitandine is divided from 5 a. m. until 10 p. m. into a multitude of short exercises which keep her occupied every instant in duties determined by her rule. An hour of mental prayer in the morning and a half-hour in the evening, Mass, Office, spiritual readings, and examens of conscience succeed one another, and keep the religious in perpetual contemplation. Silence, recollection, modesty of demeanour prepare for and facilitate prayer. Two recreations of an hour each relax without dissipating the mind ; the sisters should talk with cordiality and simplicity only of agreeable and piously cheerful topics.

A little book based on St. Francis de Sales and which St. Jane de Chantal added from the first to the Constitutions of the order, namely, the "Directoire spirituel pour les actions journalieres", gives the practical means of fulfilling the Constitutions in the spirit of the holy founder, the method of performing each of the daily actions under the eye of God, in dependence on Him, and in union with the Divine Model, Jesus Christ. It may be said that the "Directoire" is the mould of the Visitandines. The sisters wear a black habit. The gown is made a sac, rather full, and is confined by a girdle. On the head they wear a veil of black taminy. A black bandeau encircles the brow; a guimpe or barbette of white linen covers the neck, from which is suspended a silver cross; a large chaplet hangs at the belt. There are three grades among the sisters: the choir sisters who sing the Office; the associate sisters dispensed from the Office because of their health, but in other respects the same as the first grade; and finally the lay sisters who wear a white veil and are engaged in domestic tasks; they have no voice in the chapter but they make the same vows and are as much religious as the others. The communities are cloistered. The outdoor sisters who make publicly only the vow of obedience are charged with the external service of the house. Each convent is governed by a superior whom all the sisters elect by secret ballot. She is chosen for three years at the end of which time she is eligible for election for three more years. When this time is ended she is ineligible for the subsequent term. A council of four other sisters assist her in the government of the house. An assistant replaces her when it is necessary. All the houses of the order are independent of one another. Circulars sent from time to time keep all acquainted with the events of each convent. There is no superior general, no visitor general, nor general chapter. In doubts regarding observance, recourse is had to the house of Annecy, the sainte source , which actually exercises no authority, but whose right to advise is recognized as that of an elder sister. The first superior of each convent is the bishop of the diocese and it is under his direct and immediate care. Two priests are charged by the bishop with the care of the convent, one with the title of superior, the other with that of confessor.

Such are the chief rules of the Visitation, their most striking characteristic being moderation and common sense. Made for generous souls, there is nothing about them which could weaken the body, while they overlook nothing which could mortify the spirit. For three centuries the Visitation has never stood in need of reform and each century has brought to the Church and the world its contingent of holy souls. The Order of the Visitation of Mary was canonically erected in 1618 by Paul V who granted it all the privileges enjoyed by the other orders. A Bull of Urban VIII solemnly approved it in 1626. At the first centenary of the institute in 1710 came renewed praise for its Constitutions "admirable for wisdom, discernment, and mildness, and which open up a certain easy and united path" to religious perfection. The Visitation developed rapidly. As early as the third year the house of "la Galerie" was too small; it was necessary to purchase an estate and build not far from the lake the convent which kept the name of the first convent of Annecy. The church still exists; the remainder of the building was destroyed during the French Revolution. Lyons (1615) was the first foundation with Mother Favre as superior; Moulines (1616) was the second with Mother de Brechard. Grenoble (1618), Bourges (1618), and Paris (1619) followed in close succession. When St. Francis de Sales died (1622) there were already 13 convents established. At the death of St. Jane de Chantal (1641) there were 86. The Bull of Clement XI at the first centenary of the foundation mentions 147. In the seventeenth century the order was confined to France and especially to Savoy ; in the eighteenth century it extended to Italy, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, Poland, and the Low Countries. There were 167 houses in 1792 when the French Revolution dispersed and closed all the convents it reached. The foreign houses retained the traditions of the founders. The storm passed and as early as 1800 the convents of the Visitation began gradually to be restored in all parts of France. That of Annecy was not restored until 1824.

The convent of Georgetown was the first house of the Visitation founded in the United States (see sub-article below). The Visitation of Georgetown founded that of Mobile 1833 and in the same year that of Kaskaskia, which was transferred to St. Louis in 1844. In 1837 it founded the Visitation of Baltimore, that of Frederick in 1846, and Philadelphia in 1848. These various convents founded others, and at present there are in the United States 21 houses of the Visitation in relation with Annecy. England has two convents, Westbury, now transferred to Harrow, London, and that of Roseland, Walmer, Kent, which is the ancient convent of Vilna, Poland. The last Visitation convent founded in an English-speaking country is that of Ottawa, Canada, founded by sisters from Annecy in 1910. At the third centenary of the order, 6 June, 1910, the Visitation numbered 170 convents : 56 in France and 12 other French houses which the religious persecution compelled to go into exile; 30 in Italy ; 2 in Switzerland ; 7 in Austria ; 1 in Russian Poland ; 4 in Belgium ; 1 in Holland ; 2 in England ; 17 in Spain ; 3 in Portugal (these convents were driven into exile by the Revolution in 1910); 21 in the United States ; 1 in Canada ; 11 in Latin America; and 2 in Syria.

The first Visitandines, emulating their foundress, had nearly all received extraordinary gifts of prayer. The process of beatification of Mother de Brechard was even begun but was abandoned to make way for that of Mother de Chantal. It was Blessed Margaret Mary Alacoque (q.v.), a Visitandine of Paray-le- Monial in Burgundy, to whom the Sacred Heart of Jesus was manifested, in order that the devotion to the Sacred Heart might be communicated to the Church. Another Visitandine, Venerable Anne-Madeleine Remusat of the second convent of Marseilles, was the propagator of devotion to the Sacred Heart at the time of the plague of Marseilles in 1722; her cause was introduced in 1891. The cause of Venerable Marie de Sales Chappuis, superioress of the Visitation convent of Troyes (d. in 1875), was introduced in 1879 and the process of her beatification is proceeding rapidly. A religious of exalted virtue, she encouraged a number of souls both within and without the cloister in that path of confidence, generosity, obedience to the Divine Will, of fidelity to the duty of the present moment, which was inculcated by St. Francis de Sales . In the course of the process of beatification her authentic writings have been carefully examined and approved by the Sacred Congregation of Rites ( Decree of 21 Sept., 1892). The Visitandines are contemplatives, and in order that they might not be turned aside from the chief aim the founder often recurs in his letters to the necessity of not imposing external duties which would divert them from their first vocation. Nevertheless, even in the time of St. Francis de Sales the Visitation several times accepted temporarily the mission of reforming foreign communities or even houses of penitent women, and God has blessed their devotion. It was likewise the need of the times which at a certain period led many convents to open within their cloisters boarding-schools for young girls. These boarding-schools which still exist in certain communities have done great good to youth. The instruction given at the Visitation is generally solid and on a par with that of the most serious schools. But what especially characterizes the schools of the Visitation and the pupils themselves is the strong education of will and character. In a constantly serene and maternal atmosphere the child leans at an early age self-denial, a sense of duty, and of responsibility to God for every action. The mistress's methods of going to God become to a certain extent those of the children.

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Synopsis GREEK : Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions. VERSIONS FROM THE ...

Versions of the Bible, Coptic

DIALECTS The Coptic language is now recognized in four principal dialects, Bohairic (formerly ...

Verstegan, Richard

( Alias ROWLANDS). Publisher and antiquarian, born at London, about 1548; died at Antwerp ...

Vertin, John

Third Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A. b. at Doblice, Diocese of Laibach (Carniolia), Austria, 17 ...

Vertot, Réné-Aubert, Sieur de

French historian, b. at Benetot, Normandy, 25 Nov., 1655; d. in Paris, 15 June, 1735. He was for ...

Veruela

A celebrated Cistercian monastery and church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. It is situated ...

Vesalius, Andreas

(WESALIUS.) The reorganizer of the study of anatomy ; b. at Brussels, 31 Dec., 1514; d. in a ...

Vespasian

(TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS). Roman Emperor, b. at Reate (now Rieti ), the ancient capital of ...

Vespasiano da Bisticci

( Or FIORENTINO.) Florentine humanist and librarian, b. in 1421; d. in 1498. He was ...

Vespers

This subject will be treated under the following headings: I. Vespers in the sixth century; II. ...

Vespers, Music of

The texts (e.g. antiphons, psalms, hymn ) sung in Vespers vary according to the feast or the ...

Vespers, Sicilian

The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 ...

Vespucci, Amerigo

A famous Italian navigator, born at Florence, 9 March, 1451; died at Seville, 22 February, 1512. ...

Vessels, Altar

The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained. ...

Vestibule (in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Vestments

IN WESTERN EUROPE By liturgical vestments are meant the vestments that, according to the rules ...

Veszprém

(VESPRIMIENSIS.) Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, one of the sees founded about 1009 by ...

Veto, The Royal

(In the appointment of Bishops in Ireland and England.) Although the penal laws enacted ...

Vetter, Conrad

Preacher and polemical writer, b. at Engen in the present Grand Duchy of Baden, 1547; d. at ...

Veuillot, Louis

Journalist and writer, b. at Boynes, Loiret, 11 Oct., 1813; d. in Paris, 7 April, 1883. He was ...

Vexiö, Ancient See of

(WEPIONENSIS.) The Ancient See of Vexiö, in Sweden, comprised the County of Kronoberg ...

Vexilla Regis Prodeunt

This "world-famous hymn, one of the grandest in the treasury of the Latin Church " (Neale), and ...

Vezzosi, Antonio Francesco

Member of the Theatine Congregation and biographical writer, born at Arezzo, Italy, 4 October, ...

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Via Crucis

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Via Dolorosa

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Viader, José

Born at Gallimes, Catalonia, 27 August, 1765. He received the habit of St. Francis at Barcelona ...

Vianney, Saint Jean-Baptiste-Marie

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...

Viaticum

Name Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a ...

Viator, Clerics of Saint

St. Viator, lector of the cathedral at Lyons, France, lived in the fourth century and is the ...

Viborg, Ancient See of

(VIBERGAE, VIBERGENSIS.) The ancient See of Viborg, in Denmark, comprised the Province of ...

Vicar

( Latin vicarius , from vice , "instead of") In canon law, the representative of a person ...

Vicar Apostolic

(1) In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the ...

Vicar Capitular

The administrator of a vacant diocese, elected by a cathedral chapter. On the death of a ...

Vicar of Christ

(Latin Vicarius Christi ). A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal ...

Vicar-General

The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary. He is a cleric legitimately deputed to ...

Vicari, Hermann von

Archbishop of Freiburg in Baden, b. at Aulendorf in Wurtemberg, 13 May, 1773; d. at Freiburg, ...

Vicariate Apostolic (Updated List)

The following is an account of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and of those changed so ...

Vice

( Latin vitium , any sort of defect) is here regarded as a habit inclining one to sin. It is ...

Vicelinus, Saint

Bishop of Oldenburg, apostle of Holstein, b. at Hameln about 1086; d. 12 Dec., 1154. Orphaned ...

Vicente, Gil

Portuguese dramatist, b. about 1470; he was living in 1536. He took up the study of law but ...

Vicenza, Diocese of

(VICENTINA). The city is the capital of a province in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The ...

Vich, Diocese of

(Vicensis, Ausonensis). Suffragan of Tarragona, bounded on the north by Gerona, on the east ...

Vico, Francescoe de

Astronomer, b. at Macerata, States of the Church, 19 May, 1805; d. at London, England, 15 Nov., ...

Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani

The first stanza of the Easter sequence. Medieval missals placed it on various days within the ...

Victor

Bishop of Tunnunum (Tonnenna, Tunnuna) in Northern Africa and zealous supporter of the Three ...

Victor I, Pope Saint

(189-198 or 199), date of birth unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" makes him a native of Africa ...

Victor II, Pope

(GEBHARD, COUNT OF CALW, TOLLENSTEIN, AND HIRSCHBERG.) Born about 1018; died at Arezzo, 28 ...

Victor III, Pope Blessed

(DAUFERIUS or DAUFAR). Born in 1026 or 1027 of a non-regnant branch of the Lombard dukes of ...

Victor IV

Two antipopes of this name. I. Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II ...

Victor of Capua

A sixth-century bishop about whose life nothing is known except what is found in his epitaph ...

Victor Vitensis

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Victoria

(VICTORIEN. IN INS. VANCOUVER.) Diocese in southwestern British Columbia, of which province it ...

Victoria Nyanza, Northern

The Mission of Victoria Nyanza, founded in 1878 by the White Fathers of Cardinal Lavigerie, was ...

Victoria Nyanza, Southern

Vicariate apostolic erected from the mission of Nyanza, 13 June, 1894, lies north of the ...

Victorinus, Caius Marius

(Called also VICTORINUS MARIUS, or MARIUS FABIUS VICTORINUS, and frequently referred to as ...

Victorinus, Saint

An ecclesiastical writer who flourished about 270, and who suffered martyrdom probably in 303, ...

Vida, Marco Girolamo

Italian Humanist, b. at Cremona about 1490; d. in 1566. He came to Rome under Julius II ; a ...

Vieira, Antonio

Missionary, diplomat, orator, b. at Lisbon, 6 February, 1608; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 July, 1697. ...

Viel, Nicholas

Died 1625, the first victim of apostolic zeal on the shores of the St. Lawrence. After ...

Vienna

Vienna -- the capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin ...

Vienna, University of

Foundation of the University Next to the University of Prague that of Vienna is the oldest ...

Vienne, Council of

Pope Clement V, by the Bull "Regnans in coelis" of 12 Aug., 1308, called a general council to ...

Vierthaler, Franz Michael

A distinguished Austrian pedagogue, b. at Mauerkirchen, Upper Austria, 25 September, 1758; d. ...

Vieta, François

(VIÈTE.) Father of modern algebra, b. at Fontenay-le-Comte (Poitou), 1540; d. in ...

Viger, Denis-Benjamin

French-Canadian statesman and writer, b. at Montreal, 19 Aug., 1774; d. 1861. After studying ...

Viger, Jacques

French-Canadian antiquarian and archaeologist, b. at Montreal, 7 May, 1787; d. 12 Dec., 1858. ...

Vigevano

(VIGLEVANENSIS.) Diocese in Lombardy, Province of Pavia. The city is a great agricultural ...

Vigilius

Bishop of Tapsus, in the African Province of Byzacena. Mentioned in the "Notitia" appended to ...

Vigilius, Pope

Reigned 537-55, date of birth unknown; died at Syracuse, 7 June 555. He belonged to a ...

Vigilius, Saint

Bishop of Trent, martyr, patron of Trent and of Tyrol, b. c. 353; d. 26 June, 405; feast 26 ...

Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi da

A theoretical and practical architect of the Transition Period between the Renaissance and ...

Vigor, Simon

French bishop and controversialist, b. at Evreux, Normandy, about 1515; d. at Carcassonne, 1 ...

Vikings

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

Villalpandus, Juan Bautista

Born at Cordova, Spain, in 1552; entered the Society of Jesus in 1575; died on 22 May, 1608. His ...

Villani, Giovanni

Florentine historian, b. about 1276; d. of the plague in 1348. Descended from a wealthy family ...

Villanovanus, Arnaldus

(ARNALDUS OF VILLANUEVA, or VILLENEUVE, or BACHUONE). Celebrated in his day as a physician, ...

Villefranche, Jacques-Melchior

Publicist, b. at Couzon-sur-Saone, 17 Dec., 1829; d. at Bourg, 10 May, 1904. After excellent ...

Villehardouin, Geoffroi de

Maréchal de Champagne, warrior, and first historian in the French language, b. about 1150; ...

Villeneuve-Barcement, Jean-Paul-Alban

Vicomte de, b. at Saint-Auban, Var, 8 Aug., 1784; d. at Paris, 8 June, 1850. After having taken ...

Villermé, Louis-René

French economist, b. at Paris, 10 March, 1782; d. there, 16 Nov., 1863. He was devoted to ...

Villers, Cistercian Abbey of

Situated on the confines of Villers and Tilly, Duchy of Brabant, present Diocese of Namur ...

Vilna

(VILENSIS). Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, is situated at the junction of the Rivers ...

Vincent de Paul, Saint

Born at Pouy, Gascony, France, in 1580, though some authorities have said 1576; died at Paris, ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint

A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint (New York)

(Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of ...

Vincent de Paul, Society of Saint

An international association of Catholic laymen engaging systematically in personal service of ...

Vincent Ferrer, Saint

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

Vincent Kadlubek, Blessed

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Vincent of Beauvais

Priest and encyclopedist. Little is known of his personal history. The years of his birth and ...

Vincent of Lérins, Saint

Feast on 24 May, an ecclesiastical writer in Southern Gaul in the fifth century. His work is ...

Vincent, Saint

(MALDEGARIUS). Founder and abbot of the monasteries of Hautmont and Soignies, b. of a noble ...

Vincent, Saint

Deacon of Saragossa, and martyr under Diocletian, 304; mentioned in the Roman Martyrology, 22 ...

Vincentians

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Vincenzo de Vit

Latinist, b. at Mestrina, near Padua, 10 July, 1810; d. at Domo d'Ossola, 17 Aug., 1892. He made ...

Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Vindicianus, Saint

Bishop of Cambrai - Arras, b. if tradition is to be believed, perhaps at Beaulaincourt, near ...

Vineam Domini

An Apostolic Constitution issued by Clement XI against the Jansenists on 16 July, 1705. It ...

Violence

Violence ( Latin vis ), an impulse from without tending to force one without any concurrence on ...

Viotti, Giovanni Battista

Founder of the modern school of violinist, b. at Fontanetto, Piedmont, 23 May, 173; d. 3 ...

Viraggio, Jacopo di

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Virgilius, Saint

(VIRGILE). Archbishop of Arles, died c. 610. According to a life written in the eighth ...

Virgin Birth of Christ

The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, ...

Virgin Mary, Devotion to the

Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...

Virgin Mary, Name of

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...

Virgin Mary, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

Virginia

Surnamed "The Old Dominion", "The Mother of States and of Statesmen", one of the thirteen original ...

Virginity

Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous ...

Virtue

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Definitions; II. Subjects; III. ...

Virtue, Heroic

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

Vischer, Peter

Sculptor and metal founder, b. at Nuremberg about 1460; d. in 1529. His father Hermann, who ...

Visdelou, Claude de

Born at the Château de Bienassis, Pléneuf, Brittany, 122 Aug., 1656; died at ...

Visigoths

One of the two principal branches of the Goths. Until 375 their history is combined with that of ...

Visions

This article will deal not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to ...

Visit ad Limina

(Sc. Apostolorum ) The visit ad limina means, technically, the obligation incumbent on ...

Visitation Convent, Georgetown

Located in the District of Columbia , United States of America . This convent was founded by ...

Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

I. THE EVENT Assuming that the Annunciation and the Incarnation took place about the vernal ...

Visitation Order

The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and ...

Visitation, Canonical

The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or ...

Visitors Apostolic

Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates. Visitors differ from other Apostolic ...

Visits to the Blessed Sacrament

By this devotional practice, which is of comparatively modern development, the presence of ...

Vitalian, Pope Saint

(Reigned 657-72). Date of birth unknown; d. 27 January, 672. Nothing is known of Vitalian's ...

Vitalini, Bonifazio

(DE VITALINIS). Jurist, b. at Mantua, Italy, about 1320; d. at Avignon after 1388. After ...

Vitalis and Agricola, Saints

Martyred at Bologna about 304 during Diocletian's persecution. Agricola, who was beloved for ...

Vitalis of Savigny, Saint

Founder of the monastery and Congregation of Savigny (1112), b. at Tierceville near Bayeaux ...

Vitalis, Saint

Martyr. His legend, which is of little historical value, relates that he was martyred by order ...

Vitelleschi, Muzio

Born at Rome 2 Dec., 1563; died there 9 Feb., 1645. He belonged to a distinguished family but ...

Vitellius, Lucius

Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, ...

Vitensis, Victor

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Vitoria

(VICTORIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Burgos, in Spain, bounded on the north by the Bay of ...

Vittorino da Feltre

(VITTORINO DE' RAMBALDONI). Humanist educator, b. at Feltre, 1397; d. at Mantua, 1446. He was ...

Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia, Saints

According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...

Viva, Domenico

Writer, b. at Lecce, 19 Oct., 1648; d. 5 July, 1726. He entered the Society of Jesus 12 May, ...

Vivarini

A family of Italian painters. Alvise Vivarini Born in 1446 or 1447; died in 1502. He was the ...

Vives, Juan Luis

Spanish humanist and philosopher, b. at Valencia, 6 March, 1492; d. at Bruges, 6 May, 1540. ...

Viviers

(VIVARIUM). Diocese ; includes the Department of Ardèche, France. It was suppressed ...

Vivisection

Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures; ordinarily it ...

Vizagapatam, Diocese of

Located in the east of India, suffragan to Madras. It is bounded on the north by the River ...

Vizeu

(VISENSIS). Diocese in north central Portugal. The bishopric dates from the sixth century and ...

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Vladimir the Great, Saint

(VLADIMIR or VOLODOMIR). Grand Duke of Kieff and All Russia, grandson of St. Olga, and the ...

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Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious

An ecclesiastical or religious vocation is the special gift of those who, in the Church of God, ...

Vogüé, Eugène-Melchior, Vicomte de

Critic, novelist, and historian, born at Nice, 25 February, 1848; died in Paris, 24 February, ...

Vogler, George Joseph

Theorist, composer and organist, b. at Würzburg, 15 June 1749, d. at Darmstadt, 6 May, ...

Volk, Wilhelm

(Pseudonym, LUDWIG CLARUS). Born at Halberstadt 25 Jan., 1804; died at Erfurt 17 March, 1869. ...

Volksverein

(PEOPLE'S UNION) FOR CATHOLIC GERMANY. A large and important organization of German Catholics ...

Volta, Alessandro

Physicist, b. at Como, 18 Feb., 1745; d. there, 5 March, 1827. As his parents were not in ...

Volterra

(VOLTARRANENSIS). Diocese in Tuscany. The city stands on a rocky mountain 1770 feet above the ...

Volterra, Daniele da

(RICCIARELLI). Italian painter, b. at Volterra, 1509; d. in Rome, 1566. Ricciarelli was called ...

Voluntarism

Voluntarism ( Latin voluntas , will) in the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which ...

Voluntary

Wilful, proceeding from the will. It is requisite that the thing be an effect of the will ...

Voluntary Association, Right of

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

Von Gagern, Max, Freiherr

Born at Weilburg (in Nassau), Germany, 25 March, 1810; died at Vienna, 17 October, 1889. He was ...

Vondel, Joost van Den

Netherland poet and convert, b. at Cologne, 17 Nov., 1587, of parents whose residence was ...

Voragine, Jacopo de

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Votive Mass

( Missa votiva ) A Mass offered for a votum , a special intention. So we frequently find ...

Votive Offerings

The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in ...

Votive Offices

A votive office is one not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying ...

Vows

I. GENERAL VIEW A vow is defined as a promise made to God. The promise is binding, and so differs ...

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Vrau, Philibert

"The holy man of Lille ", organizer of numerous Catholic activities; b. at Lille, 19 Nov., ...

Vrie, Theodoric

Historian of the Council of Constance . He describes himself as a brother of the Order of ...

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